A Typology of Organizational Str

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					A Typology of Organizational
        Henry Mintzberg
         Organizational Structure

“one best way”
                  “it all depends”
                 Contingency theory

                                      “getting it all together”
    Five Organizational Structure
   Simple Structure
   Machine Bureaucracy
   Professional Bureacracy
   Divisionalized Form
   Adhocracy
        Ways to effect Coordination
   Direct supervision
       One person gives direct orders to others
   Standardization of work processes
       One person designs the general work procedures of others to
        ensure that these are all coordinated.
   Standardization of output
       One person specifies the general outputs of the work of another.
   Standardization of skills
       A person is trained in a certain way so that he or she coordinates
        automatically with others.
   Mutual adjustment
       Two or more people communicate informally among themselves to
        coordinate their work.
                     Five Basic Parts
   Operating core
       The basic work of producing the organization’s products and services gets
   Strategic apex
       The home of top management
   Middle line
       Managers who stand in a direct line relationship between the strategic apex
        and the operating core.
   Techostructure
       The staff analysts who design the systems by which work processes and
        outputs are standardized in the organization.
   Support staff
       The specialists who provide support to the organization outside of its
        operating workflow.
         Design Parameters
 Job specialization
 Behavior formation
 Training and indoctrination
 Unit grouping
 Unit size
 Planning and control systems
 Liaison devices
 Vertical and horizontal decentralization
    Five types of decentralization
   Vertical and horizontal centralization
       All power rests at the strategic apex.
   Limited horizontal decentralization
       The strategic apex shares some power with the technostructure
        that standardize everybody else’s work
   Limited vertical decentralization
       Managers of market-based units are delegated the power to control
        most of the decisions concerning their line units.
   Vertical and horizontal decentralization
       Most of the power rests in the operating core, at the bottom of the
   Selective vertical and horizontal decentralization
       The power over different decisions is dispersed widely in the
    The Contingency Factors
 Age and Size
 Technical System
 Environment
 Power factors
            Simple Structure
 Strategic Apex, direct supervision, vertical
  and horizontal centralization
 simple and dynamic, sometimes hostile
 Entrepreneurial firm
       Machine Bureaucracy
 Technostructure, standardization of work
  process, limited horizontal decentralization
 simple and stable
 Mass-production firms, service firms with
  simple, repetitive works
     Professional Bureaucracy
 Operating core, standardization of skills,
  vertical and horizontal decentralization
 complex and stable.
 School systems, social-work agencies,
  accounting firms
         Divisionalized Form
 Middle line, limited vertical decentralization,
  standardization of outputs
 Relatively simple and stable; market
 Large corporations, government
 Support staff, mutual adjustment, selective
  vertical and horizontal decentralization
 complex and dynamic.
 Consulting firms, advertising agencies,
  chemical firms, space agencies
 In Adhocracy, the supporting staff is mixed
  together. What if there is a separate
  supporting staff part?
 Organization structures seems to evolve
  more complicate and combined. Then
  these five separate organization structure
  will be still meaningful in future ?
                    Henry Mintzberg
   Cleghorn Professor of Management Studies, Faculty of
    Management, McGill University, Canada
   Ph.D. Sloan School of Management, M.I.T., 1968.
   Current Work : focuses on the development of a family of
    programs for educating practicing managers, as well as a book
    entitled Developing Managers, not MBAs, and a pamphlet called
    Getting Past Smith and Marx… toward a Balanced Society.
   Books
       Managing: 29 Days in the Lives of Managers (in preparation) - a
        return to the subject of my first book, in this case based on 29 days
        in the lives of managers
       Getting Past Smith and Marx… toward a Balanced Society
        (pamphlet, in preparation) - using my knowledge of organizations to
        seek a balance in society between the economic, the political, and
        the social
       Developing Managers, not MBAs (in preparation) - nearing
        completion of several years of collecting, contemplating, and writing
        on my views about the education and development of managers
       Why I Hate Flying (Texere, 2001) - spoof of the flying and the
        managing businesses, and of commercialism in general.
       Managing Publicly (with Jacques Bourgault; Institute of Public
        Administration of Canada, Toronto, 2000) - based on study I did of
        8 Canadian public sector managers, published with commentaries
       Strategy Safari (with Bruce Ahlstrand and Joe Lampel, Free Press
        and Prentice-Hall International, 1998) - as the subtitle says, "A
        Guided tour Through The Wilds Of Strategic Management"
   Articles
       Managing to Innovate, in Leading for Innovation (Volume Two of the
        Drucker Foundation Wisdom to Action Series, (forthcoming in 2001)
        -low key approach to stimulating innovation
       Do MBAs make better CEOs? (with Joseph Lampel) Fortune
        (February 19, 2001) -not how they get there but how they perform
        there: not impressively!
       Analysis: Framing and Frame Breaking (with Kunal Basu) to appear
        in Mindsets for Managers (Book in preparation)
       Educating Managers Beyond Borders (with Jonathan Gosling-
        submitted for publication)-about our masters program for practicing
       Managing Health and Disease-Up and Down, In and Out (submitted
        for publication)-a day in the lives of seven health care managers
       The Yin & Yang of Managing Organizational Dynamics (forthcoming
        in 2001)-a day in the life of the male head of Médecins sans
        frontiers and the female head of Paris's fashion museum

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