TEMPLATE BASED ENGINEERING OF SUBSTATION AUTOMATION
SYSTEMS WITH THE IEC 61850 FUNCTIONAL NAMING CONCEPT
H. DAWIDCZAK, H. ENGLERT
Abstract – The creation of the data model and the con- this structure, the trunk is represented by the substation,
figuration of the communication system represent essential the branches by the voltage levels and switch bays and
tasks of engineering substation automation systems the twigs and leaves by the operational equipment and
With SCL (Substation Configuration Description Lan- the primary and secondary technical functions. Opera-
guage) the system standard IEC 61850 provides a stan-
tional equipment and functions can be assigned to spe-
dardized formal representation of the data model and
communication configuration of substation automation cific object classes that give them specific functions and
systems. properties. These object classes are known as “logical
The substation model of SCL allows a vendor-neutral nodes” (LN). Their detailed structure is described with
and function-oriented data and object designation called data and attributes by referring the LN classes to a data
Functional Naming. This concept simplifies engineering by type template (specimen description).
enabling the user a uniform and function-oriented per- The standardization of project planning data and its
spective on data and objects of a substation automation use as a model for building new substations or for ex-
system. The paper presents the principle of Functional panding existing substations provides an effective way
Naming and introduces a new template based engineering
of reducing time and cost expenditure for engineering
approach. This approach allows a standardized reuse of
data models and configurations. The application of this . Users, especially large network operators, have
approach and its benefits are shown by typical engineering defined their own data and addressing models for this
activities. purpose. The standardized data models and operator-
specific addressing concepts are usually based on the
Keywords: Substation Automation, Engineering, communication standards of IEC 60870-5 [5, 6].
IEC 61850, Functional Naming, Product Naming, The object is to enable continued use of existing data
SCL model and addressing concepts even with the introduc-
tion of IEC 61850, thereby maintaining the familiar
view of the substation in engineering and operation. The
1 INTRODUCTION principle of functional naming provides a suitable basis
Protection, control and supervision of primary for this.
equipment systems are the functions that are performed The principle of linking the two addressing systems
today by substation automation systems (SAS) using which is presented in the following section makes it
state-of-the-art computer and communication technolo- possible to combine the vendor-neutral view of the
gies. The SAS is designed basically according to the system model of the SAS with the product-specific
requirements of the primary equipment. Consequently, address structure of equipment models. Afterwards the
the single-line diagram of the primary equipment sys- use of the functional naming concept in typical phases
tem provides the starting point for the engineering proc- of SAS engineering is demonstrated. In section 4 a
ess of an SAS. The single line diagram provides the novel tool concept is introduced which supports tem-
electrical topology of the high- voltage equipment and plate based engineering. Section 5 presents example
its major properties. The structures and designations of applications of template based SAS engineering. Sec-
the individual elements, such as substation, voltage tion 6 shows the benefits which can be achieved by the
level, switch bay, and operational equipment are largely use of Functional Naming principle together with an
standardized in IEC 61346  and have become a per- intelligent template library concept. Conclusions are
manent element in the conceptual world of users. It is summarized in section 7.
thus a logical consequence to use the structure of the
substation and the designations for the vendor-neutral 2 PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTIONAL NAMING
part of the engineering process of SAS.
The specification of an SAS can be created in a “Sys- 2.1 Basic naming concepts of IEC 61850
tem Specification Description” (SSD) using the “Sub- A data model created on the basis of SCL is vendor-
station Configuration Description Language” (SCL) of neutral and standardized. It enables users to transfer
the IEC 61850-6 [2, 3]. A standardized notation is used their own system concepts to a standard address space.
for the various different levels and operational equip- This user-specific project planning view achievable in
ment in order to create a hierarchical tree structure. In this way simplifies the engineering, since it is not de-
16th PSCC, Glasgow, Scotland, July 14-18, 2008 Page 1
pendent on the hardware technology used for an SAS The IED model describes the secondary technical
and is thus stable in the long-term and reusable. In IEC functions from the hardware viewpoint. The composi-
61850, this function-oriented addressing scheme is tion and structuring of the functions are dictated by
termed “Functional Naming”. actual IED-specific capabilities.
In the same way that the functional data model is The communication model contains the description
geared to the primary technical system, the data models of the communication configuration of the substation.
of the hardware devices (IED – Intelligent Electronic The secondary technical functions in the substation
Devices) reflect the implemented functions from the and IED model are represented in principle by logical
point of view of the actual bay controllers and protec- nodes. Standard part IEC 61850-7-4  defines corre-
tion devices of the individual manufacturers. Since sponding LN classes for typical functions that differ in
structuring and scope of the equipment functions is their designation and their composition of mandatory
dictated by the particular vendor-specific implementa- and optional data objects and attributes. The actual
tion, the individual data models and the resulting ad- composition of LN classes can be specified as LN types
dressing scheme are different . This diagrammatic in the section DataTypeTemplates.
representation of the product-specific addressing is The use of LN objects and the possible interrelation-
designated as “Product Naming“ in accordance with ships between the model parts are shown in Fig. 2 using
IEC 61850. the example of a distance protection function applied in
a feeder bay in a 110kV substation. According to IEC
2.2 SCL object model
61850-7-4 a distance protection function is represented
Standard IEC 61850-6 defines an object model that is
by the logical node class “PDIS”.
formally represented by the SCL. This SCL object
model is composed of three sub-models and one section
for the specification of data types (see Fig. 2):
The substation model is used to represent the sub-
station from the functional view. The object model
provides a hierarchical structure as shown in Fig. 1. for
simulating the primary technical system. Primary opera-
tional equipment and the electrical connections between
them (topology) can be described in a substation struc-
ture simulated in this way. Secondary technical func-
tions can be allocated to the substation sections, opera-
tional equipment and functions in the form of logical
nodes. In this way the connection between primary and
secondary technology is described.
* * Figure 2: Parts of the object model and interrelationships
1 between logical nodes
In the substation model the LN object of LN class
PDIS is arranged according to its application-specific
LNode use (distance protection function “F1”, Zone 1
“DIST1”) within the substation structure. For the pur-
Figure 1: UML model for simulating system structures in the pose of detailed specification the LN object can be
substation model (IEC 61850-6 Ed.2 /CDV ) linked with an LN type definition “PDIS_SPEC” of
16th PSCC, Glasgow, Scotland, July 14-18, 2008 Page 2
identical LN class from the DataTypeTemplates section. form of an SSD file can be used to advantage as an
The LN object from the substation model can be linked electronic requirement specification for invitations to
to the IED LN level and the appropriate LN Z1PDIS1 tender.
(representing the IED distance protection function zone
1) via a reference. The LN “Z1PDIS1” itself is specified
After the functional naming, the data objects are
via the LN type “PDIS_IED_1”.
linked to the product naming during the configuration
2.3 Object addressing (naming) phase of the SAS. The functional object addresses are
Access to LN objects and hence to data objects and linked to the product-specific data objects of the equip-
attributes contained in them is possible via the hierar- ment models (IED models) via references (see 2.2). The
chical structure of the object models. By rolling out the result is a mapping of the non-hardware-specific substa-
structure a unique path to the destination object is cre- tion specification to the actual hardware devices. In this
ated. way the user can apply both the functional and the prod-
If LN objects are linked via references in the substa- uct-specific view in the following engineering phases.
tion and IED model as shown in Fig. 2 access is conse- In practice, IEDs that fulfill this specification are se-
quently possible to one and the same subject via two lected first. This is established by making a comparison
paths, from the substation model and from the IED between the LN types defined in the specification and
model. Object addressing via the substation model is the LN types in the description files of the IED capabili-
known as Functional Naming, while identification via ties (ICD – IED Capability Description). A check is
the IED model is known as Product Naming. The fol- made to establish whether the data types of the IEDs
lowing access options to the data object Mod therefore meet the specification or exceed it, i.e. offer more ob-
exist for the example shown in Fig. 2: jects than are required. The ICD files are then trans-
ferred to the SAS system description and the link be-
Functional Naming: tween product and functional naming is implemented.
UW_Nord.110kV.E01.F1.DISTZ1.PDIS.Mod This process step in particular harbors considerable
Product Naming: potential for improvement since the user can be sup-
IED_1.PROT.Z1PDIS1.Mod ported here by intelligent tools. For example, an auto-
matic comparison between the specification and the IED
During operation of an SAS, data exchange at com- capabilities could signal to the user the extent to which
munication level always takes place in Product Naming. the IEDs fulfill the specified functions. The tool could
Due to the linking of IED and substation model every suggest suitable IEDs to the user and perform linking
object can be shown in the functional view of the Func- between product and functional naming automatically.
3.3 Configuration of a station operator terminal
During configuration of the station operator terminal
3 USE OF FUNCTIONAL NAMING IN SAS different lists (e.g. event, warning message, system
ENGINEERING disturbance list) are parameterized with their messages.
The Functional Naming principle offers new poten- The messages contain information about event sources,
tials to increase engineering efficiency. Below the re- for example substation, voltage level, bay and device,
sulting advantages,when applying the proposed princi- and the actual message texts. In the past it was usually
ple in typical engineering phases, are discussed. necessary to enter this information manually but on the
basis of functional naming this information can be de-
rived directly from the functional object addresses in the
Specification of the data model is the first phase of
SCD. If the associated message text is stored in the
the engineering of the future SAS. The functional view
DataTypeTemplate section this can also be transferred
of the substation and the secondary system is defined in
the SSD file (Substation Specification Description) and
the substation structure is described formally with the 3.4 Fault diagnosis and troubleshooting
aid of the SCL. The associated abstract LN classes at Diagnostic tools are used during startup and during
the corresponding structure levels (substation, voltage fault clearance for checking the data models used in the
level, bay level, operational equipment level, function hardware devices and the data traffic on the station bus.
level) can be assigned manually (see 2.2) or from librar- Thanks to the self-description capability of IEC
ies (see 4.2). The LN is selected on the basis of the 61850 data models can be read out and verified directly.
specific version of the LN class via the linked LN type. The data models of equipment and the data traffic are
The various different LN types are used to define based on product naming. By using functional naming,
whether and which optional data objects are used from interpretation of the product naming can be imple-
the standard scope of the LN class. The result is a speci- mented online in the diagnostic tools. It is thus possible
fication which provides a topologically correct and to represent the information in the functional view of
functional definition of the data model (substation the user so that it is non-hardware-specific and vendor-
model) of the SAS and thus provides the basis for ap- neutral.
plying the functional naming. This specification in the
16th PSCC, Glasgow, Scotland, July 14-18, 2008 Page 3
4 TEMPLATE AND LIBRARY BASED ware models including the links between product and
ENGINEERING TOOL CONCEPT functional naming. E.g. 400kV line section with main
Using templates, which are organized in libraries, is and backup protection device and bay controller.
a common and proven methodology for reuse of engi-
neering data [10, 11]. By taking up the template meth- Type 4) Template with the complete configuration of
odology and integrating the Functional Naming princi- a voltage level of a station type consisting of associated
ple, a novel tool concept for SAS engineering can be station model and vendor-specific equipment models
built. Fig. 3 gives an overview of this engineering con- including the links between product and functional
4.1 Generation of templates 4.2 Organization in libraries
The engineering process for new substations and for These templates can be organized in libraries and can
expansions of existing substations can be considerably be used by the user as models in the corresponding
facilitated by standardization of project planning data in projects. Naturally, project libraries are also possible in
the form of specimen configurations (templates). which complete specimen stations can be administered.
The following types of preconfigured templates are Likewise, it is also possible to store selected hardware
possible for example (Fig. 3): descriptions (ICD files) in separate libraries in order to
be able to create new templates for bay or station types
Type 1) Template with the complete hardware- based on them. For this it is essential to ensure that the
neutral specification of a bay or station type (e.g. for the hardware devices used and the IED configuration tools
bay type 400/110kV transformer bay or station type support a template concept.
110kV node station with bay- or station-specific proper-
5 APPLICATION EXAMPLES
Type 2) Template of a bay type consisting of vendor- Templates provide the user with an efficient means
neutral station model and a vendor-specific hardware of creating a concrete specification and configuration of
model including the links between product and func- an SAS. Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show two possible procedures
tional naming. E.g. 20kV line section with combined for arriving at a complete system configuration on the
bay controller and protection device. basis of different template types.
Type 3) Template of a bay type consisting of vendor-
neutral station model and several vendor-specific hard-
Template Library Project Library
Bay- / SSD-Datei uses Substation
Type 1 uses IED
Bay Communic. SYSTEM creates
Template CONFIGURATION uses
Type 2 TOOL manages
Substation IED Library IED CONFIGURATION
Bay- / TOOL
Substation SSD-Datei Manufacturer A
Type 3/4 DataTypeT. DataTypeT.
Figure 3: Engineering tool concept comprising tools, template types and libraries (return flow from SCD or CID files to IED con-
figuration tools is not shown)
16th PSCC, Glasgow, Scotland, July 14-18, 2008 Page 4
5.1 Use of hardware-neutral specification templates
In Example 1 the template of type 1 with a non-
hardware-specific specification of a substation type
(e.g. 110 kV – H-type circuit) represents the starting
point of the configuration process. After importing
suitable hardware descriptions the user links the func-
tional substation model to the corresponding objects of
the equipment models. This could be automated by
applying predefined linking rules by the system con-
figuration tool. Actual station designations, network
addresses or cross-communication settings have still to
be assigned. The user could be assisted in this by intel-
ligent functions of the system configuration tool to
assure the consistency of the settings
Figure 5: Specification and configuration with templates –
The following benefits can be achieved by the use of
Functional Naming principle together with an intelligent
template library concept:
The project-specific object model of a substation
. can be described independently of the implemented
Figure 4: Specification and configuration with templates – data model of the hardware used in the future. The
Example 1 System Specification Description can thus be used
as the basis for the invitation to tender for a project
5.2 Use of hardware-specific configuration templates and for the definition of the projected data scope.
In Example 2 the user makes use of bay templates of The separation between substation and equipment
types 2 and 3 which consist in each case of one bay- model meets users’ demands for the decoupling of
typical substation model and one or more linked ven- the life cycles of functional data model and vendor-
dor-specific hardware models. By combining the par- specific product versions.
ticular bay templates which are needed for simulating Linking of substation and equipment model via
the entire substation the user creates the complete sub- references allows for users’ demand for supporting
station and hardware model. It may still be necessary to exchange concepts.
adapt substation designations and communication set- Solutions planned for particular types can be stored
tings but these are very largely predefined by the tem- and archived in specimen and project libraries for
In Example 1 the user already achieves a reduction in The information can be displayed at functional
time and effort for the specification. In Example 2, there level in the configuration and parameterization
is no need for the link between substation and hardware process (regardless of the device used). This is
model either. Consequently the procedure shown in conditional on intelligent engineering tools that
Example 2 certainly represents one of the most effective support both views (product and functional nam-
alternatives for specification and configuration in ac- ing). This simplifies the configuration activity and
cordance with IEC 61850. reduces sources of error.
16th PSCC, Glasgow, Scotland, July 14-18, 2008 Page 5
The information can be displayed at functional  Englert, H.; Hoga, C.: “Beneficial engineering of
level in the communication diagnosis and trouble- IEC 61850 substation automation systems”, Pro-
shooting during startup which simplifies the inter- ceedings, Power Grid Conference, Madrid, Jun.
pretation of contents. 2007.
 60870-5-101: “Telecontrol equipment and systems -
7 CONCLUSION Part 5: Transmission protocols - Section 101: Com-
Functional Naming offers the user a host of advan- panion standard for basic telecontrol”, 1995.
tages in all phases of the engineering of SAS, from the  60870-5-104: “Telecontrol equipment and systems -
invitation to bid for the project to startup and documen- Part 5: Transmission protocols - Section 104: Net-
tation. work access for IEC 60870-5-101 using standard
Since functional naming is based on the interpreta- transport profiles”, 1998.
tion of the product naming within tools the user can also  Kurrat, J.; Sengbusch, K.: „Engineering der Schalt-
profit from the advantages of functional naming in IEC- anlagenkommunikation mit IEC 61850“, Elektrizi-
61850 substations which are already in operation today. tätswirtschaft, VWEW Energieverlag Frankfurt,
Hardware parameters do not need to be reset for up- 2007.
grading so intervention in the substation is not neces-
 IEC 57/919/CDV – “IEC 61850-6 Edition 2: Con-
sary. All that is needed is to create the system model in
figuration description language for communication
the SCD and to create the link to product naming.
in electrical substations related to IEDs”, 2008.
 IEC 61850-7-4: “Basic Communication structure for
REFERENCES substation and feeder equipment – compatible logi-
 IEC 61346: “Industrial systems, installations and cal node classes and data classes”, 2003.
equipment and industrial products - Structuring prin- Maurmeier, M; Dencovski, K.; Engelbert, S.: „En-
ciples and reference designations”, 1996. gineering challenges – evaluation concept for engi-
 IEC 61850: "Communication networks and systems neering tools“, atp – Automatisierungstechnische
in substations”, Ed. 1, 2004. Praxis, Heft 01.2008, Oldenbourg Industrieverlag
 IEC 61850-6 “Configuration description language München, 2008.
for communication in electrical substations related Harnischmacher, G.; Arph, J.; Hölscher, M.:“ Effi-
to IEDs”, 2003. ziente Datenmodellierung im Anlagenengineering
nach IEc 61850“, ETZ, Heft 4/2007, VDE Verlag
16th PSCC, Glasgow, Scotland, July 14-18, 2008 Page 6