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More than just a journey

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					                     MORE THAN JUST A JOURNEY



Teacher’s notes
This activity is to encourage students to think about travel, not just in terms of
the impact on their health and the environment at the moment of travel, but
the impact of the travelling in relation to the tools that they use to travel – that
is to say the impact of creating cars, bicycles, and shoes.

To do this students will tell the story of the creation of a car and bike using
picture cards and track the movement of materials and products on a world
map.

Groups of 5 pupils are supplied with …
    A set of picture cards
    A world map
    Sheet of ‘Questions for Students’
    Information sheets on shoes, bicycles and cars
    Information sheet on ‘where does stuff come from?’
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Introduction to the group (10 minutes)
Explain that they are to tell the story of a car and bicycle from the beginning
(its raw materials and creating the basic components of the machine) to end
(when we buy it). Demonstrate with the creation of a pair of shoes using the
larger cards as an example.

Lay the cards out one by one where pupils can see them (across a table, or
blutac to a wall). Ask students what the next stage will be.

So for example …
A pair of leather shoes are made from leather (for the upper and inner),
rubber (or synthetic rubber) for the sole, cotton and plastic for the laces, and
steel for the eyelets.

A majority of leather is sourced from the USA. To create leather you need …
Grazing land to feed the cattle.
Lorries to transport the cattle to slaughter factories.
Lorries then transport the skins to factories to make leather for shoes
Leather is then transported by lorry to freight ship, to the UK factories to
make up the shoes
Rubber for the soles of shoes is made from rubber plants grown in India. To
create rubber for soles you need …
Cropland for rubber.
Tractors to tend to the plants and take the rubber to more processing
factories where blocks of rubber are made.
Lorries to transport the rubber to freight ships to European ports which are
then transported by lorry to factories to produce rubber soles.
Lorries transport the rubber soles to UK factories where the soles are glued
on to the leather to make the shoes.

Cotton laces need to have cropland (usually in Africa), plastic on the laces
have their raw material based on oil (from the Far East), and the steel for
eyelets has to be quarried from Australia. All need the various materials
transported to factories for making and distributing.


Issues highlighted in the list of questions for pupils can be identified and
discussed. Once the story has been completed for shoes students should do
similar stories for first bicycles and then cars (7 mins each).
In doing each story students should work through the list of questions for
students. They should also use their world maps to identify the countries that
the parts of the car or bicycle have travelled.
                   MORE THAN JUST A JOURNEY



Summary (5 mins)
Students should be encouraged to compare the global impact of walking,
cycling and travelling by car.
    Which is healthier?
    Which is better for the environment whilst doing the travelling?
    Which is better for the environment when considering where shoes,
       bicycles and cars come from?
    Do students agree that when we make choices about how we travel we
       are connected to people all over the world and our choices have
       political, social, economic and environmental consequences?
    Does such insight influence how they think about travelling?

Outcome of this session
   Students will have 2 stories in pictures that they can talk through - the
     story of both the car and bicycle (from raw material to final product sold
     to the consumer).
   Students will have a world map highlighting the different places
     materials have travelled from and to in order to create a car and
     bicycle.
                   MORE THAN JUST A JOURNEY



                       Where does stuff come from?


Aluminium
    Aluminium is a light metal often used in bike frames.
    Derived from Bauxite (an ore of aluminium).
    Mainly comes from Africa, West Indies, South America, Australia
    Bauxite has to be refined into alumina and then reduced to metallic
      aluminium. To this takes a lot of energy so factories producing
      aluminium are usually built in areas where energy can be made
      cheaply (or example by hydro electricity which harnesses the energy of
      water in reservoirs).
    Factories creating aluminium from bauxite have produced problems of
      deforestation and pollution of water courses in Jamaica.
    At the moment a hydro electric scheme is being built in a wilderness
      area of Iceland just to power a processing plant for imported bauxite.
      The aluminium produced at this factory will then be transported long
      distances to its market areas.

Natural Rubber
    Columbus bought back the first natural rubber (in the form of bouncy
      balls) from the West Indies in 1496
    Dunlop’s first pneumatic tyres were developed in 1888
    70% of all natural rubber today goes in to the production of tyres (cars,
      bikes, planes etc)
    Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia are the main areas of natural rubber
      production. Once it has been produced it has to be transported to other
      factories where it is made in to tyres.
    ‘Continental’ bike tyres are made in Germany
    Many bike tyres have a Kevlar layer in the rubber. Kevlar is the
      material put in bullet proof vests! This makes them extra hardwearing

Steel
    Steel is a strong metal frequently used for car parts
    To make steel you need iron ore, coking coal and fluxes to help
      chemical process (usually limestone)
    Iron ore and coke tend to be imported from the USA, Canada, Brazil,
      Australia and Scandinavia on fright ships.



Paint
There are three basic ingredients in car and bike paint:
    Resin (often linseed oil based)
    Pigment
    Solvent
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The resin is the component that holds together the pigment in suspension,
provides adhesion to the surface applied, and determines the quality and
paint durability.

The pigment makes up the colour in the paint and is added as a powder.

The solvent is what makes the mixture runny enough to paint on

The largest vehicle paint producer is Standox in Wuppertal, Germany.


Synthetic rubber
Synthetic rubber (rubber that’s not made from natural rubber but in factories
from a mixture of chemicals) is used for the soles of most shoes because
     It’s hard wearing
     Flexible
     Waterproof
   Most shoe soles are made from a mixture of natural rubber and synthetic
  rubber. Synthetic rubber is plastic based and therefore is a product of crude
                                        oil.
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                      Questions for Students

What is the product made from?


Where do these materials come from?


Which are finite resources (things that will run out one day)?
Does this matter?


Where is the processing done?


Identify where workers may have low wages and poor conditions


Identify any health issues with this product.
Is it good or bad for consumer?


Identify where pollution is caused during the lifecycle of this
product.


Are there any aesthetic, social or cultural impacts related to the
production, use and disposal of the product?


What are the political implications of making, using and disposing
of this product?
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                                   Shoes
      Usually made from a mixture of leather, natural and synthetic rubber




Parts of a shoe
(At Clarks the average pair of shoes has 60 individual pieces, plus the box,
label and tissue paper that is gets transported in.)

A basic shoe contains the following parts

      Upper – the part of the shoe that surrounds your foot

      Inner – the lining of the shoe, usually made from leather or other
       breathable material

      Sole – the part of the shoe that you walk on. This is attached to the rest
       of the shoe by either stitching or glue.

      Laces (and eyelets) or Velcro

      Trims and labels
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                                 Bicycles
      Main frame is usually made from aluminium.
      Rubber tyres

      A few bikes are designed in this country, but many are designed in the
       US or Germany.
      95% of bikes are now manufactured in Taiwan, China and other Far
       East countries. Bikes are then distributed in the country who sell them
       on to shops, who sell them to the customer.
      Even Raleigh, a ‘British’ company have their manufacturers in
       Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Vietnam


Parts of a Bicycles
(every bike has around 43 separate parts + paint + the cardboard boxes
that they are transported in)

Frame                                      Box guide
Decal                                      Chain
Fork                                       Cassette
Front and rear suspension                  Pedal
Front and rear brakes                      BB set
Brake levers                               Rims
Brake cables                               Front and rear tyres and tubes
Headset                                    Rim strips
Top cap                                    Spokes
Spacer                                     Spoke protectors
Stem                                       Front and rear hubs
Handlebar                                  Skewers
Bar ends                                   Saddle
Grips                                      Seat post
Shift levers                               Seat release
Shift cables                               Reflectors
Front and rear derailleur                  Reflector brackets
Chainwheel                                 Kickstand
Chainwheel cover                           Mud guards
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                                   Cars
      Cars are made from various materials. They have a steel or aluminium
       chassis (frame) and engine, rubber wheels that are impregnated with
       steel, plastic bumpers and registration numbers. Cars also have seats
       and carpets made up of various textiles (plastic and leather), windows
       and mirrors.
      Car parts are built all over the world (many in China), and then
       transported to factories where they are assembled. There are Peugeot
       factories in France and the UK that assemble cars. These cars are
       then transported to showrooms where they are sold to the customer.

Parts of a Car
(over 120 main parts plus thousands of nuts and bolts!)

Engine
crankshaft                                nuts and bolts etc.
pistons rings                             bottom pulley
connecting rods                           cam covers
small ends                                head gasket
camshaft                                  sump gaskets
bearings crankshaft block                 oil pump
cylinder head                             oil filter
valves                                    cam belt and pulleys.
flywheel

Charging system
alternator                                mounting arm
wiring                                    main control
alternator belt
relay

Cooling system
coolant                                   header tank
water pump                                fan switch
drive belt                                cooling fan
radiator                                  mounting plate
pipes and hoses                           wiring
thermostat                                radiator fan relays
heater matrix
cars parts continued …
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Fuel system
petrol or diesel tank            injectors
fuel pump                        engine control module
pipe                             fuel pump relays
tank level sender                fuse
fuel gauge                       pressure regulator
wiring                           air filter.
inlet manifold

Body
body shell or chassis            radio
doors                            ariel
mirrors                          heater controls
windscreen                       fan switch
door glass                       light switches
interior trim                    steering wheel
dash board                       hand brake lever
seats                            foot pedals
carpet                           air bags
head lining                      airbag module
wiring                           impact sensors
head lights                      bumpers
rear lights                      grill
indicators                       badges
boot lid                         doors handles
wiper motor                      boots release
wiper blades                     front wing

Brakes
brake pedal                      back plates
master cylinder                  wheel cylinders
brake pipe                       pressure regulator
calipers                         abs pump
brake shoes                      abs relays
brake pads                       wheel speed sensors
hand brake cable                 abs control unit
hand brake lever                 main relay
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car parts continued …

Transmission
gear box                        clutch cable
drive shaft                     clutch pedal
prop shaft                      track control arms
wheel bearing                   wish bones
hub assembly                    trailing arms
gear lever                      ball joints
control arm remotes             shock absorbers
clutch                          road springs
clutch bearing                  wheel and tyre

Exhaust
lambda probe                    exhaust pipe
catalytic converter             ecu.
exhaust manifold

				
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