DEANE by liaoxiuli3

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 62

									EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER
SYSTEMS

   Purpose
   Policy frameworks
   ECTS
   ECVET
   Considerations



                           1
Why is this an issue for
European co-operation?



   Provides a way of recognising
    learning achievements
    acquired in cross border
    education and training


                                2
Policy framework-Bologna

Ministers confirm support for credit
systems
 As a proper means of promoting the most
  widespread student mobility-1999
 To provide transferability and accumulation,
  for flexibility in learning-2001
 To facilitate mobility and international
  curriculum development -2003

                                                 3
Policy framework
Copenhagen

Ministers consider it a priority to
investigate how a credit transfer system
could promote
 transparency and comparability
 transferability and recognition
  of competences and/or qualifications
 between different countries
 at different levels

                                           4
BEYOND TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY
WHY?


 Credit systems:

  Facilitate transparency and comparability of
   programmes and qualifications

  Provide a means of making learning provision
   flexible and accessible


                                             5
HIGHER EDUCATION
     European Credit Transfer System




Achievements:
   Recognised on a European wide basis
   Common framework of tools
   Facilitates transparency of systems, programmes and
    standards
   Provides an accreditation infrastructure for joint
    programmes
Success factors:
   Comparability of universities, programmes, qualifications,
    learners
   The “autonomy” of universities
   The existence of European networks and associations
   Time

                                                             6
Vocational education and training-ECVET




  National and transnational transfer of learning
  outcomes and the accumulation and mutual
  recognition of learning activities, or qualification
  units.

     National approaches to credit systems in VET
     Reference levels for VET qualifications and competences
     Zones of mutual trust
     A common typology of knowledge, skills and
      competences

                                                            7
Challenges
Common
 Acceptance
 Reform: systems, institutions and programmes
 Needs: experience/expertise/resources
 European credit accumulation system

VET
 Same goals as ECTS, different point of departure
 Engaging stakeholders and building solid foundations




                                                         8
CONSIDERATIONS

   OWNERSHIP
   DESIRABILITY
   FEASIBILITY
   DIVERSITY
   REFORM
   IMPACT
   SYNERGY

                   9
TOWARDS 2010


 Common themes and
 approaches across
 vocational education and
 training and higher
 education
What is driving European co-operation
in VET and higher education?



    The need to respond to
     combined political, economic
     and social goals



                                        11
2010 GOALS

 education and training a world quality
  reference by 2010
 the most competitive and knowledge-
  based economy in the world
   Reform and investment
   Lifelong learning
   A Europe of education and training


                                         12
VET and higher education


   Purpose
   Governance
   Curricula and qualifications
   Organisation of provision
   International outlook


                                   13
VET and higher education

 Wider participation and the emergence of new
  forms of provision?

 State playing a bigger role?

 Similar goals for human resource development?

 Increasing convergence of purpose, goals,
  curricula, methods

                                                 14
Key areas for co-operation?

 Increasing the transparency and
  comparability of systems

 Improving the quality of
  education and training

 Internationalisation
                                15
Levels of co-operation?

 Policy
 European councils, committees, ad-hoc groups

 Process
 European level agencies, associations, networks


 Practice
 Key actors at national level

                                                   16
European Policies
EU
Social, education and training and employment
     Quality
     Lifelong learning
     Recognition and Mobility
     Action Programmes
     Future objectives
     Enhanced co-operation-Copenhagen process
European Intergovernmental
     Bologna process
     UNESCO/ILO, Council of Europe, OECD




                                                17
Selected common themes

 Mobility and the recognition of
 qualifications
    Transparency of qualifications
    Credit systems
    Quality
    Qualifications frameworks



                                      18
Scope of the study


 European level
 Mapping policy and practice
 Considering outcomes
 Examining commonalities and differences
 Identifying tensions
 The future?

                                            19
CONFERENCE


 Exchange experience
 Discuss tensions and challenges
 Consider possibilities for joint
  actions



                                     20
General issues


   Policy running ahead of practice?
   Valuing the necessary processes?
   Evaluating emerging outcomes?
   Managing synergy?
   Resources?


                                        21
Transparency: context

 Free movement of labour: key principle in
  policy
 single market
 influence of globalisation
 establishment of multinational corporations
  and conglomerates
 obstacles to mobility?
 problem of transferring qualifications from one
  country to another

                                               22
Outline

 Three strategies
 Recent Community action on transparency and
  recognition of qualifications
 Gradual convergence of approaches and
  policies
 Europass single framework for transparency of
  qualifications
 Main tensions
 Questions for discussion

                                             23
  Removing obstacles to
  mobility: three strategies


 Recognition of qualifications: directives
  (“top down”)
 Comparability of qualifications: five-
  level framework
 Transparency of qualifications: projects
  to policy (“bottom-up”)

                                         24
Actions to improve
transparency of qualifications

 Networks of specialised agencies
 (ENIC, NARIC, Information points on the
  EU Directives, EURES, Euroguidance,
  NRP)
 establishment of formal recognition
  processes
 new instruments to make qualifications
  more easily understood

                                       25
Instruments to promote
transparency of qualifications

 Diploma supplement, Certificate supplement,
  European CV

A gradual convergence of approaches and
  policies
 A single framework for transparency:
  Europass
 European CV, certificate and diploma
  supplements, the common European framework
  of reference for languages and Europass-
  Training (MobiliPass)                    26
Europass: added value

Creates a co-ordinated portfolio of documents
stronger communications impact than separate
 documents
for citizens: coherent, effective, accessible
for national systems: link information services
 and systems, improve internal transparency
for Community: open architecture for future
 development

                                                   27
Progress on transparency

Working methodology: was European Forum a critical
  success factor?
 Mainstreamed successful practice from projects
 linked separate initiatives at national, sectoral and
  project level
 built on experience of diploma supplement
 integrated the technical and political aspects
 achieved strong consensus among Member States,
  promoted mutual understanding and trust, and
  created a positive climate for progress.

                                                          28
Implementing transparency instruments

Issues
 different agencies and networks involved
 challenge of co-ordination at national level,
  conflict?
 tensions between approaches to transparency
  HE/VET
 individual / collective approach
 focus on system / focus on individual learner
 inputs /process / outcomes

                                             29
Issues for discussion

 Has transparency become a reality at
  national level?
 Is this a bigger issue than transnational
  transparency?
 What progress has been made in
  implementing the existing transparency
  instruments at national level?

                                         30
Issues for discussion

What can be learned from the
 transparency experience?
Could it be applied to other themes:
 credit, quality, frameworks?




                                    31
Quality

While quality is difficult to define, its
importance is universally appreciated
(Garvin 1988)(….). There is no patent remedy
and no universally applicable, standard
solution for developing or assuring
quality. (Source: European quality observatory-website)
Quality

 Need for European co-operation
 Goals
 Frameworks




                                   33
Why is quality an issue for European
co-operation?

       Improving quality and

          being responsive to needs
          ensuring trust in qualifications
          increasing competitiveness
          managing internationalisation

                        are common challenges


                                              34
Common goals

   Shared concepts
   Transparent practices
   Enhanced mutual trust
   Benchmarking and quality improvement
   Increased compatibility
   Increased attractiveness



                                           35
Policy frameworks


   EU Treaty
   EU Instruments
   2010 Work programme
   Copenhagen and Bologna processes
   Action Programmes


                                       36
Education and training
2010




 Improving the quality and effectiveness
  of education and training




                                       37
Enhanced co-operation
Copenhagen



 Exchange of models and methods and
  common criteria and principles

 Attention to the learning needs of
  teachers and trainers in VET


                                       38
Bologna-Quality assurance

 Comparable criteria and methodologies

 Scenarios for mutual acceptance of evaluation
  and accreditation mechanisms
 Common framework of reference

 Set of standards, procedures and guidelines


                                                39
Areas of co-operation


Input: curricula, teachers, environment
Process: managing quality
Outputs: indicators

Accountability: quality assurance/accreditation

Methods: self assessment, customer assessment,
       peer review and publication of reports


                                                  40
Main outcomes

 Laying the foundations for a European
  framework for quality
      European Networks
      Working groups
      Transnational partnerships
      Conceptual developments
      Models and methods


                                          41
CONFERENCE


 Build on the experiences of in VET and
  higher education
 Balancing policy developments with
  developments at programme, institutional
  and systemic levels
 Considering future common actions

                                         42
Qualifications frameworks

Context
 Existing frameworks:National , sectoral,
  transnational
 What is the next step?
 A framework of qualifications at European
  level (Bologna, Joint Interim report ,
  future objectives work programme)

                                          43
Outline

 Definition, rationale for qualifications
  frameworks
 Features of existing national, international
  and sectoral frameworks
 Issues in implementing them
 Role of qualifications frameworks in
  achieving the Lisbon goals
 Issues for discussion

                                             44
     Definition and rationale

 Qualification, qualifications system,
    qualifications framework
 Conceptual/technical frameworks.
 economic, social and political objectives
 modernising education systems
 challenges of globalisation and change: political,
  economic, social, technological
 Institutional/user reasons

                                                   45
Adding value to national
systems
   more transparent
   more coherent
   more accessible
   more flexible
   more consistent in quality
   more responsive to needs of learners, society,
    economy
Tensions
 flexibility for individuals / rigidity of institutions
 focus on learner / on system.
                                                           46
Implementing qualifications
frameworks: Common issues

Conceptual: definitions, purpose, scope,
  principles, philosophies
Political: ownership, control, involvement of
  stakeholders, responsibilities, linkages
Technical: levels, criteria, standards; access,
  transfer, progression; arrangements for
  credit, quality assurance, validation of
  non- formal and informal learning.
                                             47
The case for a European
qualifications framework

 Facilitate mobility, make systems
  more transparent
 based on national frameworks
 build on Bologna and Copenhagen
 include VET and HE
 need for mutual trust, quality
  assurance
                                      48
Issues

 Relationships national framework / overarching framework
 Ownership and control of European framework
 Responsibility for development, support and updating
 Bottom-up or top-down development
 Level of detail required in the framework: “loose” or “tight”
 Balance simplicity of use /comprehensiveness of coverage
 Focus on inputs or outcomes
 Definition of elements or building blocks of framework.



                                                             49
Is there a platform for the development of a
common European qualifications framework?


Conceptual?
Not yet
Technical?
No: a long way to go
Political?
Support at policy level


                                               50
Political support

 Powerful driver of progress towards key
  Lisbon objectives
 Help make lifelong learning a reality
 Remove obstacles to mobility
 Enabling conditions: quality assurance,
  credit transfer, transparency


                                            51
BUT….

 Implementing strategy is never easy,
  quick or cheap
 Need to build political support in MS
 Some are agnostic, sceptical or unsure
 Consultation and communication
 Do not force it before stakeholders are
  ready

                                            52
Issues for discussion
 Is single framework for lifelong learning, all
  countries, all sectors, all levels desirable,
  feasible?
 Principles, philosophies, purposes?
 Can European framework add anything at
  national level?
 Level of support in the Member States?
 Who owns, is responsible for framework?
 How should the key stakeholders be involved?
 Meeting needs of VET/HE/LLL/sectors
 How many levels: descriptive or prescriptive?


                                                   53
Conclusions
Key messages
 A lot happening in pursuit of education and
  training 2010 goals.
 On first examination: fragmented, unfocused,
  slow, complex, difficult, unproductive
 Examined in more detail: examples of good
  practice, important and successful outcomes
 Opportunity to build on success in Bologna,
  Copenhagen process, future objectives work
  programme, projects
 Working to forge an integrated new strategy for
  the future

                                                    54
Summary of research

Show what has happened to date

   How convergence has been achieved
   How polarities have been managed
   What have been the challenges?
   What issues are unresolved and why?


                                          55
     What enables positive
     outcomes?
   Building consensus
   mutual trust, common understanding
   shared goals, purpose, vision
   partnership, respecting and celebrating diversity
   valuing different perspectives and traditions
   creating a climate for change
   creating an imperative for change.


                                                    56
What has helped to create a climate for
change?


 Thirty years of projects and exchanges in
  education and training
 The European social agenda
 The infiltration of ideas from other fields:
  eg employment, trade, fiscal policy




                                                 57
Managing polarities

   access / quality
   diversity / collective approach
   top down / bottom up
   integration/fragmentation
   competitiveness/cohesion
   employability/academic values


                                      58
Managing polarities

   voluntary/legally based
   national/European
   flexible/rigid
   State/market control
   System focus/learner focus
   Revolution/evolution


                                 59
Issues

 How to manage polarities, strike balance?
 What position has been adopted?
 Is this the best position now?
 In the future?
 Different answers in different places,
  times
 Can/should the positions change?

                                          60
Euro News 8 March 2010




 Europe is now the world’s leading knowledge
  economy!
 Education and training played a key role in this
  historic achievement……………………………

                                                     61
How did we get there?




                        62

								
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