Analysing Crime-Scene Reports by bdi90998

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									Analysing Crime-Scene Reports
       Scene of Crime Information System


    Katerina Pastra and Horacio Saggion
           University of Sheffield
               Outline


   Project Overview
   SOCIS Architecture
   Corpus
   Linguistic Analysis
   Pointers
         Project Overview


                         2000 - 2003


 Domain: Scene of Crime Investigation (SOC)
 Main Features :
 1. Multimedia briefing
           Summarisation of text and images
 2. Generation
           Of formal reports & of photo albums
 3. Intelligent Search
          Project Overview (2)

 Other systems for Crime Investigation:
      Academic R&D Projects
      Governmental agencies’ Systems
      Commercial Systems
  BUT: SOCIS brings intelligenceto CI systems

 The ‘Digital Evidence in Court’ issue:
      Authenticity has to be verified
       Recently accepted in court
       A view of SOCIS
                                                                                                                         143462
                            South Yorkshire Police
                                                                                             Ref. No.                F
                            Scientific Support Services
                                                                                             Date:                   14 : 03      : 01


                             Offence: SUD                                          Officer i/c:    Pc Black

                             Location: 38 West Rd. Sheffield

                             Time Attended: 10:30                                  S.O.C.O         Nick Helpful

                                     Vehicle Reg. No:              Stolen from:                   Found Abandoned:


                                                  Marks found (full description)                   FP                Result

                              A

                              B

                              C

                              D

                              E
                             Number of Elimination Points                   Names and numbers of Police staff attending
                             Supplied       CID/40As Left




                   +
                                     M.O and Observations of examining officer - including instrument marks, tyre marks, footwear
                                     Impressions,, etc. together with details of Forensic samples/photographs taken


                                     Attended the above location and examined scene of sudden death.
                                     Body was clothed and lying on ground with large amount of blood around head on
                                     Right side. A single base shotgun was lying on ground approximately 3’ from body.
                                     2 spent cartridges were lying on ground either side of body.
                                     Under body were 2 plastic bags with large number of cartridges. A small blood splatter
                                     Was on wall behind body.
                                     O720 called for supervision
                                     0725 Photographed scene and body
                                     NH/1 Single base shotgun with spent cartridge in breach
                                     NH/2 Spent cartridge lying on ground to left of body
                                     NH/3 Spent cartridge lying on ground to right of body
                                     NH/4 8 live loose cartridges lying on ground under body
                                     NH/4 10 line cartridges lying on ground under body in plastic bag
                                     NH/5 Large number of live cartridges lying on ground under body in plastic bag


                                         CID/57

                            SP 746                                                                                                 MAR 00




Image processing           Text processing



              Integrated
              Knowledge
                 Base
        Text Processing
- Text Corpus
- Information Extraction system
        >> Named Entities Recognition
        >> Co-reference Resolution
Need:
Linguistic Analysis of the Language at the SOC
• Lexical Information
• Morphosyntactic Information
•Semantic Information
                          The Corpus
                        4 days spent with a SOCO:
12 scenes visited * 2 complete case files examined * official documentation collected


      Official documentation :
              SOC Reports = 77                           Reports - Photo indexes
              Photo Indexes = 300                         Witness statements
                                                     N
              Witness Statements = 14                        Photographs
                                                     E
                                                     E
                                                        For the same case
      Reported SOC Information :                    D
                                                               For major crime
                                                     E
                                                        Of significant quantity
              Press Association = 792                D
              Washington Post = 233
              Crime Watch = 8
                                                                                      Examples
                                                                                             143462
South Yorkshire Police
                                                                 Ref. No.                F
Scientific Support Services
                                                                 Date:                   14 : 03      : 01


 Offence: SUD                                          Officer i/c:    Pc Black

 Location: 38 West Rd. Sheffield

 Time Attended: 10:30                                  S.O.C.O         Nick Helpful

         Vehicle Reg. No:              Stolen from:                   Found Abandoned:                                                                                                                     Ref:   978675

                      Marks found (full description)                   FP                Result                 Scenes of Crime Department
  A
                                                                                                                Photographic Index
  B

  C

  D                                                                                                             Subject :   Fatal R.T.A
  E                                                                                                             Date :      30 - 12 - 97
 Number of Elimination Points                   Names and numbers of Police staff attending                     Photographer : James Davis
 Supplied       CID/40As Left



                                                                                                                1-4         Show Blackburn Road Rotherham looking in the general direction of Tusley
         M.O and Observations of examining officer - including instrument marks, tyre marks, footwear
         Impressions,, etc. together with details of Forensic samples/photographs taken
                                                                                                                5           Shows Blackburn Road looking in the opposite direction (towards Ecclesfield)
                                                                                                                6           Shows Vauxhall Cavalier C666HET together with pedal cycle in Blackburn Road
         Attended the above location and examined scene of sudden death.                                        7           Shows damage to Vauxhall Cavalier
         Body was clothed and lying on ground with large amount of blood around head on                         8           Shows damage to pedal cycle
         Right side. A single base shotgun was lying on ground approximately 3’ from body.
                                                                                                                9           View of foot - bridge
         2 spent cartridges were lying on ground either side of body.
         Under body were 2 plastic bags with large number of cartridges. A small blood splatter
         Was on wall behind body.
         O720 called for supervision
         0725 Photographed scene and body
         NH/1 Single base shotgun with spent cartridge in breach
         NH/2 Spent cartridge lying on ground to left of body
         NH/3 Spent cartridge lying on ground to right of body
         NH/4 8 live loose cartridges lying on ground under body
         NH/4 10 line cartridges lying on ground under body in plastic bag
         NH/5 Large number of live cartridges lying on ground under body in plastic bag


             CID/57

SP 746                                                                                                 MAR 00
SOC Language Characteristics

     General Characteristics:
         Telegraphic
         Descriptive
         Accurate
         Objective

   Special text type : Reports
      Lexical Information

Characteristics:
       - Extensive use of abbreviations
       - Jargon

Creation of Word - Lists (gazetteers):
      - Based on PITO’s CDM
      - Over 200 lists (domain + general)

Words of interest are assigned a semantic category
    Morphosyntactic Features
    Extensive Ellipsis
    Simple temporal dimensions
    Limited co-ordination
    Sub-ordination avoided
    POS : NPs, PPs
    Adjuncts of place - time, Qualifiers

For identifying entities of interest automatically,
we need to write specific rules using:
    The word lists + Context Information
                                                    Modelling (1)
                                                                           OFFENCES

                                                                                        MURDER
                                                                                        VIOLENT ASSAULT
                                                                                        ROBBERY …..




                                         TIME              ORGANISATIONS                                         ACTIVITIES
                                             DATE

                                                                   commercial                                          official…
                                                                   governmental                                        criminal
                                                                   judicial
                                                                   educational…

                                                  PERSONS                                     EVIDENCE

                                                                                  SOC
                    PERSONS
                                                                                                                        SCENE OF CRIME

NAMES                                                  ROLE
                                                              SUSPECT
    OCCUPATION                          BODY PARTS            OFFENDER
                                                                                                          date      people involved
                                                              VICTIM…
                                                                                                                 time               location   evidence
                    PHYSICAL
                 CHARACTERISTICS

                         colour (eye colour, skin colour, hair colour…)
                         age
                         sex
                         nationality
            Modelling (2)
     EVIDENCE

                                       CONDITION OF EVIDENCE
           FUNCTIONAL EVIDENCE
                                       CONDITION OF THE BODY

                                       POSITION OF THE EVIDENCE
           POSITIONAL EVIDENCE
                                      POSITION OF THE BODY
           REAL EVIDENCE

                 CHATTELS (any moveable property: clothing…)
                 DOCUMENTS (check, notebook, letter…)
                 PHOTOGRAPHS - FILMS - RECORDINGS
                 INSTRUMENTS  SOCO INSTRUMENTS
                                CRIMINAL INSTRUMENTS
                  TRACE EVIDENCE



DIRECT IDENTIFICATION       INDIRECT IDENTIFICATION

 Body fluids                 Transfer evidence (glass, fibres, paint)
 Teeth                       Fire accelerants
 Fingerprints                Gunshot residues            Tracks
 …….                         Impression Evidence
                                                         Marks
             Pointers
 SOCIS Sheffield Web Page

  http://www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/nlp/socis
                 
 SOCIS Surrey Web Page
  http://www.computing.surrey.ac.uk/ai/socis
                 
 NLP Group
 http://www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/nlp

								
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