2nd semester chemistry final cheat sheet - PDF

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2nd semester chemistry final cheat sheet - PDF Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                               KNO3
                                                                               180
                 2nd semester                                                  170
                                                                               160
           chemistry final cheat sheet                                         150
                                                                               140
          2.0
                              A
                                                                               130
          1.8                                                                  120
          1.6                                                                  110
                                liquid
          1.4                                                                  100
          1.2                                                                  90

          1.0                                                                  80
                solid
          0.8                                                                  70
                                                                               60
          0.6
                                          gas                                  50                                                        KCl
          0.4
                                                                               40
          0.2                                                                                                                            NaCl
                                                                               30
           0
            20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110                                    20
                     temperature (˚C)
                                                                               10

        STP: 0˚C                P iVi  PV                                          0
             1 atm                    = f f                                            0    10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90 100
         (1 mole = 22.4 L)       Ti     Tf                                                            temperature ( C)
        1 atm = 760 mmHg = 14.7 psi

         PV=nRT               R = 0.0821 L•atm
                                         mol•K                                         pH + pOH = 14            pH = - log [H+]
    Density = mass Molarity = moles         x
                                     Mf = M V                                  [H+] x [OH-] = 1 x 10-14              [H+] = 10-pH
            volume            liters       VT




           rule 1:      Li+, Na+, K+, NH4 +, NO3 -
                                                            except
           rule 2:                Cl-, Br-, I-                                             Ag +, Hg22+ , Pb2+

                                                            except
           rule 3:                  SO 42-                                                 Ba2+ , Ca2+ , Pb2+

           rule 4:        Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+                   except                      OH-, CO32-, PO43-, S2-, O2-

prefixes                 suffixes                      aromatic                            reactions
                                                 X                      X
 halogens: (-X)         C-C -ane                           X                           halogenation (alkane)
-F fluoro-              C=C -ene                      X                                  C-C + X2 light
                                                                                                    --->
-Cl chloro-             C=C -yne                                                       hydrogenation
-Br bromo-                                   ortho
                                                                  X         para          C=C + H2 Pt--->
                                                           meta         X
-I iodo-                -OH   -ol                                                      halogenation
  alkyls:                                                                                 C=C + X2 --->
(name alkane,                                        CH3              OH               hydrohalogenation
drop “e”, add                                                                             C=C + H-X --->
“-yl” ending)                                                                          hydragenation
                                                                                                         +
                                                                                          C=C + H2O H   --->
 N-containing:                                   toluene              phenol
-NH2 amino-
-NO2 nitro-