MoCuBa Fact Sheet you-drive principle have demonstrated a change in mobility patterns which has led to less pollution. MoCuBa shows that the integration of Car-Sharing Experience and options of services into spatial planning allows a more Car-Sharing sustainable urban lifestyle. Car-Sharing helps to regain street space through reducing the amount of Introduction parked cars. It is the basis for new developments with lower parking provision. It is less costly and All European cities share the same problem: an leading to better urban design and a new mobility increasing number of cars consuming more and culture. more urban space. But we are still a long way from fully exploiting the But there is an innovative and practical solution: potential for Car-Sharing. In some places Car- Simply using a car when necessary - without owning Sharing is still a niche market with small but growing it. This Car-Sharing service as a “car-on-call”-system numbers of users (for example Bremen about 4.000 is already well developed in some cities. The end of 2006 – having replaced about 700 – 900 experience is very useful for many others. private cars). Many European cities still have to start from scratch – and the already gathered experience is quite useful. There are Car-Sharing operators who have proved that Car-Sharing can be a sustainable professional business service. This means that newcomers don’t have to reinvent the wheel: they can obtain the already gathered experience . MoCuBa – the project All cities of the Baltic Sea Region suffer from severe transport problems like congestion, pollution, consumption of space, accidents, costs of transport infrastructure, urban sprawl, dependence on mineral oil, CO2 emissions etc. Smart-card access to a Car-Sharing vehicle Most of existing strategies to tackle these problems focus on technical aspects. Car-Sharing can be seen as a kind of methadone The cites of Bremen, Gdansk, Helsinki, Kaunas, programme to cure our ‘addiction’ to cars. Klaipeda, Lund, Odense and Vilnius with 18 In fact, the experiences of many towns and cities partners are trying to go a different way: a new over the last 15 years demonstrate very clearly that mobility culture. Car-Sharing provides people with more ‘Mobility Culture’ describes the rather non- independence from cars. Car-Sharing is an easy, technical aspects for a necessary behavioural cost-efficient and reliable service - a good alternative change of citizens and responsible stakeholders. to car ownership. The image of certain transport modes is at least Less car ownership does not restrict people’s as important for the choice of transport modes as access to activities. On the contrary: an integrated the technical infrastructure. offer of the various transport modes – trains, buses, MoCuBa will deliver pilot actions in the field of trams, bicycles and also the car for certain times – strategic planning, healthy city plans, regional PT provides individuals with a wide choice. In this model integration, intermodal co-operation and the car is only one of a number of different ways of electronic ticketing, Car-Sharing services, cycling travelling. For cities with good public transport and walking – in order to start a process of services or cycle networks, Car-Sharing serves as a supporting the sustainable modes more perfect complement to these more environmentally efficiently based on a better understanding of friendly modes. emotional factors. Car-Sharing has many benefits for the individual user including saving time and money. Car-Sharing http://www.mocuba.net/ customers usually have a choice of cars to drive depending on the type of journey they are making. Existing Car-Sharing services based on the pay-as- . MoCuBa 1. Car-Sharing – How does it work? 4. Drive There are no staff where the Car-Sharing provides customers with full personal car is parked, so you need to mobility. Car-Sharing cars can be rented by check it for cleanliness and so customers at any time of day by the hour, on a daily on. You are expected to basis, or for longer. In many European cities Car- return it in the same condition. Sharing services are now available or will be developed within the next years. Different operators offer slightly different arrangements, but the basic principles are the same. Most of the operators use modern smart-card access, some use other electronic access systems. Combining this with PIN 5. Return your car codes – similar to automatic teller machines (ATMs) At the end of your trip, return the car to its reserved parking – allows for high standards of security and reliability place. Your data (mileage and time) is recorded and will 1. Become a customer be transmitted to the central When you become a booking office. Your monthly customer of a Car-Sharing invoice will show every trip service, you receive your with the car you used to PIN, your personal smart- make each journey, time of card and a booklet with use and mileage. technical information, locations of the cars and so 6. And the cost? on. Booking a car is easy, Every operator has their own and you will have access to specific tariffs – you can the cars at any time. check them on their websites (for example Germany: 2. Reserve your car www.cambiocar.de). But Reservations can be made by there are usually common telephone or on the Internet features: 24 hours a day, seven days a • a low monthly fee; week. You can reserve a car • a mileage-related fee; in advance or on the spur of • a time-related fee. the moment. You can make a reservation with a good Car- Sharing operator for as little as one hour. 2. Car-Sharing – what’s in it for the customer? No insurance or hidden costs Most of the Car-Sharing The costs of Car-Sharing are transparent. All costs operators offer various types are included, and there is no extra fee for insurance, of cars to fit in with your extra taxes and so on, as is quite often the case with purpose for travelling. The car rental. cars are modern and well Financial benefits maintained low-emission You can easily compare the costs of owning a car vehicles. The website of each Car-Sharing operator versus Car-Sharing. Don’t forget to include the costs will show you all the for parking and the time involved in taking your own available alternatives, car to the garage for maintenance and so on. The locations and tariffs real cost of each Car-Sharing journey is easy to calculate as it is the figure that appears on your 3. Access your car invoice. Your will find the Car- If you have an annual mileage of about 10,000- Sharing vehicles in reserved 12,000km or less then you can save money with parking places. You may Car-Sharing. The detailed comparison depends on have direct access to the car the specific costs of the car-share provider, and the with your smart-card or you expense of car ownership in different countries will obtain the car keys from intelligent lockers (‘key Driving less means you pay less – this means that managers’) at larger stations. Car-Sharing is a good chance to save money! MoCuBa 3. Car-Sharing – what’s in it for society? More efficient vehicles Environmental gains Other benefits of Car-Sharing arise from using more There are three key benefits for the environment: efficient vehicles. An environmentally friendly Car- • Each Car-Sharing vehicle replaces four to eight Sharing provider will offer low emission cars. A fleet private cars. Thus Car-Sharing reduces the of various types of vehicles will be available to space given over to parking and helps to regain choose the one which is most appropriate for the space for environmental and other social uses. purpose. A small city car is usually most energy efficient and less polluting. An estate car may be necessary for family trips, and a van required for group trips or journeys with lots of luggage. The main impacts result from the principle of Car- Sharing: fewer cars, less car mileage, and higher efficiency. 4. Why is Car-Sharing beneficial for public transport? Although only around 15 years old, Car-Sharing has already demonstrated its ability to complement public transport. The combination of public transport and Car-Sharing creates a win-win situation for both transport modes because they are stronger together • The pay-as-you-drive system of Car-Sharing than separately. Various studies have also shown provides an incentive for people to use cars less and instead use public transport, a bike or walk. that Car-Sharing clients who were previously car- owners change their mobility patterns: they reduce Car-sharers have a greater variety of transport their car mileage and use public transport much options available to them as when deciding how they will travel. more often. Car-Sharing can develop more quickly and strongly when combined with public transport. • Usually, Car-Sharing operators offer a variety of cars, which can be used for a range of Main role of the public transport operator purposes, from the small city car to medium- Many cities in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, sized family cars, vans and mini-buses. Car- Belgium and other countries have introduced Sharing vehicles are generally recent models, cooperation between public transport and Car- and are therefore less polluting and more energy Sharing. In most cases, public transport operators efficient. cooperate with Car-Sharing providers, offering special incentives (reduced tariffs) for users to Fewer cars combine both services. It seems that, in all cities, parking is a sensitive political issue. Car-Sharing is a much less expensive alternative to extending parking space underground and seems to make much more sense. As an alternative to private car-ownership, Car- Sharing offers a service with easy access, decentralised locations and a choice of different vehicles. More mobility options Car-sharers have more options for how they move around. They also use public transport more often. Several studies of Car-Sharing systems in Germany and Switzerland have identified similar results: previous car owners have reduced their car mileage by about 1,000 -1,600 km annually, and doubled Combined tariffs their mileage on public transport. An integrated mobility service should be attractive to the potential customer, and offer an additional benefit in terms This results in a direct reduction of energy of tariffs and services. It usually implies the introduction of consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and noise. combined season tickets, making the use of both systems The Swiss study stated a reduction in individual cheaper, but mainly a lot easier. transport-related energy consumption of 55%. MoCuBa Guidelines for successful integration between Rationale public transport and Car-Sharing To test the function of on-street Car- are set out below: Sharing stations as part of a rather • Both operators need to implement high quality holistic promotion of alternative modes, services. By doing so, public transport an integrated intermodal Car-Sharing authorities make sure that car-sharers can rely station has been created in Bremen – on an efficient service, and will only need a car and designed with the special brand on very specific occasions name ‘mobil.punkt’ to improve inner-city • Car-Sharing stations may be located close to areas with intensive parking problems. public transport stops, which allows Car-Sharing vehicles to be used jointly by the public transport Main actors and role in the Project operator. The MoCuBa pilot action ‘mobil.punkt’ The ‘mobil.punkt’ is a joint effort of the in Bremen demonstrates the synergy. City of Bremen as responsible public • Finally, to ensure seamless mobility, it is authority, the Bremen Parking fundamental that the information on the different Management Company (BrePark) to modes of transport is centralised and widely technically manage the station, Public disseminated. A city information system on Transport and the Car-Sharing operator mobility should be set up to provide advice on cambio to provide the Car-Sharing each public transport mode, locations of Car- service. Sharing vehicles, taxi stops, parking facilities, pedestrian areas, and walking and bicycle paths. Implementation Aspects Promote joint services Marketing is particularly important because it raises awareness of Car-Sharing services. Stations, stops and vehicles provide suitable information and advertising A basic principle of the ‘mobil.punkt’ is the location outlets, and directly near a Public Transport stop, the integration enable specific of bike-racks and some further mobility-related targeting of information. selected groups. Based on good experience of two ‘mobil.punkt’- stations the decision was made to build another one in the densely built Neustadt area of Bremen – as a pilot action of the MoCuBa project. MoCuBa pilot action ‘mobil.punkt’ in Bremen: Interchanges between Car-Sharing, Public More information: Transport and cycling MoCuBa coordination (City of Bremen): Objectives and targets Michael Frömming, Tina Klingberg, Modern parking-management for inner-city Michael Glotz-Richter neighbourhoods requires innovative solutions. Space is usually very limited – and is also required firstname.lastname@example.org for greening, for bike-parking and for widening www.mocuba.net sidewalks. The modern service of Car-Sharing has proofed to reduce parking needs – but Car-Sharing stations ver 1.1 / March 2007 may require public street space.
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