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“The 14 Words that Make All the Difference”

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									             “The 14 Words that Make All the Difference”

These words make all the difference because they are supposed to contain the twenty
most useful prefixes and the fourteen most important roots and are to be found in over
14,000 words in a collegiate dictionary size or close to an estimated 100,000 words in an
unabridged dictionary size. This is according to James I. Brown, Professor of Rhetoric,
University of Minnesota; in his Programmed Vocabulary book, printed by Meredith
Publishing Company, New York,1971.

precept: pre-and capere [Although cep, cip, ceiv, ceipt, and ceit are possible variant
forms of capere, the most common form to note is cap].

detain: de-and tenere [The various forms of tenere are ten, tain, and tin].

intermittent: inter-and mittere [Other forms include mitt, mit, miss, mis, and mise].

offer: ob-and ferre [Forms include fer and lat].

insist: in-and stare [Forms include sta, stat, sti, and sist].

monograph: mono-and graphein [Common forms include graph and gram].

epilogue: epi-and legein [Forms include log, logy, logo, logue, and ology].

aspect: ad-and specere [Forms include spec and spic].

uncomplicated: un-, com-,and plicare [Forms include plic, plicat, plicit, pli, ply, plex,
ple, pleat, play, ploy, and plicity]

nonextended: non-, ex-,and tendere [Variant forms include tend, tent, and tens].

reproduction: re-, pro-,and ducere [Although duit, duke, duct, duch, and duce are all
possible derivatives of ducere, the most common form is duc].

indisposed: in-, dis-,and ponere [The two most common three-letter combinations from
ponere are pon and pos; with lesser used pound and post which should not be confused
with the post that means “after, behind”].

oversufficient: over-, sub-,and facere [Variant forms include fac, fact, fic, feat, feas,
featur, and fair].
mistranscribe: mis-, trans-,and scribere [Variant forms include scrib, scrip, scrip, and
the less common scriv].

 Another List of “The 14 Words that Make All the Difference”
According to Richard E. Hodges of the University of Puget Sound in a booklet titled:
Improving Spelling and Vocabulary in the Secondary School, published by the ERIC
Clearinghouse on Reading and Communicatiion Skills and the National Council of
Teachers of English, 1982; page 30: “If you were to examine the 20,000 most used
English words, you would find that about 5,000 of them contain prefixes and that 82
percent (about 4,100) of those words use one of only fourteen different prefixes out of all
the available prefixes in the language.”

He then goes on to list the following:

ab- (away from)
be- (on all sides, overly)
de- (reversal, undoing, downward)
dis-, dif- (not, reversal)
ex- (out of, former)
pre- (before)
re- (again, restore)
un- (do the opposite of)
ad- (to, toward)
com-, con-, co- (with, together)
en-, em- (in, into, to cover or contain)
in- (into, not)
pro- (in favor of, before)
sub- (under, beneath)

         Basic Greek Elements that All English
         Speakers and Readers Should Know
  The 102 basic Greek elements every English speaker, writer,
   and reader should know for an adequate understanding of
  thousands of English words that are used in the mass media
  (newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, books, and the Internet)
                  and in scientific materials.

aero-, aer-, aeri- (Greek: air, mist, wind).

aesth-, esth-, aesthe-, esthe-, aesthesio-, esthesio-, -aesthesia, -esthesia, -aesthetic, -
esthetic, -aesthetical, -esthetical, -aesthetically, -esthetically (Greek: feeling, sensation,

ampho-, amph-, amphi- (Greek: around, about, both, on both sides of, both kinds).

anti-, ant- (Greek: against, opposed to, preventive; used as a prefix).

astro-, astra-, astr- (Greek: star, star shaped; also pertaining to outer space).

auto-, aut- (Greek: self; directed from within).

bi-, bin-, bino-, bis- (Latin: two, twice, double, twofold; a number used as a prefix).

biblio-, bibli-, bibl- (Greek: book).

bio-, bi-, -bia, -bial, -bian, -bion, -biont, -bius, -biosis, -bium, -biotic, -biotical, -biotic
(Greek: life).

cardio-, cardi-, card- (Greek: heart, pertaining to the heart).

chromato-, chromat-, chromo-, chrom-, chro-, -chrome, -chromasia, -chromia, -
chromatism, -chromatic, -chromatically, -chromy (Greek: color).

chrono-, chron- (Greek: time).

cine-, cinem-, cinema-, cinemat-, cinemato-, -cinesia, -cinesis, -cinetic, -cinesias, -
cineses, -cinetical, -cinetically (Greek: move, movement, set in motion).

-crat, -cracy, -cratic, -cratism, -cratically, -cracies (Greek: a suffix; govern, rule;
strength, power).
dactylo-, dactyl-, dactylio-, -dactyl, -dactyla, -dactylia, -dactylic, -dactylism, -
dactyloid, -dactylous, -dactyly (Greek: finger, toe).

deca- [DEK uh], dec-, deka-, dek- (Greek: ten; a decimal prefix used in the international
metric system for measurements).

demo-, dem-, demio-, -demic, -deme, -demically (Greek: people).

dermo-, derm-, derma-, dermato-, dermat-, -derm, -derma, -dermatic, -dermatous, -
dermis, -dermal, -dermic, -dermoid, -dermatoid (Greek: skin).

dyna-, dyn-, dynamo-, -dyne, -dynamia, -dynamic (Greek: power, strength, force,

dys- (Greek: bad, harsh, wrong; ill; hard to, difficult at; slow of; disordered; used as a

eco-, oeco-, oec-, oiko-, oik- (Greek: house, household affairs [environment, habitat],
home, dwelling; used in one extensive sense as, “environment”).

endo-, end- [before vowels or “h”] (Greek: within, inside, into, in, on, inner; used as a

epi-, ep- [before vowels or “h”] (Greek: above, over, on, upon; besides; in addition to;
toward; among; used as a prefix).

ergo-, erg- (Greek: work). Also: urg-, [erg-], -urgy, -urgia, -urgical, -urgically, -urgist,
-urge (Greek: work).

etym- (Greek: truth, true meaning, real [the root meaning, true meaning or literal
meaning of a word]).

eu- (Greek: good, well, normal; happy, pleasing; used as a prefix).

ex- (e-, ef-). (Latin: [out of, from]; [upward]; [completely, entirely]; [to remove from,
deprive of]; [without]; [former]; used as a prefix). Also: ex-, ec-, e- (Greek: out of, out,
outside; away from; used as a prefix).

geo-, ge- (Greek: earth, world).

glotto-, glot-, -glott (Greek: tongue; by extension, “speech, language”). Also: glosso-,
gloss- (Greek: tongue; language, speech).
grapho-, graph-, -graph, -graphy, -grapher, -graphia (Greek: to scratch; write, record,
draw, describe).

gymno-, gymn- (Greek: naked, uncovered; unclad).

gyno-, gyn-, gynaeco-, gyneco-, gyne-, -gynia, -gynic, gynec-, -gynist, -gynous, -gyny
(Greek: woman, female).

helio-, heli- (Greek: sun).

hemi- (Greek: half).

hetero-, heter- (Greek: different, other, another, unlike; used as a prefix).

hippo-, hipp- (Greek: horse).

homo-, hom- (Greek: same, equal, like, similar, common; one and the same).

hydro-, hydra-, hydr-, hyd- (Greek: water).

hyper-, hyp- (Greek: above, over; excessive; more than normal; abnormal excess [in
medicine]; abnormally great or powerful sensation [in physical or pathological terms];
highest [in chemical compounds]; used as a prefix).

hypo-, hyp- (Greek: under, below, beneath; less than; too little; deficient, diminished;
used as a prefix).

icono-, icon- (Greek: image, likeness; sacred or holy image).

-itis (Greek: a suffix; inflammation, burning sensation; by extension, disease associated
with inflammation).

kilo- [KIL oh or KEEL oh], kil- (Greek: one thousand; a decimal prefix used in the
international metric system for measurements).

kine-, kin-, kino-, kinesio-, kinesi-, kineto-, kinet-, -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic, -
kinesias, -kineses, -kinetical, -kinetically (Greek: move, set in motion; muscular
activity). Also: cine-, cinem-, cinema-, cinemat-, cinemato-, -cinesia, -cinesis, -cinetic,
-cinesias, -cineses, -cinetical, -cinetically (Greek: move, movement, set in motion).

-latry, -olatry, -later, -olater, -latress, -olatress, -latria, -latrous, -olatrous (Greek: a
suffix; worship; excessively, fanatically devoted to someone or something; “service paid
to the gods”).
litho-, lith-, -lith, -lithic, -lite, -liths, -lites (Greek: stone, rock).

logo-, log-, -logia, -logical, -logism, -logician, -logian, -logist, -logy, -logue (Greek:
talk, speech, speak; word).

macro-, macr- (Greek: large, great; long [in extent or duration]; enlarged, or elongated,

-mania, -maniac, -maniacal, -manic, -manically, -maniacally (Greek: mental disorder).

mega- [MEG uh], meg- (Greek: large, great, big, powerful; a decimal prefix used in the
international metric system for measurements).

meter-, metro-, metr-, -metrical, -metrically, -metron, -metric, -metrist, -meters, -
metry, -metre (Greek: measure).

micro-, micr- (Greek: small, tiny; a decimal prefix used in the international metric
system for measurements).

miso-, mis- (Greek: hate, hater, hatred; used as a prefix).

mne-, mnem-, mnemon-, mnes-, -mnesia, -mnesiac, -mnesic, -mnestic (Greek:
memory, to remember).

mono-, mon- (Greek: one, alone, single; a number used as a prefix).

morpho-, morph-, -morphous, -morphically, -morphia, -morphosis, -morphously, -
morphy, -morphic, -morphism (Greek: shape, form, figure, appearance).

naus-, nau- (Greek: ship, sailor).

neo-, ne- (Greek: new, recent, current, young).

odonto-, odont-, odon-, -odont, -odonic, -odontic, -odontia, -odontoid (Greek: tooth,

-oid, -oidal, -oidism, -ode (Greek: a suffix; like, resembling, similar to, form).
oligo-, olig- (Greek: few, small; abnormally few or small; used as a prefix).

onomato-, onoma-, onomo-, onom-, ono- (Greek: name; word).

ortho-, orth- (Greek: right, straight, correct, true; designed to correct).

pachy-, pacho-, pach- (Greek: thick, dense; large, massive).

pedo-, paedo-, ped-, paed-, paido-, paid- (Greek: child).

The British tend to use “paed-” while those in the United States tend to use “ped-”.
Remember that the Greek ped- means “child” while the Latin ped- means “foot”. Don't
confuse this Greek element with another Greek pedo- that means “ground, soil, earth”.

pan-, panto-, pant- (Greek: all, every).

patho-, -path-, -pathia, -pathic, -pathology, -pathetic, -pathize, -pathy (Greek:
feeling, sensation, perception, suffering, [in medicine, it usually means “one who suffers
from a disease of, or one who treats a disease”]).

peri- (Greek: around, about, near, enclosing; used as a prefix).

petro-, petr-, peter- (Greek: stone, rock).

phago-, phag-, -phag, -phage, -phagic, -phagia, -phagism, -phagist, -phagous (Greek:
eat, consume).

philo-, phil-, -phile, -philia, -philic, -philous, -phily, -philiac, -philist, -philism (Greek:
love, loving, friendly to, fondness for, attraction to, strong tendency toward, affinity for).

Note: under some circumstances, -philia means “unwholesome-sexual attraction” to
something or someone, as in pedophilia (paedophilia).

-phobia, -phobias, -phobe, -phobiac, -phobist, -phobic, -phobism, -phobous; phobo-,
phob- (Greek: fear, extreme fear of, morbid fear of, excessive fear of, irrational fear or
terror of something or someone; however, sometimes this Greek element means a strong
dislike or hatred for something).

Noun endings are formed with -phobia and -phobe; while adjectives end with -phobic.

phono-, phon-, -phone, -phonia, -phonic, -phonetic, -phonous, -phonically, -
phonetically, -phony (Greek: phone; sound; voice).
photo-, phot-, -photic, -phote (Greek: light).

pneumo-, pneum-, pneumono-, pneumon- (Greek: lung [breath]).

podo-, pod-, -poda, -pod, -pode, -podium, -podia, -podial, -podous, -pody (Greek:
foot, feet).

polis-, polit-, poli- (Greek: city; method of government).

poly- (Greek: many, much; too many, too much, excessive; often used as a prefix).

Don’t confuse this poly- with the next -poly that means “to sell”.

-poly, -pole, -polism, -polist, -polistic, -polistically (Greek: used as a suffix; sale,
selling; one who sells; pertaining to selling).

Don’t confuse this element with the previous poly- that means “many”.

pro-, por- (Greek > Latin: used as a prefix).
  for, in favor of
  in front of
  in place of, on behalf of

pseudo-, pseud- (Greek: false, deception, lying, untrue, counterfeit; used as a prefix).

psycho-, psych-, -psyche, -psychic, -psychical, -psychically (Greek: the mind or the
mental processes).

Etymologically, this element includes such meanings as, breath, life, soul, spirit, mind,
and consciousness.

pyro-, pyr- (Greek: fire, burn; and sometimes “fever”; heat, produced by heating).

sarco-, sarc-, -sarcous, -sarc, -sarcoma, -sarcomatous, -sarcomatoid (Greek: flesh,

sauro-, saur-, -saurus, -saurid, -saur, -sauria, -saurian (Greek: lizard).

scopo-, scop-, scept-, skept-, -scope-, -scopy, -scopia, -scopic, -scopist (Greek: see,
view, sight, look at, examine).
seismo-, seism-, -seism, -seisms, -seisma, -seismically, -seismical, -seismal, -seismic
(Greek: shake, earthquake [move to and fro’; to shake, move violently]).

soma-, som-, somat-, somato-, -soma, -some, -somus, -somia, -somic, -somal, -somite,
-somatous, -somatia, -somatic (Greek: body; mass).

sopho-, soph-, sophic, -soph, -sopher, -sophy, -sophical, -sophically, -sophist (Greek:
wise, wisdom; knowledge).

stereo-, stere- (Greek: solid, firm, hard; three-dimensional).

syn-(sy-, sym-, syl-, sys-). (Greek: together, with, along with).

By extension, syn- may also mean: together, with; united; same, similar; at the same

tacho-, tach-, tachy- (Greek: fast, speed, swift, rapid).

techno-, techn-, tect-, -technic[s], -technique, -technology, -technical, -technically
(Greek: art, skill, craft; techne, art, skill, craft; tekton, “builder”).

tele-, tel-, telo-, -telic, -telical (Greek: far away, far off, at a distance).

Don’t confuse this tele- with the teleo- that means “end, last”.

thanato-, thanat-, thanas-, -thanasia, -thanasic (Greek: death, dead).

theo-, the-, -theism, -theist, -theistic (Greek: God, god, deity, divine).

therap-, -therapeutic[s], -therapeutically, -therapy, -therapies, -therapist (Greek:
heal, cure; treatment; service done to the sick, a waiting on).

thermo-, therm-, thermi-, -thermia, -therm, -thermal, -thermic, -thermous, -thermy
(Greek: heat).

toxico-, toxic-, toxi-, tox-, toxin-, -toxically, -toxaemia, -toxemia, -toxaemic, -toxemic,
-toxical, -toxy, -toxis, -toxicosis, -toxism, -toxia, -toxin, -toxicity (Greek: poison).

xeno-, xen- (Greek: foreign, foreigner, strange, stranger; and by extension, guest).

The “x” in xeno- is pronounced “z”; “zeno”. Greeks are said to have considered any
stranger a “guest” and modern Greek includes xenodocheion a “guest house” or “house
for guests” or its modern version of “hotel”.
xero-, xer-, xir- (Greek: dry).

zoo-, zo-, -zoic, -zoid, -zoite, -zoal, -zonal, -zooid, -zoon, -zoa, -zoan (Greek: animal;
living being; life).
              Greek and Latin Root Words*

  Root                  Meaning        English Words
   arch                  ancient             archetype
aster/astra               star               astronomy
   audi                   hear                audible
   bene                 good/well             benefit
    bio                   life                biology
   brev                  short              abbreviation
  chloro                 green              chlorophyll
  chrono                  time              chronology
   derm                   skin          dermatologist
 dic/dict                speak               dictionary
   fer                   carry               transfer
    fix                  fasten                affix
   gen                    birth              generate
   geo                   earth               geography
  graph                   write               graphic
   hemo                  blood              hemoglobin
   herb                  plants             herbaceous
  hydro                  water                hydrate
 jur/just                  law                  jury
 log/logue            word/thought            dialogue
    luc                   light                lucid
   manu                   hand                manual
meter/metr              measure         thermometer
   neg                     no                 negate
   ocu                    eye                  ocular
   olig                   few                oligarchy
 op/oper                  work               operation
  osteo                   bone              osteoporosis
   path                  feeling             sympathy
       ped                   child          pediatrics
       phil                  love           philosophy
      phys               body/nature         physical
       pod                   foot            podiatrist
      proto                  first           prototype
     pseudo                 false           pseudonym
   scrib/script             write            scribble
      sect                   cut              dissect
       sol                  alone             solitary
     struct                  build           construct
      tact                  touch             contact
       tele                far off           telephone
    ter/terr                earth            territory
       vac                  empty             vacant
       ver                  truth             verify
      verb                   word             verbal
     vid/vis                 see               video

            Greek and Latin Prefixes-/-Suffixes*

Prefix/Suffix             Meaning          English Words
     ad-                      to                addict
     -al                  relating to          maternal
    ambi-                    both           ambidextrous
    ante-                   before            antecedent
    anti-                  against            antifreeze
   -arium                  place of            aquarium
    auto-                    self           autobiography
    centi-                 hundred            centimeter
   circum-                  around            circumvent
    con-                     with              concert
     de-                  from/down             depart
    deci-                    ten              decimeter
     di-                     two               diameter
    dis-           opposite           disable
    -dom         quality/state       freedom
    ex-               out               exit
   hetero-         different       heterogeneous
    hypo-          too little       hypoactive
        -ic       relating to          poetic
        -ile     quality/state        juvenile
        in-           not             invalid
   inter-          between           interstate
   intra-           within          intramurals
    -ism         quality/state      catholicism
    -ist       one who practices     biologist
   macro-          large           macrobiologist
   micro-            small         microbiologist
    milli-         thousand          millipede
    mis-             bad            miscarriage
   mono-            single          monotheism
nano-               billion         nanosecond
    neo-             new            neonatology
   -ology          study of           biology
    omni-             all           omniscient
    -ous         quality/state       nebulous
    pan-              all            pantheon
    per-          throughout          pervade
    peri-         all around         periscope
    poly-            many             polygon
    post-           after            postpone
    pre-            before            precede
    pro-           forward           progress
        re-          again           reappear
   retro-            back           retrogress
    sub-            under            submarine
   super-         more than        supermarket
    sym-           together           symbol
                  -tion                     quality/state                 preservation
                  -ular                      relating to                     cellular
                   un-                           not                        unwilling

*Most of these prefixes/suffixes/roots are taken from Mr. Hanno's unit on Greek roots.

Back to Subject and Reference Resources page

Prefix           Meaning                         Examples
a,an             lacking, not, without           atypical, anonymous, anarchy, apathy
ana              up, back, again                 anachronism, anagram, analogy
anti             against, opposing               antithesis, antisocial, antiseptic
arch, archi      chief, first                    architect, archetype, archbishop
                 across, apart, through,
dia                                              diagnose, dialogue, diameter
en, em           in, among, within               enliven, empathy
epi              on, outside, over, outer        epidermis, epitaph, epilogue
eu               good, well                      euphony, euphemism, eulogy
hetero           other                           heterogeneous, heterodox
homo             same                            homogeneous, homonym, homograph
hyper            excessive, over                 hyperactive, hyperbole, hypercritical
hyp, hypo        under, beneath                  hypodermic, hypotenuse, hypocrite
                                                 inspire, imprint, irradiate, infamy, inefficient,
in, il, im, ir   in(to), within, not, opposing
macr, macro      long, large, prominent          macrocosm, macrobiotic
meta, met        change of, over, beyond         metaphor, metabolism, metaphysics
micro            small                           microfilm, microscope, microbe
neo              new, latest of a period     neon, neologism, neophyte, neocene, Neo-Hebraic
orth             straight, right             orthodonture, orthopedics, orthodox
para, par        beside, beyond, variation   paradox, paraphrase, parenthesis
pro              before, forward             program, produce, provision, progress
proto            first                       proton, protozoa, prototype
syn, sym, syl,
                 together                    synthesize, symphony, synchronize
tele             far, distant                telegraph, telepathy, telescope
thermo           heat                        thermometer, thermonuclear
topo             place                       topography
zoo              living                      zoology
Roots             Prefixes                Suffixes

BASE               MEANING                  ORIGIN
act                to act                   Latin
acu, acr, ac       needle                   Latin
alt                high                     Latin
anima, anim        life, mind               Latin
ann, enn           year                     Latin
anthrop            man                      Greek
aqua               water                    Latin
arch, archi        govern, rule             Greek
arm                army, weapon             Latin
arbitr, arbiter    to judge, consider       Latin
art                craft, skill             Latin
arthr, art         segment, joint           Greek
aud                to hear                  Latin
bell               war                      Latin
biblio, bibl       book                     Greek
bio                life                     Greek
capit, cipit       head                     Latin
caus               cause, case, lawsuit     Latin
cede               to go, yield             Latin
cele               honor                    Latin
cell               to rise, project         Latin
cent               one hundred              Latin
cept, capt, cip, cap, ceive,
                             to take, hold, grasp            Latin
cert                            sure, to trust               Latin
cess, ced                       to move, withdraw            Latin
cid, cis                        to cut off, be breif, to kill Latin
circ, circum                    around                       Latin
civ                             citizen                      Latin
claud                           close, shut, block           Latin
clin                            to lean, lie, bend           Latin
cog                             to know                      Latin
column                          a column                     Latin
comput                          to compute                   Latin
cont                            to join, unite               Latin
cor, cord, cour, card           heart                        Latin
corp                            body                         Latin
cosm                            world, order, universe       Greek
crac, crat                      rule, govern                 Greek
cred                            believe, trust               Latin
crit, cris                      separate, discern, judge Latin
culp                            fault, blame                 Latin
curs, curr, corr                to run                       Latin
custom                          one's own                    Latin
dem                             people                       Greek
dent, odon                      tooth                        Latin
derm                            skin                         Greek
dic, dict                       to say, to speak, assert     Latin
duct, duc                       to lead, draw                Latin
dur                             to harden, hold out          Latin
BASE                        MEANING                  ORIGIN
ego                         I                        Latin
ethn                        nation                   Greek
equ                         equal, fair              Latin
fac, fic, fect, fact        to make, to do           Latin
famil                       family                   Latin
fen                         to strike                Latin
                     to carry, bear,
fer                                      Latin
fid                  trust, faith        Latin
fin                  to end              Latin
flu                  to flow             Latin
form                 shape, form         Latin
                     chance, luck,
fort                                     Latin
frig                 cool                Latin
fum                  smoke, scent        Latin
gam                  marriage            Greek
gen                  race, family, kind Latin
geo                  earth               Greek
gno, kno             to know             Greek
                     step, degree,
grad, gred, gress                        Latin
                     write, draw,
graph, gram                           Greek
                     describe, record
grat                 thankful,           Latin
                     goodwill, joy
grav, griev, grief   heavy               Latin
gymn                 naked               Greek
                     to have, hold,
hab                                      Latin
hom                  man, human          Latin
hosp                 guest, host         Latin
host                 enemy, stranger Latin
hydro                water               Greek
hygiene              the art of health   Greek
hypno                sleep               Greek
                     to begin, enter
init                                     Latin
jur, jus, jud        law, right          Latin
juven                young               Latin
labor, lab           work                Latin
lat                  lateral, side,      Latin
laud            praise             Latin
                law, to chose,
leg, lig        perceive,          Latin
                to make light,
lev                                Latin
                raise, lift
liber, liver    free               Latin
lingu, langu    tounge             Latin
lith            stone              Greek
loc             place              Latin
locu, loqu      word, speak        Latin
                idea, word,
log             speech, reason, Greek
luc, lum        light              Latin
man             hand               Latin
mar             sea                Latin
med, medi       middle             Latin
                physician, to
medic                              Latin
BASE             MEANING                        ORIGIN
memor            mindful                        Latin
men, min, mon    to think, remind, advise, warn Latin
ment             mind                           Latin
meter, metr      measure                        Greek
migr             to move, travel                Latin
mim              copy, imitate                  Greek
mit, mis         to send                        Latin
mor              fool, manner, custom           Greek
morph            form                           Greek
mort             death                          Latin
mov, mob, mot    to move                        Latin
mus              little mouse                   Latin
mut              change, exchange               Latin
necess           unavoidable                    Latin
neur, nerv              nerve                          Greek
noc, nox                night, harm                    Latin
nomen, nomin            name                           Latin
null, nihil, nil        nothing, void                  Latin
nym, onym, onom         name                           Greek
opt                     eye                            Greek
ord, ordin              order                          Latin
ortho                   straight                       Greek
                        arrange, prepare, get ready,
par, pair                                              Latin
part, pars              portion, part                  Latin
ped, pes                foot                           Latin
pend, pond, pens        to weigh, pay, consider        Latin
phe, fa, fe             speak, spoken about            Greek
phil                    love                           Greek
phon                    sound, voice                   Greek
photo                   light                          Greek
pler                    to fill                        Latin
plic                    to fold                        Latin
plur, plus              more                           Latin
pneu                    breath                         Greek
polis, polit            citizen, city, state           Greek
port                    to carry                       Latin
pos                     to place, put                  Latin
pot                     powerfull                      Latin
prim, prin              first                          Latin
priv                    seperate                       Latin
prob                    to prove, test                 Latin
psych                   mind, soul, spirit             Greek
pyr                     fire                           Greek
                        government, rule, right,
reg, rig, rect, reign                                  Latin
respond                 to answer                      Latin
rupt                    break, burst                   Latin
sacr, secr, sacer       sacred                         Latin
sat                   to please                      Latin
sci                   to know                        Latin
scope                 to see                         Greek
Base                  Meaning                        Origin
scrib, script         to write                       Latin
sed, sid, sess        to sit, to settle              Latin
sent, sens            to feel                        Latin
sequ, secut           to follow, sequence            Latin
simil, simul, sembl   together, likeness, pretense   Latin
sol, soli             alone, lonely                  Latin
solus                 to comfort, to console         Latin
somn                  sleep                          Latin
son                   sound                          Latin
soph                  wise                           Greek
spec, spect, spic     to look at, behold             Latin
spond, spons          to pledge, promise             Latin
tac, tic              silent                         Latin
techn                 art, skill                     Greek
temp                  time                           Latin
ten, tain, tent       to hold                        Latin
tend, tens            to give heed, stretch toward   Latin
term                  boundary, limit                Latin
test                  to witness, affirm             Latin
the, them, thet       to place, put                  Greek
theatr                to see, view                   Greek
theo                  god                            Greek
topo                  place                          Greek
tract                 to pull, draw                  Latin
trib                  to allot, give                 Latin
vac                   empty                          Latin
ven                   to come                        Latin
ver                   truth                          Latin
vers, vert            to turn                        Latin
vest                  to adorn                       Latin
vestig                to track                       Latin
via                           way, road                       Latin
vir                           manliness, worth                Latin
vis, vid                      to see, to look                 Latin
viv, vit                      life                            Latin
voc, vok                      voice, call                     Latin

Spelling 7; 8; 9

Compiled by the Kent School District

Base                                        Meaning                   Origin
ab                                          away                      Latin
acro                                        top, tip, end             Greek
ad, ac, at, as, ap, am, an, ar, ag, af      to, toward, at            Latin
ambi                                        around, both              Latin
                                            both, of oth sides,
amphi                                                                 Greek
ant, anti                                   against                   Greek
ante                                        before                    Latin
apo, ap, aph                                away from, off            Greek
archa, arshae                               old, ancient              Greek
auto                                        self                      Greek
ben, bon                                    good, well                Latin
bi                                          two                       Latin
co, con, com                                together, with            Latin
contra, contro                              against                   Latin
de                                          from, away, off           Latin
deca, dec, deka                             ten                       Greek
di, dis                                     two, twice                Greek
dia                                         through, across           Greek
                                            apart, away, not, to
dis, dif                                                              Latin
du                                          double, two               Latin
dys                                         difficult, bad            Greek
                      out, beyond, from, out
e, ex, ec                                    Latin
                      of, forth
ecto                  outside of               Greek
en                    in give [intensifier]    Latin
endo, ento            within                   Greek
ep, epi               upon, at, in addition    Greek
eu                    good, well               Greek
extra                 beyond                   Latin
fore                  before
hemi                  half                     Greek
hetero                various, unlike          Greek
hier                  sacred                   Greek
holo                  whole                    Greek
homo                  same                     Greek
hyper                 above, beyond            Greek
hypo, hyp             under, less than         Greek
ideo, idea            idea                     Greek
in, ir, im, il        not, without             Latin
                      in, on, upon, into,
in, im                                         Latin
inter                 between                  Latin
intro                 within                   Latin
iso                   equal                    Greek
kilo                  thousand                 Greek
macro                 long, large              Greek
magn, mag, meg, maj   great                    Latin
mal                   bad, ill                 Latin
mega                  great                    Greek
                      among, with, after,
met, meta, meth                                Greek
micro                 small                    Greek
migr                         to move, travel            Latin
mill                         thousand                   Latin
mis                          less, wrong                Latin
mono                         one                        Greek
multi                   many, much                    Latin
neo                     new                           Greek
non, ne                 not                           Latin
o, ob, oc, of, op       against, toward               Latin
omni                    all                           Latin
paleo                   long ago, ancient             Greek
pan, panto              all, every                    Greek
para                    beside, beyond                Latin
penta                   five                          Greek
per                     through                       Latin
peri                    around, about                 Greek
pre                     before                        Latin
pro                     before, forward, forth        Latin
pronto                  first                         Greek
poly                    many                          Greek
post                    after                         Latin
pseudo                  false, counterfeit            Greek
quad, quatr             four                          Latin
re                      again, anew, back             Latin
retro                   back, backward, behind        Latin
se, sed                 apart, aside, away            Latin
semi                    half                          Latin
sover                   above, over                   Latin
sub                     under, below, up from below   Latin
super, supra            above, down, thoroughle       Latin
syn, sym, syl           together, with                Greek
tele                    far off                       Greek
trans                   over, across                  Latin
tri                     three                         Latin
un                      not                           Latin
uni                     one                           Latin

Noun forming suffixes
Suffix                 Meaning                        Origin
age                    belongs to                     Latin
ance                   state of being                 Latin
ant                    thing or one who               Latin
ar                     relating to, like              Latin
ary                    relating to, like              Latin
ence                   state, fact, quality           Latin
ent                    to form                        Latin
                                                      Latin &
ic                     like, having the nature
ine                    nature of-feminine ending      Latin
ion, tion, ation       being, the result of           Latin
                                                      Latin &
ism                    act, condition
ist                    one who                        Latin
ive                    of, belonging to, quality of   Latin
ment                   a means, product, act, state   Latin
or                     person or thing that           Latin
ory                    place for                      Latin
ty                     condition of, quality of       Latin
                                                      Greek &
y                      creats abstract noun           Anglo-

Adjective forming suffixes
Suffix      Meaning                                   Origin
able        capable of being                          Latin
al          like, suitable for                        Latin
ance        state of being                            Latin
ant         thing or one who                          Latin
ar          relating to, like                         Latin
ary         relating to, like                         Latin
ate         to become associated with                 Latin
ent         to form                                   Latin
ial         function of                               Latin
ible         capable of being                               Latin
                                                            Latin &
ic           like, having the nature of
ine          nature of-feminine ending                      Latin
ive          of, belonging to, quality of                   Latin
ory          place for                                      Latin
ous          characterized by, having quality of            Latin
                                                            Greek &
y            quality, somewhat like                         Anglo-

Verb forming suffixes
Suffix               Meaning                       Origin
ate                  to become associated with     Latin
fy                   make, do                      Latin
ise, ize             to become like                Latin

Adverb forming suffixes
Suffix Meaning                        Origin
           like, having the nature
ic                                 Latin & Greek
ly         like, to extent of         Latin

Spelling 7; 8; 9

Compiled by the Kent School District

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