"Fiber Optics The Future Of The Internet"
Fiber Optics: The Future Of The Internet Leonard David Outline • Fiber Optics What is it? • Research Questions • History • What it does today • Types of Cables • The Future Fiber Optics What Is It? • Fiber Optics are cables that are made of optical fibers that can transmit large amounts of information at the speed of light. (www.dictionary.com) Research Questions • What can fiber optics do for us in the future? – Improve our communication – Faster internet connection • What would the Internet look like if this could happen? – Streaming capabilities – Download capabilities • What is being done to make this transition happen? – Government action – Private Companies at work Research Resources • Internet • Library • Magazines (IEEE) History • 1961-“Industry researchers Elias Snitzer and Will Hicks demonstrate a laser beam directed through a thin glass fiber. The fiber’s core is small enough that the light follows a single path, but most scientists still consider fibers unsuitable for communications because of the high loss of light across long distances.” (www.greatachievements.com.) • 1970- Researchers find a way to super purify glass fibers. • 1980- At&t installs first set of fiber optic cables in major cities. History • 1988- First transatlantic cable • 1996- First transpacific cable • 1997- First Fiber Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Present • Telecommunications • Internet Access • Cable and Satellite Television • Decorative Light Source The Cable • Fiber Optic have three major characteristics – Composed of fibers either glass or plastic and sometimes both – Are very flexible – Have different tips Components • Outside Jacket • Cladding • Core Glass Fibers Characteristics • Glass Core • Glass Cladding • Ultra Pure Ultra Transparent Glass • Made Of Silicon Dioxide • Low Attenuation • Popular among industries Plastic Fibers Characteristics •Core Generally Consists Of Polymethyl Methacrylate (Acrylic Glass) (PMMA) Coated With A Fluoropolymer •High Attenuation •Used Mostly In Automotives •Affordable •Very Durable Plastic Clad-Silica (PCS) • Glass Fiber Core sometimes silicone • Cladding is Plastic or silicone • Silicone covering and insulators • Not common • Has Defects Government Involvement • United States Itself has fallen behind Europe • Pace of fiber optic expansion has started to speed up again • Research for having more soldiers at home base fighting using a robot Private Companies Input • Several Private Companies have offered large scale fiber optic networks • Underground networks are already in place and are being used by secret societies • UCSB itself has eight rings of fiber optic networks on campus The Future The Internet • Bandwidths of up to 10Gbps • Streaming Whole Movies in HD • Effortless video conferencing with no lagging • Gaming in HD quality that never lags