Air Pollution Multiple Choice Review Questions Name Stratospheric ozone and Smog 1 Which is the correct set of statements 2 The ozone layer can be protected by I usin

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Air Pollution Multiple Choice Review Questions Name Stratospheric ozone and Smog 1 Which is the correct set of statements 2 The ozone layer can be protected by I usin Powered By Docstoc
					Air Pollution Multiple Choice Review Questions Name: ____________

Stratospheric ozone and Smog

1. Which is the correct set of statements?

2. The ozone layer can be protected by
I. using substitutes for ozone-depleting chemicals.
II. reducing cattle production.
III. recycling old refrigerators.
          A. I and II only
          B. I and III only
          C. II and III only
          D. I, II and III

3. Which of the following has been most effective in reducing world emissions of CFCs?
A. Improved technologies in the development of electric cars
B. Aid programmes to developing countries
C. Policies to minimize the combustion of fossil fuels
D. International agreements, including the Montreal Protocol

4. What happens when sunlight interacts with pollutants in the lower atmosphere?
A. Destruction of the ozone layer occurs
B. Stratospheric ozone is produced
C. Thermal inversion occurs
D. Photochemical smog is produced

5. Which of the following pairs of statements about ozone is correct?

6. Which is the most likely to occur as a result of a reduction of stratospheric ozone?
A. Increase in the amount of damage to plant life at the Earth’s surface
B. Reduction of photochemical smog
C. Reduction in ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface
D. Increase in human respiratory problems

7. The Montreal Protocol was an agreement on
A. slowing down world population growth.
B. reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
C. reducing the production of chlorofluorocarbons.
D. reducing the number of coal-fired power stations.

8. Which of the following greenhouse gases are produced only by human activities?
A. Methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
B. Carbon dioxide and water vapour
D. Methane and water vapour

9. Problems with replacing CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) with HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) are that
          I. are powerful greenhouse gases.
          II. remain in the atmosphere much longer than CFCs.
          III. are expensive to produce.
A. I and II only
B. II and III only
C. I and III only
D. I, II and III

10. Photochemical smog is formed when primary pollutants interact with which of the following?
A. Water vapour               B. Heat                 C. Oxygen                 D. Sunlight

11. Which of the following is most likely to lead to increased mutation rates in phytoplankton?
A. Increase in stratospheric ozone
B. Decrease in stratospheric ozone
C. Increase in tropospheric ozone
D. Decrease in tropospheric ozone

12. Which of the following are normally associated with the formation of photochemical smog?
           I. Nitrogen oxides
           II. Sunlight
           III. Volatile organic compounds
           IV. Clouds
A. I and III only
B. III and IV only
C. I, II and III only
D. I, II, III and IV

13. Which statement about the ozone layer is correct?
A. Fluorine released from chlorofluorocarbons combines with carbon dioxide molecules in the
upper atmosphere to form ozone.
B. Acid rain is caused by an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation that penetrates the
ozone layer.
C. The burning of fossil fuels causes the formation of ozone, which gradually diffuses to the
D. Ultraviolet radiation is absorbed during the process of stratospheric ozone formation

Acid Deposition
14. For which environmental impacts has acid deposition been identified as a significant cause?
           I. Leaching of calcium from soil
           II. Increasing the rate of respiratory problems in humans
           III. Contamination of fish with toxic aluminium
           IV. Increasing the productivity of marine phytoplankton
A. I and II only
B. I and IV only
C. I, II and III only
D. I, II, III and IV

15. In a country in which most energy is obtained from burning fossil fuels, which of the following
will tend to reduce the amount of acid deposition?
A. Switching from conventional to nuclear power stations
B. Reducing tax on fossil fuels
C. Using lead-free petrol (gasoline) in cars
D. Banning the use of substances that harm the ozone layer, such as CFCs

16. Which of the following is not a result of acid deposition from burning of fossil fuels?
A. Leaching of calcium from soils
B. Death of coniferous trees in forests
C. Killing of fish due to high levels of aluminium in lakes
D. Thermal expansion of oceans

17. Why is lime sometimes added to acid lakes?
A. To lower the pH of the water                B. To raise the pH of the water
C To kill poisonous fish                       D. To prevent eutrophication

18. Which statement about acid rain is correct?
A. Acid rain is a problem of developed countries because it is always deposited onto industrial
B. Rain with pH above 7 is considered to be acid rain.
C. Lime can be used to restore acidified lakes.
D. Corrosion of buildings and rising sea levels are two of the main effects of acid rain.

19. Which of these measures would reduce the quantity of acid rain produced?
           I. Removing SO2 from smokestacks
           II. Switching to renewable energy
           III. Using lime to neutralize acidified lakes
           IV. Replacing coal with natural gas as energy source
A. I, II and IV only
B. II and IV only
C. I, II and III only
D. I, III and IV only

20. Which column in the table correctly shows the effects of the pollutant gas?

1. A study was carried out on two kinds of single-celled phytoplankton (Chaetoceros and
Phaeocystis) which are both commonly found in an Antarctic marine ecosystem. Populations
of each were divided into two groups, one group receiving full sunlight, and one receiving sunlight
through a filter that blocked out ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The population growth of each group
was measured in cell divisions per day. The results of the study are shown in the graph below.

a) Using calculations where appropriate, outline the conclusions that can be drawn from
these data regarding the growth rate and relative impact of UVB on these two kinds of

(b) With reference to the data, describe the possible impacts of ozone depletion on the
Antarctic marine ecosystem, and the significance of these impacts for the wider environment. [7]

(c) Evaluate the success and limitations of international agreements in reducing the phenomenon
of ozone depletion. [5]
Expression of ideas [3]

2. As well as their direct impact on the atmosphere, the effects of fossil fuel use are widespread.

A) Discuss the range of effects of fossil fuel use on the environment. [11]

(b) What steps could be taken to reduce these effects? [4]

(c) The average cost of petrol (gasoline) for automobiles is four times higher in Europe than in
the USA. Discuss the environmental implications of this difference. [5]
Expression of ideas [3]

3. The diagram below shows changes in atmospheric emissions from a variety of human activities
in the United Kingdom between 1990 and 2002.

(a) State the greenhouse gas that has increased to the greatest extent in the atmospheric
emissions over this period. [1]

(b) According to these data, compare the relative success in the reduction of acid rain emissions
with the reduction of greenhouse gases, and suggest a reason for this difference. [2]

(c) With reference to named activities shown in the chart, suggest two different strategies
that might have led to a reduction in acid rain emissions. [2]

d) When volcanoes erupt, they emit many gases, some of which contribute to acid rain.

    (i) State any two gases which contribute to acid rain. [2]

      (ii) List two human activities which increase atmospheric concentrations of the gases stated
in (i).

(iii) Outline two methods of reducing emissions of the gases stated in (i) and evaluate their
effectiveness in reducing atmospheric pollution.