Ideas for Moment of Truth areas

Document Sample
Ideas for Moment of Truth areas Powered By Docstoc
					Introducing Retail
  Innovation into

Notes from the One-day Workshop given by
Fiona Emberton of John Stanley Associates
          at County Hall, Chester
          on 24 September 2004

               presented by
The Society of Chief Librarians North West

 Notes (to accompany handouts) by Tonya Chirgwin
 A Few Basic Retail Concepts to Help in the Marketing the

Moment of Truth areas
There are four ‘moment of truth’ areas in a library, where you can win customers or
turn them off. These are:
     Outside the building (car park, garden, exterior of building etc)
     Entrance to building
     Transition zone (where customers first arrive in the library)
     Place where first transaction with staff member takes place

Product Classification
There are seven different product groups, each of which has its own needs for
shelving to maximise its potential:

Known Value         People know what value of the product is to them
                    e.g. traditional novels
                    Need minimal promotion
Not Known Value     People don’t know what value the product could be to them
                    e.g. talking books
                    Need promotion to explain why people need them (eg ‘Talking
                    books – great for when your eyes are tired or you’re doing the
                    ironing or you’re stuck in a traffic jam’)
Purpose             People come in knowing they want these
                    e.g. car manuals, language tapes
                    Need to be kept at a place where those who want them know
                    where to find them, but don’t need to promote them particularly
                    or use prime display space for them
Impulse             Products to grab customers’ attention and delight them
                    e.g. whatever is fashionable: Delia Smith, alternative therapies
                    Use ‘power pyramid’ to display in prominent place in or close to
                    transition zone
Browse              Products people will want to choose from
                    e.g. greetings cards, CDs, videos
                    Display where there is lots of space for people to move
                    comfortably and make choices
Female/Male         Types of product that typically appeal either to women only (or
                    men only)
                    e.g. women’s magazines, cookery books, sewing books or men’s
                    magazines, car manuals, sports
                    Separate these out as appropriate, so that ‘Fly Fishing’
                    magazine is not next to ‘Patchwork Quilting’ for example.
                    Consider including a dedicated area where men can hang out
                    and read newspapers, men’s magazines etc
Linked              Different types of product that are linked by subject so are useful
                    to find together
                    e.g. gardening videos and gardening books
                    Shelve thematically, with books, magazines, audio visual etc all
                    in together around a given theme
Shelving Heights
The prime height for shelving stock is at the ‘sight and take’ level – customers can
see what they want and reach out and take it. The area slightly above this, ‘stretch
level’ is the next most attractive, then the ‘bend’ zone, and lastly the ‘floor’ zone
(bottom shelf). Do not put material you want to attract users to on the bottom shelf –
save it for ‘purpose’ products, which people will know they want and search until they

Customer Behaviour
Most customers behave as either ‘hunters’ or ‘gatherers’. Hunters are typically (but
not always) male, know what they are looking for, will find it themselves and are
happy with a minimum of human contact in the process. Gatherers are typically (but
not always) female, like to browse and choose, and enjoy conversation and
relationships with others along the way.

Building Internal Customer Relations: the Loyalty Ladder

    Advocate              Uses only your libraries and tells others
    Customer              Uses only your libraries
    Shopper               Uses your Council’s libraries as well as others
    Prospect              Would use library if knew about it
    Suspect               Would never use a library

The aim is obviously to turn your prospective customers, shoppers and customers
into advocates!

Different marketing approaches are appropriate at different rungs of the ladder:

Suspect       There’s nothing anyone can do to get a ‘suspect’ to use a library, so do
              not waste time and money trying.

Prospect/     Use ‘interruption marketing’ (eg billboards). This is like cold calling
Shopper       and it is not recommended that you spend more than 5-10% of
              marketing budget on it.

Customer/     Try ‘permission marketing’ (asking if they would mind if you contacted
Advocate      them occasionally with details of events, promotions, etc). This
              increases customer loyalty.

Customer Trust
This is developed as a result of the first transaction a customer has with library staff.
There are three roles library staff need to fulfil to increase customer trust. These are:
Host          Welcoming customer and making the experience in the library a
              pleasant one
              Needs: competent appearance (including personal tidiness), name
              badge, welcoming body language, appropriate verbal welcome and
              tone of voice, natural friendliness, ability and willingness to concentrate
              on customer
Consultant Establishing customer’s needs and wants through a range of open,
              closed, probing and emotional questions
              Needs: to know customer or be able to sense what sort of question is
              appropriate (‘hunters’ do not like emotional questions)
Seller        Ensuring the customer is happy with the answer to their question or the
              product supplied and closing the deal
              Needs: loyalty to brand image and ability to promote it and willingness
              to spot additional items or information that may be useful and bring
              them to the customer’s attention (e.g. a video of water colour painting to
              accompany a book on it)

Baltimore ‘Star’ Technique
This is a proven way to improve performance on reference queries and delight the
Step 1:       Establish what the customer needs to know, using mainly open or
              probing questions
Step 2:       Verify that you have understood the need correctly, by paraphrase or
Step 3:       Provide information
Step 4:       Ask whether the information provided answered the question
              completely, and find more/different information if necessary

This last step will usually delight the customer!

Customer Flow
This is the way customers move around the library building. In the UK, Australia and
New Zealand people prefer to enter on the left and go round in a clockwise direction
(in the USA they do it the other way round). This flow can be encouraged by subtle
placing of shelves etc. Shelving can also be used to create paths to lead people to
discover new parts of the library, although too much of a maze is off-putting. About
60% of floor space should be dedicated to the customer – in the UK people’s
personal space extends a considerable distance and they are put off by the ‘bum
brush’ factor (finding themselves back to back with another customer when browsing
the shelves). Although in fact fewer books will be on view, if excess shelving bays are
removed to give the customer more space, they will have a better perception of the
library and of the stock itself.

Useful Tools for In-Library Promotions
Theatrical Props
A few everyday props brought in by staff can go a long way to making displays more
attractive and adding a sense of drama to library, e.g. a rake and some leaves for a
gardening display. They can also be used as an alternative to, or an amplification of,
signing for different subject areas, e.g. old costume on mannequin doll by history
A note of caution: only attempt this on a small scale, use props of a good quality and
keep the display tidy – remember we are decluttering, not cluttering!

Power Pyramids
Pyramid or conical shaped display shelves are particularly effective. Special plinth
units can be bought from retail furnishers, but are cheaper if a local carpenter makes
them. They can even be improvised by placing a small table on top of a larger one,
but ensure that blutack is used on the feet to avoid the table slipping off. Make sure
they include visually attractive props.
Face-on Book Display
Shelve as many books as possible face-on (not spine-on) - 30% of stock is a good
target. Space can be maximised by opening a book, putting its body on the shelf and
opening the cover to extend across the spines of a few adjacent spine-on books. The
books underneath will not remain hidden for long, as the face-on book will soon be
borrowed! This is particularly suitable for impulse products.

Shared Endcaps
Endcaps (sides of bookcases or shelving units) are prime display areas. Do not
waste them on posters, but build display shelves on (and use them for attention-
grabbing books) or put dumpbins across them.

Dumpbin Displays
Incorporate a dumpbin into a pyramid display between knee and eye level. Use props
to ‘tell a story’ or create drama (but remember that the sides of dumpbins are not
usually very attractive). Throw out tatty old dumpbins!

Decision Making: the Winlaw Matrix
When you want to introduce change, you need to have at least 60% of your team on
board with you – it is not necessary to have the full 100% before you act. It helps if
you understand the types of decision and levels at which they can be made. The
Winlaw Matrix is a useful tool here:

DIRECTIVE                             CONSULTATIVE
When a decision is too important or   Feedback on decision (after made)
controversial to allow choice or      – consultees able to influence
debate                                major details
eg We are having a staff uniform      eg What should the uniform look

Involving more people to decide on    Individuals or small groups make
lesser details of implementation      choices about parts of the decision
eg Of what pieces should the          that affect them
uniform consist?                      eg Which pieces of the uniform
                                      should I wear?

Here are some of the ideas delegates took away for
maximising ‘Moment of Truth’ areas…
Building Exterior and Entrance
    Use external advertising, especially for the Internet (menu boards, banners
    Make sure building is lit at night (people may see this as a waste of Council Tax
     but having an unused library service is also a waste)
    Check cleaning and waste disposal contracts are in place and working (does
     your internal cleaner’s contract also cover outside the building?)
    Organise litter pick-ups (staff can do this with safety gloves on)
    Get your windows cleaned
    Never stick things on windows
    Avoid having designated staff parking places obviously where customers could
     park (it sends the wrong message)
    If you have a problem with youths hanging around outside, try painting murals
     of kiddy characters on them (this will change perceptions of the area as a cool
     place to hang out)
    Ensure directional signs to library are clearly visible
    No signs, especially not negative ones (‘caution – sliding doors’, ‘no smoking…’
     etc), at entrance

Transition Zone
    De-clutter the area
    Get rid of any stale or nasty smells – if necessary buy air fresheners
    Do not feel obliged to advertise other people’s services and events here – use
     transition zone to promote library, joy of reading/information, sense of place etc
     and use queue zone (where people have time to look around) for other posters
     and information
    Put community information posters into binder on public display, or use plasma
     screen display, rather than putting them on walls
    Where leaflets and brochures are essential, ensure they are in proper holders
     and roster regular staff checks and tidying sessions
    Use pyramid or conical displays to grab attention (but not for ‘purpose’ items)
    Minimise size of counters (less processing needs to be done there these days)
    Clear and clean counters (keep tools of the trade elsewhere)
    Consider sideways-on counters (see East Riding ‘Travelling Library’) to remove
     barriers between staff and public
    Lower counters
    Enable staff at counter to face incoming public
    Reduce storage needed at counter, eg by introducing self check-in and self-
     shelving (do all books need to be shelved, or only ‘purpose’ books?) or putting
     holding bays for items awaiting collection out in the library for the public to
     serve themselves
    Consider not returning books to ‘home’ library but keep them at library where
     they are returned to refresh stock (may need to adjust stock policy to account
     for winners and losers amongst libraries)
    Tidy up backs of computers
    Use flat screen computers (tidier and take less space)
    Remove all sticky tape (use Eucalyptus Oil)
    If you must have signs up, make them positive (eg not ‘do not use mobile
     phones here’ but arrow to designated area ‘mobile phones welcome here’)
First Transaction Zone
     De-clutter desks
     Remind staff that they can choose what attitude they come to work with
     Encourage staff to wear name badges (not necessarily their own names, but a
     When recruiting, look for staff who are naturally good with people and can
      sense what kind of approach will be suitable for an individual

Here are some of the ideas delegates took away for using
Product Classification…
     Put leaflets/brochures (in proper holders) near relevant books in library
     Consider getting local businesses to sponsor appropriate areas of the library or
      collections (but make sure their brand is recognised as compatible with library’s
      own and put Service Level Agreement in place)
     Consider shelving thematically, with lending, reference, audio visual,
      leaflet/pamphlet material etc all together for each subject category
     Shelve ‘purpose’ books straight away and leave the rest available for impulse
     Design ‘just returned’ trolley bays around library
     Move and handle books as little as possible
     Use leaflets and theatrical props to signpost different areas of library
     Have activity zone for storytimes and events, but a little way off the beaten
     Set up ‘family collection’ with parenting and books about children

Here are some of the ideas delegates took away for
improving Customer Flow…
     Ensure people enter on left and flow is clockwise round building – in the UK
      people are more comfortable with this
     Consider turning shelving end on (i.e. cap ends pointing to transition area) to
      give 100% view of library and maximise cap end displays while removing
     Have fewer bays of shelving and more space between them (an excuse to get
      rid of tatty books?)
     When replacing shelving, choose at least some flexible shelving (ie on big
     Use shelving to tempt people into new areas (create paths)
     Think about ways to tempt people to other floors of library, eg guided tour of
      whole library when people join, or put computers upstairs
     Coffee facilities should be located near entrance to maximise profit and smell

Here are some of the ideas delegates took away for
immediate action…
     Clearing out community noticeboards from foyers
     Get display area in foyer
     Include staff in planning change
     Speak to borrowers
     Shelve purpose books and put rest on display
     Reduce clutter on counters
     Remove talking books low down
     Check window cleaning contract
   Reorganise newspaper stand
   Do not return stock to home branches
   Stop calling customers borrowers
   Pyramid and face-on displays
   Get rid of Yellow Pages and use internet
   Develop consistent standards across all libraries
   Arrange periodicals by subject
   Set up reading circle area
   Weed and clean up front of library
   Make outside more welcoming
   Chop hands off staff who put Christmas stuff out early
   Encourage front-on display
   Get outsiders to look at libraries and give ideas
   Deal with smells
   Curly bamboo under fingernails of staff who put leaflets on tables etc
   Clear out other people’s pamphlets
   Leaflet policy across all libraries
   De clutter, especially entrance area
   Make coffee area more prominent
   Use furniture to create reading area
   Staff recommendations for books
   Ask customer if happy question answered completely
   Remove all negative posters
   Investigate having music playing in foyer
   Investigate self return and issue
   View every library from user not staff perspective
   Increase space for book displays
   First impressions, attitude and reacting to change discussed with staff
   Getting staff ownership of changes by briefing them on the session today
   Reinstate staff working group to promote presentation and publicity
   Remove C++ programming books (and other specialist material) from pyramid
    displays and put in with purpose products
   Set up readers’ noticeboards and standards about how often they are changed
   Remove booksale books from foyers
   Produce staff recommendation lists

Shared By: