How to improve civil society's participation in the fight against corruption? Korea Independent Commission Against Corruption Suh, Jaesik Contents I. Corruption Prevention & Citizens’ Participation II. Relations between Gov’t & Civil Society III. Ways of Civil Society’s Participation in the fight against Corruption IV. Closing I. Corruption Prevention & Citizens’ Participation 1. Importance of Civil Society’s Participation 1) Efforts made by the gov’t alone are not enough to eradicate corruption. 2) It is the responsibility of every Bhutanese to act against corruption in our country. (Royal Kasho) I. Corruption Prevention & Citizens’ Participation Who will act against corruption in this country? All Bhutanese = public sector + private sector + civil society Civil Society= Media NGOs Ordinary citizens II. Relations between Gov’t & Civil Society (1)Changes in Relations between the Government and Citizens <Evolutionary changes in the roles of citizens and gov’t> Citizens object of voters customers partners owners rule and control past present Administration Administration as a ruler trustee manager partner under citizens’ supervision Gov’t Source: Vigoda, Eran. 2002. “From responsiveness to collaboration: Governance, citizens, and the next generation of public administration,” PAR, 62:5 (2) Role of Gov’t & Citizens in the 21st Century . Reestablishment of the status civil society: as consumers and partners rather than the object of rule and control Gov’t: as a manager, a partner and a supporter, distancing itself from a ruler III. Ways of Civil society’s Participation in the fight against corruption 1. Infrastructure for civil society’s participation in the fight against corruption 1) Education and awareness raising on anti- corruption What is corruption? How do they confront corruption? 2) Trust in the government (In particular, public trust and support for ACC is very important) III. Ways of Civil society’s Participation in the fight against corruption 3) Access to Information Information Disclosure System If there are difficulties in obtaining information, people cannot make a clear judgment on gov’t activities and play their watchdog role over state affairs - USA(1966), Korea(1997) III. Ways of Civil society’s Participation in the fight against corruption Information Disclosure System Exceptions Information related to the national security, defense, unification, diplomacy and others which has high possibility of inflicting negative results on the nation if disclosed. III. Ways of Civil society’s Participation in the fight against corruption 4) Atmosphere of promoting reports on corrupt practices Hot Line for a corruption report A short and easy number ex) 111, 113, 118 System of protecting those who made a report on corruption. III. Ways of Civil society’s Participation in the fight against corruption 2. Types of Civil Society Participation in the Fight against Corruption (1)System allowing citizens to request an enactment or reform of ordinances (2) System guaranteeing citizen’s right to request inspection III. Ways of Civil society’s Participation in the fight against corruption (3) Citizen’s Recall System For heads of upper level local governments, a minimum of 10% of voters is required to seek a recall. (4) Ombudsman Ombudsman Characteristics of classical ombudsman : ① overseeing administration and maintaining its political neutrality with legally guaranteed independence ② handling complaints on injustice, wrongdoings and irregularities concerning administrative bodies. ③ having the rights to investigate, criticize and disclose administrative policies but not making direct correction. Ombudsman Integrity ombudsman (Case of Seoul Metropolitan Government) Carrying out duties independently within its mandate, focusing on corruption prevention, supervision improvement, and fair bidding, contracts and enforcement. IV. Closing Let’s make Bhutan the( ) through the Collaboration between Civil Society & Government Beautiful Honorable Unbelievably Transparent and Accountable Nation Thank You!