Experience and options of Car-Sharing by dib16550


Fact Sheet                                                 you-drive principle have demonstrated a change in
                                                           mobility patterns which has led to less pollution.
                                                           MoCuBa shows that the integration of Car-Sharing
Experience and options of                                  services into spatial planning allows a more
Car-Sharing                                                sustainable urban lifestyle. Car-Sharing helps to
                                                           regain street space through reducing the amount of
Introduction                                               parked cars. It is the basis for new developments
                                                           with lower parking provision. It is less costly and
All European cities share the same problem: an             leading to better urban design and a new mobility
increasing number of cars consuming more and               culture.
more urban space.                                          But we are still a long way from fully exploiting the
But there is an innovative and practical solution:         potential for Car-Sharing. In some places Car-
Simply using a car when necessary - without owning         Sharing is still a niche market with small but growing
it. This Car-Sharing service as a “car-on-call”-system     numbers of users (for example Bremen about 4.000
is already well developed in some cities. The              end of 2006 – having replaced about 700 – 900
experience is very useful for many others.                 private cars).
                                                           Many European cities still have to start from scratch
                                                           – and the already gathered experience is quite
                                                           useful. There are Car-Sharing operators who have
                                                           proved that Car-Sharing can be a sustainable
                                                           professional business service. This means that
                                                           newcomers don’t have to reinvent the wheel: they
                                                           can obtain the already gathered experience .

                                                               MoCuBa – the project

                                                               All cities of the Baltic Sea Region suffer from
                                                               severe transport problems like congestion,
                                                               pollution, consumption of space, accidents,
                                                               costs of transport infrastructure, urban sprawl,
                                                               dependence on mineral oil, CO2 emissions etc.
Smart-card access to a Car-Sharing vehicle                     Most of existing strategies to tackle these
                                                               problems focus on technical aspects.
Car-Sharing can be seen as a kind of methadone                 The cites of Bremen, Gdansk, Helsinki, Kaunas,
programme to cure our ‘addiction’ to cars.                     Klaipeda, Lund, Odense and Vilnius with 18
In fact, the experiences of many towns and cities              partners are trying to go a different way: a new
over the last 15 years demonstrate very clearly that           mobility culture.
Car-Sharing       provides     people     with     more        ‘Mobility Culture’ describes the rather non-
independence from cars. Car-Sharing is an easy,                technical aspects for a necessary behavioural
cost-efficient and reliable service - a good alternative       change of citizens and responsible stakeholders.
to car ownership.                                              The image of certain transport modes is at least
Less car ownership does not restrict people’s                  as important for the choice of transport modes as
access to activities. On the contrary: an integrated           the technical infrastructure.
offer of the various transport modes – trains, buses,          MoCuBa will deliver pilot actions in the field of
trams, bicycles and also the car for certain times –           strategic planning, healthy city plans, regional PT
provides individuals with a wide choice. In this model         integration, intermodal co-operation and
the car is only one of a number of different ways of           electronic ticketing, Car-Sharing services, cycling
travelling. For cities with good public transport              and walking – in order to start a process of
services or cycle networks, Car-Sharing serves as a            supporting the sustainable modes more
perfect complement to these more environmentally               efficiently based on a better understanding of
friendly modes.                                                emotional factors.
Car-Sharing has many benefits for the individual
user including saving time and money. Car-Sharing              http://www.mocuba.net/
customers usually have a choice of cars to drive
depending on the type of journey they are making.
Existing Car-Sharing services based on the pay-as-
1. Car-Sharing – How does it work?                                                     4. Drive
                                                                                       There are no staff where the
Car-Sharing provides customers with full personal
                                                                                       car is parked, so you need to
mobility. Car-Sharing cars can be rented by                                            check it for cleanliness and so
customers at any time of day by the hour, on a daily                                   on. You are expected to
basis, or for longer. In many European cities Car-                                     return it in the same condition.
Sharing services are now available or will be
developed within the next years. Different operators
offer slightly different arrangements, but the basic
principles are the same. Most of the operators use
modern smart-card access, some use other
electronic access systems. Combining this with PIN                                     5. Return your car
codes – similar to automatic teller machines (ATMs)                                    At the end of your trip, return
                                                                                       the car to its reserved parking
– allows for high standards of security and reliability
                                                                                       place. Your data (mileage
                                                                                       and time) is recorded and will
                            1. Become a customer                                       be transmitted to the central
                            When you become a                                          booking office. Your monthly
                            customer of a Car-Sharing                                  invoice will show every trip
                            service, you receive your                                  with the car you used to
                            PIN, your personal smart-                                  make each journey, time of
                            card and a booklet with                                    use and mileage.
                            technical information,
                            locations of the cars and so
                                                                                       6. And the cost?
                            on. Booking a car is easy,
                                                                                       Every operator has their own
                            and you will have access to
                                                                                       specific tariffs – you can
                            the cars at any time.
                                                                                       check them on their websites
                                                                                       (for example Germany:
                           2. Reserve your car                                         www.cambiocar.de). But
                           Reservations can be made by                                 there are usually common
                           telephone or on the Internet                                features:
                           24 hours a day, seven days a                                •     a low monthly fee;
                           week. You can reserve a car
                                                                                       •     a mileage-related fee;
                           in advance or on the spur of
                                                                                       •     a time-related fee.
                           the moment. You can make a
                           reservation with a good Car-
                           Sharing operator for as little
                           as one hour.                      2. Car-Sharing – what’s in it for the customer?
                                                             No insurance or hidden costs
                            Most of the Car-Sharing          The costs of Car-Sharing are transparent. All costs
                            operators offer various types    are included, and there is no extra fee for insurance,
                            of cars to fit in with your      extra taxes and so on, as is quite often the case with
                            purpose for travelling. The      car rental.
                            cars are modern and well         Financial benefits
                            maintained low-emission          You can easily compare the costs of owning a car
                            vehicles. The website of
                            each Car-Sharing operator
                                                             versus Car-Sharing. Don’t forget to include the costs
                            will show you all the            for parking and the time involved in taking your own
                            available alternatives,          car to the garage for maintenance and so on. The
                            locations and tariffs            real cost of each Car-Sharing journey is easy to
                                                             calculate as it is the figure that appears on your
                            3. Access your car               invoice.
                            Your will find the Car-          If you have an annual mileage of about 10,000-
                            Sharing vehicles in reserved     12,000km or less then you can save money with
                            parking places. You may          Car-Sharing. The detailed comparison depends on
                            have direct access to the car    the specific costs of the car-share provider, and the
                            with your smart-card or you      expense of car ownership in different countries
                            will obtain the car keys from
                            intelligent lockers (‘key
                                                             Driving less means you pay less – this means that
                            managers’) at larger stations.   Car-Sharing is a good chance to save money!
3. Car-Sharing – what’s in it for society?              More efficient vehicles
Environmental gains                                     Other benefits of Car-Sharing arise from using more
There are three key benefits for the environment:       efficient vehicles. An environmentally friendly Car-
• Each Car-Sharing vehicle replaces four to eight       Sharing provider will offer low emission cars. A fleet
    private cars. Thus Car-Sharing reduces the          of various types of vehicles will be available to
    space given over to parking and helps to regain     choose the one which is most appropriate for the
    space for environmental and other social uses.      purpose. A small city car is usually most energy
                                                        efficient and less polluting. An estate car may be
                                                        necessary for family trips, and a van required for
                                                        group trips or journeys with lots of luggage. The
                                                        main impacts result from the principle of Car-
                                                        Sharing: fewer cars, less car mileage, and higher

                                                        4. Why is Car-Sharing beneficial for public
                                                        Although only around 15 years old, Car-Sharing has
                                                        already demonstrated its ability to complement
                                                        public transport. The combination of public transport
                                                        and Car-Sharing creates a win-win situation for both
                                                        transport modes because they are stronger together
•   The pay-as-you-drive system of Car-Sharing
                                                        than separately. Various studies have also shown
    provides an incentive for people to use cars less
    and instead use public transport, a bike or walk.   that Car-Sharing clients who were previously car-
                                                        owners change their mobility patterns: they reduce
    Car-sharers have a greater variety of transport
                                                        their car mileage and use public transport much
    options available to them as when deciding how
    they will travel.                                   more often. Car-Sharing can develop more quickly
                                                        and strongly when combined with public transport.
•   Usually, Car-Sharing operators offer a variety of
    cars, which can be used for a range of
                                                        Main role of the public transport operator
    purposes, from the small city car to medium-
                                                        Many cities in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Austria,
    sized family cars, vans and mini-buses. Car-
                                                        Belgium and other countries have introduced
    Sharing vehicles are generally recent models,
                                                        cooperation between public transport and Car-
    and are therefore less polluting and more energy
                                                        Sharing. In most cases, public transport operators
                                                        cooperate with Car-Sharing providers, offering
                                                        special incentives (reduced tariffs) for users to
Fewer cars
                                                        combine both services.
It seems that, in all cities, parking is a sensitive
political issue. Car-Sharing is a much less expensive
alternative to extending parking space underground
and seems to make much more sense.
As an alternative to private car-ownership, Car-
Sharing offers a service with easy access,
decentralised locations and a choice of different

More mobility options
Car-sharers have more options for how they move
around. They also use public transport more often.
Several studies of Car-Sharing systems in Germany
and Switzerland have identified similar results:
previous car owners have reduced their car mileage
by about 1,000 -1,600 km annually, and doubled          Combined tariffs
their mileage on public transport.                      An integrated mobility service should be attractive to the
                                                        potential customer, and offer an additional benefit in terms
This results in a direct reduction of energy
                                                        of tariffs and services. It usually implies the introduction of
consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and noise.        combined season tickets, making the use of both systems
The Swiss study stated a reduction in individual        cheaper, but mainly a lot easier.
transport-related energy consumption of 55%.
Guidelines for successful integration between             Rationale
public transport and Car-Sharing                          To test the function of on-street Car-
are set out below:                                        Sharing stations as part of a rather
• Both operators need to implement high quality           holistic promotion of alternative modes,
    services. By doing so, public transport               an integrated intermodal Car-Sharing
    authorities make sure that car-sharers can rely       station has been created in Bremen –
    on an efficient service, and will only need a car     and designed with the special brand
    on very specific occasions                            name ‘mobil.punkt’ to improve inner-city
• Car-Sharing stations may be located close to            areas with intensive parking problems.
    public transport stops, which allows Car-Sharing
    vehicles to be used jointly by the public transport   Main actors and role in the Project
    operator. The MoCuBa pilot action ‘mobil.punkt’       The ‘mobil.punkt’ is a joint effort of the
    in Bremen demonstrates the synergy.                   City of Bremen as responsible public
• Finally, to ensure seamless mobility, it is             authority,   the     Bremen       Parking
    fundamental that the information on the different     Management Company (BrePark) to
    modes of transport is centralised and widely          technically manage the station, Public
    disseminated. A city information system on            Transport and the Car-Sharing operator
    mobility should be set up to provide advice on        cambio to provide the Car-Sharing
    each public transport mode, locations of Car-         service.
    Sharing vehicles, taxi stops, parking facilities,
    pedestrian areas, and walking and bicycle paths.
                                                          Implementation Aspects
Promote joint
Marketing is
because it
awareness of
Stations, stops
and vehicles
information and
advertising                                               A basic principle of the ‘mobil.punkt’ is the location
outlets, and                                              directly near a Public Transport stop, the integration
enable specific                                           of bike-racks and some further mobility-related
targeting of                                              information.
                                                          Based on good experience of two ‘mobil.punkt’-
                                                          stations the decision was made to build another one
                                                          in the densely built Neustadt area of Bremen – as a
                                                          pilot action of the MoCuBa project.
MoCuBa pilot action ‘mobil.punkt’ in Bremen:
Interchanges between Car-Sharing, Public
                                                          More information:
Transport and cycling
                                                          MoCuBa coordination (City of Bremen):
Objectives and targets                                    Michael Frömming, Tina Klingberg,
Modern     parking-management       for    inner-city     Michael Glotz-Richter
neighbourhoods requires innovative solutions.
Space is usually very limited – and is also required      mocuba@umwelt.bremen.de
for greening, for bike-parking and for widening           www.mocuba.net
The modern service of Car-Sharing has proofed to
reduce parking needs – but Car-Sharing stations
                                                          ver 1.1 / March 2007
may require public street space.

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