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					     SWINE FLU
        Dr.T.V.Rao MD
     Professor of Microbiology
    Sri Deva Raj Urs University
    Medical College, Kolar India

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          What is Swine Flu
   Swine influenza virus (referred to
    as SIV) refers to influenza cases that
    are caused by Orthomyxovirus
    endemic to pig populations. SIV
    strains isolated to date have been
    classified either as Influenza(virus C
    or one of the various subtypes of the
    genus Influenza virus A)

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      Different Strains circulate
   In the United States the H1N1
    subtype was exclusively prevalent
    among swine populations before
    1998; however, since late August
    1998, H3N2 subtypes have been
    isolated from pigs. As of 2004, H3N2
    virus isolates in US swine and turkey
    stocks were triple
    reassortants, containing genes from
    human (HA, NA, and PB1), swine
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MAP of H1 N1 Swine Flu

         Swine Influenza (Flu)

   Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a
    respiratory disease of pigs caused by
    type A influenza that regularly cause
    outbreaks of influenza among pigs.
    Swine flu viruses do not normally
    infect humans, however, human
    infections with swine flu do occur,
    and cases of human-to-human
    spread of swine flu viruses has been
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Pigs can harbour influenza viruses
    can be adapted to Humans

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     Swine Flu-Present Status
   From December 2005 through
    February 2009, a total of 12 human
    infections with swine influenza were
    reported from 10 states in the United
    States. Since March 2009, a number
    of confirmed human cases of a new
    strain of swine influenza A (H1N1)
    virus infection in the U.S. and
    internationally have been identified.
    An investigation into these cases is
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            Swine Flu 2009
   In late March and early April 2009,
    cases of human infection with swine
    influenza A (H1N1) viruses were first
    reported in Southern California and
    near San Antonio, Texas. Other U.S.
    states have reported cases of swine
    flu infection in humans and cases
    have been reported internationally as
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     Update - Status Swine Flu
   The United States Government has
    reported seven confirmed human
    cases of Swine Influenza A/H1N1 in
    the USA (five in California and two in
    Texas) and nine suspect cases. All
    seven confirmed cases had mild
    Influenza-Like Illness (ILI), with only
    one requiring brief hospitalization.
    No deaths have been reported.
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         Swine Flu in Mexico
   In the Federal District of
    Mexico, surveillance began picking
    up cases of ILI starting 18 March.
    The number of cases has risen
    steadily through April and as of 23
    April there are now more than 854
    cases of pneumonia from the capital.
    Of those, 59 have died. In San Luis
    Potosi, in central Mexico, 24 cases of
    ILI, with three deaths, have been
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         Swine Flu and Virus
   Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a
    respiratory disease of pigs caused by type
    A influenza virus that regularly causes
    outbreaks of influenza in pigs. Swine flu
    viruses cause high levels of illness and low
    death rates in pigs. Swine influenza
    viruses may circulate among swine
    throughout the year, but most outbreaks
    occur during the late fall and winter
    months similar to outbreaks in humans.
    The classical swine flu virus (an influenza

    type A H1N1 virus) was first isolated from
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        Cause by Reassortment of
            different strains
   Like all influenza
    viruses, swine flu
    viruses change
    constantly. Pigs can
    be infected by avian
    influenza and human
    influenza viruses as
    well as swine influenza
    viruses. When
    influenza viruses from
    different species infect
    pigs, the viruses can
    reassort (i.e. swap
    genes) and new
    viruses that are a mix
    of swine, human
    and/or avian influenza LECTURES
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    viruses can emerge
Swine Flu differs from Human
   The H1N1 swine flu
    viruses are
    antigenically very
    different from
    human H1N1
    viruses and,
    therefore, vaccines
    for human
    seasonal flu would
    not provide
    protection from

    H1N1 swine flu   FOR MORE LECTURES
Out breaks among Pigs
                           Outbreaks among pigs
                            normally occur in
                            colder weather
                            months (late fall and
                            winter) and
                            sometimes with the
                            introduction of new
                            pigs into susceptible
                            herds. Studies have
                            shown that the swine
                            flu H1N1 is common
                            throughout pig
                            worldwide, with 25
                            percent of animals
                            showing antibody
                            evidence of infection.
Present Swine Flu strains
                           At this time, there
                            are four main
                            influenza type A
                            virus subtypes that
                            have been isolated
                            in pigs:
                            H1N1, H1N2, H3N2
                            , and H3N1.
                            However, most of
                            the recently
                            isolated influenza
                            viruses from pigs
                            have been H1N1
         How man is exposed
   Most commonly,
    these cases occur
    in persons with
    direct exposure to
    pigs (e.g. children
    near pigs at a fair
    or workers in the
    swine industry). In
    addition, there
    have been
    documented cases
    of one person
    spreading swine flu
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How Swine Flu presents in
                            The symptoms of
                             swine flu in people are
                             expected to be similar
                             to the symptoms of
                             regular human
                             seasonal influenza
                             and include
                             fever, lethargy, lack of
                             appetite and
                             coughing. Some
                             people with swine flu
                             also have reported
                             runny nose, sore
                             throat, nausea, vomiti
     Is the eating Pork infects ?
   No. Swine influenza
    viruses are not
    transmitted by food.
    You can not get swine
    influenza from eating
    pork or pork products.
    Eating properly
    handled and cooked
    pork and pork
    products is safe.
    Cooking pork to an
    internal temperature
    of 160°F kills the
    swine flu virus as it
    does other bacteria FOR MORE LECTURES

    and viruses
Close proximity with PIGS
  spread the Infections
                            Influenza viruses can
                             be directly transmitted
                             from pigs to people
                             and from people to
                             pigs. Human infection
                             with flu viruses from
                             pigs are most likely to
                             occur when people are
                             in close proximity to
                             infected pigs, such as
                             in pig barns and
                             livestock exhibits
                             housing pigs at fairs.
                             transmission of swine

                             flu can also occur.
    How Swine flu spread among
   Swine flu viruses are
    thought to be spread
    mostly through close
    contact among pigs
    and possibly from
    contaminated objects
    moving between
    infected and
    uninfected pigs. Herds
    with continuous swine
    flu infections and
    herds that are
    vaccinated against
    swine flu may have
    sporadic disease, or
    may show only mild or
    no symptoms of
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     Seek emergency medical care.
           IF - in Children
   In children emergency warning signs that
    need urgent medical attention include:
   Fast breathing or trouble breathing Bluish
    skin color.Not drinking enough fluids
   Not waking up or not interacting
   Being so irritable that the child does not
    want to be held
   Flu-like symptoms improve but then
    return with fever and worse cough
   Fever with a rash
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Adults Need attention if Present
   Difficulty breathing or shortness of
   Pain or pressure in the chest or
   Sudden dizziness
   Confusion
   Severe or persistent vomiting

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   To diagnose swine
    influenza A
    infection, a respiratory
    specimen would
    generally need to be
    collected within the
    first 4 to 5 days of
    illness (when an
    infected person is
    most likely to be
    shedding virus).
    However, some
    persons, especially
    children, may shed
    virus for 10 days or
    longer. Identification
    as a swine flu
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    influenza A virus
CDC helps in Diagnosis
                          Requires sending
                           the specimen to
                           CDC for laboratory
                           testing as many
                           laboratories in
                           Developing world
                           do not have

      Drugs which are effective in
              Swine Flu
   There are four
    different antiviral
    drugs that are
    licensed for use in the
    US for the treatment
    of influenza:
    Amantidine, rimant
    adine, oseltamivir
    and zanamivir. While
    most swine influenza
    viruses have been
    susceptible to all four
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Drugs proved resistant at
                           Most recent swine
                            influenza viruses
                            isolated from
                            humans are
                            resistant to
                            Amantidine and

    CDC recommends at Present
   CDC recommends
    the use of
    oseltamivir or
    zanamivir for the
    treatment and/or
    prevention of
    infection with
    swine influenza

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    How long can an infected person
      spread swine flu to others?
   People with swine influenza virus
    infection should be considered
    potentially contagious as long as
    they are symptomatic and possible
    for up to 7 days following illness
    onset. Children, especially younger
    children, might potentially be
    contagious for longer periods.

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      How long can viruses live
         outside the body?
   We know that some viruses and
    bacteria can live 2 hours or longer on
    surfaces like cafeteria tables,
    doorknobs, and desks. Frequent
    hand washing will help you reduce
    the chance of getting contamination
    from these common surfaces.

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No Vaccines to Humans
 But available to PIGS
                          Vaccines are
                           available to be
                           given to pigs to
                           prevent swine
                           influenza. There is
                           no vaccine to
                           protect humans
                           from swine flu.
                           The seasonal
                           influenza vaccine
                           will likely help
                           provide partial
                           protection against
Avoid close contact

                        Avoid close contact
                         with people who
                         are sick. When you
                         are sick, keep your
                         distance from
                         others to protect
                         them from getting
                         sick too.
                        Aerosols spread
                         the virus in any
    Stay home when you are sick.

   If possible, stay
    home from work,
    school, and
    errands when you
    are sick. You will
    help prevent others
    from catching your

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Cover your mouth and nose.

                            Cover your mouth
                             and nose with a
                             tissue when
                             coughing or
                             sneezing. It may
                             prevent those
                             around you from
                             getting sick

          Clean your hands.

   Washing your
    hands often will
    help protect you
    from germs.
   Hand washing
    proved to be best
    procedure in
    prevention of
    Majority of
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Avoid touching your eyes, nose or

                              Germs are often
                               spread when a
                               person touches
                               something that is
                               contaminated with
                               germs and then
                               touches his or her
                               eyes, nose, or

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      Practice other good health
   Get plenty of sleep,
    be physically
    active, manage
    your stress, drink
    plenty of fluids,
    and eat nutritious.
   Unnecessary
    Migration of people
    from epidemic and
    endemic areas to
    be reduced.
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Is eating Pork meat safe during
                               Swine influenza
                               viruses are not
                               spread by food.
                               You cannot get
                               swine influenza
                               from eating pork or
                               pork products.
                               Eating properly
                               handled and
                               cooked pork
                               products is safe.
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Healthy Habits reduces the

Simple measures carry get good
   Cover your
    mouth and nose.
    Use a tissue when
    you cough or
    sneeze and drop it
    in the trash. If you
    don’t have a
    tissue, cover your
    mouth and nose as
    best you can.
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Clean Hands saves you
                          Clean your hands
                           often. Clean your
                           hands every time
                           you cough or
                           sneeze. Hand
                           washing stops
                           germs. Alcohol-
                           based gels and
                           wipes also work
Cartoonists Imagination on
        Swine Flu

            Visit for Updates
   CDC ( Center of
    Disease) control
    updates the
   The topic made as
    per guidelines of

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 Created for Awarness
     on Swine Flu
         Dr.T.V.Rao MD

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