Microbiology Exam 1 Review

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					                               Microbiology Exam #2 Review
   Bacteria:

1. To name the bacteria that are found primarily in the intestine of humans (facultative
    anaerobic gram-negative rods)
2. What are the characteristics of the regular, nonsporing gram-positive rods (fermentative,
    pathogenic, aerotolerant)?
3. What are the characteristics of Neisseria (cocci, aerobic, gram-negative, oxidase-positive
    etc.)?
4. To name the bacteria that are most resistant to high temperatures (Bacillus …)
5. What are the characteristics of spirochetes (helical, gram-negative, axial filament,
    difficult to culture, difficult to observe with brightfield microscope etc.)?
6. To name the bacteria that lack a cell wall
7. To compare rickettsias and chlamydias (form elementary bodies, intracellular parasites
    gram stain? transmission?)
8. To define chemoautotroph, chemohetertroph, photoautotroph and photoheterotroph
9. To grouping bacteria using gram-stain (e.g. to name gram-positive and gram-negative
    bacteria)
10. To name the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever; to know the “facts” about
    this bacterium (transmission, genus, gram-stain, where can you find it? etc.)
11. To know one of the bacterial classification criteria (RNA sequence)
12. to know the significance of gram stain, endospore stain, flagella stain, acid fast stain, and
    lactose fermentation
13. To name the bacteria responsible for more infections and more different kinds of
    infections than other bacteria (streptococci)

   Fungi and Protozoa
14. What are the characteristics of fungi (multicellular/unicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic,
    oxygen requirement? – most are aerobic, tolerate low moisture, )
15. What are the characteristics of protozoa (eukaryotic, special structures such as cilia or
    flagella; reproduction: sexually? asexually?)
16. To compare spores to bacterial endospores
17. To name the arthropods that transmit diseases while sucking blood from a human (fleas,
    lice, mosquitoes, kissing bugs)
18. What is (are) the most effective method(s) to control malaria?
19. To know the transmission of the following diseases (lyme disease, malaria, encephalitis,
    rocky mountain spotted fever)
20. Ringworm is caused by ascomycete
21. To name the disease(s) that caused by candida albicans
22. To define a nosocomial infection (acquired during hospitalization; common in immune
    comprised patients caused by normal microbial or drug-resistant bacteria)
23. To name the diseases spread by droplet infection (TB, common cold, diphtheria etc.)
24. Why doesn’t candida albicans normally cause disease (normal bacterial flora –
    antagonistic)
25. To name the bacteria that can cause toxic syndrome


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26. To name the pneumonia-causing bacteria and compare ;how common, how severe
27. To name the bacteria that have flagella (helical bacteria, enterics, pseudomonas)

     DNA, Genetics, and Biotechnology

1.  To define DNA and a gene
2.  To define transcription and translation
3.  What are the products of transcription and translation?
4.  Genetic changes in bacteria include mutation, conjugation, transformation and
    transduction; to understand these terms
5. To define restriction fragment (a segment of DNA)
6. To define restriction enzymes and the products
7. To name the steps involved in PCR technique
8. To define “gene therapy” and provide examples
9. To define Southern blot and cloning
10. Recombination DNA can be done through protoplast fusion, electroporation,
    microinjection, transformation etc.)
11. What are the advantages of using E. coli to make human gene products?
12. To list the steps of DNA fingerprints (collect cells, lyse cells, collect DNA, digest DNA,
    electrophoresis)




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