TI G E R WO O D S LE ARN I N G CE N TE R
         E vALuATI O N STu Dy
    vOLuME I
    uNIvERSITy OF CALIFORNIA, IRvINE                                                               In 2006, the Tiger Woods Learning Center (TWLC) opened its doors to children and youth
    SEPTEMBER 2008                                                                                 of Anaheim, California and its surrounding communities. This report represents a study
                                                                                                   of the TWLC’s programs conducted by the university of California, Irvine, with support from
                                                                                                   the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation.
            MARk WARSCHAuER
                                                                                                   For its first two years, the TWLC endeavored to meet the         The TWLC sought to meet its mission through a Career              COMMuNITy SERvICE ETHOS:
            PILAR O’CADIz
                                                                                                   challenge of preparing youth for a promising future, based on    Orientation Program that operates during the day (TWLC            A sense of responsibility for service to the community
            vALERIE HALL
                                                                                                   the belief in the intrinsic assets of each young person and      Day Program) and serves 5th-6th grade students from local         through a service learning experiential course called Tiger’s
                                                                                                   a commitment to cultivate their potential and support them       elementary schools, and a Career Exploration Program for          Action Plan, youth leadership workshops and clubs, ongoing
                                                                                                   toward reaching their educational and career goals. The stated   7th-8th grade students and a Career Preparation Program           assets building activities, inspirational guest speakers,
                                                                                                   mission of the TWLC is to offer an interactive, asset-rich       for 9th-12th grade students that operate in the after school      and the involvement of numerous volunteers who model
                                                                                                   learning environment that will provide individual aptitude in    hours (TWLC After School Program).                                community service.
                                                                                                   reading, math, science and technology in order to assist youth
                                                                                                   from diverse backgrounds to develop personal accountability,     THE kEy CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TWLC                               EXPOSuRE AND ACCESS TO GOLF:
                                                                                                                                                                    APPROACH ARE AS FOLLOWS:                                          With the unique feature of its own golf facility, the TWLC
                                                                                                   independence and resilience leading to a greater knowledge
                                                                                                   of career options and an increase in college enrollment.                                                                           introduces golf to a broad youth public, many of whom
                                                                                                                                                                    ASSETS DRIvEN APPROACH:
                                                                                                   (AuGuST 21, 2007)                                                                                                                  would never have had that exposure.
                                                                                                                                                                    A focus on fostering the Search Institute’s 40
                                                                                                                                                                    Developmental Assets, including achievement, motivation,
                                                                                                                                                                    school engagement, integrity, interpersonal competence
    EXECuTIvE SuMMARy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
                                                                                                                                                                    and positive relations with peers and adults.

    STuDy FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
                                                                                                                                                                    CAREER ORIENTATION AND PREPARATION FOCuS:
                                                                                                                                                                    Course offerings and supplemental activities geared to                                                                            2
    IMPLEMENTATION FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
                                                                                                                                                                    provide youth with opportunities to explore career interests in
                                                                                                                                                                    science and technology fields and to practice related skills.
    yOuTH OuTCOME STuDy FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

                                                                                                                                                                    SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGy EMPHASIS:
    CASE STuDy FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11                                                                        A science-focused curriculum and technologically rich
    CONCLuSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
    RESEARCH quESTIONS                                                What kind of development and support do staff                    METHODOLOGy AND DATA SOuRCES                                                                                               Findings are presented in four parts, related                                                    ST uDENT ET HNICIT y, yEA R ONE A ND yEA R T WO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      yEAR ONE      yEAR TWO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Enrollment increased in most of the Center’s classes from
                                                                      experience and what instructional approaches and youth                                                                                                                                      to attendance, program implementation,                                                                                                                               year One to year Two. For example, enrollment in Engineering
    THE PuRPOSE OF THIS EvALuATION WAS TWO-FOLD:                      development principles guide their practice? To what                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             increased from 110 to 184 students (a 67% increase).
                                                                                                                                       A research team composed of four faculty                                                                                   youth outcomes and case study findings.                                                                                      57%     58%
                                                                      extent are these practices congruent with the promising                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pathways classes increased from 107 to 168 students
                                                                      practices for serving older youth, identified by recent          researchers and 15 student assistants carried                                                              43.5                               44.2                                                                                                                                                                             57% 58%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (a 57% increase). Science classes went from 124 to 173
    1) to document program implementation and the                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ATTENDANCE FINDINGS
                                                                      research on effective programs?                                  out the study over a two-year period, using                                  31.4 30.9                                                                                                                                      43.5                                44.2                            students (a 40% increase), and golf classes increased from
    experience of participants in the TWLC in year                                                                                                                                                                                                       25.1
                                                                                                                                       both qualitative and quantitative methods.                              19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                35.8                                   169 to 278 in year Two (a 59% increase).
    One and year Two, and 2) to assess the effects                    How do culturally and linguistically diverse students
                                                                                                                                                                                                        17.8                               17.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The13.2 reached an impressive number of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     31.4 30.9
                                                                                                                                       The qualitative assessment was based on more                                                 14.1                                                                                                                                  25.1                                15%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     11%   12%   12%
    of program participation on student outcomes                      experience participation in this technology-intensive,                                                                                                                                      youth in its first two years of operation, with the14.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.8                               17.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17.3                                                                       TWLC classes were a great draw to youth. Most15%the students
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             19%                     of
                                                                                                                                       than 275 interviews with students, parents,                                                                                                                                                                                                      13.2                                                           16%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   12%   12%
    in year Two. year One research activities began                   asset-driven community learning program? What kinds                                                                                                                                         majority representing low-income or underserved                                                                 6.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       who came to the TWLC were coming to attend a class. A total
                                                                      of social relationships do they form and how do their
                                                                                                                                       TWLC staff, volunteers and visiting classroom                                                                                                                                                                                        ASIAN               HISPANIC/        WHITE       OTHER     of 1,005 of the 1,037 students who attended the Center in
    in January 2007 and continued through August                                                                                                                                                                                                                  populations. In year One, a total of 573 students                                                        AMERICAN               LATINO
                                                                      knowledge, skills, and attitude develop in such a program?       teachers; about 400 hours of observations of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    year Two came to one or more classes during the year.
    2007. year Two data collection occurred from                                                                                                                                                                                                                  attended the TWLC for at least one day. In year
                                                                                                                                       youth and staff in Day and After School classes
    October 2007-June 2008.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Two, enrollment and attendance increased
                                                                    In year Two of the study, from October 2007 to June 2008, the      and enrichment activities; and collection and                                                                                                                                                                               The TWLC student population is highly diverse. The main
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       One area that did not change from year One to year Two was
                                                                    above questions were researched once again, with a focus on        analysis of student-produced work, program                                                                                 dramatically, with the number of students                                                                                                                            intensity of individual attendance. On average, individual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   underserved population in the area surrounding Orange County
                                                                    examining program aspects that had changed from the prior                                                                                                                                     attending classes rising by 81% to a total of                                                                                                                        students attended the Center for 17.0 days in year One to
    year One of the study, from January 2007 to August 2007,                                                                           documents and curriculum materials. This                                                                                                                                                                                    is Hispanic, and more than half of the students at the Center
                                                                    year. In year Two, a youth Outcomes study was also conducted,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17.6 days in year Two.
                                                                                                                                       qualitative assessment also included an in-depth                                                                           1,037. The TWLC was thus highly successful in                                                    are Hispanic (57% in year One and 58% in year Two).
    documented the TWLC program in action and collected data        with the following research question:
    on the experiences of the students and staff engaged in the                                                                        examination of the experiences of 25 case study                                                   40.6                     expanding the number of students it reaches.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        35.4 35.9
    first year program implementation process. Research questions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In its first two years of operation, the Center significantly
                                                                      Over a single academic year, what is the effect on               students who reflected the cultural and linguistic                                                                                                                                                                 40.6                                                                         NuMB ER OF ST uDENT S IN 7T H - 8T H GRA DE

    for year One were as follows:                                                                                                                                                                                          18.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   increased the number and percent of high school students who
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      35.4 35.9                                        A ND 9T H - 12T H GRA DE, yEA R ONE A ND yEA R T WO
                                                                      participants in the TWLC on pre- and post- measures of           diversity of the Center.                                                     17.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  E N RO L L M E N T A ND AT T ENDA NCE, yEA R ONE A ND yEA R T WO                                 were participating in its classes and programs, an important
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         yEAR ONE        yEAR TWO
                                                                      behavior problems, prosocial behaviors, efficacy, initiatives,                                                                                                                       9.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     yEAR ONE            yEAR TWO                                           18.8                                 19.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     17.2                          accomplishment given the widely recognized difficulty of
      How many youth participate in TWLC programs                     stated career and educational aspirations, and steps taken                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    558
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   recruiting and retaining high school students in after-school
      and what are their demographic characteristics                  to pursue a career or higher education?                                                                                                                                                                                     1217                                                                   364
                                                                                                                                       quantitative sources of data included analysis of the Center’s                                                                                                                                                              programs. Overall, there were 120% more high school students
      (age, gender, ethnicity, language status, income                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1037
3                                                                                                                                      enrollment and attendance records, a pre- and post-                                                                                                                                                                         at the Center in year Two than in year One. The number of middle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            364                                                4
      status, school and school district)?
                                                                                                                                       participation survey of Day Program children in 1- and 2-week                                                                                        784
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   school students increased by 53% from year One to year Two.                                                  209
                                                                                                                                       sessions, a pre- and post-participation survey of visiting                                                                                                               573
      What is the makeup and background of the TWLC staff                                                                              classroom teachers in the Day Program, a Demographic Survey
      and volunteers? What roles do they have in implementing                                                                          and Exit Survey completed by parents, and a pre- and post-
      the Center’s programs? What resources and materials do                                                                           survey of youth participants in the After School Program.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             7TH - 8TH           9TH - 12TH
      they have available and how do they use these resources to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              GRADE                GRADE

      carry out the activities at the center?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ENROLLED             ATTENDED


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     41.7                                                   55.7
    The goal of the Implementation Study conducted      1. POSITIvE SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS                                     I enjoy the people in the communication class [unlike in school]       3. DEvELOPING ACADEMIC SkILLS                                     [Learning Center]…[The TWLC] has helped her develop another
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5. ENGAGEMENT IN INTERACTIvE
                                                                                                                             it’s more like you’re interacting with people than just doing your                                                                       mindset, to be more open and to improve herself, to expect
    in year One and year Two of the evaluation was
                                                                                                                             homework. I’m always interacting with people and meeting new
                                                                                                                                                                                                       AND MOTIvATION                                                 more from life, so that she can have a better future… We have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             AND PARTICIPATORy LEARNING
    to document the quality of youths’ experiences      We found that TWLC’s assets-driven program                           people. I’m working as a group to make a movie. And it’s also                                                                            limited economic means, we could never pay for such service,
    in the Center’s first two years of operation. Our   activities and youth development approach                            competitive and I just want to win. Our teacher makes it competitive   The TWLC’s emphasis on the development of                         and I truly give much thanks to Tiger Woods, for the opportunity    TWLC’s Day and After School Program’s diverse
    observations and interviews revealed six main       created a physically and emotionally safe                            and he makes our group [work] to do their best. – 8TH GRADE BOy        academic skills, note taking, and good homework                   that is afforded to these youth.                                    interactive and participatory learning experiences,
    findings regarding program implementation and       environment that promoted supportive                                                                                                        habits, supported the development of youth’s sense                                                                                    including real life applications of science and
    student experience, each supporting the general     relationships between youth and adults and                           2. FOCuS ON CAREERS                                                    of academic competence and motivation to achieve.                 4. PROMOTING COMMuNITy SERvICE                                      technology and other enrichment activities,
    conclusion that the TWLC had succeeded in           among youth and their peers.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      enhanced youth engagement and allowed them
    mounting a high quality program.                                                                                         The TWLC’s focus on careers and higher education                       Large numbers of students told us how attending the TWLC          We found that TWLC’s opportunities for student                      to acquire new knowledge and skills, while
                                                                                                                             expectation prompted youth to begin imagining                          got them more involved in doing their homework and taking         directed activities and service learning projects
                                                        These benefits were achieved in large measure                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     fostering leadership among youth and a sense
                                                                                                                                                                                                    school seriously. As an 8th grade student explained,
                                                        through the outstanding role played by staff,                        their future options and encouraged them to                                                                                              fostered leadership skills and a sense of student                   of their responsibility to the community.
                                                        who demonstrated great concern for, and                              explore their interests, discover new talents and                      When I get here I don’t procrastinate as much to do my
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      responsibility to the community. In particular, the
                                                        expertise in, helping youth develop positively.                      develop real world skills.                                             homework as I would at home. At home I usually waited             service learning class at TWLC, Tiger’s Action Plan,                A 9th grader accounted to us his experiences in engineering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      had the highest retention rate of all classes in                    class, which offers extensive hands-on learning opportunities.
                                                        As one 10th grade student explained in a                                                                                                    and watched television and stuff.
                                                                                                                             An 8th grade boy explained the changes he went through                                                                                                                                                       His comments were typical of what students told us, and his
                                                        highly representative comment,                                                                                                                                                                                the After School Program other than golf, and
                                                                                                                             at the Center, in comments that were typical of those                                                                                                                                                        positive experiences were confirmed by our observations of
                                                                                                                                                                                                    An immigrant Mexican father discussed the impact of attending     proved to be a powerful means of developing a
                                                                                                                             expressed by many students:                                                                                                                                                                                  high levels of student engagement in classes:
                                                        [TWLC teachers] are more hands-on. They’re more concerned                                                                                   the TWLC on his daughter, in the type of account we heard from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      community service ethic. An 8th grade student
                                                        about you. Like even when you don’t understand it, they’ll                                                                                  many parents:
                                                                                                                             Well the view I had before I came wasn’t that bright. I thought                                                                          who participated in the class shared his thoughts:                  I just decided to try it out and well, they had courses in
                                                        explain it until you understand.
                                                                                                                             you could just go to school and then get a job, but I learned                                                                                                                                                engineering, I wanted to just learn some of the basics, so I
                                                                                                                                                                                                    The TWLC is motivating her to perceive that there is much more
                                                                                                                             that you have to take different classes and also get a degree.                                                                           I like that you’re not stuck in a classroom. you take fieldtrips.   decided to try it out. The technology here is pretty high-tech.
                                                        The supportive peer relationships formed among youth were                                                                                   out there in our society…to develop herself in the society, and
                                                                                                                             Then once I came here, the classes that I took and information                                                                           you do volunteer work. We went to the beach on Sunday for           Some of the stuff, well, most of the stuff, hardly any school has.
                                                        evident in our observations and interviews.                                                                                                 to contribute to that society and to receive something from
5                                                                                                                            I got from PowerPoint, and different brochures, and what I studied                                                                       a cleanup. We went to the Orange Animal Shelter. We went            The first reason I chose engineering the first time I came was       6
                                                                                                                                                                                                    society.… We like Tiger Woods [Learning Center], because it
                                                                                                                             about different colleges; now I’m more focused on studying than                                                                          to the park down on Brookhurst for a park cleanup too… I’ve         because I wanted to pursue a career in engineering. And the
                                                        [Why I like] coming here is first of all, I make new friends.                                                                               is helping her to improve in her subjects [at school]… I am
                                                                                                                             playing around like I used to. So now I know how it really feels to                                                                      done about 45 hours [of community service]. [Also as part of        engineering classes seemed like they were fun… I had lots of fun
                                                        I feel special with them. Because at school, none, none,                                                                                    very pleased with everything they do there…which principally is
                                                                                                                             live a life. Now I have to be supportive and help my family and                                                                          the class] I learned how to use PowerPoint… I learned things        in Mr. Esmilla’s class so I decided to stay in every single one of
                                                        none of the people like the way I am. And here, they are all                                                                                to motivate the youth, that the youth have someone that pays
                                                                                                                             also go to work and support myself. It also helps me learn how                                                                           that you’ll probably need in life.                                  his classes and finish all his classes. This session, most of the
                                                        like me: really active and they don’t get mad for the small little                                                                          attention to them, that takes them into account, and recognizes
                                                                                                                             important it is to respect others.                                                                                                                                                                           stuff that I’ve been learning is fuel, and the different types of
                                                        things. – 8TH GRADE MEXICAN IMMIGRANT GIRL                                                                                                  their abilities and capacities so that they can develop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fuel, and about non-renewable energy, and renewable energy,
                                                                                                                                                                                                    themselves. My daughter is learning a lot at the Tiger Woods
    and how renewable energy can cause less pollution than                I try to bring back the favorite things, and through [offering]         In year Two, a pre- and post-survey of participants                Change scores were computed for all students by subtracting        The effects of total duration of attendance on the eight
    gasoline and the fossil fuels. And I’ve been learning how we          the favorites that the kids really like, they take my class                                                                                the pre-participation scores from the post-participation scores.   outcomes were also examined. Duration was measured in
                                                                                                                                                  in the After School Program was administered
    can build stuff that will power up cars... that will be less costly   because they want to see that again. [I am] constantly                                                                                     When these change scores for the sample as a whole were            terms of total weeks attended; the number of weeks elapsed
                                                                                                                                                  to assess the effects of TWLC participation on
    and produce less pollution.                                           introducing new activities. Sometimes I’d pull from some of                                                                                examined, there was little evidence of systematic change across    between each student’s first day of attendance at the TWLC and
                                                                          the workshops I’ve done and change something or expand                  youth outcomes. Eight outcomes, selected after                     the school year on the eight outcomes. However, changes            that student’s last day of attendance, regardless of the actual
    6. CONTINuOuS PROGRAM                                                 on it, making it look more in depth. you just keep trying to            discussions with TWLC directors, were evaluated.                   in student outcomes were apparent when the critical factor,        number of days attended. One of the regression analyses

       IMPROvEMENT                                                        switch up some of the things, write new stuff, changing old             These youth outcomes were: school work habits,                     program attendance, was included in the analysis. Results          showed that a greater number of weeks of attendance had a
                                                                          stuff… just continually try to grow and develop and keep trying         school performance, mathematics, English, science                  of regression analyses showed a significant positive relation      significant relationship with one of the outcomes: Negative
                                                                          to keep it fresh so the kids like it.                                                                                                      between program attendance and four of the eight outcomes.         Behavior. For students who attended 21 or more weeks at the
    Our observations and interviews revealed that                                                                                                 efficacy, planning for the future, optimism about
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TWLC, negative behaviors were greatly reduced. For students
    the TWLC directors and learning facilitators                                                                                                  the future and reductions in negative behaviors.                                                                                      who attended between 7 and 20.5 weeks, there was a slight
                                                                          Out of this process of curricular innovation, new 7th-8th grade                                                                            There was a significant positive relationship between the
    flexibly and creatively addressed challenges that                     classes in Animal Science, Entomology, Environmental Integrity,         Surveys to measure these outcomes were based                       number of days attended and the change scores for the              reduction in negative behaviors; for students who attended less
    emerged in year One, the first year of the Center’s                   and the Power of Chemistry were developed, as well as a                 on questionnaires previously validated in national                 following three outcomes: School Work Habits; School               than 7 weeks, there was no change in negative behaviors. The
                                                                          general course for 7th-12th graders in veterinary Medicine.             research on after school program outcomes.                         Performance; and Science Efficacy. The greatest amount of          results suggest that the duration of a student’s attendance—the
    operations. Through a continuous program
                                                                          upper level science courses were developed in Marine Biology,                                                                              positive change was in Science Efficacy (i.e., interest and        total amount of time they are simply affiliated with the TWLC—
    improvement management approach, the TWLC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           can have a positive effect on reducing negative behaviors, if the
                                                                          as well as Biotechnology/Genetics and How the Body Works,                                                                                  sense of efficacy about learning science), indicating success
    was able to better integrate developmental                            geared at older students interested in health care and medical                                                                             by the TWLC in reaching one of its principal goals. The positive   student remains an active member for at least 21 weeks.
                                                                                                                                                  All new After School Program students were given a consent
    assets into the year Two program, revise the                          science careers. The Communications curriculum was also                                                                                    effects on work habits and school performance also indicated
                                                                                                                                                  form and parent survey at orientation presentations during
    curriculum to better meet student needs, and                          enhanced, through a separation into an Intro to Communications
                                                                                                                                                  the first week of the Fall 2007 and Winter 2008 sessions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     success by the TWLC in reaching other important goals. The
    enhance staff development through improved                            course for all grade levels (7th to 12th), based in part on tutorials                                                                      positive relationship between attendance and these three
                                                                                                                                                  Two hundred and fifty students returned consent forms, parent
                                                                          and in part on a collaborative project, and an Advanced                                                                                    outcome measures can be seen by comparing changes in
    guidance and peer mentoring.                                                                                                                  demographic surveys, and completed the pre-participation
                                                                          Communication class based completely on students’                                                                                          each of these three areas for low-attending (less than 10 days),
                                                                                                                                                  survey. Of those 250 students, 193 also completed the
                                                                          collaborative multimedia production.                                                                                                       medium-attending (10 to 29 days) and higher-attending (more
    For example, over-use of computer tutorial modules in year                                                                                    post-participation survey at the end of the school year. These
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     than 30 days) students. As shown in the Figure A, students
    One led to disengagement of some students, especially at the                                                                                  students comprised the Outcomes Study sample. Analysis of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     who attended the Center less than 10 days showed declines in
7   high school level. In year Two, tutorial modules that had proved                                                                              variance (ANOvA) procedures indicated that the Outcomes                                                                                                                                                   8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     performance over the school year. Self-reports of students who
    effective were used again, but the less effective ones were                                                                                   Study sample did not differ significantly from the general
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     attended the Center for 10 to 29 days stayed roughly the same,
    jettisoned, replaced by interactive learning activities geared to                                                                             population of TWLC students in gender, ethnicity or grade level.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     whereas students who attended the Center for more than 30
    diverse age levels. As a Science Instructor explained to us,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     days showed gains.
                                                                                                                                                         -0 .0 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 18.8                                   19.3
                                     209                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               573                                                                                                                                                                                                                         55.7                                                    558
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          43.5                                   44.2                                                            9.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          35.8                                                                                                                                                                                                                460
                                                                                       -0 .1 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  41.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          31.4 30.9                                                                                                                                                                                                                                39.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  364      34
                                                                                       -0 .1 6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   25.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     19                                                                                                                                                           19%                                     28.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           17.8                                    17.3
                                                                                       -0 .2 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14.1                                   13.2                                                                                 16%                                   15%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     12%       12% 17.2                                                 209
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           6.8                                                                                                                                                                 13                                  12

             47. 9
             FIGuRE A:                                                                  FIGuRE B:                                                                  FIGuRE C:                                                                                                                 FIGuRE D:                                                                                    FIGuRE E:                                                                                         FIGuRE F:
             CH A NGES I N SCORES, By TOTAL DAyS OF ATTE NDANCE                         C H A NGE S I N S C OR E S, By TOTA L WE E k S                             P E R C E I v E D B E N E F I T S : S C H O O L WO R k H AB I T S AN D AC H I E v E M E N T                               S T u D E N T v I E W S: SOCIA L EF F ICACy A ND NEGAT IvE B EHAvIOR                         ST uDENT vIEW S: COLLEGE A ND CA REER                                                             ST uDENT vIEW S: OPT IMISM A BOuT T HE F uT uRE

     28. 1
                SCHOOL WORk HABITS         SCIENCE EFFICACy    SCHOOL PERFORMANCE            NEGATIvE BEHAvIOR                                                       % NOT AT ALL TRuE            % A LITTLE TRuE          % SOMEWHAT TRuE              % REALLy TRuE                          % NOT AT ALL TRuE          % A LITTLE TRuE        % SOMEWHAT TRuE          % REALLy TRuE    % NOT AT ALL TRuE        % A LITTLE TRuE    % SOMEWHAT TRuE            % REALLy TRuE              % NOT AT ALL TRuE            % A LITTLE TRuE     % SOMEWHAT TRuE           % REALLy TRuE


                                                                              0.1 8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     57%     58%                                                                                                                 55.7
                                                                              0.0 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           47. 9
                                                                                         0                                                                                                                             43.5                                       44.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               40.6                                                                                                                                          41.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           35.8                                                                                                   35.4 35.9                                                                                             34
                   0                                                                                                                                                                31.4 30.9                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          30.7
                                                                              -0.0 2                                          -0 .0 3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28.6                                                                                                                                 28. 1
                                                                                                                                                                             19                                                                                                19%                               18.8                                     19.3
                                                                                                                                                                    17.8                                        17.3                                                                                      17.2                                                                                                                  17.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                        14.1                                       13.2                  16%                              15%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12%     12%                                                                              13                            11.5     558
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12                                                           13
             - 0. 12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1 1%                             9.4                                            8.9                                                                                                     10. 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.8                                                                                                                                              6.8
             - 0. 16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                                               -0 .1 3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  364
             - 0. 21

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -0. 12
             ATTENDED 1 - 9 DAyS       ATTENDED 10 - 29 DAyS     ATTENDED 30+ DAyS       ATTENDED                     ATTENDED            ATTENDED                 THE TWLC HAS HELPED ME                THE TWLC HAS HELPED               THE TWLC HAS HELPED ME                                         THE TWLC HAS HELPED ME                   THE TWLC HAS HELPED ME                   THE TWLC HAS HELPED ME         THE TWLC HAS HELPED           THE TWLC HAS HELPED                              THE TWLC HAS MADE ME OPTIMISTIC ABOuT THE FuTuRE
                   (N=35)                    (N=118)                   (N=40)          1 - 6.5 WEEkS               7 - 20.5 WEEkS        21+ WEEkS                   IMPROvE My GRADES                     ME STuDy BETTER                 WORk BETTER AT SCHOOL                                            STAy OuT OF TROuBLE                     GET ALONG WITH OTHERS                 THINk ABOuT CAREER OPTIONS       ME PLAN FOR A CAREER          ME PLAN FOR COLLEGE                                                                           -0. 16

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -0. 21

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          47. 9
                                                                                                                                                                   In addition to examining changes in student reports across                                                                A strong majority of students also said that attending the TWLC                              Finally, large numbers of students reported that attending the
                                                                                                                                                                   the school year, we also 40.6 students directly about their                                                               helped them to stay out of trouble and get along with others.                                TWLC helped them think about career options, plan for their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    35.4 35.9                                                                                                                                                                                                28. 1
                                                                                                                                                                   perceptions about how the Center had affected their lives.                                                                                                                                                             career, plan for college and be optimistic about their futures.
               0                                                                                                                                                   Considerable majorities of students reported that the TWLC
                                                                                                                                                                                                               19.3                                                                                              55.7                                                                                                      13
                                                                                                                                                                              17.2                                                                                                                                                                                                                       10. 9
                                                                                                                                                                   helped to improve their grades (with 62.3% indicating that                                                  558
     9                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 41.7                                                                                                                                                                                                         10
                                                -0.03                                                                                                              was “really true” or “somewhat true”), study better (with 68.6%                                                                 460                                           39.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          34                                                                                                                                                      0. 18
                                                                                                                                                                   of students indicating that was “really true” or “somewhat true”),                                    364                              28.6

                                                                                                                                                                   and work better at school (with 80.2% of students indicating                                                                                                    17.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0. 09
                                                                                                                                                                   that was “really true” or “somewhat true”).                                                                         209
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             13                            11.5    12
                                                                      -0.13                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -0. 03
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -0. 02

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -0. 12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -0. 16

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -0. 21
     In addition to the large number of students that we interviewed about particular      LEARNING LIFE SkILLS AND                          Linda’s mother, Maria, left Mexico as a young woman when her          children like [my younger daughter]. She told me how when she
                                                                                                                                             parents died. Shortly after immigrating she found herself a single    went inside she immediately felt good and that they showed her
     aspects of the TWLC program, in year Two of the study we selected 25 students         FINDING ROLE MODELS                               mother with the arrival of Linda, her eldest child. Maria then had    to use the computer. I think the teachers help them a lot. It is
     for more in-depth examination.
                                                                                           Linda is an 11th grader who started attending
     Case study students were reflective of youth who attended the After School            the TWLC in Spring 2007. She comes from                           “IT MAkES ME A BETTER PERSON. I LEARN CONFIDENCE,
     Program. The purpose of examining these students was to learn, in more detail,        a very challenged home environment, where                   SELF-RESPECT. I LEARN HOW TO BE A LEADER. BEING HERE, IT HELPS
     the kind of impact that engaged involvement in the TWLC had on student lives.         she lives with her mother and stepfather and
                                                                                                                                                        ME By ACTuALLy GETTING BETTER GRADES BECAuSE IT’LL MAkE ME
                                                                                           her four siblings—for a total of two adults and
     Each of these 25 students shared their thoughts about their experiences at the                                                                              GAIN MORE CONFIDENCE IN WHAT I WANT TO BE.”
                                                                                           five children—in a single rented room. She
     TWLC, and its impact on their lives, in one or more lengthy interviews. A total       was motivated to come to the TWLC because
     of 13 parents from these families also had in-depth interviews. Many of the           she had heard “it looks good on your college      two sons with her first husband and eventually met her second         a good school.” Maria further hopes for her children to be good
     case study students also shared examples with us of their creative products           resume.” Since her parents never went to          husband with whom she now lives and has had two more                  citizens and believes that the Center can help them on this path:
     they developed at the TWLC. Finally, we examined these students’ attendance           college, she emphatically states, “That’s why
                                                                                                                                             children, both with developmental issues. Neither Maria nor her
     records and survey responses, as well as the survey responses of their parents,                                                         husband have stable employment and they live very precariously        I want them to do everything they have to offer. I don’t want
                                                                                           I wanna go to college. I want to be someone       from day to day. Linda’s mother recognizes how the program has        my children to be lazy or to do any harm to anyone, even more
     for additional data about their TWLC participation.                                   to them. I want them to be proud of me.           enhanced her daughter’s chances in life enormously, particularly      so now that they are citizens of the united States. In some
                                                                                           So if I do something, it’ll make my parents       given the limited resources that her family has to offer. The         places they say that the uS is no good for one thing or another.
     The case study findings are consistent with the implementation findings                                                                 TWLC, she says, is “helping her with her homework. I see her now
                                                                                           happy.” For Linda, the TWLC signifies a place                                                                           No, the deal is that the uS has good projects for all people and
     presented, but provide a more detailed view of the impact of TWLC participation                                                         being more responsible, she is different, she is trying to improve    it is being proven. I have proven this with my children. I never
                                                                                           to realize that dream. Recently she was even
     on youth’s lives. We learned from the case studies that many of the TWLC                                                                herself, she is thinking.” Before, Maria was concerned                imagined that this country would be so great. Congratulations.
                                                                                           hired to help at the front desk, providing
     participants come from extremely challenging backgrounds, and that the                                                                  as her daughter had begun to hang out with the wrong crowd            Congratulations to Tiger Woods! – (INTERvIEW, JANuARy 2008)
                                                                                           her with work experience and much needed          in junior high and was not on a good path.
     programs, instruction, resources and mentorship at the TWLC has had a deep
                                                                                           financial support. When offered the position                                                                            Recognizing how she has developed a keener sense of her own
11   effect on their lives and opportunities. This positive impact is seen, for example,                                                                                                                                                                                               12
                                                                                           she remarked, “I want to cry.” She can now be     Maria explains that she wants her daughter to achieve all that        future potential as a result of her participation at the Center,
     in the story of Linda.                                                                                                                  she was unable to achieve. She had dreamed of being a nurse
                                                                                           seen answering phones and doing paperwork                                                                               Linda reflects, “It makes me a better person. I learn confidence,
                                                                                                                                             when she was in Mexico, but had to leave school and learn to          self-respect. I learn how to be a leader. Being here, it helps me
                                                                                           two afternoons a week and in the Spring
                                                                                                                                             sew and work as a seamstress to help support her aging parents.       by actually getting better grades because it’ll make me gain
                                                                                           2008 session she was attending a business         Now she tells her daughter, “Mija, I am going to support you in       more confidence in what I want to be.”
                                                                                           entrepreneurial class.                            everything. I think this Center is perfect for young people and for
     Although her attitude toward school has improved since              In its first two years of operation, the TWLC        A quantitative outcomes study found that
     attending the TWLC, Linda prefers the TWLC to school. “It’s a fun   achieved dramatic growth in its program              the positive effects achieved in many areas
     place to be. I think it’s better than high school. In school, you
                                                                         offerings and impressive success in the              were related directly to the amount of student
     don’t get to learn about communication. And they don’t explain
     things at your pace.” Still she plans to keep on going to school    recruitment of junior high and high school           attendance at the Center. Significant relationships
     to “at least graduate and become a somebody.”                       students. The TWLC administration and staff          between amount of attendance and changes in
                                                                         demonstrated great versatility in creating and       self-reports were found in three specific areas—
     Linda likes doing art projects in the Computer Clubhouse and        revising course offerings, continually adapting      School Work Habits, School Performance and
     learning to use the cameras they have available. As a result she
                                                                         to the needs and interests of its diverse student    Science Efficacy. Students’ ratings of program
     proudly announces, “I’m not afraid of the camera that much.”
                                                                         population. Positive effects on students’            benefits echoed these improvements as well as
     She also appreciates the homework assistance provided               academic and career goals, relationships with        perceived benefits in other areas.
     saying that at the TWLC you get “math, history, everything          peers and adults, and optimism about future
     you need help in.”                                                  success in life were consistently revealed in
                                                                         interviews, surveys and observations. Case
     Even though she claims not to be “a technology fanatic,”
                                                                         studies of low-income and immigrant youth
     Linda recognizes the benefits of the exposure to technology she
                                                                         attending the TWLC indicated that many
     has (especially since she does not have a computer at home).
     She emphatically argues, “What happens if I end up being a          experienced profound growth in their self-
     secretary or a counselor? I’m gonna need to know how to use         confidence, motivation to achieve and knowledge
     a computer or any technology. I feel a little more confident        of career paths through their participation at the
     because at least I know Adobe PageMaker, I kinda feel               Tiger Woods Learning Center.
     confident.” She acquired these basic computer skills in Pathways.
     In Communications she has learned how to use a video camera
     and “the different types of camera angles.”                                                                                                                                    14

     Furthermore, she argues that coming to the TWLC has brought
     her into contact with a new group of peer and adult role models:
     “knowing the right people I’m looking up to.”
                   1 2 1 I NNOvATI ON DR I v E , S u I TE 1 5 0     I Rv I NE , C A 9 2 6 1 7
PH : 9 4 9 .7 2 5 .3 0 0 3     FA X : 9 4 9 .7 2 5 .3 0 0 2     WE B: TI GE RWOODS FOuN DAT I O N . O R G
                     FOR qu E S TI ONS, PL E A S E C ONTAC T u S AT 94 9 .72 5 .30 0 3

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