The Battle Of Coachella Valley by David Harris 1973 by whitecheese

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									              The Battle Of Coachella Valley by David Harris 1973
                (Published in Rolling Stone Magazine. September 13, 1973.)


Alicia Uribe remembers the 16th of April like she remembers her feet or the fingers on her
hands. The day is built into her body now. It has been ever since it first happened. She and
a hundred others started the 16th lined along the hot dirt shoulder in front of he Mel-Pak
vineyards. The road behind them slid six greasy miles east to Coachella and Indio. Alicia
cocked her union flag over her arm and let it slop sideways like wash on the line. The 90
degrees around her kept lifting off the valley floor in thin slabs. Each way Alicia looked,
the world had a warp to it and a shimmer, like the air was dribbling sweat.
       h 1t i ’ e a t d
            h dte la
     T e 6 d n f llht ifferent from any other spring day in the Coachella Valley.
At ten, the heat pushes past a hundred and the asphalt on the far side of noon bubbles like
  on el uhT r ’o cosp e et a a hneo oc r n. t u
                       e cc                t o
crm am s. he o l k ok sibfr ihs cac t tuhg udWiot                              o          h
deep wells and old age, the Coachella Valley would be one long griddle of sand, anchored
with greasewood and horned toads. As it is, 40,000 people live along its bottom and rising
sides. The old ones built Palm Springs to comfort their rich arthritis; the young ones dug
enough deep wells to cover patches from the San Jacinto Mountains to the Salton Sea with
grapes, date palms, grapefruit, melons and sweet corn. If it were a year like any other, Alicia
   r e n hr ude rns olv en p o h rhu e n hmpson Seedless.
    b                  d i            de
U i ad ehnr fed w u ’ be u t t isol riT o               e         ds
But 1973 hit the east end of Riverside County like a bizarre snowstorm. The trouble and
the crops came in together. A lot of folks guessed the trouble was coming, but no one
knew it would show up quite the way it did. From the 16th on, the Coachella harvest was
  s ln sh ns o Aia r e a .
      a
ap iate oe n liU i ’f e    c      bs c
     She remembers a red pickup truck and a white sedan spitting rooster tails behind their
tires. The two shapes bounced along the ranch road, through the fields, and towards their
line.
      L s em t s t o a nxt hra .
                 e, e
     “o T a s r”h w m n eto esd                  i
     As the word jumped from ear to ear, the pickets began shouting and waving their red
and black flags. The truck pulled even with Alicia and a fat man in the passenger seat
jerked a .38 out of his pants. He let the sand billow over the tailgate and used his mouth to
shout back.
      E th , h a a rm l .
             t e t
              ”
     “ asi t f m n u b d          e
       h w i s n l p g l gn h a a’ r k w s u tI po t y a
             t d u n o                       e t
     T e h e ea s m i a n i t f m n tcs a qi.tuhle w s sa                e s         sr
covered with four men in clean shirts. Making a sudden skip on the loose dirt, the car
swerved right and one of the shirts in the back window leaned out and laid a parr of brass
  ncl a n t i o Aia r e edE e s c, e f hs a ai e eto
        e o       ed            c
kuk s l g h s e f liU i ’ha. vri ehrae a hd l ldn t
                                       bs               n           c              tt
 t h b w r t e lis he, rk e ns n
  .        o a u d c’
i T e l f c r Aia cek boehr oeaddug a scratch across her right
eyeball. The white sedan turned left and disappeared towards Palm Springs.
     Lying there in hot sand mixed with her splatter of 19-year-old blood, Alicia Uribe
  ea e h it a l i w rh ’ ub d u o ee i
           er        ut
bcm t fscsayna a t t bbl ot f vr t      as        e              y n-roofed shed within 40
miles of downtown Indio. The fight is all about grapes and the people who pick them. It
  a t e ai n w i s n h oe ad s liU i ’ 0 0 m m e U id
       r      ts             d.
hshe pre adtos e O te n hn iAia r e 6, 0 e br ne          c       bs 0                     t
Farmworkers Union, AFL-CIO. Their three-year contract with the desert grape industry
 xid pi 5 O te t r h 2 g e h o n h ae’ 10 c s fa e
    r        l h
ep e A r 1t. n h o e te 7 rw rw o w t V ly 70 ar o t l
                              h,           o s               e ls              e      b
grapes sit with the 2,000,000 member International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs,
Warehousemen and Helpers of America. The Teamsters own the red pickup, the white
sedan, the brass knuckles and a fresh set of contracts which give them claim to represent
 h ae’ 50 i yr ok s h It nt nl rt r o n h g e ae
  e ls               n d        e.           r i
t V ly 30 v ea w r r T e ne ao aBo e odadte rw rhv         hh                 o s
                                                 e o .t ntm l i tBf e h
                                                        h ’
signed each other up and the UFW is striking thm bt Is o s a fh. e r t lg         o e
 u m r oe t u r dt a ar s m ra rdc cut s n pr p ee
        ’       ,c d i s                o
sm es vri olgn i w y c sA ec’poue one ad e as vn  is                  r        h
reach the outskirts of Washington, D.C.

  oe fh ol e apn gft e n frh n e Fr ok s e ya
             s      d            n
N n o tiw u b hpei iiw r ’ o t U id a w r r T n erago,
                                            et       e t          m       e.          s
 h w r t kt o p n o n i a 9, o h ’ a aoay nw .
  e        e u o k                              h
t y e a rcs pj eu addw Hgw y 9 nw t ye lntnl ko n                er l i l
  hr e o o r os o te n n i, u t i e a te ue n i l
      e e t            a                  oss
T e w r l s fesn frh ui ’rebth b gsw sh pr ads p          e g t                        m e
need for it. Since the Okies left to fight World War II, farm labor had belonged to a lot of
Mexicans and a few Filipinos and Arabs. Telling one from the other was hard if you just
 o e acek t sT eot e a a h e a’ aea x a w g,n ao f
  o                u
l kd thc s b. h su w shd w i m n w g, Mei n aead l o
                                 h t             t      s              c                t
distance in between. Most Americans paid little attention, holding comfort in the
 nwe eht x as i ’ ed uh oe s n s o h pi o bas a s
         d            c       dt
ko l g taMei n d n ne m c m ny ei a hwte re f en w so eg                  c
cheap. White folks commonly understood dollars were a fortune in Spanish and trusted the
honky legend that was sure all the wetbacks took their earnings south and bought steel
mills on the outskirts of Tijuana.
       s r u, e ao’ , 0 0 aruua a r s ok a ae g o 19 as
            s th i s 0 0                   i t lb r
     A ae lt nt n 3 0, 0 gclr l oe w r d n vr e f 1 dy a         e          a
year with an annual wage of $1389. One out of every three farmworker houses had no
toilet, one out of every four no running water. The average worker lived to be 49 years old
and a thousand a year died from pesticide poisoning in the fields. If there was anything the
people with those lives needed, it was a union.
                                                n, af n ’poue a be w re b
                                                      i a
                                                        o
     And they knew it. Since the Spanish missiosC l ris rdc hs en okd y
people who followed their dreams across a border and figured they deserved a whole lot
better than they ended up getting. In 1884, Chinese hop pickers waged the first strike in
Kern County. They asked for $1.50 a day and ended up with an ass-whipping and a broken
union. After that it was more of the same. Growers are very powerful people with big bags
of money, and a command of both the language and the local police. At the same time, the
world is full of people who are hungry, poor and desperate enough to chase their dreams
 o af n . oe e h w ae ai o b ao l h a o h r es
        i a
          o           h, e                       c
t C l ri T gt rt tom k am g cm i tna tew yt teg w r      ni l                         o ’
  ak O c yu e a ora ps o e t eC l n ’a a l e o e bc
                   v d            s o
bn. ne o’ pi yu lt e t gthe, afris hr p c t gt ak r         o
                                                           i a           d a
from and an easy place to starve. Over the years, the bosses have made a practice of hiring
  nw r      a f or gt l r pi. h t n u’ en nuh o ae l f
                           so              t
a e dem iyus e s wo up yT e ehi e be eog t m k ao oc q s                                t
folks swallow their bitch and tote that sack. The man who signs the paycheck is called
 ys hbs n t kd o te pot i t s et i id
     s         ”       a
“a u,os ad hne frh opr n yo w aih fl .      ut             n ses
     Filipinos, Japanese, blacks, Mexicans, Okies and Arabs all followed in the Chinese
footsteps. The IWW tried to organize a union, the CIO tried, the AFL tried and then the
AFL-CIO tried again. All of those efforts failed. When the National Labor Relations Act
recognized the right of working men to form unions, farm labor was excluded. Each
succeeding minimum wage bill had agriculture in a special place all to itself. Some growers
took to economizing by dropping wages every time they broke a strike. For a man picking
grapes, 1884 and the 1962 Delano that Cesar Chavez drove into looked a lot alike.
Farmworkers used just one picture for both their pasts and futures. It was worn on the
edges, sore and ate whenever it could.
    Not that Chavez was shocked. That life had been his feet and ribs since his family lost
their Arizona farm in 1938. Cesar and the Chavezes moved the length of California, living
in hovels, missing shoes in the winter and working when the labor contracto4 said it was all
right. By 1952, Chavez lost his patience, went for a break in the clouds and became an
organizer for the Community Services Organization at $35 a week. He did that for the next
ten years. Chavez wanted to go into rural California and build a union, but the CSO
  ei d gi tt o e ro i 92 i a n o $0 n eto i rtes
     d       n .
dc e aa si S C s t kh 16 l s i s f 90adw n t h bohr
                            a o s                e
                                                f vg                                 s        ’
house in the San Joaquin Valley.
      h de n hvzmn ok otn i hue wt ht e cc f okr
             a                   d
    T e r m i C ae’ i to ro i t y os , i w a vr ilo w re
                                                   n       s h           e      re            s
could be collected. When the talking was over, the hat made its way around the room and
Cesar lived out of it, picking grapes each time the sombrero came back light. Soon the
hosue meetings called themselves the Farmworkers Association. By 1965, the organization
supported itself, with dues and fought two small strikes. Then the dream blossomed. In
September of that same years, the Filipino Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee
came to Delano to work grapes and had no taste for the $1.20 an hour being offered.
AWOC struck and the FWA had to stand on one side or another. Eight days after the
Filipinos set up their pickets, the Farmworkers Association voted unanimously to jump in
with both feet. Together, they called themselves the United Farmworkers and started off
 n t i e i th ’ vrm g e.
  t e g t g ed
io h b gsfh t y eeiai d                  n
    The UFW spent five years on strike and boycotting to win their original contracts with
 h a e r en syB f eh U i ’ io ,a aen r e w s 1 0 n or
   eb a d r                   o            os cr
t t lg p i ut . e rte n n v t ybs w g ig ps a $. a hu     e             a            2
with a ten to 20¢ kickback to the labor contractor. The 1970 union agreement started at
$2.05 and created the first hiring hall in grape-growing history. It also forced the growers to
 cet e id e li s uh tf h h te f af n ’ n m l e
            ti g ao                       ie a e a
acp psc er u tn m c sf rt n t s t o C l ris a e p yr                     o
                                                                        i a,             o -
financed health plan, banning workers under 16, and no firing without just cause. The
 ot clt h e er T dy r b s tt hn ta ei t i nw n:
     r sd r                s        s o e ae
cn ata e t e ya . oa’t ul s r dw e icm t e os na e oe                    m       g
  eoaos ee ps d h it o t f ius n Iw s tu t n n r
       ii               s er              n       s i
N gttn nvr a e t fspi o d cso.t a ’j th ui ’poposal               n s e os
 h r e i ’ i . so te ln ol ’ t d h ui . Iso odm
   e o s d tk                                a
t g w r d n leMot fhm p i cu n s n te n n “ ’togda ndt a                o t
  e or i” sh a oe e r e i
        ac         e
dm c t,at w y n ds i dt           cb .
      h ne a ok s o’ e h r r i t n o e
              t       m
    T eU idFr w r r dn s dt i pedn i t gtacn ath cn
                             e         t n e            se                         r
                                                                                ot c e a
announce to everybody else. All union members are on crew committees which elect
representatives to a ranch committee and the ranch committee negotiates. At contract time,
that means the growers sit face to face in a $50 hotel room with the people who work for
them, listening to them talk in Mexican and eventually giving in—none of which are too
  ou r m n rh r e n opr i . e h a s tt h er t a t
       a          c o s                      tn
ppl a og i g w r adcroaosWhnt tk s r dtiya iw s’            e l ae s ,                      n
long before the UFW understood the growers had Teamster contracts in their pockets and
the tiny United Farmworkers was in for a brawl with the largest union in the Western
world.
      T e em t s n r e ae en o e o t r C ae, o F aoa
                  e          o s                  i
    “ h Ta s radg w rhv be jndt e e” hvznwU W nt nl     gh ,                              i
 hi a ep i “ hy r rn o e ry u ui ad oc h okr o cet
     r         as
cam n xln.T e a t i t dso or n n n fr t w re t acp a
                             e yg             t         o             e e          s
  n n h dn at o t s ok s hi a, hvz e i s 5 w e p sod
    o e          t
ui t y o’w n.F rh w r a cam n C ae r e e $ a ek l fo,
                        ”        i                r                cv                  u
 a ad hlr o o ah yu ol ’ h k hvz a a g. if ifl f
             t.         o       m            dt n
gs n see T l k t i,o w u n ti C ae hs naeHsaesu o                                c      l
soft creases sitting sidesaddle on a collection of bumps. Behind it, his mind perches on his
       bd,l i , a h g n o e i ct n ht a f e r hvz ht
               in
                c
short oyf k g w t i adpidlea a A dtas lo C s C ae ta
                           cn             s k         .         ’ l          a
 hw . hrs oe o e ue u te e hsu e n n t l g n n t a
             e         ,
so sT e ’m r t b sr bth r t a t ndi o ie,rw i oi dr
                                   ,           s       r            sf o          t s k
brown toot, stewed there, and sprouted into a crowd of red and black eagle flags. Chavez is
more than meets the eye and less than a nation of movie magazines and talk shows has
come to expect. He gets up in the morning and scratches himself like everybody else, but
 h onae w a e oat r ’ o hr y r .n o e trange way, Cesar
   e         i           l s i et   y
t budrs eclpr nl a n s sa l da n I sm s              p     w
  hvz os tx tHsa h r n h f o i yls r i w , u te hdw
              n s             u e               a
C ae de ’ei. il gt adte er nh eed a h o n bth sao      s i e s
he casts has long since become the shape of a long sweating line inching out of Mexico.
When he talks, the voice always sounds bigger than the face it speaks with; it is as though
the words come from somewhere over his shoulder. Chavez behaves like a bulge in the
  i o ah s
  d          o n er h tr
h e f t uadya ’ ioyWhnh l k u, e em e br s db ia. h
                          s s . e eo s p h s s m a a e ytlT e
                                                 o           e           rs           l
nerves in his fingers betray him. They grapple with each other under his conversation. The
words glide along in their own self-conscious way, full of stumbles and wide enough to
 o h h er f vr oe i af n . e h l e o h ep oeh es
   u          s         y
t c te a o ee L pznC l ri H ’teedr f ipolm r t nh i
                                       i a s
                                         o               a         s       e        a
anything else. The most on the surface is Cesar Chavez, but the stuffings are 100% union.
It makes him hard to know and easy to believe.
    Over the years, Chavez has acquired the habit of meaning most everything he says. He
 ash em t m v “ a u ad i oe . T e’ a a fh f m okr e
   l e            e          ef
cl t Ta s r oe f r ln d hns”“ hye f i o te a w re”h
                                           s      t        r rd               r        ,
 xln “eas t dn cn oh ”
    as
ep i ,bcuehy o’ ot li. e      t r m
     We ae f r l tn t e h w re ei w i n n hy atiay
                    e d ei             t
    “ hv of e e cosol te okr dc e h hui te w n,f n. s d         c       o
The Teamsters have refused and the growers, of course, have held out. They know if the
workers are given the choice, they will be put out of the fields by a very large majority.
Instead, the Teamsters hired goons in Los Angeles and brought them to Coachella with the
 d o s i or i e w yT e’ s wy i i t te okr r o a a f
  e       an
i a fcr g u p kta a. hye l lf d g hth w re a ntf i o
                        c s               r o        nn a                 s e        rd
 h .
   e
t m”
     Ia udra t m l e ,C ae cni e hye m l e n atgi
                  sn e           o s
    “ cn ne t d h e p yr” hvz ot usT e’ e p yrad cn len .       r        o s         i k
 m l e . e t o e t h em t s n n t ’ ie n qe i T e’
     o s                            e         e
e p yr Whnicm s ot T a s r U i ,ht ad f et uso. hye  o as f r                  tn         r
supposed to be a union and are acting in concert with the growers to destroy us. It a   ’s
 hm f atn t w n sced
        u
sa e lcad hy o’ uce. e       t
     T e em t s lm o ae i e 50 okr n h C ahl V lyWe nw
                   e a                g
    “ h T a s rc i t hv s nd40 w re i te ocea ae. ko    s                l l
 h hvn, hvz hcl.T e r ’ 50 r e ok sn h V lyY u e
   e        t ”
t y ae’ C ae cuk s“ hr a n 40 g p w r ri te ae. o s ,
                                e        e et           a        e             l          e
 h em t s o’ r i w re . hy r i e p yr T e’ vr ucs ua
   e        e        t az
t Ta s rdn ogn e okr T e ogn e m l e . hye e sce flt
                                       s           az       o s          r y          s
  r in m l e uvr a aog in okr”
    azg           o s          y
ogn i e p yrbte bd t r n i w re .          azg           s
    George Meany, President of the AFL-CIO, put it more simply in his own stern tone.
  e o o A C vn g e sn cld h em t s si r e .
                        n              l e
H gt n B eei nw ad ae t T a s r“tk bekr”              e re a s

When Teamster President Frank Fitzsimmons heard the comment, he announced on
 aowd e v i h et i tht ay a “e l” t a a m r oeIh
   i     e l sn e               g
nt n i teio t nx n h ta Men w s s i.Iw s s a m v.f e    ne                   t
 an hs hta , is m n mg hv a o t d n h em t r r,
     t      n       c ti                  h
hd’coe ta t k F zm os i t aehdt s n o teT a s r eod         a                   e c
  h h s t vr m r h g o oO cus Fa F zm os i ’ ew e es
   c n         y      ti                     e n ti
w i i ’a e s a tn t d. f or , r k is m n d n gt hr h i               dt            e
 y e g nbd’ u m . iped tl acek e s 15 0 ya l t vl
     n           s                  se a
b bi ayoy dm yHs r i ni pyhc r d $7, 0a erp s r e        a        0           ,u a
and maintenance for himself and his wife. Teamster national headquarters is equipped with
a limousine plus drive, a full-time barber, a full-time masseur, and two French chefs, not to
   etn h r i t r a 7 e j. l a f or , os t hne h ui ’
      o e se s v e                     a t t ,
m ni t pedn’pi t 1-s te Alhto cus de ’cag te n n                e      n                 os
record, starting with the president and working its way down.
      is m n’r cs rJ y of hd pol o m n o em t h tr
       ti              d s m                  a
     F zm ospeee o,im H f ,a a rb m cm o t T a s r ioy      e                      e s .
He was sentenced to 15 years in a federal penitentiary for tampering with a jury. (His
sentence was later commuted by Richard Nixon.) Since taking the reins, Fitzsimmons has
had his own brushes with the law. Last February, an FBI stakeout spotted him meeting
with alleged L.A. Mafia members Peter Milano and Sam Sciortino at the Bob Hope Golf
Classic in Palm Springs. Before the golf balls were gone, Fitzsimmons had talked with Lou
Rosanova, allegedly of the Chicago Mob, as well. Four days latger, he and Rosanova met
again at a health spa in San Diego County. When their meeting was over, Fitzsimmons
went north to San Clemente and hitched a ride back to Washing to with Richard Nixon on
Air Force 1. Wiretaps later revealed a contract in the offing allegedly designed to bleed the
  n n es n ud i Maa el cr l . h Mo’ i bc w se r d t%.
    o        o           h       i t e a
ui pni fn wt a f hah a p nT e b k kak a r ot a7                sc              p e
When it came time to renew the wiretaps, Attorney General Richard Kleindienst refused
permission and the investigation was dropped.
     Some said it was a case of the old Teamster solution again. The Teamsters were the
first union to endorse the Republican ticket and rumors in Washington hold that
Fitzsimmons had veto rights on the Secretary of Labor. The Manchester, New Hampshire,
Union Leader has charged that the Teamsters invested better than half a million dollars in
the secret Watergate campaign fund. When Special Counsel to the President, Charles
Colson, retired from public life a few months back, he joined a Washington law firm that
  a eu adn t em t s e n
                  i e             e’ v
hdbgnhnlg h Ta s r s e-figure business just the month before. Needless
to say, Fitzsimmons, Kleindienst, Colson, Milano, Sciortino and Rosanova have denied all
charges of wrongdoing.

     At the bottom rung of the International Brotherhood, the record is no better. The
Teamsters had no foothold in field work until the last half of 1970. Two days after the
UFW won industry-wide contracts in grapes, the Teamsters signed five-year agreements
with a frightened set of Salinas lettuce growers. The UFW responded by shutting down the
lettuce fields with a walkout of 7000 workers.
     When the Teamsters appealed to the courts to invoke California labor law and stop the
UFW from striking, they won an initial injunction. Two years later, the California Supreme
Court reversed the findings of the lower courts. The justices ruled that the law forcing
compulsory arbitration only applied to two unions representing factions of the same
              c T e orfud h n r t nl n n ut f cet g h r es
               e                      e tn i
working for . h cuton t i e aoaui gi o acpi teg w r      o    ly              n       o ’
invitation and making deals without worker representation. The Teamsters were, in the
 e s f h a rl
  r               w e          cm ay n n r i d y h aae et o o h
                                            o ” az
t m o tel ,u da“o pn ui , ogn e b tem ngm n t d t                                           e
  aae et      ’
m ngm ns bidding.
      i e h em t s rv n ans he fhi og i r hv be hr d
      n e              e re              i , e
     S c t Ta s r a i di Sla tr o te “r n e ” ae enca e    r azs                         g
with violation of the Firearms Act of 1968; half a dozen more are in court charged with
felonious assault. Teamster Frank Corolla has told the federal grand jury that grower
representatives delivered $5000 packets of fresh bills to Teamster officials each week at the
Salinas airport.
      The only agricultural successes the Teamsters have enjoyed are in the packing sheds
and canneries, both of which are under uncontested Teamster jurisdiction. Even on its
own turf, the big union has had its problems. Committees of Chicano workers have
formed in the canneries all over California. One recently filed 36 charges of racism against
the Western Conference of Teamsters. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
upheld all 36 and issued a cease-and-desist order to the Teamsters.
       ht nth iti h n raoaBo r o a be ae ok. uh
           ’         er m                e i
      T as o t fs t eteIt nt nl rte odhs encldhnySc     hh                    l
talk is all over Coachella and Salinas. The Teamster leadership has done little to dispel the
 u os f rh e er f og in it ansid t T a s rhv fl o
         . e r               s       azg            e i esh
rm r At t e ya o “r n i ”n h Sla fl , e em t s aeae t                        e           id
deliver union cards to the largely Chicano membership. Without a card, a worker has no
rights in the larger union. When Einar Mohn, head of the Western Conference, was
questioned about Teamster plans for membership meetings in Coachella, he said it would
  e cul f er e e n w r e .I o sr” e xln ,hw f cv a
             e          s o              e d m
b a op o ya bfr ay e hl “’ ntue h ep i d “o e ete             ,        ae              f i
  n n a e hn t o ps f x a
     o                     ’s          d           c
ui cnb w e i cm oe o Mei n-Americans and Mexican nationals with
temporary visas. As jobs become more attractive to whites, then we can build a union that
  a ngttf    a o t nt”
cn eoiermseg .           r h
      Despite this dubious record, the International Brotherhood of Teamsters continues to
              te e n h w r s fh C ahl V lyS f , y e o mtd vr
                 ps s               e
claim it besr r ette okro te ocea ae.o a te’ cm ie oe  l l           rh v              t
a million dollars to their effort. Agriculture is big business and according to the Teamsters,
only an International Brotherhood has the size to handle it.
      Agriculture is indeed very big business. It accounts for one-third of California jobs and
  ee t
     t a a fh te acm le el .f l h aruua ok s r i d
                 f        e a’
btrhnhlo t s ts cu u t w ah Ia te gclr w r rogn e
                                           ad       t      l        it l          e      az
 n a i l n ni ol eh ao’ a e n hv a iprne eodt ize.
   t ne o t d                         e i sr t
io s g ui , w u b t ntn lgsad ae nm ot c byn i s                          a               s
Agriculture is rapidly becoming the keystone of the Republicans economy. Faced with
  t rn si’n iy o o pt t n e te a m vd n n n e i l
   h d rs a l               t             e e t as
o e i ute i bi t cm e ,h U idS t hs oe i oa i r s g                          t        c an y
unfavorable position in world trade. This has blown the worth out of the dollar and lit a
fire under Richard Nixon. He plans to escape the dilemma by increasing the production
and export of farm products. Already, government production controls have been lifted
and doors opened to the Russian and Chinese markets. Needless to say, Richard Nixon
 s to xid bu i u n e r hvz n te F n httt yH ’ l p
  n            t              cd g a
i ’toece aotnl i C s C ae ad h U W i tasa g. e se a                        re         de
little easier with it in the hands of his friends.
      One such friend, Undersecretary of Labor Laurence H. Silberman, arranged for Frank
                              t a ee br nul ovn o f h m ra a
                                 s              ’
Fitzsimmons to speaka ltD cm esana cnet n o teA ecn Fr            i                 i        m
   ue . h Fr ue s g e ’ r i tn i l h t o cl g n n
       a            m        a
B r u T e a B r uia rw r ogn ao wt aog ioy f ai ui s
                                      o s azi                h n sr                 ln      o
   o m n t r t u hy e i d is m n a y e ae hvz a
            s o ,                      cv
C m ui f ns btte r e e F zm os w r l H cld C ae “  ti            m .          l
 e li a r d ad o a
   v uo y a
r o tnrf u” n gt big hand. A month later, the Teamsters signed an agreement
with the Labor Contractors Association and their representatives showed up in Coachella
with an offer.
       hi f r a t et a ore ta h F s n u d o i g a, o
           r e             n                   s
      T e of w s e cns nhu ls hnt U W’ i l e n h i hl n e        , cd             r n      l
special pesticide regulations and was written in English. None of the Teamster rank and file
  ae e a oy fh ot cyt u t r e a t ta i ,a ad bu t .
         e                 e r          ,
hv s n cp o t cn ate bth g w rs i ar tefrn aotie               s
                                                e o s y ’ t cv i                            m
  Is i t ae o eoy i l e t nt n u s e o oc, o mented one
   t c                              h t r h
“ ’n e ohv sm b d wt ailseg o or i fr ne cm t                   d           ”
Coachella ranch manager. He smiled as he said the words and switched the sides of his
mouth.
The Teamster strength in Coachella is hard to miss. Most teamsters average better than six-
foot high and 200-pounds heavy. Some are red-necked truckers from Indio; the
  a hue n r . l ki h p sad h e tr s hi a n a uk s
   e      m       o A o k pe                      e s ee r r t
w r os e f m L . o le i i,n t r eg a te hiio dc’a .                                  s s
  hy l epi 6. di f
       l        d 5 l o h ui ’ r in ud. ah a a5 M,hs
                                            o s azg
T e a gt a $7 0 ay rm te n n ogn i fnsE c dy t A te                                       e
 og i r s m l n h a w y a n o fHg
    azs s y                 e e            kg t            h
“r n e ”a e b i t Sf a pri l of i way 111. The fat ones like to
stamp their feet on the asphalt and say one Teamster is worth five Mexicans. Those are just
about the odds they work. It makes for long hard days.

       hr r i t s s ay x asbth ’ m sy m l n a r
           e ev m                          c
     T e a fe ie a m n Mei n, u t ye ot s a adhla womener       l      l        f e
and children. They start at 4:30, drinking sugared coffee in the Coachella park across from
the hiring hall. As the picket captains pass the word on which ranches are working, the
United Farmworkers huddle into caravans, head out the highway and across county roads.
The streets running east and west are all named after numbers, the ones north and south
after Presidents. The armies rarely get lost. They usually show up about the same time.
  i e liU i ’ et a ,h cut ae i n h U W
   n       c      bs          d c              s       v
S c Aia r e dne f ete or hv g e te F the far side of the road
and the Teamsters the side with grapes on it. The judge said the distance would keep things
peaceful; Riverside County sheriffs cruise between the lines to make sure. But even the
  os ae’ en b o ep h o e o n
              t          e
cp hvn be alt ke t ni dw .           e s
     Both sides have full horns and start using them when the first folks show up to work.
  h U W ash s s o h em t shy r boh T a s r n go
                l e          a ”
T e F cl t m “cb.T t Ta s rte a “rt r em t s ad“od
                                         e        e        e        e         e”
     x as h o od ad e hv shto en h m ri bi a i r .
      c ”             d                       e
Mei n.T e l F rs n nwC ei tacm i te on g r g ml bed                    n n           d e
     s ep o’ a ao Whn hy ot ye l k g o w r. frhyi i
      e        e tl t
The poldn tk l. e te d, e’ “ oi fr ok At te f dt  h r o n                 ” e           n ,
 h or os t a dop g nihe
   e           n sr
t rade ’ t t rp i uttr .        n      l e
                                                               H eal!
     The United Farmworkers wave their flags and shout, “ ug”into the fields. They
stand in a solid line, on tops of cars and in roadside weeds. Most have no idea that James
Buchanan was the 15th President of the United States. They know him only as a street in
the Coachella Valley.
     The Teamsters on the other side of the bumpy tar are spread thinner. They like to take
their shirts off, flash their tattoos, and every now and then one threatens to drop his pants
at the UFW. That always gets a big laugh. One slow morning, the boss Teamster stalked
out into the fields, brought 12 workers out, arranged them by an American flag and took
their picture for the Teamster newsletter. When they got bored once, some Long Beach
banana loaders stuffed a gunny sack, hung it as Cesar Chavez in effigy, and danced around
it, spitting and calling the ex-potato bag 14 kinds of motherfucker.
     At three, the field work stops, the United Farmworkers split for the shade trees in
Coachella, and the Teamsters find an air conditioner. No one in the Valley with any sense
works past three. Both sides agree to let the sun carry the action until six. Then the battle
 tt l vr gi T e F s h ol eei s o pe u i h ae’
   as l               n
s r a oe aa . h U W ue teco r vn g t sr dotnot V ly
                                         s        e       n          a        t e ls
sprinkling of little towns and labor camps.
     On April 24th, 20 strikers from the Coachella-Imperial Distributors Ranch took their
leaflets and walked into the CID labor camp. The rest of the 90-strong UFW pickets stayed
  n h ra,yh i o gae cpe ad h w v o s psi u o t a p
                     en            l
o teodb t le f nrd yr s n te ae fad uh g p n h cm ’
                                            s                   n        n          e       s
  a . h “a p ia os tiraa e i l
    e                              ae       r ne
gt T e cm ”s h uerl, lg s g -roomed building with a bathroom in one
end, and two cottages divided into two rooms apiece. The little houses are for families and
the big one holds 30 single men. The trailer is pulled by a semi and belongs to the camp
manager, a short man with knobs of curly hair on his nose. On April 24th, he never even
came outside. As soon as he saw the strikers, he just grabbed the phone.
    In ten minutes, the police arrived. While the sergeant and the picket captains discussed
 h F si to e h e h em t s ut n n e a r l e bs d o e
  e            g           e, e             e
t U W’rh t b t r t Ta s r bs di Mi t le a hl ut l se . us t l l e o .
      2 em t s e e y l rui n uhd p r h ra. rui a t
                 e      e d                  e
The 0T a s r w r l b A D ob adrse u f m te od D ob hs’          o                   e n
been very active in the last month, but in the first two weeks of the strike, he kept busy
enough to draw three different assault charges. Droubie paused momentarily at the sight of
 h oc. u h a p s f ad ea c a i G th uk u o hr” e
  e i                       sd
t ple B t ew s ie of n bgns emn “ e t fc ot f e , hr       g        e                 e
 ee,gth e s o s u o hr”
   l           e s e
yld“et s a hl ot f e .               e
    Taking his cue, the pear-shaped Teamster in back of Droubie threw a board into the
circle of strikers and began to swing his bicycle chain. It whipped around his head in third
gear. Droubie spotted Tom Dalzell, one of the UFW lawyers in the front of the crowd.
 G t i ” e lgd u e d n h sut u nx t rui nce a e ot
        m          l y te
“ eh ,h aeelm tr adte qagy etoD ob kokdD l l u                        e              zl
cold with a right hand lead. Droubie himself allegedly chased down UFW organizer
    r a G n ad l e h n te a ,c a i “uk o, az h Ta s r
     s l               o
Ma hl az n p w d i i o h s ds emn,F c yuG n.T e em t
                               m t           n r         g                  ”             e
had ripe sweat streaming down his face and blinked his eyes to keep track of the Teamster
charge.
    The 20-man rush forced the UFW across the sand to the road. Once past the gate, they
                                                   o ems e . ht en “ e r o
                                                        e       d”
held their ground by the parked cars and sang, N Tn oMio T am as w a nt                e
 f i n x a. h T a s r s pd th de fh cm n uc a d h
  rd             c                e o               e
a a ”i Mei n T e em t s tpe a t eg o te a padpnt t te                              ue
                   rcsh cre i w il n ah i tea w re ’a .
                          a rd h              se
song with flying ok t ta i wt a h t ad t dno h f m okr cr  u t         r         s s
      F c yu rui hu d r h cpe .
                 ”       e
    “uk o,D ob sot f mte yr s    e o               s
    The most popular UFW response to the Teamster muscle has been the picket line. As a
group, the International brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers has been shortened to los gorillas. Some mornings, the pickets bring bananas tied to
the ends of poles and dangle them at the Teamster line. The Teamsters have been carrying
thick sticks, getting tans and picking up Spanish. When they do, the shouting has been
 nw o uth re i s“ nvr ae h r oh nn o te a e” h n
                    e en                     l e
ko nt hrt if lg.I ee cldt im t r oe fhm nm s t oe          e                      , e
 ae “ i og sd“ it i
   l         g
cld Kn K n” a .Ia ’ a.  i t n fr       ”

  o e t e hv t r yore” a G i o T a s r oa28 ep i
       e e           ss e            is
Y us ,hs C aia a hpct ,R y rg, em t L cl 0,xln Ray  e            e                   a s.
came out from L.A. after the first week of the strike. He likes to wear a flat black hat so he
looks like Black Bart and loves to talk on the bull horn. Griego is the only Teamster
  aoi K r ai ad o’ ac w o pas pn hs h gt
   rl  n      a a              s
pt l g a hd n n Sn R nh h sek Sai ,o e e to be the Teamsters            s
 o e vr a.Sm t e w e ’ u hr I e hm r n hi i e le u
   c      y
vi ee dy“o em s hnI ot e , s te pa o te p kti bt
                       i              m          e e               y         r c n
only 25% of them mean it. One of the guys was flipping me the bird while he was
 ups o e r n Is o, hte ?
        d         yg k
spoe t b pai , a yuitar l           s      a”
      Weeu hr o rt th e ep n h fl ”sh w y a G i o e h
         r s e             e e              e
    “ ’ j t e t po c t s poli te id,ite a R y rg s s i es                         e e s
 o G i o lm h’ ee ld hn o ayoy i e e a e u f
  b e a              s          i
j . rg c is e nvra a ad n nbd s c h cm otrm h h m i      n                          s
                                                                              o i o en
  a r a“ hs ep ,h s , o tg ak vr i a t h s pd hu e
       a         e      e
L Mid.T e pol” e aspi i bc oe h htote toe sol r
                                   y     nn                  s               o            ds
         e ,w n t ok hy o duhe ad os t o ebth ’ a a o
          l                 .                    r
sin the fid “ atow r T e gt agt s n sn a hm , u t ye f i t                      e r rd
  r gh o h fl eas o t e hv t .i e e e en e , e bi te
   n e            es                  e
bi t m t teid bcue fhs C aia S c w ’ be hr t y r ghi
                                                ss n           v            eh        n      r
kids.
      D o nw” rg r e t s hv t a nt n u trls e
                           e g ,he                 ss
     “ oyuko ,G i oa us“ e C aia et o i btota bans and         hg             l
                                                                             i ,
  o t a t i ? ht a t et w a t o. e e yoe fh ae e
    ae l em                  ’ le ,
ptos l h t e T as l hy a s eroG dY s ra, n o t m gv m a       td               e
burrito. It was pure beans. It got me so mad that this man Chavez comes out here and
feeds these people that shit morning, noon and night. So what I did was buy some burritos
myself. I came back and gave them a Teamster burrito. It was all meat. I ask you, what
kinda union is it that makes its people eat beans? Those people inside the fields are eating
  efn h r uro. hyl l u hy aeo o ith
           e       i          le y
beit ibrtsT e’tlo te hv t g w the people who put meat on the
 a en t ’ s
   b
t lad ht u.  as ”
     Pio Yerpes is a Filipino worker in the fields Ray Griego guards. Like most of the 15
  ok s n i r , e en u o w r uh f i i Fr a rs e oa bt
      e         s e        s
w r r o h c w h’be ot f okm c o h l . a l o is snl u      sf  e m b              a ,
living is year-round, which means bills that only a paycheck can satisfy. In April and early
    yt c w o ht cld h n gT e o o fh r e uc s u a a f
       h e              ’ l i n
Ma, e r d w as ae tni . h bt m o t g p bnhictw y rmt         e a                           o
the stem and six branches are left on top to make big, sweet Thompsons. If the job is done
wrong, the grapes grow into water berries, bloated and tasteless. In June, the crews are
tripled and they begin to pick. If the picking is done too slowly or too late, the grapes
shrivel into raisins and droop on the vines, crusting into heaps. Whenever he works, Pio
Yerpes uses his bandana to tie a straw hat to his head. Shade collects into a black apron
under its brim and falls all over his eyes.
      Im m m eo t em t s h s .Ii e aed.te so et od
                            e         e,       y
     “ a a e br fh T a s r” e as“ s nd layIs m t m i go
                                                      g       r         e            ’s
  u I o’ nw uh bu tem
            t
bt dn ko m c aot h yet. My boss, Mr. Karahadian, he sign with the
Teamsters. Where shall I go? Shall I follow Chavez to strike? Without some money? And
  h wl a m ?’ ups o oo y os m rh? hv t upra k d
         l           m
w o ipy e I spoe t flwm bs A Ii tI aeospotl i s
                                d        l         .         g                        ln
of things. Some of my car and everything like this and that. I go with them and what will
  apn T e wl i m $. a Ii o $?te so eh ’ ic o .
                   lv                    v
hpe? hy ig e e 5C n le n 5 Is m t m t t r i l s      e             as d u u ”
     K. Karahadian, the boss of Pio Yerpes and owner of the fields Ray Griego guards,
agrees. Karahadian made his stash in knit sportswear and moved out of L.A. in the Thirties
 o w o e r e T i hvz ae o odm
                   a .         s
t o nsm g ps “ h C ae m d togda nm n ms ks K r ai                        t ,
                                                                 ay iae” a hd n     a a
  lm .Werd o eoa i h eo l r akn oe br e a cnr t
  a             i            ie h s lw e
c is“ te t ngttwt tifl c a bc i N vm e H hda ot c                        .                 a
that was impossible to live with. About 20 negotiable items and we never got past the fist
one. In the meantime, we warned them. The Teamsters are in the Valley, we said, but he
  ol ’ie ”
      d ts n
w u n lt .
     The 1965 strike hurt Karahadian and thoughts of the new one jam his jaws together; so
      caoaw r ece o n o h o r ad al i d i ed “e . h
          i                                  s a
an ocs nl odbahs noe f im ls n r tsni h ha.h . . e          te s e s
  i l uhd h ok s w y r i n n We i ’ ae oh g o o i t f
  m y              e
s p pse t w r ra a f m h ui . d n hv nti t d wt i I
                          e           o s o              dt              n            h.
Teamsters came into our fields before negotiations, we chased them off. We kept out of
the picture completely. We did the best we knew how to get along with this Chavez. Even
then, his union was always har . . . harassing us with all kinds of stupid grievances, filling
  vr a, sasle a uc o nt n .
     y      u        ul
ee dyj tbo ty bnh f o i s                   h g”
                        a s ocr d t F s e r hvz n e r hvzs t
                         n            n      e            a
     As far as Karahadi icne e,h U W iC s C ae adC s C ae i ’                a              n
   uh“ e u nt l re e” a hd n a .H ’ r li i,ro e n
             ss            b a , a a y
m c.H ’j t o aao l dr K r ai s s“ e a eo t n to sm ti         s v uo s                   hg
 i t . oew dn g t t r h Ta s ra n n taslT ash w o
  k aT                    t
leht hsto o’ o oe e T e em t sriad ht a. ht te hl
                                  gh .              e e               ’ l        ’           e
           ti ia u hl
              n
goddamn h gn nt e.       s l  ”
      oao e y s o okn a hd n id e e a G i o ea o ur
          r      a      d                   a as es o
     R s i Pl oue t w r i K r ai ’fl bfr R y rg bgnt ga                  e                   d
 h .h tla ie n k d ft y T e em t s ee cm i o h id o a
   e          l
t m Sees d f et i o s r “ h Ta s rnvr a en t fl t tk
                     fr        n       o.              e                 t e es l
 o s h ep i “ u fr n a a em t ad
      ”         as             m                   e
t u,se xln.O roe a w s T a s r n he signed us all up without telling
us. The day before the strike, the Teamsters came and broke all our union flags. We had
flags on our cars and on the grape rows and they tore them all down. We went to the
foreman. We told him that we were still under contract and that we did not permit him to
come and molest us. The owner came up and said if we wanted to we could leave.
     T e et a, oao e l,t ui i e a e n ae so o e u o
                  ”      r cl h o c s
    “ h nx dy R s i r as“ e n np ktcm adcldu t cm ot f                l
the fields. We began to talk to the other workers. When we did, the son of the foreman
  i e u a r e t e n td eoe eIa I agi t l e u taw ’ l o
  c           a a             l
p kd p g p s k ad o m t l v. sd w s o goev btht e a g
                                          a       i           n      a               dl
 o t r d n ar wt h n n e at .
   gh .        dt e h e o
t e e We i ’ g e i t ui h w n d                   e”
    Rosario Pelayo claims she left the fields with 85 others. Her face is expressionless; she
  os t e l ml r r n Se a te r hte a d h s r
     n ay e              o
de ’r l s i o f w . h s s h c w ta r l e t m if m T xs n
                                       y         e         pc        e       o ea ad
  ot r x o “ h fst r ee gto a o T a s r h cnne w s
     hn        c         r m
nr e Mei .T e itie I vr o t tkt a em t ,se ot us“ a l              e”            i ,
  u hr n h i e leIo i ht d n h k
        e      e c n             l m              dt n
ot e o t p kti . tdh ta I i ’ti their union was bad but it was
very apart from our union. If they wanted to be our union, they should have talked to us.
  hy o’ e e n f m okr”
           tps
T e dn r r eta w re .  r         s
      oao e y, e hsad n i hde i o 5 w e tk eet Is
         r     a                         x l nv
    R s i Pl o hr ubn ads cir le n$0a eksi bnfs“t                         re        i. ’
  ii l h amt : uw hv t sug .t ori ”
  fc t   ”         s”
d fu,se d i, bt e aeo t gl Is u l .       r e ’           fe

Since April 16th, that life has been a lot more dangerous than they ever expected. The
Teamsters started a fear campaign sprinkled with beatings back in April and May. By June
the situation became even more tense. June means picking in Coachella and picking is a
very touchy time. Grapes must be picked, packed and sent to the cooler at the right
moment. Left too long on the vine, the grapes begin to wrinkle and each wrinkle means
  oe ot f g es      o ’
m ny u o a rw r pocket. June was slow this year and there were many wrinkles.
Crews were short, the strike grew, and the crop began to burn around the edges. The UFW
pickets numbered in the hundreds and the Teamsters had to recruit 15-year-olds to do the
work. The situation worsened and the Teamsters finally decided to cut the crap and get
down to business. June 23rd, 1973, was the Battle of the Asparagus Patch.
     The attack took shape at seven in the morning around the vineyard owned by Henry
Moreno. A hundred United Farmworker pickets got tired of standing next to Avenue 60
and decided to move into a clump of desert between the grapes and a field of asparagus, 90
yards further on. The court injunctions said they had to stay 60 feet from the vines, so the
pickets walked the long way and set up behind the field with the asparagus to their backs.
Most of the pickets were teenagers, women and children. While they were making their way
around the vineyard, 75 Teamsters crunched up behind the vines to watch. The Teamsters
split into two groups, one facing the pickets, the other to their side and behind them. The
 n raoaBo e o d tbt p e ad i i sIw s t n bf eh bgn
   e i             hh         si e p
It ntnl rt rod ir u d i s n tern.t a ’og e rt y ea  r o            nl         o e
to take swings and throw rocks at the stragglers in the UFW line.
     The Teamster leader was known as the Yellow-Gloved Kid. The name came from the
squash-colored gloves he never took off. He perched on the back of a white pickup, tugged
at his wrists and delivered hoarse shouts. Two fat Teamsters near him carried pistols under
their belts. The Teamsters were soaking up the heat like sponges, getting redder ass they
waited, and rubbing their hands in wet circles.
     Then the waiting was over. The Yellow-Gloved Kid lobbed a firecracker towards the
  F i e Kl h , e lgd hu d “ i hm” ht e h em t sn
          c . l e                  l y         e
U W p kt“ i t m”h aeel sot . Klte . T a s teT a s r i   l               t             e
  oi n h r ue f ni a udr a. he hrf s d e e h w
      o         e            e v
m tnadt iJn of s ew s ne w y T r sefs to btenteto        e i’ o               w
  n n bth d n vn eth Boh ho’ uh T e r p o h s e n ak
    o          a dt                          e
ui s u t t i ’ee dn te rt rod rs. h g u t te i adbc  s            o             d
drew blood first. The ground they charged across was full of bumps. As the pickets tried to
 s p,h t b d n e io h em t s a A a a e a ao i h
  c        e u e                l t
e ae t ys m l adfln teTa s r pt. m nnm dTm y h t  e’ h                                 t e
hardpan deck and two long-haired Teamsters allegedly split his head open with a pipe. It
was as easy as swatting flies. For good measure, they spent five minutes kneading him with
their size 12s. When Fredrico Sayre tried to help, he was knocked into the sand by a third
Teamster coming up from behind.
       l e n e a ok s ea o u, u t e a te l n place to run to.
         t       t      m       e
     Alh U idFr w r rbgnt rn bthr w s’r l ay           e       n ay
The Teamsters had circled them on three sides. Some ran out the open side into the
asparagus patch only to be chased down. Before the police reinforcements arrived, several
pickets got to sample Teamster benefits close up. A blond Teamster chased Roy Trevino
with a tree limb and allegedly beat him to his knees. Each time Trevino staggered to his
feet, the Teamster laced him with his piece of tree. When Joe Pavia finally helped him
 w yR y ed a rn gu e n e et ogi b od
            s             in i                          n o
a a, o’ha w sa i jc adh kp cuh g l in a thin dribble between
his lips. Consuelo Lopez found her son Ricardo by a pile of grape lugs with his face pushed
 n h ple e e h ude i ak o h m i od bth em t s i ’
  .         i      p
i T e oc hl dt hnr l pbc t te a ra, u t T a s rd n
                          e         dm                     n            e         e dt
  ato t . n cld C t n ca d 1-year-old boy down the street and allegedly
           o           l
w n t s pO e ae “ aMa” hs a 4              e
whipped him with a stick. Another, ran across the road, opened a pickup door, pulled the
driver out and kicked his ass with a club. When the dust settled, five UFW members were
in the hospital; twenty more were treated and released.
     Before the June offensive ended four days later, 18 Teamsters faced assault charges; a
  F e br hue a be bre t te r n; e r hvz a so a ad or
                ’                                  o
U W m m es os hd en und o h g udC s C ae w shtt n fu        a                     ;
  oe F          e br e opazd f r e g og i d i
                      s e
m r U W m m e w r hsile ae bi “r n e”wt
                                    ti       t     n        az         htire irons. When a
priest had his nose broken by a 300-pound Teamster in the middle of a crowded coffee
shop, the shit finally hit the fan in the Teamster from office. Frank Fitzsimmons sent his
own fact-finders to Coachella and their report clinched it.
         r y s a a n f h e is m n e o e m ia od
           a      t e
     Mur We gt w soeo tem nF zm oss tt hl “ a tngoti            n        p       ni
 e tn wt h r s ad e rbc. n rv , t i ose ia a qoe s
  li         h e s               p               r a F zm
raos i t pe ” n r ot akO a i l is m n’ms r w s ut a                      sy             d
 a n h e i b a v l e rb m n oceaWe gt a hv g i e a
  yg e            h
s i t r mgt e “iec”pol i C ahl. s a w s ai d nr t
                              on           e              l      t e            n n
the El Morocco Motel in Indio when he got the chance to investigate the problem in
greater depth. Teamster Hank Salazar was with him. A Teamster Westgate had never seen
before approached Salazar and Westgate looked up from his blue cheese dressing to
          e i e. e em t bce a a f
             m lT                e
introduc h sf h T a s r akd w yrmWe gts adhk.    o        t e
                                                        s a ’hnsae
      I o’ ato nw o,o sn
            t                                   ih h T a s ra .Wh te e d I
                                                t ”
     “ dn w n t ko yuyu o-of-a-b c,te em t sd“ yh hl o           e i                  l
  ato hk yu hn? o h k o a u tasi n vr n? dn i yu
                                    i
w n t sae or ad Y utn yucnpl hth o ee oe I o’le o. l        t        y            tk
  efce. t    ” h
G tukd Wi that, the Teamster walked around the table, allegedly punched Westgate
in the mouth and then punched him once again to make sure he remembered the first one.
 D n t o u t si gi” ea ade. t t n h f o.
       ty         la t n
“ o’ rt plhth aa ,h sd n lt s a o tel r   i      f We g e             o
     Westgate picked himself up off the carpet and the waitress brought his steak. Ralph
  o r h em t Ae ue i apoce h r c sh ro .We gt”
    n,e              e a           vo
C te t T a s r r sprsr prahd i f m arste om “ s a ,   m o        o                    t e
  e a ,t r r or oe us t d g vrh e h r adrh e t o,
      i he e                            a n
h sd “ e a fu m r gy s ni oe t r w oa m de t nhla yu  e          e           a l
                   o o h a h g n s yu e te e u o hr i t w y
                         e m      n      e
who are waiting t d t s eti uls o gth hlot f e rh a a.      l          e g        ”
   s a etan. sa s e ol e, e oe a ag bu w ah’ o h
     t e         i        r         d le y
We gtkp et gA f a h cu tl vr n w s nr aot ht e tl te        y             d d
 r sT e em t s at n pbcy n h “ie e rb m”
   s              e      e        it
pe . h T a s rw n d o uli o te v l c pol .      on          e
                              s hu e aa . I o o’ at hth g hvd
                                     d       n f
    Cotner bent over Westgate’sol r gi “ yudn w n ta tn soe t            i
 o n or h a e lgd a , yu ee gth e u o hr” s a
              r ”       l y i            d t
dw yu t ot h aeel sd “o’ btr e tehlot f e . We gt            l          e      t e
 o e u ad a zrn r dd“okMur , a zra ,yu eegth hl u
  o               a
l kd p n Sl aie ee.L o, r y Sl asd“o btr ete e ot
                       tc                   a” a         i         t           l
                    ti d
                       l ” s a bnoe h t k n lt
                        e       t e
of here before you gekl .We gtaadnd is a ade .    se          f
     e e h n fuenw re a e o oceaT e em t “ur ” e
       o e                          s
    Bfr t edo Jn, e odr cm t C ahl. h T a s r ga s w rl             e      d       e
pulled out and sent to Arvin and Lamont in Kern County. Director of the Western
  of ec’ gclr
      r s i t l r s r in      e      azg
C ne ne A ruua Wokr O gn i Committee, Bill Grammi, announced the
move to the press.
     Wee o g h , r i a , bcue e eee hto la noc et
         r n i” m                 i
    “ ’ di t s G a m sd “eas w blv ta l a l efr m n   i          c w          e
agencies have realized the need for increasing their forces to the point where their
 rt i apa dqa .
     co
poetn peraeut”   s       e

But the war continues. The bulk of table grape growers have signed with the Teamsters,
and the UFW is still fighting for its life. Coachella is burrowed in front of its coolers now,
waiting for November. The harvest is over. The UFW has gone north to Arvin, Delano
  n Sl ,tk g lh r e t a e t si Is hr i to t F o i
         m ri l e a                  a ef
ad e asin a t g pshtrlto tk.t a a fh frh U W t wn    re ’         dg            e
by itself. They are a union of poor people—a union that has struck in table grapes, wine
grapes, lettuce and vegetables for eight years running. To wink the strikers must make their
  ur r o h ok f $ bl t nta u t rrnshl a m k i
     ts         e
qa e d t w r o a 5 i Is o es bthifed’e m y aet
                                l ’
                                 .            y        e i          p               .
     Friends are one commodity the UFW has been able to count on. In the first five-year
strike, it was the American grocery shopper who finally brought the growers to the table.
When the demand for union grapes forced everything else off the fruit shelves, the UFW
  o a ot c T e e oct aaed m d ts er g ps ot 2 0e ite
            r .                 t        r
gt cn at h nwbyo hslay aeh yas r e w r $. lsfhy         i ’ a              h 5 s
  o’ aeh l k al t U W e , te o. id rdco i3% fa yas
     t         e a
dn hv t b c eg , e F s l n h bxF lpoutns 8 o lter
                         eh               ao               e          i                s ’
crop and if the price dips much further, growers will be losing money with each box they
ship.
     The biggest farmworker friend has been the AFL-CIO. Three weeks after the strike
started, George Meany announced that the 13.5 million member labor federation would tax
its members 4¢ a head for three months and give the UFW a strike fund. The money has
kept the UFW eating. In the meantime, a lot of grapes have turned brown with puckers all
over them like a small prune.
      h sa e ftlsh t oe’ a e. l e oe—the UFW strike fund,
                       l a e
     T e hm o ia it th m ny w s d Alh m ny   s t           t
 h em t s io, $5, 0 pn b te i s e on hrf D pr et
   e        e’ l h
t Ta s r ml nte 20 0 set yh Rvrd C utSefs eam n—
                    i            0                       ei         y i’              t
could have been saved with the price of one honest vote. An election would sort out all the
  lm qi l btt o le o apn on T e em t s r ’ i n l tn.
  a         cy
c is u k , u i nti lt hpe so. h T a s r a n b o e cos
                      ’s      ky                                  e et g               ei
They have run against the UFW three times in the course of their agricultural organizing
  det s n o ec i . h Boh h o’ tt e ush g e i .t t
          r        s
avnue adl t aht eT e rt rod aid si te rw r f eIsh
                            m                e       s tu        t        o sn ’ e
case of Keene Lersen that has most of the owners scared. Lersen is one of two Coachella
growers who renewed their UFW contracts. In the first strike, he was a grower spokesman.
                                                   w u ie h h okr i ’ at
                                                         d sn a s
Lersen went around the country telling whoever ollt t t iw re d n w n a         s dt
union. Finally, the UFW called the question. Being an honest man, Lersen accepted. A
binding vote was arranged by impartial parties and Lersen lost 78 to 2.
    The nearest thing to an election this time around happened before the strike began.
   g er i n, cnuato h U i p’ o mte n a ao,ok
      .      e g                  t
MsrG og Hgesa osln t te SBsosC m ie o Fr Lbrto      h              t          m
25 church and civic leaders into 31 fields and polled the workers. Their poll totaled UFW
                         n n 8Iyue T a s
                           o              r          er
795, Teamsters 80, no-ui 7.f o’ a em t or a grower, that adds up to a good
reason not to vote.
    Even without ballots, the Coachella Valley grape workers found ways of making their
feelings known. One incident in the first week of the strike has become a farmworkers
legend. It began with a young woman member of the UFW and a bull horn. She was with
the picket line outside the Bobara Ranch, standing on top of a car. Behind her the sun
hung like a yolk lobbed against a blue clapboard wall.
      R m m e” h sot o h w re n h fl w
                ,            e                s         e.
    “ e e br se hu dt te okri te id “ hen we were under contract
                             i e e pr d vr or or hvn e noe
                               u s i                 y
and we used to have 15-mnt r t eosee fu hus I ae’s nayn            ?          t e
 e i . r t e e pr d ay oe
  sn        nt e s i
r tgAe’ hrr t eosnm r ”                    ?
    As she finished, the people in the vines began to break into bunches, sit down and light
cigarettes. When their break was over, the young woman started in again.
      R m m e o ” h cn ne,hw u cnr te se eh id o o o h
                ,o              i
    “ e e brt ,se ot ud“o orotcl u l v t fl t g t te   a t a e es
  a om nt e e at ? hvn s ayn l eo te a ro n w hus
   h           i
btro aym w w n d I ae’ en noeev frh bt om ito or
                            e            te              a              h                  .
  o’ h em t se o?
      te
D n t Ta s rl yu”  e t
    Scattered workers began to walk to the portable toilets on the edge of the vineyard.
When they returned, the bull horn opened up again.
      R m m e” h on w m n a ,w e e e ln h n n n e s o
                , e                      i
    “ e e br t yug o a sd “ hnw w r a i t ui adw ue t     el e o                       d
        Vv hv ’
            a e?                                                   V v hv !
shout, ‘i C a z Is there anyone in the fields who still shouts “ i C a za e”
                                                               A a, hv ”
                                                                   o       e
    The Teamsters forewoman stood up over the vines. “ bj C a z she shouted.
  ht “ o n i hvz
     ’
T as D w wt C ae.  h        ”
    As soon as she finished, heads popped up and backs straightened all over the field.
  Vv hvz h yld“ i hvz
     a         ” e l
“ i C ae,t y ee.Vv C ae!         a         ”
    The Teamsters along the road ran back into the vines, stumbling along the rows and
 r p g n h c bn fr s“ht p s hth tl h w r s T as ra
  i n              u i
tpi o te rm lg urw.Su u,iw at yo te okr “ ht ai l
                              o               ”          e d              e.       ’ v
  nn
   o ” t ht vr n ecp teoe
             h , y                           w
ui .Wi ta ee oe xeth fr oman walked out of the ranch and joined the
                                                            S spes h sd(
                                                              ,     d,
UFW picket. The young woman got down from the car. “i eu e se a .“ cn   ”       i We a
  ot
d i) .”
      h sn a oh g n n r pd l g h on w m n akl v g r k
                i      i
    T e u sdnt n adoldi e a n t yug o a’bc, ai tcs
                                   y p         o      e                s       e n a
on her shirt and toasting the dirt under her feet. On the other side of the avenue, the
Teamster forewoman hunkered in the ounce of shade next to the vines, kicking at the heat
with her new shoes.

								
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