HOW TO MONITOR INDICATORS IN LOCAL TRANSPORT PLANS AND by bdi90998

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									 HOW TO MONITOR INDICATORS
 IN LOCAL TRANSPORT PLANS
   AND ANNUAL PROGRESS
    REPORTS - 2005 UPDATE




                                     Statistics Travel Division
                                     Department for Transport
                                     April 2005
                                     (contacts updated Nov 2009)


For further information on this guidance please telephone 020 7944 4746
or 020 7944 6104. Alternatively you can e-mail:
subnational.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
Contents:
1. Introduction                                               3
2. Core indicators                                            4
3. Defining objectives, indicators and targets                6
4. Types of Indicators – input, output and outcome            7
5. Developing a cost-effective monitoring strategy            8
6. Detailed guidance on the core indicators                  10
7. Other indicators in common use                            15
8. Guidance on other indicators in common use                18
9. Where to go for further information                       33


Annex 1     Core indicators pro-forma                        34
Annex 2     National sources of information                  36
Annex 3     Statistical reliability                          39
Annex 4     Data sources and measurement of congestion       42
Annex 5     Key DfT Transport Statistics contacts            44
Annex 6     Central and Local Government Information         46
            Partnership (CLIP)


Table 1     Core Indicators for 2005 APR                      5
Table 2     List of indicators in common use in APRs         15
Table A1    Examples of 95 per cent confidence intervals     40
            obtained from different household sample sizes
Table A2    Examples of design factor effects                41




                                      2
1 Introduction
1.1 This document replaces the guidance that was issued in April 2004. Its
    primary purpose is to assist Local Authorities in monitoring progress against
    the indicators and targets in their Local Transport Plans for their 2005
    Annual Progress Reports. The guidance has been updated to reflect
    latest developments in the availability of sub-national statistics.
1.2 Overall, few changes have been made to the guidance. Where relevant, the
    guidance has been amended to reflect initiatives and new requirements for
    the 2nd LTP round.
1.3 The document is designed primarily to be used in its electronic version. It
    contains extensive internal cross-references and also links to other
    documents published on the web. If you do not have web access or are
    unable to use the electronic version of the guidance then copies of all the
    documents referred to can be obtained from the contacts provided in
    Section 9.
1.4 With the exception of the indicator on congestion, the guidance includes the
    same set of core indicators as last year (see section 2). All authorities
    will be expected to report against these core indicators, apart from the
    triennial bus satisfaction indictor and other indicators which are not relevant
    to their area.
1.5 The guidance also includes a further menu of indicators, which are in
    common use in LTPs and APRs (see section 7). Previous guidance has
    stressed that it is not the intention to trigger a general data collection
    exercise in local authorities. The guidance is intended only to be used to
    help authorities bring together the necessary data in the most cost-effective
    manner. Authorities may choose to use other non-core indicators if they
    correspond to their own objectives, although where possible it is advised
    that existing sources of data should be used if it sensible to do so. In
    choosing what areas to monitor, it is worth bearing in mind that robust
    monitoring can be expensive and that it may be worth devoting resources
    towards producing a more limited but robust number of indicators rather
    than a wide range of indicators of lesser quality (see Section 5).
1.6 Section 7 also incorporates references to new indicators which will become
    mandatory in LTP2, and other non-core indicators which authorities might
    consider introducing.
1.7 The development of appropriate and robust methodologies can be greatly
    facilitated by the sharing of information. DfT would be interested to receive
    comments on the guidance and its application within authorities so that
    good practice and experience can be shared. We would also like to receive
    suggestions for additional or alternative indicators which authorities find
    useful




                                         3
2 Core Indicators
2.1 For the 2005 APRs there will be seven core indicators, reflecting the most
    important high-level transport targets that the Government has set. An
    eighth, bus satisfaction, will not be reported on again until 2006/07. These
    comprise the Public Service Agreement targets and the 10 Year Plan
    targets and indicators. Since these targets are of fundamental importance, it
    is expected that all authorities will report progress against these core
    indicators. If an authority does not report progress on any of these core
    indicators, it should state the reasons why it does not consider them to be
    relevant. In a few cases a core indicator may not be relevant to a Local
    Authority (e.g. no Light Rail system).
2.2 An electronic proforma for the reporting of core indicators (see Annex 1)
    has been introduced and circulated to authorities. The proforma is based
    on an Excel worksheet which will assist DfT in the processing and
    assessment of the core indicator information. For each indicator trajectory
    data are required for years up to the target year. The proforma is to be
    submitted in electronic format; however for publication purposes it will be
    possible to create a version of the pro-forma for incorporation into printed
    documents. It is important that authorities complete the pro-forma as fully
    as possible. Guidance on using and completing the proforma has been
    circulated with the pro-forma and additional assistance is available from the
    contacts listed in Section 9.1.

2.3 The Core indicators are listed in Table 1.




                                        4
Table 1: Core Indicators for 2005 APR

Area                                 Indicator
Road Maintenance                     Road Condition
Public transport – bus               Number of bus passenger journeys
                                     Bus passenger satisfaction1
Cycling                              Number of cycling trips
Road safety                          Number of killed or seriously injured (all ages)
                                     Number of children killed or seriously injured
Light Rail                           Light rail passenger journeys2
Accessibility                        % of rural households within 13 minutes walk of an
                                     hourly or better bus service3




1
  This information is collected for BVPI 104 every 3 years from 2006/07. It is not included on the 2005 pro-forma.
2
  Only applicable to authorities with light rail systems.
3
  Rural households are households living outside settlements of more than 3,000 population (as defined in the 1991
Census of Population).



                                                          5
3 Defining objectives, indicators and targets
3.1 It is useful to clarify some of the terms commonly used
      An objective is a statement of intent - what we want to achieve - for
       example, fewer children going to school by car.
      An indicator is the (usually) quantifiable measure which is used to
       monitor this objective – for example, pupils going to school by car,
       expressed as a percentage of all pupils.
      A target is a specific point which we want to reach by a stated time
       and should be set against a baseline which is usually an earlier date
       or could relate to a national or regional average or norm.
      An example of a suitable target would be:
       "The proportion of pupils in the authority travelling to school
       by car to fall from x per cent in 2000 to y per cent in 2006."


3.2 There is considerable literature available about what makes a good indicator
    - a useful list of publications that provide guidance on good practice in
    performance measurement is available from the Audit Commission
    website. In particular, any indicator has to be SMART, i.e.:
      Specific - indicators need to relate specifically to intended changes.
      Measurable - indicators should be measured using a replicable and
       unambiguous methodology.
      Attainable - information must be attainable at reasonable cost using
       an appropriate collection method.
      Relevant - indicators should be relevant to the management
       information needs of the people who will use the data.
      Time-related - indicators should be monitored over time and should
       have a suitable start and end date.


3.3 Consequently, it is important to be precise in defining the terms used. For
    example, considering school travel, do we mean school children resident in
    the area, or children going to school in the area? The time(s) of year, when
    the measurement is taken should be replicated in future surveys, to
    minimise the possibility of seasonal variation affecting the results. The
    choice of definition may often be pragmatic – it is probably cheaper to
    survey schools than to survey households, which suggests using school
    population rather than resident population. In most cases it will make little
    difference which is used, but the authority must be consistent over time and
    state what has been done. Using standard definitions and methodology as
    recommended in Sections 6 and 7 will facilitate comparison with other
    authorities, national targets and norms.




                                        6
4 Types of indicators - input, output and outcome
4.1 Monitoring arrangements need to be considered as an integral part of LTP
    development. The Guidance on Full Local Transport Plans states that
    plans should show a clear link between objectives, measures (i.e. actions
    taken) and outputs, and that authorities might find it useful to use a causal
    chain diagram which links measures to objectives. This should help
    authorities clarify what role they have in helping to achieve each outcome.
    This logical approach also applies to the different types of indicators:



             Input                            expenditure
               ↓                                    ↓
                                school travel plans, safer routes to
            Output
                                              school
               ↓                                    ↓
                               fewer children travelling to school by
          Outcome
                                                 car



4.2 It should be noted that this is a simplification, since there is not always a
    one to one relationship between inputs and outputs, as each may contribute
    to more than one outcome.
4.3 Authorities will probably wish to monitor all of these types of indicators. It is
    important not to lose sight of the desirable outcomes, and to monitor them
    directly where possible. This guidance concentrates on the outcome type
    indicators. It is, however, often easier and cheaper to monitor inputs and
    outputs, since these are likely to be more directly under the authority‟s
    control and to change more quickly than outcomes. Generally, input and
    output information will be available from administrative systems within the
    LA or from transport operators etc..




                                          7
5 Developing a cost-effective monitoring strategy
5.1 Monitoring can be expensive, so it is important to ensure that it is carried out
    as efficiently and cost-effectively as possible. DfT generally advise caution
    in carrying out household surveys because they can be very expensive to
    do properly and may not in fact measure proposed indicators robustly.
5.2 There is an inherent statistical problem with any monitoring which is based
    on a sample of the population being studied, whether this is people,
    schools, or vehicles. The sample size needed to get a result with a given
    level of reliability is (almost totally) independent of the size of the population
    from which the sample is being drawn. The implication of this is that a small
    unitary authority would need the same size sample as a large metropolitan
    county to achieve the same level of reliability for the estimates derived from
    the sample.
5.3 In particular, a large (and costly) sample is needed if estimates are needed
    for activities which are not common, e.g. cycling. A further complicating and
    costly factor is that generally authorities will want to measure changes over
    time. If estimates are surrounded by a large margin of possible error, then it
    is not possible to detect with certainty a relatively small change over time.
5.4 These issues are complex technically, and are dealt with more fully in
    Annex 3. If an LA is considering commissioning a household survey to
    monitor change, then DfT would strongly advise that great care is taken in
    ensuring that the survey design suggested is capable of measure progress
    towards the required target at an appropriate level of statistical significance.
5.5 Outcomes can be measured or estimated in a number of different ways.
    For instance, many authorities have proposed objectives and indicators in
    relation to mode share, but it is difficult to monitor overall mode shares
    directly, except through a household survey involving a diary of every trip
    (as in the National Travel Survey). This can be very expensive to
    undertake, although DfT is currently working on a simplified survey
    methodology toolkit which aims to be cost-effective for local authorities and
    will also enable authorities to monitor other related indicators such as those
    relating to satisfaction and perceptions.
5.6 It is more cost-effective to monitor modal shift by journey purpose such as
    travel to work or to school, or to popular destinations like major retail or
    leisure facilities (see relevant sections of this guidance). These measures in
    conjunction with traffic counts or traffic flow information, together with
    information on patronage of public transport, may be sufficient to
    demonstrate whether there has been a shift in mode share, particularly at
    peak times of day when achieving a shift in travel patterns matters most.




                                          8
5.7 Where possible, authorities should make use of existing sources of
    information. The National Travel Survey sample size was tripled from
    January 2002, so that more sub-national data can be produced (see Annex
    2 on National Sources). DfT may be able to offer some authorities the
    opportunity to pay for a boost to the NTS sample in their area (see CLIP
    website for details).
5.8 Authorities wishing to undertake household surveys are advised to read the
    section on statistical reliability (Annex 3) and "Monitoring Personal Travel
    for Local Transport Plans" published on the CLIP website. They are also
    advised to contact Anna Heyworth (020-7944 4746) at DfT for further
    information on DfT's research to develop a toolkit for conducting local travel
    surveys.




                                        9
6 Detailed guidance on the Core Indicators

a) Road traffic


Congestion
DfT is currently working on developing new measures of congestion and
sources of journey time data such as GPS. There is no requirement to report
on congestion in the 2004/05 APR. More information is given in Annex 4.


b) Road Maintenance


Road Condition
Currently local authorities provide information to DfT for use in the National
Road Maintenance Condition Survey (NRMCS). Surveys cover the visual
surface condition, the skidding resistance and structural condition of roads. For
2004-05, authorities are required to report separately on the following Best
Value performance indicators:
         BV96 - condition of principal roads (% where structural maintenance
          should be considered), based on TTS machine collected data;
         BV97a - condition of non-principal classified roads (% where
          structural maintenance should be considered) based on visual survey
          data;
         BV97b - condition of unclassified roads (% where structural
          maintenance should be considered) based on visual survey data.


From 2005/06, BV96 will be replaced by BV223, which will be a new indicator
designed around the SCANNER machine based survey data. BV97a will
similarly be replaced by BV224a. The aim is to use machine based surveys for
Best Value and NRMCS purposes on all local road classes in 2007/08.

Further information can be obtained from Daryl Lloyd, 020-7944 6142, E-mail:
roadmaintenance.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk


c) Public transport - bus


Number of bus passenger journeys
The DfT PSA target is in terms of bus passenger journeys which is equivalent to
the Best Value Performance Indicator BVPI102.
Only journeys where the passenger boarded the bus within your LA should be
counted. Each boarding should be considered as a separate journey. If a


                                       10
journey crosses a local authority boundary it should only be counted once, this
being the basis on which operators report to DfT. School bus services should
be included if the service is registered with the Traffic Commissioners and is
eligible for Bus Service Operators Grant (previously known as the Fuel Duty
Rebate).
The main source of information on bus passenger journeys is the operators
themselves. In the guidance on Best Value Performance Indicators, Local
Authorities are advised to contact bus operators to obtain the required
information. In order for LAs to have an input into the development of buses in
their area they need to have a good working relationship with the operators.
Part of this relationship should be the provision of information by the operators,
but if the data cannot be obtained through a good working relationship, Clause
143 of the Transport Act 2000 gives LAs the powers to demand this information.
DfT collect information from a census of the largest bus operators and a sample
of smaller bus operators, but this information cannot normally be fully
disaggregated to Local Authority level as the sample is not designed to provide
information at this level. In addition there are problems with operator
confidentiality requirements if there is a one or two dominant operators in an
area.
Local Authorities could derive passenger information by conducting counts on a
sample of bus journeys. However, this requires a number of full-time staff to
conduct and could be expensive to conduct. Advice on how to carry out such a
survey and how to gross up the results can be obtained from Mouna Kehil,
020-7944 4589, E-mail: bus.statistics@dft.gsi.gov.uk


Bus passenger satisfaction
Passenger Satisfaction (% of bus users satisfied with local bus services) is a
Best Value Performance Indicator (BVPI104u). Details of the recommended
survey procedure can be found on the BVPI website (requires online
registration) and in the publication Best Value Performance Indicators
2003/04. Authorities will have supplied data for Best Value for year 2000/01
and in 2003/04. Since opinions change relatively little from year to year, it is
probably not worth carrying out surveys annually. It will, therefore, be
acceptable for authorities to state that they will provide information in 2006/07,
unless they carry out additional surveys for their own purposes.

d) Cycling


Monitoring levels of cycling will be a continuing requirement for the second LTP
round. The published monitoring requirements for LTP2 are different to those
set out below for LTP1.


Number of cycling trips
It is more cost effective to look at cycling to particular destinations such as work,
schools and shopping/leisure centres rather than to measure it through a


                                         11
household survey. This information combined with traffic count information,
which can include bicycles, may indicate changes in the level of cycle use.
Simpler measures such as counts of bicycles parked at cycle racks at key
destinations can also indicate changes in the level of use.
Guidance on monitoring cycling at the local level is given in Traffic Advisory
Leaflet 1/99 Monitoring Local Cycle Use (April 1999). This leaflet contains
information about using existing data, collecting new information, contact details
for technical enquiries and references to other material on the subject. This
leaflet gives guidance on what a cycle monitoring programme should include,
complement or take account of. The following are included:
   National Data: e.g. National Travel Survey, National Traffic Census;
   Automatic Traffic Counters: can be useful on major cycle routes that are
    being promoted and on adjacent routes;
   Manual Classified Counts: can be expensive, but can usefully be
    supplemented with automatic traffic counts;
   Cordon and Screenline Counts: bicycles should be counted as a separate
    category - can be efficient if there are bridges where traffic is funnelled;
   Destination Surveys: parked cycles at various locations can provide useful
    information;
   Interview Surveys: these can be expensive but do provide origin,
    destination and purpose information.
A wide range of Traffic Advisory Leaflets on cycling provide advice on cycle
audit and review, cycle lanes, toucan crossings, advanced stop lines and cycle
parking.
This indicator is very difficult to measure on an authority wide basis without the
use of a large-scale household survey, which is likely to be prohibitively
expensive. Nationally, only 1 per cent of stages are made by bicycle; nearly 7
per cent of men and 3 per cent of women used a bicycle during the NTS survey
week. DfT can advise on the appropriate sampling sizes which are needed to
obtain reliable results (see Annex 3). However, it is likely that the sample size
needed to obtain reliable results would be prohibitively large.
If an authority is already running a household survey for other purposes, it
would be possible to include a question on cycling, e.g.:
"Have you made a journey by bicycle in the last week (a) to work (b) for
leisure or social purposes (these are the most common purposes) or (c)
any other purpose?"
However, unless the response is obtained from at least 2,000 households, the
numbers replying positively are likely to be too small to give any reliable
indication. In particular, any difference measured in subsequent surveys is
unlikely to be statistically significant.




                                        12
e) Road safety


Number of killed or seriously injured (all ages)
Number of children killed and seriously injured
Reported road casualty numbers should be available within your own local
authority. If certain types of roads such as motorways are excluded from the
base year this should be made clear and the same coverage used for all
reported figures. For child KSI, where small numbers are involved, it may be
appropriate to base a target on an average over a number of years.

Advice on the use of accident data can be obtained from Pat Kilbey, 020-7944
6387, E-mail: roadacc.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


f) Light rail


Light rail passenger journeys
This core indicator is only relevant for authorities in which light rail operates.
Information on the number of light rail passenger journeys can be obtained from
the appropriate operator (or their Annual Report).


g) Accessibility


A new mandatory accessibility indicator has been introduced for the second
round of LTPs. The following guidance only applies to the current APR for
LTP1.


% of rural households within 13 minutes walk of an hourly or better bus
service
Nationally, this information is based on information collected in the National
Travel Survey, which asks respondents:

"About how long would it take (me, i.e. the interviewer if the respondent is likely
to be a slow walker) to walk from here to the nearest bus stop or place where I
could get on a bus? I am interested in the nearest one even if it isn‟t the main
one you use.”

and


"How frequent are the buses from that bus stop during the day? Is there: Less
than once a day/At least once a day/At least once an hour/At least once every
half-hour/At least once every quarter of an hour".


                                        13
This information is combined to produce the indicator. Since 2002, the
information in the NTS has been collected to the nearest minute, and bands are
only used if there are problems with respondents giving a time. The lowest
band used is 0 to 6 minutes (to allow for the fact that many people will say
"about 5 minutes").
A rural household is defined as being outside a settlement of more than 3,000
population (using 2001 Census of Population data).
The NTS defines an hourly or better bus service as one which runs at this
frequency on Monday to Friday between the hours of 7 a.m. and 10 p.m. If the
frequency varies during the day then the off-peak frequency is used.
Locally, this information could be collected by adding the above questions to an
existing household survey such as those being carried out for Best Value (if the
sample size and response rate are large enough). Alternatively it could be
estimated by using GIS techniques to map populations adjacent to bus stops
with an hourly or better bus service. If this method is used then "within 800
metres" should be used as the equivalent of "up to 13 minutes".
New accessibility planning software (Accession) commissioned by DfT should
allow GIS-based estimates of this indicator (and indicators required for LTP2) to
be produced for small areas. This software was made available to local
authorities in November 2004.




                                       14
7 Other indicators in common use
7.1 In addition to the core indicators referred to in Section 2, local authorities
    have been encouraged to set their own objectives and targets, according to
    local priorities and circumstances. It is clearly important that monitoring of
    such targets should be based on based upon methodologies which can give
    a clear and comprehensive picture of progress in order to facilitate
    assessment.
7.2 Based on 2002 APR returns, DfT has created an ACCESS database4 of
    APR indicators. From this database, it is possible to identify those
    indicators which are most commonly used by local authorities for LTP
    monitoring. Overall, 52 such indicators exist (in addition to the core
    indicators) and are listed in Table 2. Authorities are not expected to report
    against all of these indicators, but are advised to use those that are
    appropriate for their circumstances and priorities.
7.3 Authorities should use the preparation of their fourth APRs as an
    opportunity to review their indicators and targets. As in previous years,
    authorities are expected to report progress towards all of their local
    performance indicators contained in their LTP, regardless of whether they
    are authority-wide, area-based, or mode-specific.

Table 2 List of indicators in common use in APRs

Area                                Indicator
Road Traffic                        Road traffic by type of vehicle and road


Parking                             Parking provision


Road Maintenance                    Number of road improvement schemes
                                    Number and type of highway maintenance schemes
                                    Expenditure on road maintenance


Mode of travel                      Modal share


Public transport -                  Satisfaction with bus information
bus
                                    Age of bus fleet
                                    Bus reliability


4
  Copies of the full indicator database listing all the indicators in use by LAs in the 2002 APR are available on request
from subnational.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk



                                                            15
                     Bus punctuality
                     Bus kilometres per year
                     Bus priority lanes (km)
                     Urban bus challenge schemes
                     Rural bus challenge schemes
                     Assaults on bus staff
                     Quality partnerships
                     Buses with CCTV


Public transport -   Rail passenger journeys (numbers arriving/departing at
rail                 stations in area)
                     Rail passenger satisfaction
                     Satisfaction with rail information
                     Accreditations under "secure stations" scheme


Travel to work       Mode of travel to work
                     Employers with effective travel plans
                     Employees covered by travel plans


Travel to school     Mode of travel to school
                     Primary and secondary schools with effective travel plans
                     Primary and secondary schoolchildren covered by travel
                     plans
                     Safe routes to school


Cycling              People who think it is easy and safe to cycle in their area
                     Length of cycling network
                     Safety training


Walking              Number of pedestrian trips
                     People who think it is easy and safe to walk in their area
                     Condition of footways


Road safety          Number of pedestrian deaths and serious injuries
                     Rate of slight casualties by traffic per 100 million vehicle


                                   16
                kilometres
                Number of vehicles involved in road accidents (car,
                HGV/PSV)
                Total casualties by road user type
                Number of Home Zones
                Number of 20mph Zones


Light Rail      Light rail route length/number of lines


Accessibility   % of all households within 13 minutes walk of an hourly or
                better bus service
                People finding access to services difficult
                Accessibility of transport facilities for older or disabled
                people.
                Percentage of bus fleet fully accessible for wheelchair
                users
                Provision of community transport
                Disabled facilities at signalled pedestrian crossings
                Provision of dropped kerbs and tactile paving or facilities
                for disabled people


Environment     Number of days of air pollution
                People rating the level of transport-related noise as
                unacceptable
                Extent of quieter road surfaces




                               17
8 Guidance on other indicators in common use

a) Road Traffic


Road traffic by type of vehicle and road
Care should be taken in distinguishing between indicators of vehicle kilometres,
which ignore vehicle occupancy, and those of passenger kilometres, which
reflect vehicle occupancy.
Data on traffic volumes on major roads (i.e. principal and trunk) are available at
local authority level from the Traffic Statistics branch of the DfT. Separate
information is available for urban and rural areas.
Traffic volume is calculated as traffic flow multiplied by road length and
expressed in terms of vehicle kilometres. For major roads it can be provided by
eleven vehicle types.
Minor roads account for 87 per cent of the road length in Great Britain and have
very variable traffic flows. Accurate estimates of minor road traffic by local
authority cannot be readily produced. However, DfT has published some
indicative estimates of total motor vehicle traffic on its website, broken down to
regional and local authority level. National data are published in quarterly
bulletins and annual reports and these are also available via the DfT website.
A number of methodological changes have been made to the traffic estimates,
detailed in a Special Note in Road Traffic Statistics 2003 and Traffic in Great
Britain Q4 2004, published in August 2004 and February 2005, respectively. A
Quality Review of the road traffic statistics, being undertaken in 2004/5, is
considering methodological issues further.
More detailed information on traffic flow data at selected points on the major
road network and vehicle kilometre estimates by type of vehicle and class of
road is available from DfT.

A number of authorities carry out their own traffic counts, mostly using simple
automatic, volumetric counters. These can be useful for carrying out special
surveys. For example, they can be used for cordon surveys of urban areas, or
where before and after surveys are needed to assess the impact of specific
local measures being undertaken. General guidance on Monitoring Local
Traffic Levels is available on the CLIP web site.
It may be most appropriate to use this information, which is clearly related to
specific local traffic management objectives, to produce locally relevant
indicators.
Road traffic data and estimates are available from Gemma Brand, 020-7944
6555, E-mail: roadtraff.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.




                                        18
Parking


Parking provision
An indicator could be specified in terms of the number of spaces available in the
following categories:
   off street (LA - paid);
   off street (private - paid);
   off street (free);
   on street (paid);
   on street (free).
This information may already be available from local authority records, or from
an inventory of available parking spaces.


b) Road Maintenance


Number of road improvement schemes
This information is available from authority records.


Number and type of highway maintenance schemes
This information is available from authority records.


Expenditure on road maintenance
This information is available from authority records.


c) Mode of travel


Modal share
The only direct way of measuring overall mode share is through a household
diary type survey, like the National Travel Survey (NTS), which requires
individuals to record each trip made over one or more days. The NTS uses a 7-
day diary and is very expensive to undertake. A 1-day diary survey, however,
would be significantly cheaper and may be worth pursuing if the survey is well
designed (see paragraphs 5.5 and 5.8).




                                        19
These kinds of diary surveys cover all modes, including walking, cycling, bus,
rail and car trips, although coverage of minority modes like cycling may still be
too low to be reliable, even with the 500 participating households recommended
as the absolute minimum. This may mean that many authorities would find it
prohibitively expensive to mount such a survey, regardless of diary duration, in
which case it will be necessary to pursue alternative methods to provide a more
indirect indication of mode share.

In broad terms travel purposes are split between:

   Journeys to work and on business (18 per cent of all trips nationally / 29 per
    cent of miles)
   Shopping and personal business (40 per cent of trips / 26 per cent miles)
   Leisure (31 per cent of trips / 41 per cent miles),
   Education (11 per cent of trips / 4 per cent miles)

Modal share broadly shows the following split:

   Car or van (60 per cent of stages / 81 per cent of miles),
   Walk (28 per cent of stages / 3 per cent of miles),
   Local bus (6 per cent of stages / 4 per cent of miles),
   Rail/underground (2 per cent of stages / 6 per cent of miles),
   Bicycle (1 per cent of stages / 0.5 per cent of miles).

Guidance is given elsewhere on how authorities might monitor these
destinations. Information on bus patronage, and vehicle flows may also help to
inform a more general picture of modal share.

General guidance on monitoring personal travel for Local Transport Plans is
available on the CLIP website.

Further advice on travel surveys is available from Olivia Christophersen, 020-
7944 6594, E-mail: national.travelsurvey@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


d) Public transport - bus


Satisfaction with bus information
Satisfaction with Public Transport Information is a Best Value Performance
Indicator (BVPI103). Details of the recommended survey procedure can be
found on the BVPI website.

Age of bus fleet
The Confederation of Passenger Transport (CPT) has committed its members
in Great Britain to a target which aims to achieve and maintain an average age
of eight years or less for their vehicles which are mainly used for local bus
services, during the Ten Year Plan period. Information on the age of the local


                                        20
bus fleet can be obtained from the local bus operators. See the section on bus
passenger journeys for further information on how this might be obtained.


Bus reliability
This indicator is the percentage of scheduled mileage lost because of factors
within the operators' control. These include:
   staffing problems (including strike action);
   mechanical problems;
   vandalism;
   assaults; and
   predictable peak time traffic congestion.


There is a national target of losing no more than 0.5 per cent of scheduled
mileage. This information can be obtained from the local bus operators. See the
section on bus passenger journeys for further information on how this might
be obtained.


Bus punctuality
Traffic Commissioners have defined the standard that 95 per cent of buses
should depart bus stops designated as Timing Points in a window of time
between one minute early and five minutes late. This is particularly the case at
the start of routes. Punctuality at Timing Points along a route should aim for
this standard and, at worst, at least 70% of buses should depart these stops
within the 6-minute window described above. This information may be available
from the local bus operators. Alternatively a sample of routes can be monitored
against the published timetable. However, this can be very resource intensive
activity. See the section on bus passenger journeys for further information
on how this might be obtained.

A bus punctuality indicator has been introduced as a mandatory indicator for the
second round of LTPs. Detailed guidance on monitoring bus punctuality can be
found within the guidance written on establishing a Bus Punctuality
Improvement Partnership prepared by the Bus Partnership Forum. This has
been made available via the CLIP Website - http://www.clip.gov.uk/.


Bus kilometres per year
Information on both scheduled service kilometres and kilometres actually run
(this is linked to the bus reliability indicator) should both be available from the
local bus operators. See the section on bus passenger journeys for further
information on how this might be obtained.




                                         21
Bus priority lanes (km)
This information will be available from local authority records and is supplied on
the LTP-F4 form.


Urban bus challenge schemes
This indicator is the number of urban bus challenge schemes that have been
implemented. This information will be available from local authority records.


Rural bus challenge schemes
This indicator is the number of rural bus challenge schemes that have been
implemented. This information will be available from local authority records.


Assaults on bus staff
This indicator is the number of staff assaulted during the course of a year. This
information can be obtained from the local bus operators. See the section on
bus passenger journeys for further information on how this might be obtained.
National information on this topic is published in the Bulletin of Public
Transport Statistics.


Quality partnerships
This indicator is the number of such partnerships which the authority has with
local operators. This information will be available from local authority records.


Buses with CCTV
This information can be obtained from the local bus operators. See the section
on bus passenger journeys for further information on how this might be
obtained.
Further advice on bus monitoring is available from Mouna Kehil, 020-7944
4589, E-mail: bus.statistics@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


e) Public transport - rail


Rail passenger journeys (numbers arriving/departing at stations in area)
Rail passenger kilometres are monitored at a national level. However,
authorities with targets to encourage more rail use might wish to monitor
numbers of rail passenger journeys from stations in their area. This information
is available from the local train operating companies. If authorities experience
difficulties obtaining the required information the Office of Rail Regulation or
the Association of Train Operating Companies may be able to help.
Alternatively counts of passengers entering and/or leaving stations could be



                                        22
carried out by local authorities. Advice on an appropriate sampling scheme for
this can be obtained from DfT.


Rail passenger satisfaction
Household surveys are unlikely to include sufficient numbers of people who
travel by rail, so Passenger Satisfaction can only be collected via a survey of
rail passengers. This can be done by surveying passengers as they enter or
leave the station. The questions used in the Best Value survey for bus
passenger satisfaction could be adapted for such a survey.

Satisfaction with rail information
Satisfaction with rail information can be collected (for rail users) by surveying
passengers as they enter or leave the station.

Accreditations under "secure stations" scheme
This information will be available from the local train operating companies.


Rail reliability
The National PSA target 'to improve reliability', as measured by the Public
Performance Measure (PPM), is for 85% of trains to arrive at their final
destination on time. This information is available for each train operating
company, so authorities may wish to monitor performance of those operating
services in their area. Data are available on a quarterly basis from ORR's
publication National Rail Trends.


Further advice on bus monitoring is available from Margaret Shaw, 020-7944
4977 E-mail: rail.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


f) Travel to work


Mode of travel to work
Travel to work accounts for about 15 per cent of all journeys and about 19 per
cent of mileage. Although significant, it is difficult for authorities to monitor
directly, since destinations are so diverse.
Large employers, including the authority itself, are being encouraged to develop
travel plans. Each travel plan should include a survey of how their employees
and visitors travel to the site before the plan is introduced, and on a regular
basis afterwards to monitor changes. This also engages large local businesses
in sustainable development issues. As a minimum for this indicator, surveys will
need to identify employees‟ current main mode of travel to and from work, and
how far they travel to work. However, to encourage a switch from car to more
environmentally-friendly modes, it is also useful to know whether they may be


                                         23
willing to use another mode, and which measures would be most likely to
encourage them to do so. Sample survey forms and advice on carrying out a
survey are given in the resources section of ‘The essential guide to travel
planning’.

It is not possible to infer anything about the total employee population from
surveys of a few large employers. Nevertheless, this may be a useful indicator if
it covers a significant proportion of the workforce. Changes over time will only
be valid if the same employers/locations are surveyed each time.
A more comprehensive picture of travel to work may be obtained from a
household survey. It is generally not recommended that a specific survey
should be carried out for this purpose alone, but questions could be added to an
existing local household survey, such as those being conducted for Best Value.
Guidance on the reliability of estimates obtained from such a survey is given in
the Annex 3.

The following format of possible questions is based on the National Travel
Survey. The information might be asked of a selected person in the household,
or about all adults in the household:

Question 1:

How do you usually travel to work (i.e. the means of travel you use for the
main part of your journey, by distance)?

or

How did you travel to work today? (which can cause less confusion if people
travel differently on different days)

Choose one mode only for the longest part, by distance, from:

    Work mainly at or from home
    Underground, metro, light rail, tram
    Train
    Bus, minibus or coach
    Motor cycle, scooter or moped
    Driving a car or van (can be split between driving alone or with passengers)
    Passenger in a car or van
    Bicycle
    On foot
    Other

If an authority is especially interested in cycling or walking, either can often be
used as only one stage of a longer journey (e.g. to the station prior to catching a
train), then supplementary questions could be asked such as:

Do you use a bicycle (or walk) for any part of your journey to work?




                                        24
Question 2:

What is the distance in miles between your home and your usual place of
your work?

   0 – work is at home
   No usual place of work
   Less than 1 mile
   1 to less than 2 miles
   2 to less than 5 miles
   5 to less than 10 miles
   10 to less than 25 miles
   Over 25 miles

Organisations developing work travel plans are encouraged to monitor their
impact on a regular basis – probably annually. It is unlikely that a household
survey would be worth repeating more frequently than every 2 to 3 years.


Employers with effective travel plans
This indicator is only meaningful if it refers to the number of employers who
have a travel plan in place and have carried out a travel survey.


Employees covered by travel plans
This is the number of employees covered by the effective travel plans referred
to above. It is probably best expressed as a percentage of the total number of
employees in the area.


Further advice on work travel plan monitoring is available from E-mail:
attitudes.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


g) Travel to school


Mode of travel to school

For the second LTP period, main mode of travel to school will become a
mandatory core indicator. For APR5, however, it remains optional. If
authorities are already collecting data on this indicator, they may wish to report
on it. Guidance for reporting on the indicator under LTP2 is available here.
The remainder of the guidance below for this indicator has been previously
issued.
Local authorities are being encouraged to implement School Travel Strategies
and Plans. All School Travel Plans should involve schools carrying out surveys
of their students to find out how pupils travel before the plan is introduced, and
to monitor progress towards modal shift targets. This engages pupils, teachers


                                        25
and parents with sustainable development issues – a key part of the School
Travel Plan process.
As a minimum for this indicator, surveys will need to identify children's main
mode of travel to and from school. Evidence from the National Travel Survey
suggests that there is a different modal split for the return journey (children
dropped by parents on their way to work by car may go home by a different
mode e.g. walk or bus). However, to encourage a switch from travel to and
from school by car to more environmentally-friendly modes, it is also useful to
know how far they travel to school, whether they (or their parents) may be
willing to use another mode, and which measures would be most likely to
encourage them to do so.
Once authorities have results from surveys in schools in their area, they may
wish to infer an overall proportion by aggregating the results together. Careful
thought needs to be given to grossing since patterns of travel will vary across
differing types of school. The relevant factors include:

   Location - Rural/Urban

   Primary/Secondary

   Local authority / Independent / Church Schools

   Schools with travel plans / Schools without travel plans

In designing a sampling strategy it is necessary to identify which of the factors
listed above (and possibly others) are considered to be influential on travel to
school patterns. The overall sample can then be chosen (or stratified) in a way
which takes account of possible differences between types of school.

Care needs to be taken if, within a stratum, different schools are included from
one year to the next, since the inclusion of one new school may distort results
significantly. Some authorities are using a panel of schools approach i.e. in
order to estimate the overall trend between year 1 and year 2, they only include
results from the same schools in both years.
Questions on travel to school may be added to an existing local household
survey, such as those being conducted for Best Value. The following format is
consistent with sample survey forms for schools. The questions gather data on
the mode of transport used for the journey to and from school. Later questions
can ask about the distance travelled. The questions might be asked about a
selected child in the household, or about each child in the household.

Question:
How does the child usually get to school? (Tick one box only for the longest
part, by distance, of the usual journey to school).
   Walk
   Cycle
   School Bus
   Other Bus


                                        26
   Train
   Car
   Other


A similar question can be asked for the journey home from school.

Schools developing school travel plans are being encouraged to monitor their
impact on a regular basis - at least annually. It is unlikely that a household
survey would be worth repeating more frequently than every 2 to 3 years.

There may be seasonal travel patterns e.g. differences between Autumn/Winter
and Spring/Summer, so surveys should be repeated at the same time of the
year to ensure comparability of the results (Spring or Autumn are the suggested
times).

Primary and secondary schools with effective travel plans
The numbers of primary and secondary schools (recorded separately) with
travel plans in place and which have carried out a travel survey.


Primary and secondary schoolchildren covered by travel plans
The numbers of children in primary and secondary schools with effective travel
plans referred to above. This is probably best expressed as a percentage of the
school populations in the two sectors. See the section on mode of travel to
school above.


Safe routes to school
The numbers of primary and secondary schools covered by safe routes to
school, which have been implemented by the authority.


Further advice on school travel plan monitoring is available from Anna
Heyworth, 020-7944 4746, E-mail: subnational.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


h) Cycling


People who think it is easy and safe to cycle in their area
This information can be collected via an existing household survey such as
those being carried out for Best Value. The question used in the British Crime
Survey about the safety of walking (see section on walking safety) could be
adapted for this purpose. Care should be taken over maintaining a similar order
of questioning, so that the questions asked before this one do not change from
year to year. If possible, it would be useful to stratify the sample according to
frequency of cycle use and cycle ownership. Information could also be
collected by interviewing cyclists at key destinations. This latter approach will


                                       27
not of course capture information from those who do not cycle because they
think that it is too dangerous.


Length of cycling network
This information will be available from authority records and is reported on the
LTP-F4 form.


Safety training
The road safety department in an authority will be able to provide information on
the amount and type of training which is being carried out or planned the
indicator could be the number of people who have passed a proficiency test
and/or the number who have attended training courses.


Further advice on cycling is available from Anna Heyworth, 020-7944 4746,
E-mail: subnational.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


i) Walking


Number of pedestrian trips
This indicator is very difficult to measure on an authority wide basis without the
use of a large-scale household survey. If such a survey is prohibitively
expensive, it will be more cost effective to look at walking to particular
destinations such as work, schools and shopping/leisure centres. This
information combined with pedestrian counts at key access points would
provide a good indication of changes in the level of walking.
Walking plays a part of a longer journey by public transport, or after parking a
car. It is therefore important to measure individual stages, not just overall
journeys. For instance, travel to work or school may involve a walking stage at
both ends of a longer public transport stage. If an authority is interested in
walking as part of longer journeys then the questions on journey to work and
school could be modified to ask those who travel by public transport whether
they walked for any part of their journey (say for more than 10 minutes).
Guidance on monitoring walking at the local level is given in Traffic Advisory
Leaflet 6/00 Monitoring Walking (June 2000). This leaflet contains
information about using existing data, collecting new information, contact details
for technical enquiries and references to other material on the subject.


People who think it is easy and safe to walk in their area
This information can be collected via an existing household survey such as
those being carried out for Best Value or by interviewing pedestrians at key
destinations. This latter approach will not of course capture information from
those who do not walk because they think that it is too dangerous. The British


                                        28
Crime Survey contains the following general question about walking alone after
dark:

How safe do you feel walking alone in this area after dark? Would you say
you feel...

   Very safe
   Fairly safe
   A bit unsafe
   Very unsafe?

NOTE: IF RESPONDENT NEVER GOES OUT ALONE AT NIGHT, PROBE
How safe WOULD you feel?


Condition of footways - Best Value Indicator BV187
This indicator is based on the collection and analysis of Detailed Visual
Inspection (DVI) measurements, using the national Rules and Parameters for
UKPMS. It is designed to provide the percentage length of the footway network
with a Footway Condition Index greater than a defined threshold value. This
threshold is indicative of the need for an investigation to determine whether
maintenance is needed to preserve the footway serviceability. These rules
cover different footway types and the defects associated with the type of
footway (e.g. bituminous, flags) on different footway categories (hierarchies).

Authorities should measure the percentage length of the footway Category 1, 1a
and 2 network with Footway Condition Index greater than or equal to a
threshold value of 20.0, calculated using the Variable Length Merge method set
out within UKPMS through the approved set of Rules and Parameters. It will be
based on a 50 per cent survey of Category 1, 1a and 2 footways each year, so
that the complete Category 1, 1a and 2 network will be covered every two
years. Footway categories are defined in the Code of Practice for Maintenance
Management (The Institution of Highways and Transportation, 2001).

Category 3 and 4 footways are not included in the current indicator. The
indicator may be extended to include these categories in future years, after a
consultation exercise.

Further advice on walking is available from Anna Heyworth, 020-7944 4746,
E-mail: subnational.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


j) Road safety


Number of pedestrian deaths and serious injuries
Rate of slight casualties by traffic per 100 million vehicle kilometres
The publication of road traffic estimates at local authority level has enabled the
Department to publish estimates of the rate of slight road casualties per 100


                                        29
million vehicle kilometres of traffic for individual authorities on the DfT website.
Thus, Local Authorities will be able to monitor their progress against the third
Road Safety Strategy target - to reduce the rate of slight casualties by 10% in
2010 compared to the 1994 to 1998 average.


Number of vehicles involved in road accidents (car, HGV/PSV)
Total casualties by road user type
Road casualty numbers should be available within your own local authority. If
certain types of roads such as motorways are excluded from the base year this
should be made clear and the same coverage used for all reported figures. For
child KSI, where small numbers are involved, it may be appropriate to base a
target on an average over a number of years.

Advice on the use of accident data can be obtained from Pat Kilbey, 020-7944
6387 E-mail: roadacc.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


Number of Home Zones
Number of 20mph Zones
These zones will have been designated by the authority and so the information
should be readily available. It is also reported on the LTP-F4 form.


k) Light Rail


Light rail route length/number of lines
This information will be available from the light rail operator.


l) Accessibility


% of all households within 13 minutes walk of an hourly or better bus
service
This indicator can be computed using the same or similar methodology to the
accessibility core indicator which concerns rural households only.


People finding access to services difficult
This indicator is one of the national "Quality of Life Counts" Sustainable
Development Indicators. This indicator is the proportion of people who find
access to various services such as public transport, health care education etc.
difficult. The information can only be collected through a household survey, and
there may be problems with sample sizes because the groups of people having
difficulties may be quite small (see Annex 3). In any survey asking about this
topic it is important to establish whether people have a car which they can use.


                                         30
The national indicator in "Quality of Life Counts" used information from the
English Housing Survey. A question that could be used is:


From here (the respondent's home), how easy is it for you to get to the
following using your usual form of transport?
   a corner shop
   a medium to large supermarket
   a post office
   a doctor
   a local hospital
In each case the respondents were asked to answer "Very Easy", "Fairly Easy",
"Fairly Difficult" or "Very Difficult".


Accessibility of transport facilities for older or disabled people
The local public transport operators will be able to provide information on
transport facilities which are provided either on vehicle/trains or at bus
stops/garages or stations.


Percentage of bus fleet fully accessible for wheelchair users
This is the proportion of the bus fleet to which there is access for wheelchair
users - either by means of a ramp or directly onto a "kneeling" bus. This
information will be available from the local bus operators. See the section on
bus passenger journeys for further information on how this might be obtained.


Provision of community transport
This indicator is the number of people using community transport services
provided by the authority or voluntary bodies. This information will be available
within the authority or from the voluntary bodies providing the services.


Disabled facilities at signalled pedestrian crossings
This indicator is the proportion of signalled pedestrian crossings that have
disabled facilities. This information should be available within the authority.


Provision of dropped kerbs and tactile paving or facilities for disabled
people
This indicator is the number of such facilities that exist. This information should
be available within the authority.




                                        31
Further advice on accessibility monitoring is available from Anna Heyworth,
020-7944 4746 E-mail: subnational.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.


m) Environment


For the second LTP period, pollutant concentration will become a mandatory
core indicator. For APR5, however, it remains optional. If authorities are
already collecting data on this indicator, they may wish to report on it. Guidance
for reporting on the indicator under LTP2 is available here. The remainder of
the guidance below for this indicator has been previously issued.


Number of days of air pollution
This is a local indicator of sustainable development. The indicator is the
average number of days per site when air pollution is moderate or higher for
NO2, SO2, O3, CO or PM10. Data for this indicator are available from AEA
NETCEN, or the local environmental health department. To calculate an
average figure across monitoring sites it is recommended that data from at least
four sites should be used. If this is not feasible then individual sites could be
reported separately. It is advisable to collect and present urban and rural sites
separately, as in most areas a limited range of pollutants is measured at rural
sites.


People rating the level of transport-related noise as unacceptable
This indicator can be produced from the results of a household survey, such as
those being carried out for Best Value. A suitable question, adapted from the
British Social Attitudes survey would be:


How serious a problem for you is noise from traffic in your local area?
   a very serious problem
   a serious problem
   not a very serious problem
   not a problem at all
   don't know


Extent of quieter road surfaces
This indicator is the proportion of the authority's roads in the area which have
been resurfaced with material to produce less traffic noise - the information will
be available from the road maintenance department in the authority.




                                        32
9 Where to go for further information
  9.1 Generally, the detailed guidance on each individual indicator contains
      details of where to get further information, and where relevant, contact
      points. Any general queries should be addressed to one of the following:
             Anna Heyworth (tel: 020 7944 4746)
             Penny Allen (tel: 020 7944 6104).
  9.2 For e-mail, please use the general contact e-mail address which is
      subnational.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
  9.3 The above contacts should also be used for questions about the use of
      the Core Indicator pro-forma.
  9.4 Annex 5 provides a full list of key DfT Statistics contacts and their
      responsibilities.




                                       33
Annex 1 Core Indicators pro-forma
An example of the format of the 2005 APR core indicator pro-forma is provided
on the following page. The pro-forma is the same as that issued for the 2004
reporting period, with the exception of the additional requirement to provide
reporting figures for 2004/05. As with last year's guidance. The version of the
pro-forma shown below is meant as a guide only and should not be used to
submit core indicator data. The electronic version of the pro-forma, which
should be used for submitting data, has been circulated by GOs.

The pro-forma shown only contains one core indicator. The electronic version
will contain all indicators referred to in Table 1 of the main document.




                                      34
Core Indicators Pro-forma
(for fuller information on definitions etc. please refer to Section 6 - Detailed guidance)




1
  Enter year to which baseline data relate i.e. 2000/01 or 2001 - please explain if base year is some other period
2
  Enter using the same units as the baseline data or as a percentage change (with direction)
3
  DfT are aware that LAs have used a number of different measurement methods in the past, and are moving towards the use of TTS (TRACS type surveys) in future. If different methods
  have been used for measurements in the baseline, current or target years, this should be indicated against each measurement.




                                                                                         35
Annex 2 National sources of information


National Travel Survey
1. The National Travel Survey (NTS) is a household survey of personal travel,
   which collects data using a seven day diary for people to record their travel,
   together with background information on households, individuals and
   vehicles. It is designed to be representative for Great Britain as a whole -
   with an achieved sample of about 10 thousand households over any three
   year period up to 2001, and of about 7,400 in 2002 and 8,300 in 2003. The
   most recently available dataset is for 2003. Full survey details are available
   in annual Technical Reports. From 2002, the sample size has been tripled
   to enable more monitoring of key national trends by single years and more
   reliable estimates of regional variation and urban/rural issues.
2. The NTS is also designed to be representative at Government Office Region
   level, and from 2002 for some sub-regions. In addition, the survey from
   2002 is designed to be representative of varying sizes of urban and rural
   settlements (based on population densities from the 1991 Census), and also
   representative of areas with varying levels of car ownership (also using 1991
   Census data).
3. However, the NTS (even with the increase in sample size) is not designed to
   be representative at county or Unitary Authority (UA) level, and sample sizes
   are too small to give useable information at this level.
4. The NTS can be used to give a general indication of travel in a local area by
   considering travel patterns in the region, taking into account how urban the
   area is, and also its level of car ownership.
5. Overall, more than 60 per cent of trips are made by car. Not surprisingly,
   this proportion is strongly related to levels of car ownership. In general low
   levels of car use are associated with higher levels of bus use, although rail
   plays an important part in London. Bicycles are only used for 1 per cent of
   stages nationally, but more in flat areas particularly in eastern England.
6. In addition to details of travel by different modes, the NTS includes details of
   the purpose of travel, and so can be used to look specifically at travel to
   work, to school, to the shops, for leisure purposes and so on. It is also
   possible to look at trips by mode and purpose, although the usual problems
   of small samples can restrict the analysis possible. Further details are
   available in NTS factsheets and the annual NTS bulletin.


Labour Force Survey
7. Information on travel to work is asked each year in the Labour Force Survey
   (LFS). The LFS has a large sample size of 60 thousand households which
   means that annual regional data are available. Annual figures are published
   by region Transport Statistics Great Britain (TSGB) and in Chapter 1 of
   Regional Transport Statistics.




                                        36
NOMIS
8. The ONS NOMIS database provides (annually updated) information on the
   location of places of employment. For each employer, it will give the
   location, the type of business and the number of employees. It gives no
   data on vacancies or the number of people seeking work. Some data are
   available to „guest‟ users, but to access the full details users will need a
   Chancellor‟s Licence. If you do not already have, you should contact
   NOMIS Support on 0191 334 2680, E-mail support@nomisweb.co.uk.
9. NOMIS data are subject to many confidentiality restrictions, but there should
   be no problem in getting total number of jobs by ward. Smaller areas have
   problems of both confidentiality and accuracy, but Census data may be used
   to interpolate ward data to Census Output Areas.


Transport Models
10. The Integrated Transport Economics and Appraisal Division (ITEA) of DfT
    commissioned software known as the „Census Matrix Toolkit‟, which adjusts
    the Census data (using NTS data) to make it more closely comparable to
    data usually used for transport modelling, estimating actual rather than usual
    travel to work. The Toolkit then uses annual Labour Force Survey data to
    estimate changes in travel to work since 1991. Data are available down to
    ward level. ITEA are now considering updating this to take on board 2001
    Census data. The software is distributed by the Peter Davidson
    Consultancy (Email to peter-davidson.com).
11. ITEA maintain the National Trip End Model, which produces car ownership
    estimates and projections for local areas, and software (TEMPRO) to access
    these figures. The software also presents the underlying demographic &
    employment projections (population, households, workforce, and jobs), and
    estimates of trip making by each mode of transport (based on applying trip
    rates from NTS to these projections). Details and software are
    downloadable from www.tempro.org.uk.

Census
12. The 2001 Census provides many valuable sources of transport data, and
    includes information on travel to work, numbers of cars or vans, and the
    movements of the workforce between areas. Additionally there are
    statistical data concerned with issues such as population, education, health
    and accommodation. Many of the data are available down to ward level.
    Some are even to extremely small areas known as Output Areas (typically
    groups of about 125 households). In order to assist local authorities in
    identifying and using suitable Census data for their APRs, a guidance note
    on 2001 Census Data - sources and potential uses has been published on
    the CLIP-TS website.
13. The Census provides useful statistical data relating to workplaces, such as
    distance and method of travel to work. Data on travel to work from the 2001
    Census are available at local authority district level
    (http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D6572.xl
    s). More detailed breakdowns of travel to work data, for example distance


                                       37
   travelled to work by method of travel to work, are available by Local
   Authority through the National Report.
14. Data on car ownership are also available from the Census for small areas
    (http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D6576.xl
    s).
15. Census matrices containing information on the movement of migrants and
    working people in and out of an area. Origin and destination data are
    available down to Output Area level. More information on the tables
    available and how to obtain them are at:
    www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/origindestination.asp.
16. Census Customer Services are able to advise on and supply census
    related products and services.
      Census Customer Services
      ONS
      Titchfield
      Fareham
      Hants PO15 5RR

      Telephone: ++44 (0)1329 444972
      Fax: ++44 (0)1329 652981
      Minicom: ++44 (0)1329 444517
      E-mail: census.customerservices@ons.gov.uk




                                       38
Annex 3 Statistical reliability
1. In order to illustrate the difficulties caused by statistical variability we can use
   an example from NTS derived data. The 1998/2000 NTS estimated that
   39.9 per cent of trips were made by car drivers, based on a sample of over
   22 thousand people who recorded a total of about 360 thousand trips in their
   travel week. In 1992/94, the equivalent estimate was 36.9 per cent. This
   change is statistically significant at the 95 per cent level. By contrast, if such
   a change had found in a small scale survey of, say, 1,000 households in a
   particular county, this result would not be statistically significant according to
   the Table A1 below which shows some confidence intervals for different
   sample sizes.
2. In this example, the proportion of trips by car had apparently increased
   between the two time periods quoted. How sure could we be from these
   statistics? By chance, we might have been unlucky with our samples, and
   chosen too few car drivers in 1992/94 and too many in 1998/2000.
   According to statistical theory, we can be „95 per cent confident‟ that the
   1992/94 proportion was actually between 36.0 per cent and 37.2 per cent,
   and that the 1998/2000 was between 39.2 per cent and 40.6 per cent5. In
   simple terms, since these ranges do not overlap, we can say that there has
   been a „statistically significant‟ change in car use at the 95 per cent level6
   over this period.
3. The simple rule is that the width of the confidence interval is inversely
   proportional to the square root of the sample size, so doubling the sample
   size reduces the interval by a factor of 0.7 (1 divided by 2).
4. Suppose an authority wanted to estimate what proportion of households
   owned a bicycle, and wanted to see if this proportion changed over time. In
   year 1, using a simple random sample of 1,000 households, this figure was
   estimated to be 40 per cent. Table A1 shows that this estimate was within
   the 95 per cent confidence interval of 37 per cent to 43 per cent. In year 2, a
   similar survey reported an increase to 45 per cent, with a range of 42 per
   cent to 48 per cent. In simple terms, since the year 1 and year 2 intervals
   overlap, the rise from 40 per cent to 45 per cent was not „statistically
   significant‟. However, if this same change had been estimated using a
   sample of 2,000, the change would have been statistically significant, as the
   confidence intervals are narrower with the larger sample.




5
  Many other samples could have been chosen, all of which would have given different estimates. It is possible to calculate that
95% of these estimates would have been within the limits shown, provide that the sample was random. The range is known as a
‘95% confidence interval’. The calculations are straightforward for a simple random survey, but much more difficult for a survey
with a complex design like the NTS.
6
  The 95% level is most commonly used in testing ‘statistical significance’. A 90% level of significance is sometimes appropriate
when a less rigorous test is required, or a 99% level of significance may be used when particular rigour is needed, for example in
drug trials.



                                                              39
    Table A1 Examples of 95 per cent confidence intervals obtained from
    different household sample sizes

                                                                                               1
Table 1: Examples of 95% confidence intervals obtained from different household sample sizes
Proportion    Sample size              Sample size              Sample size
            2
measured                1,000                    2,000                     4,000
5%               3.6%     to     6.4%     4.0%     to     6.0%      4.3%     to     5.7%
10%              8.1%     to    11.9%     8.7%     to    11.3%      9.1%     to    10.9%
15%             12.8%     to    17.2%    13.4%     to    16.6%     13.9%     to    16.1%
20%             17.5%     to    22.5%    18.2%     to    21.8%     18.8%     to    21.2%
25%             22.3%     to    27.7%    23.1%     to    26.9%     23.7%     to    26.3%
30%             27.2%     to    32.8%    28.0%     to    32.0%     28.6%     to    31.4%
35%             32.0%     to    38.0%    32.9%     to    37.1%     33.5%     to    36.5%
40%             37.0%     to    43.0%    37.9%     to    42.1%     38.5%     to    41.5%
45%             41.9%     to    48.1%    42.8%     to    47.2%     43.5%     to    46.5%
50%             46.9%     to    53.1%    47.8%     to    52.2%     48.5%     to    51.5%
55%             51.9%     to    58.1%    52.8%     to    57.2%     53.5%     to    56.5%
60%             57.0%     to    63.0%    57.9%     to    62.1%     58.5%     to    61.5%
65%             62.0%     to    68.0%    62.9%     to    67.1%     63.5%     to    66.5%
70%             67.2%     to    72.8%    68.0%     to    72.0%     68.6%     to    71.4%
75%             72.3%     to    77.7%    73.1%     to    76.9%     73.7%     to    76.3%
80%             77.5%     to    82.5%    78.2%     to    81.8%     78.8%     to    81.2%
85%             82.8%     to    87.2%    83.4%     to    86.6%     83.9%     to    86.1%
90%             88.1%     to    91.9%    88.7%     to    91.3%     89.1%     to    90.9%
95%             93.6%     to    96.4%    94.0%     to    96.0%     94.3%     to    95.7%
1
    Assuming local authority population over 16,000, and simple random sampling
2
    Household variable, such as proportion of households with no car

    5. The population of the area does not affect these intervals, (above a lower
       limit of about 16 thousand), which means that the same absolute sample
       sizes are needed whatever the total authority size. Obviously, this makes
       surveys comparatively more expensive in smaller areas.
    6. The example given in paragraph 1 is applicable where a sample is a simple
       random sample, where all households in an area are equally likely to be
       chosen. In practice, such a survey design is not usually practical when an
       interviewer is used, as households may be widely scattered, considerably
       increasing interviewers‟ travelling time and the costs of the survey.
    7. In order to reduce interviewers‟ travelling costs, a „clustered‟ design is
       usually chosen, starting by picking a number of small areas, and then
       choosing a fixed number of addresses at random within each area. For the
       NTS, these areas are postcode sectors, and the addresses are chosen from
       the Postcode Address File (PAF) for small users. Census enumeration
       districts (EDs) might also be used, but Electoral Rolls are less suitable, as
       these are more likely to be out of date, and are more likely to introduce bias.
       It is usually then advisable to „stratify‟ the sample, to ensure that the areas
       chosen are characteristic of the area as a whole. An appropriate „stratifier‟
       for a travel survey (used for the NTS) would be the proportion of household
       without a car, available from the 1991 Census for small areas.
    8. Measuring change in, say, the proportion of trips made by bicycle adds
       another layer of complication. Even if the households themselves form a


                                                         40
   simple random sample, the trips made by individuals within them will be
   clustered. People repeat the same trips many times (particularly to work or
   school), and members of a household travel together (for example to the
   shops, or for leisure).
9. All these deviations from the simple random survey tend to widen the
   confidence intervals illustrated in Table A1. The combined effect is known
   as the „design effect‟. Estimates can be made of this effect, and a few
   examples taken from the 2000 Technical Report are shown in Table A2.

Table A2 Examples of design factor effects

Proportion estimated    Sample    Estimate      Confidence     Design         Actual
(NTS 1998/2000)           size         (%)      interval for    factor    confidence
                                             simple random                   interval
                                                     sample                       (%)
                                                         (%)
Households without a      9,390       28.5       27.6 - 29.4     1.12      27.5 - 29.5
car

Adult driving licence    16,991       70.7       70.0 - 71.4     1.17      69.9 - 71.5
holder

Journey main mode car   356,446       39.9       37.7 - 40.1     4.47      39.2 - 40.6
driver




                                      41
Annex 4 Data sources and measurement of congestion

Background

1. The 10 Year Plan published in July 2000 announced a commitment in the
   form of a Public Service Agreement (PSA) to “reduce road congestion on the
   inter-urban network and in large urban areas in England below current levels
   by 2010.”

2. Until recently, DfT has been monitoring congestion (vehicle delay) at the
   national level by conducting floating car speed surveys in alternate years on
   the trunk road network and in large urban areas. Although floating car
   surveys generate considerable amounts of data, the results they provide are
   only robust at an aggregate level and are not reliable for detailed geographic
   areas. Moreover, the measure does not reflect other important aspects of
   congestion such as person delay and journey time reliability. For these
   reasons, in July 2004 the Government announced that it was withdrawing
   the PSA congestion target and publishing new ones in July 2005, based on
   new sources of journey time data.


New sources of journey time data

3. DfT has commissioned research to look into alternative data sources of
   journey time and speed estimates. The research concluded that in-vehicle
   GPS tracking devices offer a unique network-wide source of data and that it
   is possible to derive speed estimates from such data. DfT has now signed a
   contract with ITIS Holdings to purchase their data (2001-2006), mainly to
   cover urban areas, but continues considering the potential of other sources.
   For inter-urban roads, the Department will be using a combination of data
   from Trafficmaster ANPR cameras (on all-purpose trunk roads), MIDAS
   induction loops and GPS data (on motorways).

4. GPS raw data needs to be processed (i.e. individual vehicle observations
   have to be map-matched onto a digital representation of the road network
   and vehicle trajectories have to be reconstructed). Under the terms of the
   agreement with ITIS, Local Authorities may have access to the processed
   data (e.g. link-level speed estimates by 15-minute time period) for Local
   Transport Plans or equivalent work.

5. In October 2004, DfT rolled out processed ITIS data covering January 2003
   to April 2004 to ten of the largest urban areas. Plans are currently being
   developed to roll-out the data to the next 9 large urban areas, followed by all
   other local authorities who have expressed an interest in receiving ITIS data.

6. DfT and the Congestion Monitoring Working Group are conducting a
   comprehensive programme of work to assess the reliability of the data at
   various levels, develop methodologies to derive a basket of congestion
   indicators and issue guidance.



                                       42
Further information regarding congestion monitoring is available from Ben
Coleman Telephone: 020 7944 6399, E-mail: roadtraff.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk.




                                    43
Annex 5 Key DfT Transport Statistics contacts - as at 1 November 2005

Bus, Coach and Taxi Statistics: patronage;              Mouna Kehil        020-7944 4589   E-mail: bus.statistics@dft.gsi.gov.uk
receipts; subsidies; fares; vehicle distances
covered; vehicle stock; concessionary travel.
National rail statistics: rail usage, performance,      Margaret Shaw      020-7944 4977   E-mail: rail.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
safety and freight.
National Travel Survey.                                                    020-7944 6594   E-mail:
                                                                                            national.travelsurvey@dft.gsi.gov.uk
Regional and Local Transport Statistics: sub-           Anna Heyworth      020-7944 4746   E-mail:
national performance (including National                                                    subnational.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
Indicators) and funding; accessibility indicators;
Census; Labour Force Survey,
Travel to school.
Public attitudes towards transport issues.                                 020-7944 4892   E-mail: attitudes.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
Maritime statistics: sea port traffic, inland           Jeremy Grove       020-7944 4441   E-mail: maritime.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
waterways freight, shipping fleets, seafarers and
port employment.
Aviation Statistics: airport & airline statistics;      Lyndsey Avery      020-7944 4276   E-mail: aviation.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
international passenger survey.
Environment Statistics                                  Annie Sorbie       020-7944 3775   E-mail:
                                                                                            publicationgeneral.enq@dft.gsi.gov.uk
Transport Statistics for EU and other international     Dorothy Anderson   020-7944 4442   E-mail:
bodies; international comparisons; survey control;                                          inter.transport.comparisons@dft.gsi.g
National Statistics policy; GIS; Transport Statistics                                       ov.uk
publication and website management.                                                         publicationgeneral.enq@dft.gsi.gov.uk
Road freight statistics; continuing survey of road      Stephen Reynolds   020-7944 3093   E-mail:
goods transport; ad hoc surveys of vehicle                                                  roadfreight.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
transport data collection and processing unit;
Survey of international road haulage.



                                                                   44
Road traffic statistics; national core census;        Andy Lees          020-7944 6397   Email: roadtraff.manual@dft.gsi.gov.uk
London core traffic census; weigh-in-motion;
Footprint environmental monitoring; computing
development.
Road traffic statistics - Annual and quarterly        Gemma Brand        020-7944 6555   E-mail: roadtraff.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
traffic estimates; manual traffic counts
and road lengths surveys.
Urban congestion monitoring and speed surveys         Ben Coleman        020-7944 6399   E-mail: roadtraff.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
Inter urban congestion monitoring and speed           David Robinson     020-7944 6559   E-mail: roadtraff.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
surveys
Vehicle Statistics: vehicle licensing and             Daryl Lloyd        020-7944 6142   E-mail: vehicles.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
registrations; estimates of VED evasion and MOT                                           roadmaintenance.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
non-compliance; foreign vehicles in traffic.
Road Maintenance Statistics.
Road accident and casualty statistics; drinking and   Pat Kilbey         020-7944 6387   E-mail: roadacc.stats@dft.gsi.gov.uk
driving; car safety; inter modal passenger safety;
international road safety.




                                                                    45
Annex 6 Central and Local Government Information Partnership (CLIP)

1. The Central and Local Government Information Partnership (CLIP) was set
   up to enable central and local government to work together to develop
   efficient and effective non-financial statistical information. CLIP aims to:

      identify the needs for non-financial statistical information to support
       government policies that affect local and central government

      consider how these needs may best be met

      encourage good practice and find solutions to common problems

      foster communication between the different parts of central and local
       government so that statistical and related issues are better understood.


Transport Statistics Sub-group (CLIP-TS)

2. CLIP Transport Statistics (CLIP-TS) meets formally three times per year. It
   has the following Terms of Reference:

    to act as a conduit for wider dissemination of transport statistics which
      are of particular interest to local authorities

    to discuss transport statistics of interest to either side that are not dealt
      with by other topic specific groups. In particular:

       - monitoring of transport and related plans
       - sub-national statistics (including neighbourhood statistics)

      to identify gaps in coverage and investigate methods of filling these

      to investigate methods of using local authority data to satisfy local,
       regional and national needs.


3. Agendas, meeting minutes and papers produced by CLIP-TS are published
   on the CLIP-TS website. A current list of CLIP-TS representatives is given
   below.




                                        46
CLIP-TS Membership (as at 31 October 2009)


Anna Heyworth (Chair)                  Department for Transport
Clare Horton (Local Authority Lead)    Staffordshire County Council
Tim Stamp                              Department for Transport
David Robinson                         Department for Transport
Penny Allen (Secretariat)              Department for Transport
Mike Collop                            Transport for London
Philip Heyes                           Government Office for Yorkshire and the
                                       Humber
Keith Oates                            South Yorkshire Passenger Transport
                                       Executive
Keith Rogers                           Solihull MBC
Ray Heywood                            Leeds City Council
William Bryans                         Surrey County Council
John Brown                             Government Office: East
Belinda Godbold                        Suffolk County Council



For further information on CLIP-TS, please contact the secretariat via 020 7944
6104.




                                      47

								
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