Cranbrook Loom Assembly Manual Schacht Spindle Company, Inc. 6101 Ben Place Boulder, CO 80301 www.schachtspindle.com • 303-442-3212 • firstname.lastname@example.org 4- and 8-Harness Cranbrook Loom Parts Hardware and Parts List Hardware Bag Contents 4-shaft Loom 8-shaft Loom 4 4 1/4” barrel nut 6 6 3/8” barrel nut 1 1 1/2” x 5” hexhead bolt 4 4 3/8” x 6” hexhead bolt 2 2 3/8” x 3 1/2” hexhead bolt 4 4 1/4” x 3” buttonhead bolt 4 4 1/4” x 3” hexhead bolt 1 1 1/4” x 1 3/4” hexhead bolt 1 1 1/4” nylock nut (thick) 3 3 1/4” washers 8 8 3/16” washers 4 4 1/4” fender washers* (1 1/4” diameter) 6 6 3/8” washers* 3 3 1/2” washers* 3 3 1” washers* 4 4 1/4” nylock nut (thin) 1 1 1/2” nylock nut 2 2 3/8” x 4” steel pins 1 1 5/16” Allen wrench 1 1 5/32” Allen wrench (*Note: washer dimensions are hole dimensions 2 Hardware attached to ends of steel beams (no picture) 4-shaft 8-shaft 4 4 1/2” x 3” buttonhead bolt 2 2 1/2” x 3” hexhead bolt 6 6 1/2” fender washers* (3” outside diameter) 6 6 1/2” washer* Hardware attached to Warp Beam 4-shaft 8-shaft 2 2 2 1/2” nylon washer, 3/16” thick. Use as spacer on warp beam as necessary. Small Parts 4-shaft 8-shaft 12 Treadle Option 24 80 96 anchor pegs 24 80 96 tie-up cords 10 10 bundles of Texsolv heddles (1,000 total) 4 8 wooden center support dowels 8 16 long metal shaft pins 8 16 short metal shaft pins 8 16 metal harness sleeves 6 6 wooden wedges 1 1 wooden brake hold 3 Loom Parts 4-shaft 8-shaft Box 1 (no picture) 1 1 right frame side 1 1 left frame side Box 2 1 1 cloth beam 1 1 warp beam 3 3 steel beams 1 1 warp beam wheel Box 3 and/or 4 1 1 stainless steel reed 16 16 wooden packing sticks 2 2 lease sticks (same as packing sticks, but with holes) 3 3 cross beams (1 with treadle support bar) 1 1 treadle separator beam assembly 1 1 jack box assembly 2 2 warp beam hanger blocks with pin 6 10 (or 12, option) treadles 1 1 lower lamm assembly 2 2 lower lamm extension block 4 8 upper lamms 4 8 shaft top 4 8 shaft bottom 1 1 warp beam brake release assembly 2 2 beater uprights 1 1 beater race 1 1 beater top 1 1 beater hanger bar Tools you will need: 7/16” wrench Flat head screw driver 9/16” wrench 7/16” ratchet 3/4” wrench 3/4” ratchet soft mallet Phillips head screw driver Definitions Mortise: A hole or cavity cut in a piece of wood prepared to receive a similarly shaped piece. Tenon: A projection on the end of a piece of wood designed to fit into a hole or cavity of the same shape. 4 Cranbrook Loom Assembly Instructions Before you begin assembling your loom, check to see that you have everything. Parts and hardware lists are provid- ed. Because some of the pieces are quite large, the assembly will be easier when done with another person (the 72” loom may require three people for assembly). Assemble the loom in place as it is difficult to move once assembled. Set your loom up in the space you plan to use it, or as close as possible to that space. It is important to keep the loom frame square when you assemble your loom. This means that the loom sides and cross beams are at right angles to each other. After the preliminary assembly, and before you tap the wooden wedges tightly into place, you will make a series of measurements to verify that the loom is square (see Squaring the Loom). Assemble the Frame (Use 6 wedges and 3 - 1" washers for this assembly.) In the right frame side, insert the rear cross beam (note: the metal treadle support bar should face down) and the front cross beam in the rectangular holes. Now insert the middle cross beam in the right side frame, and at the same time bring the left side frame into place and support all three beams (not fully inserted) on the left side. Attach the three beams to the right side, by tapping a wooden wedge into place in the slot in each beam on the outside of the right frame. Do not secure the beams on the left frame side at this time, since you still need to allow for space to insert the cloth beam later. [Illustration #1] Illustration 1: Overview of the frame assembly 5 beater swing bar beater upright beater pull bar back beam breast beam turn wheel cloth beam warp beam beater race knee beam treadles optional worm gear treadle separator beam with treadle locks Illustration 2: Overview of the Cranbrook loom 6 Insert the Cloth Beam For looms with ratchet advance levers: [Illustration #3A] Place the ratchet advance lever and a 1” washer onto the axle against the toothed gear. The wooden side of the ratchet advance lever should be facing the center of the loom and rest on top of the brake lock peg. Insert the axle into the hole in the right frame side. Place a 1” washer onto the axle at the left side of the cloth beam. To engage the ratchet advance lever, lift up the handle to a horizontal posi- tion. Push the lever in to engage it with the teeth of the gear, and then continue lifting up. This will release the front pawl and take the tension off the warp. Now the back beam can be released by pressing on the tension release pedal. Advance the warp by engaging the ratchet advance lever. Re-engage the warp beam. Illustration 3A: Ratchet For looms with worm gears Bolt the worm gear assembly to the inside of the right frame by inserting the ¼” x 2 1/2” flathead machine screws from the outside through the four countersunk holes on the frame side. Place the worm gear assembly over the screws and attach with 1/4” washers and 1/4” lock nuts. Pull the worm gear crank handle approximately 3" out towards the front of the loom to disengage it. Place the beam inside the frame and set on the floor (or balance on a low chair or stool) below its attachment point. Place the two smaller 1” washers on the axle against the gear and insert the axle into the hole on the right frame side. Place the larger 1” washer on the axle at the other end of the cloth beam, and insert the beam into place on the inside of the left frame. [Illustration #3B] Illustration 3B: Worm gear To engage the gear, push the worm gear handle forward and turning it clockwise at the same time. Turning the handle clockwise will advance the cloth and provide tension. By turning the handle counterclockwise the tension is released. When weaving is complete, the cloth can be removed easily by turning the worm gear handle counterclock- wise until the tension is released and then pulling the handle back to disengage the worm gear. The cloth beam will now turn freely. Note: tension needs to be released before the warp beam release lever can be operated. 7 Squaring the Loom B1 A1 1. Measure the diagonal distance from an inner edge of the left front upright (A), to an inner edge of the rear right (A1). Record this distance. left rear right rear 2. Measure the distance from the inner upright upright edge of the right front upright (B) to the inner edge of the left rear upright (B1). Record this distance. 3. If the distances are the same, the loom is square. If one distance is greater than the other, you will need to move one of the side frames forward or backward until the distanc- es are the same. [Illustration 4] Once you have determined that the distanc- es are the same, lock the cross beams by light- ly tapping a wooden wedge into place in the left front right front slot in each beam on the outside of the left upright cloth beam upright side. Before continuing, check to verify that the cloth beam spins freely. Disengage the worm A front of loom B gear. If the cloth beam does not turn freely, you will have to remove the cloth beam and Illustration 4: Squaring the Loom remove a washer from the axle on the left side. Install the Treadle Separator Beam (Use 4 - 1/4" x 3" hex head bolts, 8 - 3/16" washers and 4 thin nylock nuts for this assembly.) Place the treadle separator beam on the floor between the sides. Note: the reinforcing bar should face the back of the loom. Line up the two holes on the side of the loom with the adjuster block slots. Working from the outside, secure each side with 2 - 1/4” x 3” hexhead bolts in this order: bolt, 3/16" washer, side frame, 3/16"" washer, thin nylock nut. The adjuster bar slots make it possible to adjust the treadle separator beam at different heights, ensuring uniform and maximum sheds. [Illustration #1] Install the Tie-up Cords on the Treadles (Use the treadles and the treadle-lamm cords.) Install the treadle-lamm cords in the treadles. (Note: the tapered edge is the bottom side of the treadle.) Using the end of the treadle cord farthest from the red and black marks, thread the cord through a hole in the treadle from the top (flat side) and loop the cord around the edge of the treadle. Thread the cord through the second eye of the end that is looped around the treadle and center the cord over the treadle hole. The cords should all be looped around the same side of the treadle. Follow this procedure for all the holes in each treadle. [Illustration 5] Illustration 5: Install the tie-up cords Install the Treadles on the Treadle Support Bar: (Use treadle support bar assembly, and 2 – 1/2" washers.) When all the cords are on the treadles, install the treadles on the treadle support bar. Note: when installing the treadles, check to make sure the flat side of the treadle faces up. Remove both cotter pins and slide the steel rod out 8 to one side. Beginning at the center support block, work out from the center to one side, installing all the treadles needed on that side. The space to one side of the center accommodates six treadles (including one treadle installed on the outside of the wooden rod bracket). Then work out from the center on the other side. Note: it is easiest to install the treadle in its corresponding slot on the treadle separator beam as you place the treadles on the treadle support bar. Insert a treadle and then a 1 1/2” wooden spacer, treadle, spacer, etc. For fewer than 12 treadles, place an equal number of treadles on either side of the center support block and use the additional spacers are provided to fill any leftover space. When all treadles and/or spacers are on, secure both ends of the treadle bar with a 1/2” washer and a cotter pin. Attach the Lower Lamms (Use the lower lamm assembly, 2 lower lamm extension blocks, 2 - 3/8" barrel nuts, 2 – 3/8" x 3 1/2" hexhead bolts, 2 - 3/8" washers.) The lamms and the spacers are already threaded on a 10” steel lamm pivot rod. You need only attach this assembly to the lamm extension blocks and attach the blocks to the side of the loom. Make sure that the hooks on the lamms are facing up. Hint: for ease of handling the lamms during installation, leave the wrapping materials in place until you have attached the lamms. Slide the front lamm extension block onto the steel lamm pivot rod, then attach the front lamm extension block to the left frame side. Insert the cross dowel connector in the lamm extension box side. Note: the hole in the cross dowel is lined up with the bolt when the slot in the cross dowel is horizontal. Secure from the inside of the left loom frame with a 3/8" washer and a 3/8” x 3 1/2” hexhead bolt. Now slide the other lamm block onto the lamm pivot rod. Gradually rotate the block into position against the left frame side upright, and bolt in place with a 3/8" washer and 3/8” x 3 1/2” hexhead bolt. Install the Steel Beams (Use for each steel beam: 2 - 1/2" fender washers with 3" outside diameter and 2 - 1/2” steel washers. The back beam is attached with 2 - 3” hex head bolts and the breast and knee beams are each attached with 2 - 3” trusshead bolts. Note: the hardware to attach the beams was used to secure the beams for shipping and is therefore found with the beams, not in the hardware bag.) Breast Beam: The breast beam fits at the front of the loom in the slots on top of the front posts. [Illustration #2] Thread a 1/2" steel washer and then a 1/2" fender washer onto each of two bottonhead bolts. Insert each bolt into one end of the metal beam and turn the bolts about 1/2” deep into the fittings in the end of each beam. Hold the beam with the bolts positioned over the slots in the front posts, position the fender washers on the inside and the 1/2" washers on the outside of the frame, and slide the assembly down to the bottom of the slots. Tighten the bolts by hand, then use the allen wrench to secure as tightly as possible. Back Beam: The back beam fits in the lower set of holes in the rear uprights of the side frame. The upper set of holes is for a second back beam that comes with the optional double warp beam. Hold the beam in place and slide the 1/2" fender washers in between the side frame upright and the beam. Working from both sides, insert the 3" hex- head bolt with a 1/2" washer attached from the outside of the frame. Be sure that the large washer is aligned with the beam hole. Tighten the bolts by hand just enough to secure the beam. It's easiest to fit the bolt through the frame and the large washer first, and then position the beam, using the large washer to center the beam. Hand tighten the beam on this side. Knee Beam: The steel knee beam allows for additional knee room within the loom. Woven material passes over the top of the knee beam to the cloth beam below. Install the knee beam in the same way as the back beam using two 3" buttonhead bolts, 2 - 1/2" washers on the bolts and 2 - 1/2" fender washers. When all of the beams are installed, tighten all beam bolts. Tap all the wedges for the three wooden cross beams firmly in place. 9 Install the Jack Box Assembly The jack box is pre-assembled. To install, place it on the top of the loom, lining up the pins in the bottom of the jack box with the holes on the top of the frame sides. The wooden knobs of the pivot and locking pins should face the front of the loom, and the cords should hang down. Take care that the locking pins do not fall out as you maneuver the jack box into place. [Illustration #6] Illustration 6: Jack/Lamm Assembly Assemble the shafts and install the heddles (For each frame you will use: 1 shaft top with 2 hooks, 1 shaft bottom with three hooks, 1 wooden center support dowel, 2 long metal shaft spacers, 2 short metal shaft spacers, 2 metal sleeves, and heddles. See below for informa- tion on distributing the heddles.) Do not remove the twist ties from the heddles until you read the following instructions. Each heddle bundle contains 100 heddles. The heddles are linked together in a continuous string of heddles. It is safest to cut the heddles apart only after heddles are installed on the shafts. You may need to cut apart some heddles before this, if you need to install fewer than 100 heddles on a given shaft. First, determine how many heddles you need on each shaft. Then divide this number in half, to determine the number needed on one side of each shaft. Keeping the twist ties that hold the heddles in place, carefully cut the loops at the very top and bottom of the bunch. Place the whole bundle of heddles on two extra sticks such as lease sticks (inserted at the space between the twist ties). Now undo the twist ties and count out the heddles you need. Then retie all bundles of heddles separately with 4 extra twist ties per bundle. Note: in order to get the heddles on without breaking the wooden support dowel, follow this procedure exactly. Illustration 7: Assemble shafts and install heddles 10 Installing the heddles and assembling the shafts is done simultaneously. Insert a wooden support dowel in the cen- ter holes of the shaft top and bottom and tap firmly into place. Take care when installing the heddles that the wooden support dowel does not come out because it cannot be replaced after the heddles are installed. Install the heddles on one side first, sliding them over the hooks. Cut the heddles apart by cutting the loops at the very top and bottom of the heddles, and slide them all the way to the center. This will help in moving the heddles across the shaft and with install- ing the heddles on the other side of the shaft. Install the heddles on the other side, cut them apart and slide to the center of the shaft. Place the shaft spacers and metal sleeves in place. Insert the long metal shaft pins in the holes at the sides of the shaft top. Insert the short metal shaft pins in the lower shaft holes. Slide a metal sleeve onto the long metal shaft pin, and slip it down over the short metal shaft pin to secure the harness side. Repeat on the other side of the shaft. If the heddles fit too tightly between the top and bottom shaft bars, tap the top of the harness firmly with a rubber mal- let, at the center and two sides, to compact the frame. [Illustration #7] When each shaft is assembled, hang a suspended lamm on it by interlocking the three hooks on the lower shaft frame with the corresponding hooks on the lamm. Beginning at the rear of the loom, hang each shaft in the 10th hole of each of the shaft suspension cords. For 4-shaft looms, the shafts should be installed in the four forward spaces. Attach the corresponding lower lamm to the 6th hole of the yoke cord. Note: The yoke cord should be in back of its corresponding shaft. The top of the top harness bar will be approximately 42 ½ - 43" from the floor. Assemble and Install the Warp Beam Hanger Blocks (Use 2 warp beam hanger blocks with inset sliding locking blocks, 4 - 3/8" barrel nuts, 4 - 3/8" washers and 4 - 3/8" x 6" hexhead bolts.) Locate the 3/8" holes in the back side of the frame uprights (four holes on each upright). You will install the warp beam hanger blocks on the lower two holes of each upright. (The upper two holes are for installation of an optional second warp beam.) Install one warp beam hanger block by first inserting two 3/8" barrel nuts into the holes in the hanger block. Place a 3/8" washer on each of two 3/8” x 6” hexhead bolts and insert the bolts through the frame from the front side of the upright into the barrel nuts in the warp beam hanger block. Note: be sure that the cross dowel connectors face to the inside of the loom frame. This allows the beam lock blocks to slide to the outside when the hanger blocks are installed. To install the warp beam, remove the locking pegs from each hanger block, slide out the lock blocks. Remove the tape holding nylon washers in place on each side, leaving the washers in place. Insert the beam, and replace the lock blocks and pegs. Place the turn wheel over the square shaft of the warp beam. [Illustration #8] Illustration 8: Installing the warp beam 11 Install the Warp Beam Release Assembly (Use a 1/2" x 5" hexhead bolt, 3 - 1/2" washers, a 1/2" nylock nut, a 1/4" x 1 3/4" hexhead bolt, a 1/4" (thick) nylock nut, and 3 - 1/4 washers.) Locate the block on the inside of the right frame side. (The block is on the lowest horizontal side brace, just to the rear of the treadle separator beam.) Place the brake release pedal above the front cross beam and the treadle separa- tor beam, and under the back cross beam with the connector strut to the rear of the loom. Orient the assembly so that the connector strut lies next to the loom side. [Illustration #8] Bolt the assembly in place at the pivot block, working from the outside of the loom frame in this order: 1/2” x 5” hexhead bolt, 1/2"washer, frame side, block, 2—1/2” wash- ers, lever, 1/2" washer, and 1/2" nylock nut. Tighten so that the lever moves freely. Attach the connector strut to the pawl by bolting with a 1/4” x 1 3/4” hexhead bolt, bolting from the inside as fol- lows: bolt, 1/4" washer, connector strut, 1/4" washer, pawl, 1/4" washer, 1/4"nylock nut. Tighten so that the assembly moves freely. Assemble the Beater Working on the floor, assemble the beater uprights to the beater race: insert two 1/4" barrel nuts into the holes at the tenoned end of the beater upright. Insert the tenon into the mortise. Attach each upright with two 1/4” x 3” but- tonhead bolts and two fender washers. Tighten the buttonhead bolts with the allen wrench provided. Repeat for other side. Now place the beater top on the side frames. Place the reed in the slot of the beater race and slide the beater top down on the reed to secure it. Attach the beater swing bar to the uprights by sliding it over the top of the beater uprights. Make sure the metal pivots are hanging down, facing toward the back. Insert the steel locking pin in one of the four holes of the beater uprights, above the beater hanger bar. Holding the beater on each side on the underside of the beater hanger bar, set the pivots into the bronze pivot block on top of the frame to suspend the entire beater assembly. Forward and backward adjustment. The notches of the hanger pivot block allow control of the depth of the weaving space. A maximum shed is attained with the beater closest to the front shaft. Height adjustment. With the beater hanging freely, the warp line should bisect the center of the reed. To adjust, hold the beater upright in one hand and slide the metal pin out of the hole with the other hand. Move the upright up or down as required and reinsert the pin. Repeat this procedure on the opposite side. Aligning the beater. The beater must be perfectly parallel with the front breast beam. This alignment should be checked periodically, especially if the loom has been moved or is subjected to severe climatic changes. With your hand in the center of the pull bar, slowly pull the beater forward. Both ends of the beater should touch the front posts simul- taneously. If they do not, alignment is required. The slotted screw holes in the base of the beater pivot blocks provide this adjustment. Loosen the screws and tap the blocks lightly with a hammer, either forward or backward, until the beater is aligned. Tighten the screws securely. Tying up your Countermarche Loom It is easiest to tie up the treadles before the loom is warped. The treadle-lamm cords (also known as “tie-up cords”) should already be attached to the treadles (see page 2). Note: before starting the tie-up, make sure that the lock pins are inserted in the overhead jacks—your loom comes with them inserted. Then check to see that the heddle eyes are in a direct horizontal line from the breast beam to the back beam. To do this, simply tie a length of yarn from the warp beam, up over the back beam, over the breast beam, and around the cloth beam. Looking from the side, check to see that the yarn forms a horizontal line from front to back and passes through the center of the heddle eye. If it does not, adjust the height of the shafts on the shaft hanger cords. The countermarche loom is a balanced system of rising and sinking shafts. There are two sets of lamms, an upper suspended lamm and a lower lamm. A shaft tied to the lower lamm will rise when the treadle is depressed. Hint, remember: “bottoms up." A shaft tied to an upper lamm will sink when the treadle is depressed. In tying up the coun- termarche loom, each shaft is tied to either an upper or lower lamm on every treadle. When you are done, if you are using all of your shafts, there will be no untied holes left on your treadles. Mark your tie-up draft so that you know which shafts should rise and which should sink. Most tie-up drafts are marked for the shafts that rise, so the blank spaces in the draft represent the shafts that sink. You will tie the rising shafts for each treadle to the lower lamm, and the sinking shafts to the upper lamm. Each shaft works independently, meaning that the action of one shaft does not affect that of another. You will note that you can only depress one treadle at a time—nothing moves when two treadles are depressed. The specially designed Texsolv tie-up cords supplied with your loom are all the same length, and each one can be tied to either an upper or lower lamm. Each cord is marked with a red and a black mark. To tie a treadle to the upper lamm, pass the cord in back (or front, when facing toward the front of the loom) of the lower lamm and up through the upper lamm hole. Secure it with a plastic anchor clip in the loop with the black mark. 12 Illustration 9: The Tie-up To tie a treadle to the lower lamm, pass the treadle cord through the corresponding hole in the lower lamm. Fasten to the lower lamm through the loop with the red mark, leaving the long tail end of the cord hanging. Sitting behind the shafts facing the front, begin the treadle tie-up with the treadle on the left (or the point farthest away from the lower lamm pivot point). In the example tie-up draft in Illustration #7, the " o’s" represent the rising shafts. It is easiest to tie all the rising shafts first. You will tie these to the lower lamms (remember: “bottoms up”). Tie each treadle cord to the corresponding hole in the lower lamm. Secure the cord with a plastic anchor peg* through the hole marked with the red reference mark. [Illustration 9] Illustration 10: Anchor peg * To place the plastic anchor clip through the loop, slip the loop lengthwise along the curved half-moon of the clip and then slip the other side of the loop under the flat edge. It will be easier to do this procedure when there is no ten- sion on the cord; working with the treadle resting on the treadle separator is helpful. [Illustration 10] To complete the tie-up for this treadle, tie all the remaining cords (marked with an "x" in the tie up draft), to the upper lamms, passing the cords in back of each lower lamm. (Note: the Y-cords are in front of the lamms; the lamm cords are in back of the lamms). Secure the anchor clip in the black reference mark. You will notice that that back cords are tighter than the front cords. This is as it should be. Hint: When tying up treadles, rest them on the adjacent treadle separator upright. It is easier to tie up the treadles when there is no weight or tension on them. Tie up the next treadle: Using the same process as for the first treadle, tie up all of the rising shafts, marked as o’s in the tie-up illustration. Then tie up all the sinking shafts (empty holes, marked as x's in the tie-up illustration.) Note: your loom will function best if you tie up at least eight treadles. If you don’t need that many for a particular tie- up, tie the treadles you are not using in tabby or twill tie-ups until you have eight treadles tied, or if they were tied up for a previous weaving, leave them as they were. Now remove the jack lock pins. The shafts will drop slightly from the weight of the shafts and treadles. 13 Adjusting the Treadle Separator Beam The treadle separator beam is used to regulate the size of the sheds and to ease treadling. Adjust the treadle separator beam on a gradual incline, higher on the left. To determine where to adjust the beam, depress the leftmost treadle and look at the shed from the side. It should be open as much as possible but not hit the top or bottom of any shaft. Check each shed by depressing each treadle in turn. Set the treadle support beam for the optimal height side to side. The Brake Lock The brake lock is a rectangular piece of wood that hangs from the peg on the right frame side over the warp beam release lever. It is used to hold the warp beam release lever down while cranking on the warp. To engage the brake lock, slide it out to the end of the peg so it is over the warp beam release lever. This will allow the warp beam to turn freely. 14 Cranbrook Loom Adjusting the Shed - Appendix B • If the upper shed (raised warps) are uneven: Raise the threads by shortening the lower lamm cord of the errant shaft. • If the lower shed (sinking warps) needs to be adjusted: Determine which shafts are errant and whether they need to be raised or lowered (that is, if shaft 2 is the only shaft that is hanging above or below the other sinking warps, fix this one only). To adjust, either shorten or lengthen the tie-up cord to the suspended (upper) lamm. • Lower lamm = rising shed = red mark on the cord (usually O in the tie-up) Remember: bottoms up! • Upper lamm = sinking shed = black mark on the cord (the X in the tie-up) Cranbrook Loom Trouble Shooting - Appendix C Problem Possible Causes Solutions Shed won’t open Jack lock pins haven’t been removed. Remove jack lock pins Tie-up cords are crossed Check to make sure treadle-lamm cords are tied in appropriate holes. Yoke cords are crossed Check to make sure the yoke cords are con- nected to the corresponding lamm Treadles hard Treadles are hitting lower lamms Adjust shafts Shafts tilt Warp not in center Center warp Narrow warp Tie warps at edges of apron rods Lower shed is uneven Upper lamms not all tied in the black Check tie-up cords to upper lamms. mark. Lift up on shafts to determine which shaft is in error and adjust the tie-up cord accordingly. Upper shed is uneven Lower lamms are not tied in red Check tie-up cords to lower lamms mark. Lift up on shafts to determine which shaft is in error and adjust the tie-up cord accordingly Shed is too small Treadles are hitting lower lamm Adjust the shafts The heddle eyes are not in the center Raise or lower the shafts so that the warp pass- of the shed es through the center of the heddle eye Take out beam and place under warp and rein- Warp is not over back beam sert beam.
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