COACHELLA by whitecheese


     the music festival LIVES:

          and ONLINE
                    in the DESERT

photo by brian_adams at

                                                                                                                         the immediacy of the web
                                                                                                                              allows the event to be
                                                                                                                        documented as it happens.
                                                                                                                                    we have to ask:
                                                                                                               will attending the next Coachella in
                                                                                                                        person even be necessary?

                                                                                                                                           PAGE 4

       JACK PASSION,                                               IN THIS ISSUE
       CHAMPION.                                                             LIFTED
                                                              same-sex marriage ban lifted in iowa, vermont, but
                                                              enforced in california. what happens next? PAGE 12

                                                           the US is pretty much defenseless against cyber attacks on
                                                       our power, water, and infrastructure. the future of war on PAGE 18

                                                              swine flu has been delcared a national emergency,
                                                               but you’re not going to die. see why on PAGE 24

                                                               MAKER FAIRE
                                                                   build. craft. hack. play. see our take on the
    visit for the complete story.                  science faire for grown-ups. PAGE 30
          On Saturday night M.I.A., the Sri Lankan-British rapper who has used the          connotations. And Buraka Som Sistema, with members from Portugal and
      Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival here as one of her springboards toward       Angola, played its version of kuduro, a tough mongrelization of techno and

      the big time — three appearances in five years, and finally last weekend on the       soca.
      main stage — had a gig like a bad dream. Added only a month ago to the                    For some reason crowd-surfing was especially viral this year. On Friday
      schedule (and one month after giving birth to a son), possibly as a replacement       Matt Shultz of Cage the Elephant, a young Kentucky rock band just back from
      for the canceled Amy Winehouse, she apparently hadn’t prepared much for the           a quick coronation in the English press, made it all the way out to the back
      50,000 or so people attending.                                                        of the crowd, aloft on his hands. It was a spectacle that lost its novelty over
          She started off beautifully on “World Town,” a small woman dressed like           the weekend, as seen in subsequent sets by Thievery Corporation, Amanda
      a capitan in a hat and military jacket, behind a podium with a bouquet of fake        Palmer, Public Enemy (Flavor Flav did it three times) and Pink Eyes, from
      news microphones before her. But then things got fuzzy, and her dancers were          the Toronto punk band with an unprintable name, which played one of the
      carrying the show, looking increasingly to the boss after they had exhausted          weekend’s most committed sets.
      their short routines. They were running out of material, and M.I.A. derives her           Bonus points for Flavor Flav: he’s 50. Double bonus for Pink Eyes: he’s a
      sense of improvised stagecraft from hip-hop, which is to say that she doesn’t         very large man and was bleeding profusely on the crowd at the time, having
      have much.                                                                            smashed his forehead with a microphone and then bonked it on the stage floor.
          “I really don’t know how to bring it on the main stage, but we’re gonna try,”     (Later, while signing autographs next to the on-site record store — Sunday
      she said to the crowd. On the fourth song, “Bird Flu,” she encouraged fans to         happened to be International Record Store Day — he admitted that he had
      rush the stage. About 100 joined her, and the show momentarily improved,              taken aspirin to thin the blood and make it run faster. “Old wrestlers’ trick,” he
      with all these normal people in excited motion: climbing up and reorienting           said, smiling.)

      themselves as they took in the sight of the masses and the desert hills beyond,           There was a general bowing in the direction of Paul McCartney, whose
      something they might never experience again. Then, immediately, many of               strong singing, easy presence, unforced emotional power and sheer tenacity
      them took a picture of themselves onstage with their cellphones.                      in his Friday night headlining show — nearly 180 minutes, 50 of them fined for
          Coachella exists in two time zones: the event itself and its digital afterlife.   going past midnight — seemed to dispel the doubts that a 66-year-old Rock
      The second zone, on cameras and blogs and Twitter and video-sharing sites,            and Roll Hall of Famer could work at indie-obsessed Coachella. (Those doubts
      comes a heartbeat after the first, like a rockabilly slap-back echo. In its 10th      are nonsense, by the way: if Elvis Presley were alive and had a reasonably
      year now, Coachella has been the music festival for the most technologically          good manager, he’d be killing them here.)
      advanced teenagers-to-young-professionals, sniffing around the alternative                Mr. McCartney presented a history-spanning concert much like those from
      mainstream. Even when the music doesn’t present an argument they haven’t              his arena tour of 2005, starting in pre-rock ’n’ roll — Big Joe Turner’s “Honey
      heard before, they’re controlling their own media representation of it; the act of    Hush” — running through nearly 20 of the Beatles’ most recognizable songs,
      listening is almost immediately contextualized into their own lives.                  as well as recent homegrown experiments in varying scale of trifle or anthem.
          No particular breakthrough happened at this year’s Coachella. There were          And as if to assure us that he had the upper hand, even in a sea of trendies,
      some expectedly professional shows (the Killers, Franz Ferdinand, the Cure).          his 1980 pre-electronica experiment “Temporary Secretary” was played on the
      There were some new common patterns within standard indie rock: horn                  P.A. before he started. It sounded as deep and fresh as the best set I heard in
      sections and the whooshing of synthesizers, or in the case of the Yeah Yeah           the festival’s dance-music tent, by the French producer Busy P.
      Yeahs, guitars made to sound like them. There was Mexico, represented by El               Leonard Cohen also had songs to brag about and performed on Friday
      Gran Silencio, Mexican Institute of Sound and Molotov. There were individual          evening with grace and gravitas amid soft-pop arrangements that some
      stops along music’s West-Africa-to-the New-World route. Tinariwen, from               festivalgoers might otherwise disdain as major-league cheese. But maybe fast,
      Mali, played its aerated Saharan almost-rock, full of dissonant notes and blues       pointed listening, the kind that MP3s have recently taught us, intensifies the
power of a single song — like, say, Mr. Cohen’s “Hallelujah” — and takes                                                                                            Friday, April 17th
away the pressure of sizing it up in a larger context.
    At the secondary-stage Outdoor Theater, Mr. Cohen intoned the line
 “There ain’t no cure for love.” Minutes later on the main stage, in the song
 “I’m Throwing My Arms Around Paris,” Morrissey intoned his own corollary:
                                                                                                 COACHELLA                                                          Paul McCartney, Morrissey, Franz Ferdinand, Leonard Cohen
                                                                                                                                                                    The Aggrolites,The Airborne Toxic Event, A Place To Bury Strangers, Alberta Cross,
                                                                                                                                                                    Bajofondo, Beirut, The Black Keys, Buraka Som Sistema, Cage the Elephant, Conor
                                                                                                                                                                    Oberst and the Mystic Valley Band, Crystal Castles, Dear and the Headlights, El
                                                                                                                                                                    Gran Silencio, Felix da Housecat, Genghis Tron, Ghostland Observatory, Girl Talk, Gui
  “Nobody wants my love.”
      He had more immediate problems too. Distressed over the sound mix
   of the monitor and gagging in vegetarian disgust at the wafting scent of
                                                                                                   EXISTS IN                                                        Boratto, Los Campesinos!, M. Ward, Molotov, N.A.S.A., Noah and the Whale, Patton
                                                                                                                                                                    & Rahzel, Peanut Butter Wolf, People Under the Stairs, Ryan Bingham, Silversun Pick-
                                                                                                                                                                    ups, Steve Aoki, Switch, The Bug, The Courteeners, The Crystal Method (Live), The
                                                                                                                                                                    Hold Steady, The Knux, The Presets, The Ting Tings, We Are Scientists, White Lies
    barbecue, he stayed on his back foot for the entire set. (“I can smell burning
    flesh, and I hope to God it’s human flesh,” he spat.) As with M.I.A., his set
     amounted to a high-            visibility disaster, but its stoppages and backfires,
                                                                                                   TWO TIME                                                         Saturday, April 18th

      in front of a flowing,            tweeting, it’s-all-good audience, made the                                                                                  Saturday, April 18th
                                                                                                                                                                    The Killers, M.I.A., Thievery Corporation, TV on the Radio
       weekend more                    interesting.                                                                                                                 The Killers, M.I.A., Thievery Corporation, TV on the Radio Of Horses, Billy Tal-
                                                                                                                                                                    Amanda Palmer, Ariel Pink’s Haunted Graffiti, Atmosphere, Band
            The                     festival contained more nostalgia than ever: with
                                                                                                                                                                    Amanda Palmer, Ariel Pink’s Haunted Graffiti, Atmosphere, Band Of Horses, Billy (DJ
                                                                                                                                                                    ent, Blitzen Trapper, Bob Mould Band, Booker T, Calexico, The Chemical Brothers
                                                                                                                                                                    Set), Cloud Cult, Crookers, DJ AM, Band, Booker T, Calexico, The Chemical Brothers
                                                                                                                                                                    Talent, Blitzen Trapper, Bob Mould Dr. Dog, Drive-By Truckers, Drop The Lime, Electric
                                  the narrowing of the reaction time to culture, kids are
                                                                                                                                                                                    Touch, Fleet Foxes, Crookers, DJ AM, Gang Dance, Glass Candy,
                                                                                                                                                                                    (DJ Set), Cloud Cult, Flying Lotus, Gang Dr. Dog, Drive-By Truckers,
                                running out of new stuff and need to scavenge the dumps.
                               On Sunday night, 1991 ran rampant for a three-hour span: My
                          Bloody Valentine, the Orb, Public Enemy and the Cure, which
                                                                                                     THE EVENT                                                                                    Glasvegas, Henry Rollins, Ida Maria, Foxes, Fly-
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Drop The Lime, Electric Touch, Fleet James Mor-
                                                                                                                                                                                                               rison, Jenny Lewis, Liars, Mast-
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ing Lotus, Gang Gang Dance,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          odon, Michael
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Glass Candy,
                                had its sound stopped at midnight during the song “Boys Don’t
                                  Cry.” The Cure’s armored moping seemed like business as usual
                                      compared with My Bloody Valentine, which did its stock in
                                     trade: 50 minutes of song, then 15 minutes of sheer, battering
                                     strumming-and-cymbal noise.
                                         There was a general bowing in the direction of Paul McCartney,
                                    whose strong singing, easy presence, unforced emotional power and
                                                                                                       AND ITS                                                                                                                                                                                                Franti & Spearhead,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Glasvegas, Henry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rollins, Ida Maria,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MSTRKRFT, Paolo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Nutini, Para One
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             James Morrison,
                                    sheer tenacity in his Friday night headlining show — nearly 180 minutes,

                                                                                                                                                                      THE lineup
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (Live), Superchunk,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Jenny Lewis, Liars,
                                   50 of them fined for going past midnight — seemed to dispel the doubts
                                   that a 66-year-old Rock and Roll Hall of Famer could work at indie-obsessed
                                   Coachella. (Those doubts are nonsense, by the way: if Elvis Presley were alive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Surkin, The Bloody
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mastodon, Michael
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Beetroots, Thenewno2,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Franti & Spearhead,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Thievery Corporation,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      MSTRKRFT, Paolo Nutini,

                                   and had a reasonably good manager, he’d be killing them here.)                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tinariwen, Travis Barker, Tur-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Para One (Live), Superchunk,
                                                                     At its best Coachella promises individual spontaneity                                                                                                                                                                       bonegro, Zane Lowe, Zizek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Surkin, The Bloody Beetroots,
                                                                      or group energy, especially after the desert sun sets. It                                                                                                                                                                Thenewno2, Thievery Corpora-
                                                 can happen anywhere, like Saturday’s collaboration between DJ AM and                                                                                                                                                                        Sunday, April 19th
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tion, Tinariwen, Travis Barker,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Turbonegro, Zane Lowe, Zizek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Cure, My Bloody Valentine,
                                the drummer Travis Barker, recent mainstays of Us magazine because of their high-wattage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yeah Yeah Yeahs, X
                               love lives and recent private-plane crash, performing a set of lightly altered, extremely popular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Antony and the 19th
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sunday, April Johnsons, Brian Jon-
                                     classic rock and hip-hop radio hits (“Enter Sandman,” “Rock With You” “Lithium,” “Juicy”)                                                                                                                                                       estown Massacre, Christopher Lawrence,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     The Cure, My Bloody Valentine, Yeah
                                        with live drums. Given a soft lob in the strike zone, the audience exploded. And it happened                                                                                                                                                Clipse, Devendra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yeah Yeahs, X Banhart, Etienne De
                                          again late that night with the metal band Mastodon: a set consisting only of the band’s new                                                                                                                                            Crecy, and the Johnsons, Brian Jonestown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 AntonyFriendly Fires, Fucked Up, Gaslight
                                             album, “Crack the Skye,” performed from beginning to end. A ferocious mosh pit came to life,                                                                                                                                       Massacre, Christopher Lawrence, Clipse,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Anthem, Groove Armada (DJ Set), Junior
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Boys, K’naan, Late Etienne De Crecy, Friendly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Devendra Banhart, of the Pier, Lupe Fiasco,
                                               with dancers of all sizes and stripes: women too, as well as a dude in nothing but sneakers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fires, Fucked Up, Gaslight Anthem, Groove
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lykke Li, M.A.N.D.Y., Marshall Barnes, Mexican
                                                      and black briefs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Institute (DJ Set), Murder City Devils, Late of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Armada of Sound,Junior Boys, K’naan, No Age,
                                                             Coachella requires a certain degree of A.D.D. Get a quick taste of White Lies emo-tional                                                                                                                          The Orb, Okkervil River, Paul Weller, Perry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the Pier, Lupe Fiasco, Lykke Li, M.A.N.D.Y.,
                                                            accent, catch the Ting Tings insisting THAT’S NOT MY FUCKING NAME (look out for the                                                                                                                                    Marshall Barnes, Mexican Institute ofDJs,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Farrell, Peter Bjorn and John, Plump
                                                               explicit remix with Christian Bale’s freak-out coming to a laptop near you); practice your                                                                                                                             Public Murder City Devils, No Age, The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sound,Enemy, Roni Size, Sebastien Tel-
                                                                   Guitar Hero moves to Franz Ferdinand’s “Take Me Out”; Silversun Pickups trying to fix the                                                                                                                          Orb,Shepard Fairey, Paul Weller, Perry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      lier, Okkervil River, Supermayer, The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Horrors, The Bjorn and John, Plump DJs,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Farrell, Peter Kills, The Night Marchers,
                                                                          world’s “rusted wheel”; Crystal Castles whining into a strobelight in that irresistible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Themselves, Throbbing Gristle, Vivian Girls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Public Enemy, Roni Size, Sebastien Tellier,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Shepard Fairey, Supermayer, The Horrors, The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kills, The Night Marchers, Themselves, Throbbing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Gristle, Vivian Girls
The FESTIVAL contained
more nostalgia than ever.
            way sick gotten Alice Glass’s that long agony; and when they at stuck
            I wasthat’s-- sick unto death withindecipherable shattered melodies length
            in your me, (and infiltrating your karaoke style); senses Butter Wolf
            unboundhead and I was permitted to sit, I felt that my Peanut were leaving
            me. The the best of the ‘90s. Face it, the Caribbean and South of distinct
            rocking sentence -- the dread sentence of death -- was the last America
            accentuation which reached my ears. After that, the sound of the inquisitorial
            have better rhythm: these cultures inheritted tribal roots designed to
            take you out merged musical head and into your body. So, naturally,
            voices seemed of your in one dreamy indeterminate hum. It conveyed to my
            everyone lost a little bit of cellulite at association in fancy On the burr
            soul the idea of revolution -- perhaps from itsthese two shows. with Sunday
            of a mill wheel. This only for a brief period; formy ears more beating, but it
            night after My Bloody Valentine, I gave presently I heard no more. Yet,
            felt while, I right kind of bitter dessert. It was a reunion concert by
            for alike the saw; but with how terrible an exaggeration! I saw the lips of the
            Throbbing judges. They appeared to me electronic band from sheet upon
            black-robedGristle, the English industrialwhite -- whiter than the the 1970s,
            all members these words -- long-marinated oddness.
            which I trace present in theirand thin even to grotesqueness; thin with the
            intensity of their expression of firmness -- of immoveable resolution -- of stern
                On old songs like “Five Knuckle Shuffle,” “Persuasion” and
            “Hamburger Lady,” they I saw that the decrees discomfort; was Fate,
            contempt of human torture.explored paranoia and of what to methey were
            interested in the fear of connecting them writhe with a deadly locution. I
            were still issuing from those lips. I sawwith strangers immediately, rather
            than the fashion the
            saw themjoy of it. syllables of my name; and I shuddered because no sound
in iowa, vermont, same-sex marriage ban

lifted  moment did I suppose myself actually dead. Such a
        The slow march towards legalising gay
        supposition,was hobbled in November, fiction,
        marriage notwithstanding what we read in when
        is altogether inconsistent with real existence; -- but
        voters in California passed a proposition to
        where and in whatin May when it was upheld by
        ban it, and again state was I? The condemned to
                                                                 to allownot altogether excluded.
                                                                 light was gay marriage through legislation,
                                                                 A fearful idea court order, drove the after it
                                                                 rather than a now suddenly nine yearsblood in
                                                                 became the firstheart, andauthorise period, I once
                                                                 torrents upon my state to for a brief civil unions.
                                                                 more relapsed into insensibility. Upon Iowa ruled
                                                                 On April 3rd the Supreme Court ofrecovering, I
        the Supreme Court. usually at the autos-da-fe,
        death, I knew, perishedTwenty-nine states now            at once started to from marriage convulsively
                                                                 that barring gaysmy feet, tremblingviolated the
        and one of these had been held on therestricting
        have constitutional amendments very night                in every fibre. I thrust my clause. above and
                                                                 state’s equal-protectionarms wildlyIowa thus
        marriage to a trial. and been remanded to my
        of the day of my man Had I woman. But after a            around the all directions. America, yet
                                                                 becameme in third state inI felt nothing;after
        dungeon, to await spring thaw has which would
        long winter the the next sacrifice, revealed a           dreaded to move a step, lest I should allow gay
                                                                 Massachusetts and Connecticut, tobe impeded
        movement sprouting once more.
        not take place for many months? This I at once           marriage. Couples may tie the knot as soon as
                                                                 by the walls of a tomb. Perspiration burst from
           In New England, proponents are hoping to
        saw could not be. Victims had been in immediate          April 24th, and weddings are being planned.
                                                                 every pore, and stood in cold big beads upon my
        demand. gay marriage dungeon, states by 2012.
        legalise Moreover, my in all six as well as all the         Old cultural norms suspense grew planted
                                                                 forehead. The agony ofare more firmlyat length
        On April 7th Vermont became the first state
        condemned cells at Toledo, had stone floors, and         intolerable, and cautiously moved forward, ten
                                                                 in the Midwest,I but this is changing. Of thewith
Voters will have time to see that

“ the sky doesn’t fall
  and the world...
states showing the greatest increase in gay               The fight has now moved from the
couples from 2000 to 2005, all but two were            courthouse to the gold-domed state capitol.
in that region.                                        The ruling, however, will probably stick.
    It is fitting that Iowa should be the first        To ban gay marriage, the legislature must
Midwestern state to let gays marry. True, it           pass a constitutional amendment in two
is far from radical. In 1998 the state passed a        successive assemblies. Only then would the
law defining marriage as between a man and             matter go to voters, probably in 2012. But
Voters will have timehalf, in particular,
a woman. The rural western to see that                 that seems unlikely. The Democratic leaders
“the sky doesn’t fall and the world...
cherishes conservative values. Still, Iowans
I was themselves on with independent
pride sick -- sick unto deathbeingthat long agony;
                                                       of the House and Senate jointly congratulated
                                                       “the thousands of Iowans soft can now
                                                       moments of delirious horror, thewho and nearly         as of the soul into Hades. Then silence, and stillness,
and when A new lengthfrom the me, and I was
thinkers. they at poll unbound University of           express their love for the sable draperies if the
                                                       imperceptible waving of each other”. Even which        night were the universe.
Iowa found sit, I felt that my senses wereoppose
permitted to that only 37% of Iowans leaving
both gay marriage and civil unions. death --
me. The sentence -- the dread sentence ofTwenty-
                                                       enwrapped passes an amendment, opposition
                                                       legislature the walls of the apartment. And then
                                                       to vision fell upon the fade by 2012, says David
                                                       mygay marriage may seven tall candles upon the
                                                                                                              I had swooned; but still will not say that all of
                                                                                                              consciousness was lost. What of it there remained
                                                                                                                                                                        ...doesn’t split
eight per cent support civil unions and 26%
was the last of distinct accentuation which reached
my ears.the right to the sound of the inquisitorial
believe After that, marry should be extended
                                                       Redlawsk of the wore the of Iowa. Voters will
                                                       table. At first theyUniversityaspect of charity, and
                                                       have time to and that “the sky who would and
                                                       seemed white see slender angels doesn’t fall save
                                                                                                              I will not attempt to define, or even to describe;
                                                                                                              yet all was not lost. In the deepest slumber -- no!
to all. seemed merged in one dreamyalso seen as
voices Iowa’s Supreme Court is indeterminate           the but then, all at split open”.
                                                       me; world doesn’tonce, there came a most deadly
hum. It conveyedruled against slaveryrevolution
progressive. It to my soul the idea of in 1839.        nausea over myof same-sex marriages in my
                                                          Opponents spirit, and I felt every fibre want
                                                                                                              In delirium -- no! In a swoon -- no! In death -- no!
                                                                                                              even in the grave all is not lost. Else there is no
                                                                                                                                                                            ...doesn’t split open.”
Thirty years later association in Iowa’swith the
-- perhaps from its it ordered fancy public            state lawmakers to touched the wire of a galvanic
                                                       frame thrill as if I had begin the process now. But    immortality for man. Arousing from the most
burr of a mill wheel. This only for a “Iowa’s court
schools to be desegregated. brief period; for          the idea seemed to forms became meaningless
                                                       battery, while the angel have no backing among         profound of slumbers, we break the gossamer
has been, heard no more. Yet, for a while, I saw;
presently I for generations, independent, fair-        legislative leaders; both chambers that are
                                                       spectres, with heads of flame, and I sawhere from      web of some dream. Yet in a second afterward, (so
minded and terrible an exaggeration! I saw behalf
but with how willing to enforce equality on the lips   controlled would be no help.
                                                       them there by Democrats. And then there stole          frail may that web have been) we remember not
of vulnerable groups,” says Jennifer Pizer of
of the black-robed judges. They appeared to me            Unlike some a rich that have the thought
                                                       into my fancy, like states musical note,barred the     that we have dreamed. In the return to life from
Lambda Legal, which sheet upon case I trace
white -- whiter than the argued the which before       marriages with voter-led ballot grave. The
                                                       of what sweet rest there must be in themeasures,       the swoon there are two stages; first, that of the
it. The ruling on Aprileven was unanimous and
these words -- and thin 3rd to grotesqueness; thin     voters here cannot directly initiate
                                                       thought came gently and stealthily, and it seemed      sense of mental or spiritual; secondly, that of the
with the by a Republicanexpression of firmness --
written intensity of their appointee.                  constitutional amendments. An amendment
                                                       long before it attained full appreciation; but just    sense of physical, existence. It seems probable
    immoveable set off the of stern explosion.
of The decisionresolution -- expectedcontempt of       would require approval by state to feel and
                                                       as my spirit came at length properly lawmakers         that if, upon reaching the second stage, we could declared: “This what to
human torture. I saw that the decrees ofdecision       during it, the figures of sessions, and then
                                                       entertaintwo legislative the judges vanished, as       recall the impressions of the first, we should find
is anti-family were still issuing from thoseBryanI
me was Fate, AND unconstitutional!” lips.              approval by voters at the ballot box. sank
                                                       if magically, from before me; the tall candles That    these impressions eloquent in memories of the
saw them a spokesman for locution. I saw them
English, writhe with a deadly the Iowa Family          means the earliest flames went out utterly; the
                                                       into nothingness; their a prospective ban could        gulf beyond. And that gulf is -- what? How at least
Policy Centre, saysof my name; and I not reflect
fashion the syllables the ruling “does shuddered       take effect darkness supervened; all sensations
                                                       blackness ofwould be 2012.                             shall we distinguish its shadows from those of the
the opinion of the vast majority of Iowans.”
because no sound succeeded. I saw, too, for a few         In Massachusetts, in mad that followed
                                                       appeared swallowed uptheafurorerushing descent         tomb? But if the impressions of what I have termed
                                                                                                                  a Supreme Court ruling in 2004 has mostly           Perhaps the most unexpected beneficiaries
                                                                                                                  subsided. Now the rest of New England            of same-sex marriage will be state economies.
                                                                                                                  is following its example. Connecticut has        The University of California, Los Angeles
                                                                                                                  allowed same-sex marriage since November.        (UCLA) reports that extending marriage
                                                                                                                  In Vermont, the state legislature successfully   to gay couples brings tourism, spending
                                                                                                                  overrode the governor’s promised veto.           on weddings and licensing fees. Same-sex
                                                                                                                  In New Hampshire, which has a distinctly         marriage in Iowa, UCLA predicted last year,
                                                                                                                  conservative streak, the House of                would bring $5.3m to state coffers and $53m
                                                                                                                  Representatives on March 26th voted to           to state businesses. These hard times could
                                                                                                                  support gay marriage. A Maine Senate judicial    use a bit more cash and celebration.
                                                                                                                  committee will hold hearings on the subject
                                                                                                                  later this month. Rhode Island may consider
                                                                                                                  gay marriage as well, and already recognises
                                                                                                                         unions performed elsewhere.

I was sick -- sick unto death with that long agony;       with the intensity of their expression of firmness --
and when they at length unbound me, and I was             of immoveable resolution -- of stern contempt of
permitted to sit, I felt that my senses were leaving      human torture. I saw that the decrees of what to
me. The sentence -- the dread sentence of death --        me was Fate, were still issuing from those lips. I
was the last of distinct accentuation which reached       saw them writhe with a deadly locution. I saw them
my ears. After that, the sound of the inquisitorial       fashion the syllables of my name; and I shuddered
voices seemed merged in one dreamy indeterminate          because no sound succeeded. I saw, too, for a few
hum. It conveyed to my soul the idea of revolution        moments of delirious horror, the soft and nearly
-- perhaps from its association in fancy with the         imperceptible waving of the sable draperies which
burr of a mill wheel. This only for a brief period; for   enwrapped the walls of the apartment. And then
presently I heard no more. Yet, for a while, I saw;       my vision fell upon the seven tall candles upon the
but with how terrible an exaggeration! I saw the lips     table. At first they wore the aspect of charity, and
of the black-robed judges. They appeared to me            seemed white and slender angels who would save
white -- whiter than the sheet upon which I trace         me; but then, all at once, there came a most deadly
these words -- and thin even to grotesqueness; thin       nausea over my spirit, and I felt every fibre in my
ALT+                      When American forces in Iraq
                                            wanted to lure members of Al Qaeda into a
                                            trap, they hacked into one of the group’s
                                            computers and altered information that drove
                                            them into American gun sights.

  the digital arms race
                                            When President George W. Bush ordered new
                                            ways to slow Iran’s progress toward a nuclear
                                            bomb last year, he approved a plan for an
                                            experimental covert program — its results still
                                            unclear — to bore into their computers and
                                            undermine the project.
                                              And the Pentagon has commissioned military
                                            contractors to develop a highly classified
                                            replica of the Internet of the future. The goal is
                                            to simulate what it would take for adversaries
                                            to shut down the country’s power stations,
                                            telecommunications and aviation systems, or
                                            freeze the financial markets — in an effort to
                                            build better defenses against such attacks, as
                                            well as a new generation of online weapons.
                                            Just as the invention of the atomic bomb
                                            changed warfare and deterrence 64 years
                   ago, a new international race has begun to          embedded on computer chips when they are               incoming president by Mr. McConnell and               STRENGTHENING DIGITAL DEFENSE
                   develop cyberweapons and systems to protect         manufactured, enabling the United States               his coordinator for cybersecurity, Melissa                                      An international race has begun to develop defenses
                   against them.                                       to take command of an enemy’s computers                Hathaway, went further. They described                                          against the growing variety and number of online

                         Thousands of daily attacks on federal
                   and private computer systems in the United
                   States — many from China and Russia,
                   some malicious and some testing chinks in
                   the patchwork of American firewalls — have
                                                                       by remote control over the Internet. That, of
                                                                       course, is exactly the kind of attack officials fear
                                                                       could be launched on American targets, often
                                                                       through Chinese-made chips or computer
                                                                                                                              vulnerabilities including an attack on Wall
                                                                                                                              Street and one intended to bring down the
                                                                                                                              nation’s electric power grid. Most were
                                                                                                                              extrapolations of attacks already tried.
                                                                                                                                 Today, Ms. Hathaway is the primary author
                                                                                                                                                                                                              attacks, as well as to create offensive weapons.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Emerging Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                              A 2008 report by the Government Accountability Office listed several
                                                                                                                                                                                                              types of attack that could threaten the nation’s infrastructure.
                   prompted the Obama administration to review                So far, however, there are no broad             of White House cyberstrategy and has been
WILL NOT WORK      American strategy.
                       President Obama is expected to propose
                                                                       authorizations for American forces to engage
                                                                       in cyberwar. The invasion of the Qaeda
                                                                                                                              traveling the country talking in vague terms
                                                                                                                              about recent, increasingly bold attacks
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Denial of Service attacks
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Disrupting a Web site or network by flooding it with fake requests.
                   a far larger defensive effort in coming days,       computer in Iraq several years ago and the             on the computer networks that keep the
FOR CYBER.         including an expansion of the $17 billion, five-    covert activity in Iran were each individually         country running. Government officials will not                                  Phishing and vishing
                   year program that Congress approved last            authorized by Mr. Bush. When he issued a               discuss the details of a recent attack on the                                   Using fake e-mail, Web sites or voice-over-Internet technology to trick people
                   year, the appointment of a White House official     set of classified presidential orders in January       air transportation network, other than to say                                   into revealing information.

SOMEONE            to coordinate the effort, and an end to a running
                   bureaucratic battle over who is responsible for
                                                                       2008 to organize and improve America’s
                                                                       online defenses, the administration could not
                                                                                                                              the attack never directly affected air traffic
                                                                                                                               control systems.                                                               Scanning and sniffing

WILL               defending against cyberattacks.
                        But Mr. Obama is expected to say little
                                                                       agree on how to write the authorization.
                                                                             A principal architect of that order said
                                                                                                                                   Still, the specter of an attack that could
                                                                                                                              blind air traffic controllers and, perhaps, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exploring a network in search of weak points or intercepting network data in
                                                                                                                                                                                                              search of passwords or other information.

ALWAYS             or nothing about the nation’s offensive
                   capabilities, on which the military and the
                                                                       the issue had been passed on to the next
                                                                       president, in part because of the complexities
                                                                                                                              military’s aerospace defense networks haunts
                                                                                                                              military and intelligence officials. (The saving                                Trojan horses
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Malicious code embedded in seemingly legitimate software or hardware.

                   nation’s intelligence agencies have been            of cyberwar operations that, by necessity,             grace of the air traffic control system, officials

GET IN.            spending billions. In interviews over the past
                   few months, a range of military and intelligence
                   officials, as well as outside experts, have
                                                                       would most likely be conducted on both
                                                                       domestic and foreign Internet sites. After the
                                                                       controversy surrounding domestic spying,
                                                                                                                              say, is that it is so old that it is not directly
                                                                                                                              connected to the Internet.)
                                                                                                                                  Studies, with code names like Dark Angel,
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Viruses and worms
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Software that infets other computer files or reproduces on its own and causes
                   described a huge increase in the sophistication     Mr. Bush’s aides concluded, the Bush White             have focused on whether cellphone towers,                                       damage, spies of computer activity or spreads through a network.
                   of American cyberwarfare capabilities.              House did not have the credibility or the              emergency-service communications and
                      Because so many aspects of the American          political capital to deal with the subject.            hospital systems could be brought down, to                                      Bot-nets
                   effort to develop cyberweapons and define                                                                  sow chaos. But the theoretical has, at times,                                   Networks of infected computers that can be controlled remotely to send spam
                   their proper use remain classified, many of                                                                become real.                                                                    or launch coordinated attacks.
                   those officials declined to speak on the record.    Electronic Vulnerabilities                                “We have seen Chinese network operations
                   The White House declined several requests                                                                  inside certain of our electricity grids,” said Joel   both concluded in Mr. Bush’s last years in office       to strike back, or even who the attacker
                   for interviews or to say whether Mr. Obama          Cyberwar would not be as lethal as atomic              F. Brenner, who oversees counterintelligence          that it would not be enough to simply build             might be. Others have argued for borrowing
                   as a matter of policy supports or opposes the       war, of course, nor as visibly dramatic. But           operations for Dennis Blair, Mr. McConnell’s          higher firewalls and better virus detectors or          a page from Mr. Bush’s pre-emption doctrine
                   use of American cyberweapons.                       when Mike McConnell, the former director               successor as national intelligence director,          to restrict access to the federal government’s          by going into foreign computers to destroy
                            The most exotic innovations under          of national intelligence, briefed Mr. Bush on          speaking at the University of Texas at Austin         own computers.                                          malicious software before it is unleashed into
                   consideration would enable the Pentagon             the threat in May 2007, he argued that if a            this month. “Do I worry about those grids, and            “The fortress model simply will not work            the world’s digital bloodstream. But that could
                   to surreptitiously enter a computer server in       single large American bank were successfully           about air traffic control systems, water supply       for cyber,” said one senior military officer who        amount to an act of war, and many argue it
                   Russia or China, for example, and destroy a         attacked “it would have an order-of-magnitude          systems, and so on? You bet I do.”                    has been deeply engaged in the debate for               is a losing game, because the United States
                   “botnet” — a potentially destructive program        greater impact on the global economy” than                   But the broader question — one the              several years. “Someone will always get in.”            is more dependent on a constantly running
                   that commandeers infected machines into             the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks. Mr. McConnell,            administration so far declines to discuss — is                                                                Internet system than many of its potential
                   a vast network that can be clandestinely            who left office three months ago, warned               whether the best defense against cyberattack          That thinking has led to a debate over whether          adversaries, and therefore could suffer more
                   controlled — before it could be unleashed in        last year that “the ability to threaten the U.S.       is the development of a robust capability to          lessons learned in the nuclear age — from the           damage in a counterattack.
                   the United States.                                  money supply is the equivalent of today’s              wage cyberwar.                                        days of “mutually assured destruction” —                      In a report scheduled to be released
                        Or American intelligence agencies could        nuclear weapon.”                                           As Mr. Obama’s team quickly discovered,           apply to cyberwar.                                      Wednesday, the National Research Council
                   activate malicious code that is secretly                The scenarios developed last year for the          the Pentagon and the intelligence agencies               But in cyberwar, it is hard to know where            will argue that although an offensive
cybercapability is an important asset for            Homeland Security sponsored in March 2008,           be the prelude to an attack that scrambles             In the rare case where the preparations for
the United States, the nation is lacking a           called Cyber Storm II, envisioned a far larger,      databases or seeks to control computers. But        an attack are detected in a foreign computer
clear strategy, and secrecy surrounding              coordinated attack against the United States,        Team Cymru ran into a brick wall as soon as it      whether to embrace the concept of pre-
preparations has hindered national debate,           Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.          tried to trace who, exactly, was probing these      emption, with all of its Bush-era connotations.
according to several people familiar with            It studied a disruption of chemical plants,          industrial systems. It could not determine          The questions range from whether an online         RUSSIA AND CHINA HAVE LOTS OF
the report.                                          rail lines, oil and gas pipelines and private        whether military organizations, intelligence        attack should be mounted on that system to, in
   The advent of Internet attacks — especially       computer networks. That study and others like        agencies, terrorist groups, criminals or            extreme cases, blowing those computers up.         NATIONALISTIC HACKERS...
those suspected of being directed by nations,        it concluded that when attacks go global, the        inventive teenagers were behind the efforts.
not hackers — has given rise to a new term           potential economic repercussions increase               The good news, some government officials         Some officials argue that if the United
inside the Pentagon and the National Security        exponentially.                                       argue, is that the Chinese are deterred from        States engaged in such pre-emption —
Agency: “hybrid warfare.”                                    To prove the point, Mr. McConnell,           doing real damage: Because they hold                and demonstrated that it was watching the
  It describes a conflict in which attacks through   then the director of national intelligence,          more than a trillion dollars in United States       development of hostile cyberweapons — it
the Internet can be launched as a warning shot       spent much of last summer urging senior              government debt, they have little interest in       could begin to deter some attacks. Others
— or to pave the way for a traditional attack.       government officials to examine the Treasury         freezing up a system they depend on for their       believe it will only justify pre-emptive attacks
      Early hints of this new kind of warfare        Department’s scramble to contain the effects         own investments.                                    on the United States. “Russia and China
emerged in the confrontation between Russia          of the collapse of Bear Stearns. Markets froze,          Then again, some of the scans seemed to         have lots of nationalistic hackers,” one senior
and Estonia in April 2007. Clandestine groups        he said, because “what backs up that money           originate from 14 other countries, including        military officer said. “They seem very, very
— it was never determined if they had links to       is confidence — an accounting system that            Taiwan, Russia and, of course, the United States.   willing to take action on their own.”
the Russian government — commandeered                is reconcilable.” He began studies of what                                                                   Senior Pentagon and military officials also
computers around the globe and directed a            would happen if the system that clears market        Because “cyberwar” contains the word “war,”         express deep concern that the laws and
fire hose of data at Estonia’s banking system        trades froze.                                        the Pentagon has argued that it should be the       understanding of armed conflict have not
and its government Web sites.                            “We were halfway through the study,” one         locus of American defensive and offensive           kept current with the challenges of offensive
                                                     senior intelligence official said last month, “and   strategy — and it is creating the kind of           cyberwarfare.
The computer screens of Estonians trying             the markets froze of their own accord. And we        infrastructure that was built around nuclear             Over the decades, a number of limits on
to do business with the government online            looked at each other and said, ‘Our market           weapons in the 1940s and ’50s.                      action have been accepted — if not always
were frozen, if they got anything at all. It was     collapse has just given every cyberwarrior out            Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates has          practiced. One is the prohibition against
annoying, but by the standards of cyberwar, it       there a playbook.’ ”                                 concluded that the military’s cyberwarfare          assassinating government leaders. Another
was child’s play.                                         Just before Mr. Obama was elected, the          effort requires a sharper focus — and thus a        is avoiding attacks aimed at civilians. Yet in
  In August 2008, when Russia invaded Georgia,       Center for Strategic and International Studies,      specific command. It would build the defenses       the cyberworld, where the most vulnerable
the cyberattacks grew more widespread.               a policy research group in Washington,               for military computers and communications           targets are civilian, there are no such rules or
Georgians were denied online access to news,         warned in a report that “America’s failure to        systems and — the part the Pentagon is              understandings. If a military base is attacked,
cash and air tickets. The Georgian government        protect cyberspace is one of the most urgent         reluctant to discuss — develop and deploy           would it be a proportional, legitimate response
had to move its Internet activity to servers in      national security problems facing the new            cyberweapons.                                       to bring down the attacker’s power grid if that
Ukraine when its own servers locked up, but          administration.”                                                                                         would also shut down its hospital systems,
the attacks did no permanent damage.                        What alarmed the panel was not the            The Deterrence Conundrum                            its air traffic control system or its banking
    Every few months, it seems, some agency,         capabilities of individual hackers but of nations                                                        system?
research group or military contractor runs           — China and Russia among them — that                 During the cold war, if a strategic missile              “We don’t have that for cyber yet,” one
a war game to assess the United States’
vulnerability. Senior intelligence officials
were shocked to discover how easy it was to
                                                     experts believe are putting huge resources
                                                     into the development of cyberweapons.
                                                     A research company called Team Cymru
                                                                                                          had been fired at the United States, screens
                                                                                                          deep in a mountain in Colorado would have
                                                                                                          lighted up and American commanders would
                                                                                                                                                              senior Defense Department official said, “and
                                                                                                                                                              that’s a little bit dangerous.”   ...THEY SEEM
permanently disable a large power generator.
That prompted further studies to determine
if attackers could take down a series of
                                                     recently examined “scans” that came across
                                                     the Internet seeking ways to get inside
                                                     industrial control systems, and discovered
                                                                                                          have some time to decide whether to launch
                                                                                                          a counterattack. Today, when Pentagon
                                                                                                          computers are subjected to a barrage, the
                                                                                                                                                                                         VERY, VERY WILLING
generators, bringing whole parts of the
country to a halt.
   Another war game that the Department of
                                                     more than 90 percent of them came from
                                                     computers in China.
                                                        Scanning alone does no damage, but it could
                                                                                                          origin is often a mystery. Absent certainty
                                                                                                          about the source, it is almost impossible to
                                                                                                          mount a counterattack.
                                                                                                                                                                                            TO TAKE ACTION
                                                                                                                                                                                             ON THEIR OWN.
                                       US GOV.
A pair of young soldiers hand out
                                       DECLARES PUBLIC
sanitation masks in Mexico to help
control the H1N1 influenza epidemic.   HEALTH EMERGENCY, BUT

Almost 4000 cases of swine flu have
been confirmed in Mexico alone.
Photo by Eneas via

                                       YOU’RE FINE- AND HERE’S WHY:
                                           Responding to what some health officials feared could be the leading edge       even though it officially saw the outbreak as a public health emergency and
                                       of a global pandemic emerging from Mexico, American health officials declared       opened its emergency response center.
                                       a public health emergency on Sunday as 20 cases of swine flu were confirmed             As a news conference in Washington, Homeland Security Secretary Janet
                                       in this country, including eight in New York City. Other nations imposed travel     Napolitano called the emergency declaration “standard operating procedure,”
                                       bans or made plans to quarantine air travelers as confirmed cases also              and said she would rather call it a “declaration of emergency preparedness.”
                                       appeared in Mexico and Canada and suspect cases emerged elsewhere.                  “It’s like declaring one for a hurricane,” she said. “It means we can release
                                                                                                                           funds and take other measures. The hurricane may not actually hit.” American
                                       Top global flu experts struggled to predict how dangerous the new A (H1N1)          investigators said they expected more cases here, but noted that virtually all so
                                       swine flu strain would be as it became clear that they had too little information   far had been mild and urged Americans not to panic. The speed and the scope
                                       about Mexico’s outbreak — in particular how many cases had occurred in              of the world’s response showed the value of preparations made because of the
                                       what is thought to be a month before the outbreak was detected, and whether         avian flu and SARS scares, public health experts said.
                                       the virus was mutating to be more lethal, or less. “We’re in a period in which          The emergency declaration in the United States lets the government free
                                       the picture is evolving,” said Dr. Keiji Fukuda, deputy director general of the     more money for antiviral drugs and give some previously unapproved tests and
                                       World Health Organization. “We need to know the extent to which it causes           drugs to children. One-quarter of the national stockpile of 50 million courses of
                                       mild and serious infections.”                                                       antiflu drugs will be released.
                                           Without that knowledge — which is unlikely to emerge soon because only              Border patrols and airport security officers are to begin asking travelers
                                       two laboratories, in Atlanta and Winnipeg, Canada, can confirm a case — his         if they have had the flu or a fever; those who appear ill will be stopped, taken
                                       agency’s panel of experts was unwilling to raise the global pandemic alert level,   aside and given masks while they arrange for medical care.
courtesy of

                                                                                                     TRACK IT:
                                                                                                     use this QR Code to
                                                                                                     link to a live Google
                                                                                                     map of all cases of
                                                                                                     swine flu.
                                                                                                     for more about QR codes,
                                                                                    TRACK THE CASES                                         KNOW:
                                                                                    Several tracking websites
                                                                                    have sprung up with the
                                                                                    purpose of documenting
                                                                                    suspected, negative, and
                                                                                                                                               Cover your mouth when
                                                                                    confirmed cases of H1N1                                    you cough and sneeze.
                                                                                    Influenza, also known as                                   Use tissues and throw
                                                                                    Swine Flu.. Try FluTracker                                 them in the trash.
                                                                                    (                                 Wash your hands with
                                                                                    to get the most recent                                     soap and water. Use
                                                                                                                                               alcohol- based hand
                                                                                    cases. Also try the online                                 sanitizers. Avoid sick
                                                                                    flu test, available at both                                people. If you are sick,
                                                                                                               stay home. People who
                                                                                    and doihavetheswineflu.                                    have been exposed
                                                                                    org. Be sure to get your                                   can get a prescription
                                                                                                                                               for the antiviral drugs
                                                                                    friends tested online too.                                 oseltamivir     (Tamiflu)
      WHAT IS IT?               SYMPTOMS                 HOW DANGEROUS IS IT?                                                                   or zanamivir (Relenza).
Swine flu is a general term   Symptoms are similar      Experts don’t know
for flu viruses adapted to    to regular influenza:     how deadly swine flu
pigs, also known as the       fever, fatigue, sore      is because they don’t
H1N1 Influenza. Swine         throat, cough, poor       know how many people
flu can infect humans,        appetite, body aches      have been infected. The
most often from a pig to      and chills. Some people   World Health Organiza-
someone handling pigs.        also have nausea,         tion (WHO) says the
It can pass from human        vomiting and diarrhea.    overall mortality rate is
to human via coughing,                                  1% to 4%.
sneezing, or touching

                                SWINE FLU
infectedpeopleor surfaces,
then touching the mouth,
nose or eyes, just like
the normal flu.

                                                                                                                                Uploaded on April 25, 2009
                                                                                                                                by Citoyen du Monde Inc at
                                                                                    “This is moving fast and we expect to see more cases,” Dr. Richard Besser,
                                                                                acting director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said at the
                                                                                news conference with Ms. Napolitano. “But we view this as a marathon.”

WE MAY                                                                              He advised Americans to wash their hands frequently, to cover coughs
                                                                                and sneezes and to stay home if they felt ill; but he stopped short of advice
                                                                                now given in Mexico to wear masks and not kiss or touch anyone. He praised
                                                                                decisions to close individual schools in New York and Texas but did not call for

JUST BE                                                                         more widespread closings.
                                                                                    Other governments tried to contain the infection amid reports of potential
                                                                                new cases including in New Zealand and Spain. Dr. Fukuda of the W.H.O. said

LOOKING                                                                         his agency would decide Tuesday whether to raise the pandemic alert level
                                                                                to 4. Such a move would prompt more travel bans, and the agency has been
                                                                                reluctant historically to take actions that hurt member nations.
                                                                                    Canada confirmed six cases, at opposite ends of the country: four in Nova

AT THE                                                                          Scotia and two in British Columbia. Canadian health officials said the victims
                                                                                had only mild symptoms and had either recently traveled to Mexico or been in
                                                                                contact with someone who had.

TIP OF                                                                              Other governments issued advisories urging citizens not to visit Mexico.
                                                                                China, Japan, Hong Kong and others set up quarantines for anyone possibly
                                                                                infected. Russia and other countries banned pork imports from Mexico, though
                                                                                people cannot get the flu from eating pork.

THE                                                                                 On the streets of New York, people seemed relatively unconcerned, in
                                                                                sharp contrast to Mexico City, where soldiers handed out masks. Hong Kong,
                                                                                shaped by lasting scars as an epicenter of the SARS outbreak, announced very

                                                                                tough measures. Officials there urged travelers to avoid Mexico and ordered
                                                                                the immediate detention of anyone arriving with a fever higher than 100.4
                                                                                degrees Fahrenheit after traveling through any city with a confirmed case,
                                                                                which would include New York.
Felicita Aguilar leaves the San Ysidro Health Center in San Ysidro California       Everyone stopped will be sent to a hospital for a flu test and held until it
after being treated for flu like symptoms. Aguilar, 72, lives in Tijuana Baja   is negative. Since Hong Kong has Asia’s busiest airport hub, the policy could
California Mexico and was worried she might have the swine flu. // Uploaded     severely disrupt international travel.
on April 27, 2009 by Jerod Harris                                                   The central question is how many mild cases Mexico has had, Dr. Martin S.
                                                                                Cetron, director of global migration and quarantine for the Centers for Disease
                                                                                Control, said in an interview. “We may just be looking at the tip of the iceberg,
                                                                                which would give you a skewed initial estimate of the case fatality rate,” he
                                                                                said, meaning that there might have been tens of thousands of mild infections
                                                                                around the 1,300 cases of serious disease and 80 or more deaths. If that is true,
                                                                                as the flu spreads, it would not be surprising if most cases were mild.
                                                                                    Even in 1918, according to the C.D.C., the virus infected at least 500 million
                                                                                of the world’s 1.5 billion people to kill 50 million. Many would have been saved
                                                                                if antiflu drugs, antibiotics and mechanical ventilators had existed. Another
                                                                                hypothesis, Dr. Cetron said, is that some other factor in Mexico increased
                                                                                lethality, like co-infection with another microbe or an unwittingly dangerous
                                                                                treatment. Flu experts would also like to know whether current flu shots give
                                                                                any protection because it will be months before a new vaccine can be made.
     S              f u n

                 e 5 iv e
           t h

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