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					    Firework Displays & Safety                                                       innit?
                                                                   Just common sense innit?


                                                              •   Assessing Risk
                                                              •   Regulations
                      Dave White                              •   Knowledge of the subject
                                                              •   “Morbid Imagination”
                   Tony Wilkinson


                                                                                                              on…
                                                                                               Before we move on…




    Lack of common sense!                                          Today’
                                                                   Today’s Topics

                                                              •   Regulations etc.
                                                              •   Black Powder (gunpowder)
                                                              •   Deflagration
                                                              •   Firework Types
                                                              •   Estimating Risk
                                                              •   Planning an event
                                                              •   Firing a show
                                                              •   Demonstrations




    Regulations etc.                                               Regulations etc.
    Categories of Firework (BS7114)                                UN Hazardous Materials – Class 1


• Category 1 ("indoor")                                       • 1.1 Mass Explosion Hazard
  – fireworks are for use in extremely restricted areas.
                                                              • 1.2 Nonmass explosion, fragment-producing
• Category 2 ("garden")
  – fireworks are for use by the public in their gardens.     • 1.3 Mass fire, minor blast or fragment hazard
    Safely viewable from 5m, no debris beyond 3m.             • 1.4 Moderate fire, no blast or fragment: a
• Category 3 ("display")                                        consumer firework is 1.4G or 1.4S
  – fireworks are for use by the public in larger displays.
    Safely viewable from 25m, no debris beyond 20m.           • 1.5 Explosive substance, very insensitive
• Category 4 ("professional")                                   (with a mass explosion hazard)
  – for sale only to fireworks professionals. They have few   • 1.6 Explosive article, extremely insensitive
    restrictions, default category for untested fireworks




                                                                                                                    1
   Regulations etc.                             Black Powder (Gunpowder)
   Firework Categories & Classes                Introduction


• Consumer Fireworks                        Used for:
  – Usually Cat.3                           • Propellant (small grain – e.g. Gun)
  – 1.4G                                    • Propellant (large grain – e.g. Rocket)
                                            • Explosive (burst charge)
• Display Fireworks
                                            • Fuses, delays etc.
  – Usually Cat.4
  – Mostly 1.3G
  – Large shells now 1.1G
       – (ADR)




   Black Powder                                 Black Powder
   Solid Grain                                  Grain Burn




    SOLID GRAIN        LIQUID GAS   FLAME




   Black Powder                                 Black Powder
   Deflagration                                 Confinement




                                                                                       2
Black Powder                         Flash”
                                    “Flash”
Confinement Failure!


                             •   Perchlorate and atomised Aluminium
                             •   Loud reports
             3,000 C         •   “Hard Break” shells and rockets
            50,000psi        •   High Brisance
                             •   ‘explodes’ with little confinement
                             •   >10g = 1.1G




Some types of Firework              Firework: Rocket
                                    Construction



                                    Stars
                             (with burst charge)

                                  BP Grain


                                    Nozzle

                                 Balance stick

                                 Launch tube




Firework: Rocket                    Firework: Rocket
Failure modes                       Failure modes

      Cracked Rocket Motor




                                  Groundburst”
                                 “Groundburst”


                                     Also…
                                     Also…
                                  Failure to fly




                                                                      3
         Firework: Rocket                                                   Fireworks: Gerbs
         Effect of wind                                                      Fountains”
                                                                            “Fountains”


                                                                                                       Kimbolton 7lb Gerb



 CofG”
“CofG”


 wind                                    wind

                                                                      Solid or
                                                                    compressed
                   Angling away from wind –                            grain
                                                                                                   “Fountain with sparks”
                        make it worse!




         Fireworks: Cakes                                                   Fireworks: Cakes
          Multi-     Battery”
         “Multi-shot Battery”                                                Multi-     Battery”
                                                                            “Multi-shot Battery”




                                                Crackle Red
                                                Explosive (flash)
                                                Red Flare (delay)
                                                Propellant (BP)
                                                Fuse




         Fireworks: Candles                                                 Fireworks: Shells
                Candle”
         “Roman Candle”                                                     Introduction

                              Fuse


                                     Felt wad
Delay

                          •   Multi-shot
                          •   19mm – 65mm +
                                                                                                      • 3” , 4” and 5”
                          •   Sidewall can fail
                                                                                                        (75,100,125mm)
                          •   Stake, Board or Box
                                                                                                      • 6” and up 1.1G




                                                                                                                            4
      Fireworks: Shells                                       Fireworks: Shells
      Construction                                            Failure Modes


                                                        • No Lift (or zero delay)                             Rack Failure !
                                                            – “Flowerpot”
                                                            – “detonation”
                                                        • Poor Lift
                                                            – Low Break (going up)
                                                        • Long or failed delay
                                          50m+ burst        – Low Break (coming down)
                              ~100m/sec                     – “Black Shell”
                              ~300mph!
                                                                 Causes: Malfunction, Jam, Loading error




      Fireworks: Shells                                       Fireworks: Shells
      Calculating Distances                                   Calculating Distances


• Rule of thumb:
       • 25m + 10m per shell inch
• Other Variables:
       •   Mortar angle
       •   Wind speed & direction
       •   Shell spin
       •   Mortar type (esp. steel)
• Note:                                                       4” Shell – 100m burst diameter, burst at 6m, 230m from launch

       • Normal safety distances do NOT                                 Mortar fallen to 75 degrees from vertical
                                             4” Shell
         account for disrupted racks                                                 Run SHELLCALC




      Fireworks: Fuse & Igniters                              PPE


                                                        •   Clothing
•   PIC Green / Brown
                                                        •   Hard Hat
•   WASAG
                                                        •   Eye protection
•   Pipe Match (“green”)
                                                        •   Ear protection (or not)
•   Electric matches (“dets”)
                                                        •   Gloves (or not)


                                                                  Don’
                                                                  Don’t forget: Torch and Several lighters!




                                                                                                                               5
     A Firework Show                                              A Firework Show
     Planning the Event                                           Planning the Display

• Site Visits                                               • Check material (if possible)
       • Safety Distances                                   • Firing Order
       • Roads, Buildings, Airports
• Responsibilities
                                                            • Equipment Requirements
       • Event Organiser                                           • Racks, boxes, boards etc.
       • Marshalling requirements                           • Material Preparation
       • Notification: Police, Fire, CAA
                                                                   • Fusing
         (and any other affected parties)
                                                                   • Waterproofing
• Budget etc.
• Method Statement
                                                            • Transport
                                                                   • ADR
• Risk Assessment




     A Firework Show                                              A Firework Show
     Site Setup                                                   Site Setup

                                             Drop Zone
•   Event Organiser
•   Safety Distances
                                              Shells
•   Wind Direction                          Large Cakes
•   Perimeters and Marshalling               Candles
                                            Small Cakes
•   Layout in firing order
                                             Set Pieces
•   Site fusing / wiring


                                                 Audience            Driffield Showground – 24th June 2006




     A Firework Show                                              A Firework Show
     Site Setup                                                   Firing the Display


                                                            •   Firing Order
                                                            •   “Gaffer”
                                                            •   Walk-thru
                                                            •   Decision to fire
                                                            •   Keep lookout
                                                            •   Check for ‘duds’
                                                            •   Clearing Up

              Hull University Union – May 2004




                                                                                                             6
     More Information:                                                      Outdoor Demonstrations


                                                                       •   Example equipment
 www.hse.gov.
 www.hse.gov.uk         www.dti.gov.uk/fireworks/                      •   Types of fuse
                           Lots of links at Fireworks magazine site:   •   Black Powder and confinement
 www.eig.org.uk
 www.eig.org.uk                                                        •   Fire Fighting
                          www.fireworks.co.uk
                          www.fireworks.co.uk


                     • Training courses
                       www.kimboltonfireworks.co.uk

www.bpa-fmg.org.uk
www.bpa-fmg.org.uk     www.fantasticfireworks.biz




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