Garlic IDindd by gabyion


									                                                                                                         REAL FOOD

                                                            LOVE AT FIRST BITE
                                                                          POMEGRANATE SEEDS STAFF WRITERS

                                                                I put garlic in just about everything but dessert. I
                                                                like it raw, pickled, slow-roasted, sautéed, simmered.
                                                                When I use it raw, I run it through a garlic press;
                                                                when I sauté it, I slice it and then stir it around in
                                                                heated extra-virgin olive oil. The rich, pungent smell
                                                                alone drives away—at least temporarily—whatever
                                                                depressive or anxious spirits are inhabiting me.
                                                                My Italian grandmother reeked of it; I strongly
                                                                suspect that on a hot day, I do, too. Fortunately, my
                                                                partner is as much a devotee of the bulb as I am. We
                                                                both agree that garlic is a most reliable cure for the
                                                                It’s also a powerful antibiotic, anti-viral, and anti-
                                                                oxidant. A slice taped to a wart will remove it in no
                                                                time—and burn the hell out of your skin while it
                                                                does so (but, hey, that’s what the dermatologist will
                                                                do—at much greater expense and inconvenience).
                                                                But my favorite garlic remedy—which I have to admit
                                                                doesn’t taste all that good—is my cold-sore-throat
                                                                cure: a large clove of garlic, pressed, a teaspoon or
                                                                more of honey, and a tablespoon of vinegar stirred
                                                                well into a quarter cup of hot water. Drink this con-
                                                                coction twice a day—or more if you can stand it. It
                                                                really works, especially if you combine it with a gram
                                                                of vitamin C every couple of hours. Susan Leonardi
                                                                Illustration by Marilena Pistoia

Garlic, like leeks, shallots, chives, and   in our lawns), and has continued to       Garlic is an herb, a spice, a medicine
onions, is in the Allium family, the        be treasured for both its culinary and    and a vegetable in its own right. Heir-
small but potent collection of super-       medicinal virtues. Though the su-         loom varieties are found in a range
foods, disguised as modest enhanc-          permarket generally stocks only one       of colors from white to pink to deep
ers for vegetable dishes. Originally        variety of California garlic, the Span-   purple, and their flavors are highly
from Central Asia, garlic was first          ish Roja, there are four hundred spe-     variable too. The warmer the climate,
cultivated in Egypt four thousand           cies of garlic, many available at farm    the sweeter the garlic as garlic left in
years ago from its wild ancestor, Al-       markets, food co-ops, and from seed       the ground when the temperatures
lium longicuspis (still growing wild        catalogs.                                 drop becomes more pungent.

      POMEGRANATE SEEDS                                                                                  PAGE 1
Purchase only mature heads that are
tight and firm; the larger the indi-
                                          REAL FOOD
vidual cloves, the easier to peel. If a
head of garlic is sprouting green tips,
pass it by; it is too old to be ued in
cooking. When you cut into a clove
of garlic and find small green sprouts
deep inside, remove all the green
growth, which is very bitter. Chop
the rest for a spicy warming, bitter-
free meal.
                                          THE RECIPES
Garlic should never be kept in the
fridge, as the dampness will encour-
age sprouting. Store it in a dry, dark
place and compost any garlic that
becomes moldy or has brown spots
inside. If I’m not using it right away,
I keep garlic in a bowl on a kitchen
shelf or in a basket in the cupboard.

Raw garlic will wake up your entire
mouth and may even aggravate your
stomach, but garlic sautéed in olive
oil or cooked in soups, has a sweet
taste and is easily digested.

Garlic begins to oxidize as soon as
it is cut. In fifteen minutes, its zesty
taste changes to bitter. Chop it and
                                          There’s a restaurant in San Francisco called The Stinking Rose, special-
immediately coat it with olive oil or
                                          izing in all things garlic. I’ve never eaten there because the consensus of
add it to the dish that you are prepar-
                                          reviewers and friends is that it’s mediocre, and the tables are always filled
ing. Heat it as briefly as possible, as
                                          with tourists. One day as I walked by, though, I almost succumbed. On a
it loses its medicinal bioactivity when
                                          table next to the window was a skillet of garlic cloves simmering in olive
                                          oil. I could smell it from the street, and I knew I’d found yet another way
TIP: Wanting the most medicinal           to eat my favorite food.
bang for my buck, I add minced gar-
lic to the spaghetti sauce just after     The treat is easy to make: peel the cloves from a head or two of garlic
I have turned off the pot. I stir the     and put them in a slow-heating vessel. I use my smallest cast iron skillet.
sauce just once and serve it imme-        Cover the cloves with cold-pressed, extra-virgin olive oil. Put the skil-
diately, letting the heat take the edge   let on the lowest possible heat on a burner or in the oven. Let the garlic
off the garlic while keeping the fla-      roast very slowly until its buttery soft but not brown. That’s it, unless you
vor, nutrition and medicinal benefits.     want to add a few red pepper flakes and/or finely chopped herbs with a
I may cook garlic into sauces and         little sea salt. You can spread the soft cloves on crusty bread with a knife
dishes for flavor but I always add a       or just dip bread chunks into the oil and snag a clove. Leftover oil can
bit of raw garlic in at the end of the    be used for salad dressing or for sautéing vegetables. In addition to your
preparation for my medicine.              having an impressive appetizer, the kitchen will smell heavenly.        SL

      POMEGRANATE SEEDS                                                                             PAGE 2
Autumn is period where we are             or all: parsley, chives, basil, tarra-
more vulnerable to illnesses. Travel-     gon, oregano.) Let mixture sit for
ing in unheated trains or subways         ten minutes. Though often used on                WITH YOUR BUCK$
on these damp cold mornings, with         greens, it is also excellent as a sauce            Yet another reason
people sneezing and coughing,             for cooked vegetables or fish. Store                  to shop locally
seems to have finally affected my          in a glass jar in the fridge.
usually resistant immune system. I                                                  Philip Howard, a sociologist at Michi-
                                                                                    gan State University is studying “na-
woke up two weeks ago unable to           TRULY SIMPLE
                                                                                    tional consumer interest in ‘ecolabels’
utter a sound; my voice had dis-          GARLIC AND LEEK SOUP
                                                                                    as a potential strategy for improving
appeared; my head ached. I felt a         IN TWO ACTS
                                                                                    the livelihoods of small- and medium-
strong craving for garlic and started     There are many satisfying variations
                                                                                    scale farms...” His web site has an ex-
cutting slices of a bulb which I          on the theme of combining garlic          cellent diagram that explains “Big Or-
added to my soup. STG                     with leeks. This first soup, though,       ganic,” which is the growing concern
                                          is a real winner. It is extraordinarily   with large industrial/chemical compa-
GARLIC                                    easy to make and tastes absolutely        nies buying out and running the small
AND ROOT VEGETABLES                       delicious. It is a gourmet soup that’s    and (previously) trustworthy organic
2 large beets                             hard to beat.                             brand names. For more information,
2 large turnips                                                                     go to
1 garlic bulb                             I: GARLIC AND LEEK SOUP
Olive Oil                                 4 large leeks                             I will not knowlingly give any money
                                                                                    to large companies that cause devastat-
Salt                                      4 potatoes, unpeeled
                                                                                    ing damage to the earth, treat workers
                                          4 garlic cloves, peeled
                                                                                    inhumanely and whose products cre-
Preheat over to 350 degrees. Wash         3 vegetarian bouillon cubes
                                                                                    ate havoc with our health. I will not
beets and turnips and remove the          8 cups water
                                                                                    support the Coca-Cola Company. (I
outer skins. Slice them and put them      Salt and pepper to taste                  consider it part of The Axis of Evil.)
in a baking dish. Break the garlic into                                             It now owns Odwalla juices and gra-
cloves and peel off the skin. Add         Remove roots and outermost skin           nola bars. “Coca-Cola has been ac-
the cloves to the baking dish. Salt       of leeks. Cut into two inch slices and    cused of dehydrating communities in
to taste and toss with olive oil until    wash well. Chunk up potatoes and          its pursuit of water resources to feed
all vegetables are covered. Cover         peel garlic cloves. Combine all ingre-    its own plants, drying up farmers’ wells
the baking dish and put in oven for       dients and simmer, covered, for one       and destroying local agriculture. The
about 1 hour or until tender. Serve       to two hours. Puree in the pot using      company has also violated workers’
while hot. Makes an excellent side        a food wand, adding water or cream        rights in countries such as Colombia,
dish. Serve it with a dash of vinai-      to get the soup consistency you like.     Turkey, Guatemala and Russia.” (www.
grette (below).                           Add salt and pepper to taste. (I use This is in addition to
                                          Yukon gold organic potatoes and           the company’s deceit about the toxic
GARLIC VINAIGRETTE                        Rapunzel brand vegan bouillon soup        chemicals in its soft drinks and its ag-
2/3 cup olive oil                         cubes with/or without sea salt, and       gressive funding to sell soft drinks in
1/3 cup vinegar                           blend it with my Cuisinart wand.)         our schools.
2-3 medium-size garlic cloves             Serves four sumptuously.                  Heinz owns Hain and Celestial Teas.
1 teaspoon fresh herbs                                                              Mars, the makers of M & M’s, owns
                                          II: GARLIC AND LEEK SOUP                  Seeds of Change (that is the last time
A simple raw garlic salad dressing        15 small leeks washed, drained and        their name will appear on these pages).
is the perfect way to get your daily      cut in small pieces                       Tyson Farms—perhaps second only
medicine. Mix extra-virgin olive oil      8 garlic cloves finely diced               to Perdue in terms of inhumane treat-
with a vinegar of your choice. Mince      3 tablespoons of olive oil                ment of animals and employees—owns
or press garlic. Add to vinegar and       3 medium sized potatoes sliced            Nature’s Farm. The disturbing list goes
oil mixture. Chop herbs (use any          8 cups water                              on and on…                          JM

      POMEGRANATE SEEDS                                                                                PAGE 3
Coat the bottom of a soup pan with          AIOLI (simplified)                         There are numerous heirloom varieties
the olive oil. Sautee the leeks in oil      Aioli is a mayonnaise-based garlic         of leeks. They can also be purchased
until transparent but not brown. (This      sauce frequently used in Proven-           young—finger-sized—which are per-
will take away the bitter taste.) Add       cal cooking. It can be used with any       fect for steaming whole, served with a
the water, garlic and potatoes me-          vegetable but is especially good with      vinaigrette sauce.
dium-size garlic clove. Bring to a boil     the fall root crops: fennel, potatoes,
and cook on a low flame for ¾ hour.          and cooked carrots. Aioli is wonderful     BABY LEEK SALAD
Puree in food processor or with hand        spread on a sandwich.                      24 very small leeks
held wand. Serve with a green salad                                                    Garlic vinaigrette (above)
tossed with garlic vinaigrette and a        1 egg
warm loaf of bread.                         1 teaspoon Dijon mustard                   Trim the roots and just the dark green
                                            3 teaspoons lemon juice or vinegar         tops off the leeks. Split the remaining
                                            4-6 cloves garlic                          green stalks lengthwise and wash well
         STAFF PICK:                        1 cup extra virgin olive oil               (gently part the stalks as you wash).
     KITCHEN EQUIPMENT                      pinch of salt                              Tie the leeks in a bundle and stand
                                                                                       them upright in a pot (an asparagus
My hand blender is my second fa-            Mayonnaise is made with room               steamer is perfect for this). Add an
vorite kitchen tool. (It comes af-          temperature ingredients. Put a whole       inch of water to the pot and steam the
ter a pair of $3 scissors that I pur-       egg and mustard in a blender or food       leeks 8 minutes or until tender. Drain
chased at IKEA and use to cut up            processor. With the machine running,       and squeeze the leeks gently to release
herbs and greens.) You can use a            add the olive oil in a steady stream       excess water. Serve on a platter
hand blender to make creamy soups           until all is incorporated. Add fresh
even without milk, and you skip             lemon juice, white wine vinegar or tar-    Purchase leeks which have their roots
the mess of bowls and blenders.             ragon vinegar. Coarsely chop the garlic    and dark green tips still attached. Wrap
                                            and put it in a mortar, add a pinch of     them in a damp dish towel and store
Cuisinart offers a variety of inexpen-      salt and pound into a smooth paste.        them in the fridge, uncut, until ready
sive hand blenders (around $30) that        Add them to the mayonnaise. Thin           to use. When preparing soup, remove
are essentially interchangeable as far as   with lemon juice, vinegar, or water if     the outermost layer, and the roots. Use
I’m concerned. For more information,        needed.                                    the tips in slow-cooking soups but oth-
go to                                                        erwise discard them. Cut the leeks into
                                            NOTE: The editor’s quick version:          one- or two-inch rounds, wash well,
                                            Coarsely chop 4-6 garlic cloves and        then drain. If you have a garden and
       GARLIC: THE LORE                     toss them in the blender with every-       want to try growing leeks, cut off the
Garlic is the perfect warming herb          thing else. Blend.                         roots with a small portion of the bulb
for late fall evening meals. It banishes                                               attached and pop it in the earth. In
the chill in body and soul, evenly dis-     UNFAMILIAR WITH LEEKS?                     rich soil, covered over but not planted
tributing warmth. No small wonder           Right now, leeks are most abundant.        deep, with sun and water the leek will
that for millenia it has been an herb       Also a member of the Allium family,        regrow.
of protection. More effective than          Allium ampeloprasum is grown for its
                                            bulbous white stem. A leek looks like      If you cook with garlic you know that
the crucifix, garlic’s rep for warding
                                            a scallion on steroids, but its flavor is   you can never have enough. It is one
off bites from the “undead” predates
                                            very subtle and delicate. Leeks have all   food you cannot over-use. More is
Christianity. Though early Greek
                                            of the same healthy properties as the      definitely better. (If you are experienc-
Olympic athletes chewed on garlic to
                                            rest of the Allium family. They also       ing heavy hot flashing during meno-
boost their performance, it was Pliny
                                            contain vitamin B6, vitamin C, folate,     pause, wait until that period passes
the Elder, who championed garlic
                                            manganese, iron, and fiber—the latter       before hitting the spicy stuff.)
claiming it had the ability to drive
away serpents and scorpions and             being the reason I use those green         Copyright Starting Over LLC
could be used for all bites from man        tops, in addition to the white bulbs,      Sophie Taubert Gehan, Susan Leon-
to snake.                                   when cooking soup.                         ardi, Jeri Metz , Rasheka herr-ra Shena

      POMEGRANATE SEEDS                                                                                   PAGE 4
                                                                                        FOOD AS MEDICINE

                                                             THE GARLIC CURE
                                                                                                      by Jeri Metz
      The Chinese, French and Italians use large amounts of garlic in their cuisines.
      In Beijing, China, the winter air is infused with a frosty garlic odor because the Chinese consume
      large amounts of raw garlic as a preventive winter remedy—it boosts the immune system and
      fights respiratory illnesses, common in their polluted cities. Sophie Taubert Gehan

There is more anecdotal infor-            juices. In large doses, it can reduce    Garlic, like all plant medicines,
mation—spanning thousands of              high blood pressure, lower blood         works synergistically, the whole be-
years—on garlic as a multi-purpose        sugar levels and inhibit growth of       ing greater than the sum of its parts.
cure all than any other botanical         plaque in coronary arteries. Because     No synthesized plant chemical has
medicine. And there are large num-        it stops microorganisms from repro-      been shown to be as effective, nu-
bers of double-blind, peer-reviewed       ducing, it is an antibiotic, and has     tritionally or medicinally, as the real
studies confirming that garlic can         antifungal and antiviral properties as   thing. Garlic is extremely volatile and,
be used as an effective remedy for        well. It can be used as an antiseptic.   though cooked garlic has nutritional
numerous illnesses and conditions.        Garlic has no harmful effects—un-        benefits, it loses much of its me-
And the list of its benefits continues     less garlic breath is considered a       dicinal bang when cooked or dried.
to grow. Raw garlic is an anticoagu-      problem. However, consuming large        Commercial garlic capsules do not
lant, helpful in protecting against the   amounts can, on occasion, cause          have the bioactivity of the fresh bulb.
blood clots that can cause strokes        nausea and/or a burning sensation in
(Note that mixing aspirin or other        the mouth, esophagus, or stomach.      Not all garlic species are medicinally
blood-thinning medicines with gar-                                               equal. Testing has not been done for
lic can be dangerous under some           The garlic clove contains alliin (S- efficacy beyond the organically grown
circumstances.) It has been proven        allylcysteine sulphoxide), an odor- varieties, nor on bioactivity differ-
to lower cholesterol, though recent       less amino acid which, when cut or ences based on soils, climate, harvest
studies show that garlic is more ef-      crushed, releases an enzyme called methods, or storage conditions. I stick
fective in reducing (LDL) cholesterol     allinase. Allinase reacts with the ox- to organic garlic and go for the heir-
in women than men (due to differ-         ygen in the air to form allicin. Al- loom species with a few large cloves.
ences in our endocrine chemistry).        licin exists only in raw garlic and is
                                          the big-time medicinal component. For more information on the medicinal
Garlic aids digestion by stimulat-        It is highly volatile and survives for benefits of garlic, check out these medi-
ing the mucous membranes of the           a short time. It quickly breaks down cal sites:
stomach and the secretion of gastric      and degrades, especially when heated. and

      POMEGRANATE SEEDS                                                                               PAGE 5

by Jeri Metz and Sophie Taubert Gehan
Garlic’s natural winter home is in the damp, in the dark,
in the cool, where it can send out its roots to feed from the earth
to prepare itself to resume growth in the spring. A Garlic Testament by Stanley Crawford

As someone who thinks of herself          the green-tipped cloves and popped        PURCHASING
as a professional farmer, it is hu-       them into the soil, unconcerned with      But there was hope. I read up on
miliating to explain the details of all   the time of the year or species of the    garlic and discovered a few, simple,
my failed garlic-growing attempts.        bulb. The garlic stalk would emerge       garlic-proliferating facts. The first
Each effort began with my finding a        successfully but often, after growing     secret to excellent, continuous crops
sprouting bulb in the netherworld of      a few inches, it would inexplicably       is purchasing high quality seed garlic
my refrigerator, followed by a combi-     bite the dust. Literally. On those rare   from a reputable grower. These are
nation of botanical hubris and parsi-     occasions where the stalk actually        bulbs specifically grown for plant-
mony as I decided that I would plant      flowered, no progeny were desemi-          ing. Never plant garlic from the
the already growing garlic rather than    nated and the next-season garden          supermarket; those bulbs have been
buy any from a catalog. I separated       remained remarkably garlic-free.          treated with anti-sprouting chemicals.

      POMEGRANATE SEEDS                                                                               PAGE 6
By planting organic heirloom seed           need to be broken off when they
garlic that is suited to your climate,      curl back on themselves and can be
                                                                                                 GARLIC SPECIES
the garlic will reseed itself for years.    cut up and added to salad or any stir-       Hardneck garlic, Allium ophioscoro-
                                            fry. STG                                     don, also known as seedstem garlic,
PLANTING                                                                                 has stiff woody stems with large, easy
Garlic wants rich, well-drained soil,       If you want larger yields, you must          peeling cloves. The cloves have a rich
full sun, and regular water. Plant          cut back the tops when they have             garlic flavor but are not too spicy.
garlic in late October (Zone 5 and          grown up; this directs more energy           Recommended for northern climates,
below) or in November (Zone 6               to bulb growth. Let it grow back a           hardneck garlic can be stored for up to
and above). Shortly before planting,        second time. When the stems are              six months. Their flower stalks pro-
                                                                                         duce bulbils, miniature cloves within
break (crack) the bulbs apart into          dry and start to die back, it is time to
                                                                                         the flowerhead which will grow into
cloves. Plant only the large cloves         harvest. If the garlic can dry in the
                                                                                         bulbs if planted. However, if you re-
(use the small ones, which would            ground it will make pulling much eas-        move the stem, the bulb in the ground
produce only small offspring, for           ier. I dig garlic on a warm and clear        will be larger. Popular hardneck va-
cooking). The bulbs need a little           day and dry them in the sun until the        rieties are music pink, Persian star,
growth before they winter over. They        surface layer is papery. By drying on        purple Italian easy peel, and Chesnok
will sprout in the spring. Plant each       a rack the air can circulate around the      red. The Spanish Roja, the one sold
clove one to two inches deep and six        entire bulb. I brush off any dirt, tie       in the supermarkets, is of this variety.
inches apart in rows of eight inches        the stalks into bundles or braid and
or more. Be sure to look closely at         hang in a dry and dark place for two         Softneck garlic, Allium sativum, is also
each clove so you plant them root-          weeks while the bulbs cure.                  known as braiding garlic. It does not
side down and pointed end up.                                                            produce a flower spike and is better
Mulch the planted cloves to mod-            I need the ritual of planting garlic in      adapted to warmer climates. Softneck
erate soil temperature and control          the late fall, it reassures me that I will   garlic is spicier and more productive
weeds.                                      return to this garden next spring. I         than most hardneck garlics, and can be
                                            divide large firm garlic bulbs which          stored for a year or more. However,
The secret ingredient for healthy           I buy from “the garlic gal” at the           they also have more cloves, making
                                                                                         peeling those miniscule inner ones a
garlic yields is crop rotation every        market. I have carefully prepared the
                                                                                         major pain. Some other popular va-
few years. This avoids re-inoculating       soil by adding composted leaves and
                                                                                         rieties include Transylvanian (Yes...
the garlic with any pest that may have      cow manure. I use a large stick or my        Transylvanian), mother of pearl,
taken a liking to your crop. Garlic is      finger to make a two-inch deep hole.          Chilean silver, and Shantung purple.
an invaluable companion for many            I place one clove in each hole. I work
garden plants, and a spray made             in a line leaving 6 inches between
from garlic tea is a deterent to many       each hole. When I have planted all of              WHERE TO PURCHASE
insects, including Japanese beetles.        the cloves, I cover each opening with        Organic garlic seed can be purchased
Plant near cabbage, beets, strawber-        the composted soil. As an experi-            from
ries, tomatoes, and lettuce. Planted        ment, I plant a few cloves in other          ies.htm. Their website is easy to read
near roses, it aids in fighting black        areas of my garden to see if it will         and the photographs are magnificent;
spot. In fact, the only plants garlic in-   deter insects or animals. I mulch with       their seed strains are almost over-
hibits are peas and beans, so I avoid       a thick layer of combined soil, leaves       whelming.
planting it in their projected beds for     and straw. STG                               Editor’s Note: I am no longer recom-
the next rotation.                                                                       mending Seeds of Change as a catalog
                                            After two weeks I check my garlic            or internet resource. It was recently
HARVESTING                                  bundles to be sure that none of the          purchased by Mars Candy—the folks
In early summer, I take great plea-         bulbs have a fungal growth. (One             who brought us non-free trade choco-
sure in walking through my garden,          rotten garlic will eventually spread         late, GMO-laden, high fructose corn
breaking off those first garlic tops         spores to the bunch.) Then I store           syrup M & M’s. Instead, I am buying
(scapes) and chewing them. They             my bounty in a warm, dry, dark place.        my seeds locally.

      POMEGRANATE SEEDS                                                                                     PAGE 7

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