How to Summarize by club56

VIEWS: 214 PAGES: 13

									What is a Summary?

 A summary is a shortened version of an original text.
 It includes the thesis and major supporting points,
 and should reveal the relationship between the
 major points and the thesis.
How Long should a Summary be?


A summary should include the main idea,
  major supporting details or
  explanations, and the author's
  conclusion. It should also be
  approximately 1/4 the length of the
  original selection, be in your own words.
A Summary Can Help You


•It will give you practice in close, attentive reading, and train you to
do justice to what you read (rather than reading into a work only
what is familiar to you).

•It will strengthen your sense of structure in writing: how a writer
organizes material, develops his or her points, and moves from
one point to another.

•It will develop your sense of what is important in a written work,
enabling you to distinguish between key points, the material
backing them up, specific examples and illustrations, and mere
asides.
A summary should NOT include:

   Your opinion.
   What you think the author should have said.
   Copied (plagiarized) material or a series
What you Need

1.   A big, ugly, overwhelming text: to dissect and
     shrink.
2.   A Hi-lighter: to locate the text’s important parts.
3.   Paper: to write down the main point, purpose of
     the text, major points and documentation
     information.
4.   A ruthless, but respectful attitude: to conquer the
     mess.
How should you write a summary?
                                                      Handling Stress by James Fits
     It is normal to feel nervous about an exam. In fact, it is beneficial to be moderately stressed right before the exam. A
      little tension can give you just the right amount of adrenaline you need to do your best. It can heighten your
      awareness and sharpen your reflexes, allowing you to perform more quickly. It can even help you recall information
      you may not have otherwise remembered. However, if your level of stress rises too high, it can result in insomnia,
      loss of appetite, and sometimes even hair loss! This can obviously affect your performance on the exam. It is
      important to know as much as possible about stress, if you are going to handle it effectively.

     All Is Stress Bad?
     NO! General stress can help, while focused stress can hinder. Take for example that football game you saw last
      weekend. If the players did not feel somewhat anxious about the outcome of the game, they may not have worked to
      their full potential. Stress only becomes our enemy when it becomes an end in itself. When the focus of our energy
      turns to anxiety rather than the task at hand, it becomes detrimental to your efforts.
     Dealing with Thoughts-Yell STOP!
     If you feel yourself beginning to brew a storm of anxiety, stop what you're doing and mentally draw a blank. Wait for
      the clouds to clear before continuing. If you are in an environment that permits it, actually tell yourself to STOP! This
      may embarrass you a little, but at least it will get your mind off the stress. It may take a while for your mind to clear,
      but wait for it. The time spent doing this will in the end be less than the time lost due to poor performance because of
      stress.

     Daydream
     Work! Work! Work! All through school, you are told this. In class, your teacher may have scolded you for
     daydreaming. Now, forget all that. Allow yourself the benefit of daydreaming. If you feel overwhelmed by the
     material, let your mind wander. Think of being with a friend or at a place of comfort and let your body relax. Feel the
     physical tension in your body release, and then return to the grindstone.

     Visualize Success
     Visualization is a great skill for dealing with stress. Basketball players who visualize their shots have a higher
      scoring ratio. The same applies for academics. Most people contemplate what failure will feel like. Doing this only
      sets you up for the fall. Instead, spend time visualizing success. Rehearse what it will feel like to get that A. Be
      specific with your goals, and physically produce them for yourself. If your goal is to ace an upcoming exam, put a
      copy of a previous exam on the bulletin board in your dorm or apartment and write a big 'A' on it. If your goal is a
      specific GPA for the semester, write that figure on the board and chart your progress. Thinking positively results in a
      higher level of energy and stress levels drop
     .
     Praise yourself
     Talk to yourself using positive language. Treat yourself as you would a friend. By the way, this is good advice
      throughout life, not just during an exam. Rather than saying, 'Way to go dummy, you don't even know the answer to
     the first question!' try, 'Get back to that question, maybe it will come to you as you work through the rest of the exam.‘
      Encourage yourself and promise yourself a treat after you finish the exam regardless of your feelings toward your
      performance. This helps you to focus on something other than the importance of this particular exam. Keep in mind
      that no one exam is going to completely devastate your career as a student.
How should you write a summary?

                                                              Handling Stress by James Fits
           It is normal to feel nervous about an exam. In fact, it is beneficial to be moderately stressed right before the
           exam. A little tension can give you just the right amount of adrenaline you need to do your best. It can
            heighten your awareness and sharpen your reflexes, allowing you to perform more quickly. It can even help
            you recall information you may not have otherwise remembered. However, if your level of stress rises too
            high, it can result in insomnia, loss of appetite, and sometimes even hair loss! This can obviously affect
            your performance on the exam. It is important to know as much as possible about stress, if you are going to
            handle it effectively.

           All Is Stress Bad?
           NO! General stress can help, while focused stress can hinder. Take for example that football game you saw last
            weekend. If the players did not feel somewhat anxious about the outcome of the game, they may not have worked to
            their full potential. Stress only becomes our enemy when it becomes an end in itself. When the focus of our energy
            turns to anxiety rather than the task at hand, it becomes detrimental to your efforts.
           Dealing with Thoughts-Yell STOP!
           If you feel yourself beginning to brew a storm of anxiety, stop what you're doing and mentally draw a blank. Wait for
            the clouds to clear before continuing. If you are in an environment that permits it, actually tell yourself to STOP! This
            may embarrass you a little, but at least it will get your mind off the stress. It may take a while for your mind to clear,
            but wait for it. The time spent doing this will in the end be less than the time lost due to poor performance because of
            stress.

           Daydream
           Work! Work! Work! All through school, you are told this. In class, your teacher may have scolded you for
           daydreaming. Now, forget all that. Allow yourself the benefit of daydreaming. If you feel overwhelmed by the
           material, let your mind wander. Think of being with a friend or at a place of comfort and let your body relax. Feel the
           physical tension in your body release, and then return to the grindstone.

           Visualize Success
           Visualization is a great skill for dealing with stress. Basketball players who visualize their shots have a higher
            scoring ratio. The same applies for academics. Most people contemplate what failure will feel like. Doing this only
            sets you up for the fall. Instead, spend time visualizing success. Rehearse what it will feel like to get that A. Be
            specific with your goals, and physically produce them for yourself. If your goal is to ace an upcoming exam, put a
            copy of a previous exam on the bulletin board in your dorm or apartment and write a big 'A' on it. If your goal is a
            specific GPA for the semester, write that figure on the board and chart your progress. Thinking positively results in a
            higher level of energy and stress levels drop
           .
           Praise yourself
           Talk to yourself using positive language. Treat yourself as you would a friend. By the way, this is good advice
            throughout life, not just during an exam. Rather than saying, 'Way to go dummy, you don't even know the answer to
           the first question!' try, 'Get back to that question, maybe it will come to you as you work through the rest of the exam.‘
            Encourage yourself and promise yourself a treat after you finish the exam regardless of your feelings toward your
            performance. This helps you to focus on something other than the importance of this particular exam. Keep in mind
            that no one exam is going to completely devastate your career as a student.
How should you write a summary?

                                                                  Handling Stress by James Fits
           It is normal to feel nervous about an exam. In fact, it is beneficial to be moderately stressed right before the exam. A
            little tension can give you just the right amount of adrenaline you need to do your best. It can heighten your
            awareness and sharpen your reflexes, allowing you to perform more quickly. It can even help you recall information
            you may not have otherwise remembered. However, if your level of stress rises too high, it can result in insomnia,
            loss of appetite, and sometimes even hair loss! This can obviously affect your performance on the exam. It is
            important to know as much as possible about stress, if you are going to handle it effectively.

           All Is Stress Bad?
           NO! General stress can help, while focused stress can hinder. Take for example that football game you saw last
           weekend. If the players did not feel somewhat anxious about the outcome of the game, they may not have worked to
           their full potential. Stress only becomes our enemy when it becomes an end in itself. When the focus of our energy
           turns to anxiety rather than the task at hand, it becomes detrimental to your efforts.
           Dealing with Thoughts-Yell STOP!
           If you feel yourself beginning to brew a storm of anxiety, stop what you're doing and mentally draw a blank .
           Wait for the clouds to clear before continuing. If you are in an environment that permits it, actually tell yourself to
           STOP! This may embarrass you a little, but at least it will get your mind off the stress. It may take a while for your
           mind to clear, but wait for it. The time spent doing this will in the end be less than the time lost due to poor
           performance because of stress.

           Daydream
           Work! Work! Work! All through school, you are told this. In class, your teacher may have scolded you for
           daydreaming. Now, forget all that. Allow yourself the benefit of daydreaming. If you feel overwhelmed by the
           material, let your mind wander. Think of being with a friend or at a place of comfort and let your body relax. Feel the
           physical tension in your body release, and then return to the grindstone.

           Visualize Success
           Visualization is a great skill for dealing with stress. Basketball players who visualize their shots have a higher
            scoring ratio. The same applies for academics. Most people contemplate what failure will feel like. Doing this only
            sets you up for the fall. Instead, spend time visualizing success. Rehearse what it will feel like to get that A. Be
            specific with your goals, and physically produce them for yourself. If your goal is to ace an upcoming exam, put a
            copy of a previous exam on the bulletin board in your dorm or apartment and write a big 'A' on it. If your goal is a
            specific GPA for the semester, write that figure on the board and chart your progress. Thinking positively results in a
            higher level of energy and stress levels drop
           .
           Praise yourself
           Talk to yourself using positive language. Treat yourself as you would a friend. By the way, this is good advice
            throughout life, not just during an exam. Rather than saying, 'Way to go dummy, you don't even know the answer to
           the first question!' try, 'Get back to that question, maybe it will come to you as you work through the rest of the exam.‘
            Encourage yourself and promise yourself a treat after you finish the exam regardless of your feelings toward your
            performance. This helps you to focus on something other than the importance of this particular exam. Keep in mind
            that no one exam is going to completely devastate your career as a student.
How should you write a summary?




•According to [author's name],
•in the article "[title of article],"
•complete thesis sentence
• major supports in your own words.


Example: According to James Fits, in the article " Handling
Stress,"it is important to know as much as possible about
stress, if you are going to handle it effectively. General
stress can help, while focused stress can hinder. Telling
yourself to STOP, daydreaming, visualization, and positive
talk are ways to deal with stress.
                                                                                                   Handling Stress by James Fits
                                            It is normal to feel nervous about an exam. In fact, it is beneficial to be moderately stressed right before the exam. A
                                             little tension can give you just the right amount of adrenaline you need to do your best. It can heighten your
                                             awareness and sharpen your reflexes, allowing you to perform more quickly. It can even help you recall information
                                             you may not have otherwise remembered. However, if your level of stress rises too high, it can result in insomnia,
                                             loss of appetite, and sometimes even hair loss! This can obviously affect your performance on the exam. It is
                                             important to know as much as possible about stress, if you are going to handle it effectively.

                                            All Is Stress Bad?
                                            NO! General stress can help, while focused stress can hinder. Take for example that football game you saw last
                                            weekend. If the players did not feel somewhat anxious about the outcome of the game, they may not have worked to
                                            their full potential. Stress only becomes our enemy when it becomes an end in itself. When the focus of our energy
    According to [author's name],           turns to anxiety rather than the task at hand, it becomes detrimental to your efforts.
    in the article "[title of article],"    Dealing with Thoughts-Yell STOP!
                                            If you feel yourself beginning to brew a storm of anxiety, stop what you're doing and mentally draw a blank .
    complete thesis sentence                Wait for the clouds to clear before continuing. If you are in an environment that permits it, actually tell yourself to
                                            STOP! This may embarrass you a little, but at least it will get your mind off the stress. It may take a while for your
    major supports in your own words].      mind to clear, but wait for it. The time spent doing this will in the end be less than the time lost due to poor
                                            performance because of stress.

                                            Daydream
                                            Work! Work! Work! All through school, you are told this. In class, your teacher may have scolded you for
                                            daydreaming. Now, forget all that. Allow yourself the benefit of daydreaming. If you feel overwhelmed by the
                                            material, let your mind wander. Think of being with a friend or at a place of comfort and let your body relax. Feel the
                                            physical tension in your body release, and then return to the grindstone.

                                            Visualize Success
                                            Visualization is a great skill for dealing with stress. Basketball players who visualize their shots have a higher
Example: According to James Fits, in         scoring ratio. The same applies for academics. Most people contemplate what failure will feel like. Doing this only
the article " Handling Stress,"it is         sets you up for the fall. Instead, spend time visualizing success. Rehearse what it will feel like to get that A. Be
                                             specific with your goals, and physically produce them for yourself. If your goal is to ace an upcoming exam, put a
important to know as much as possible        copy of a previous exam on the bulletin board in your dorm or apartment and write a big 'A' on it. If your goal is a
                                             specific GPA for the semester, write that figure on the board and chart your progress. Thinking positively results in a
about stress, if you are going to handle     higher level of energy and stress levels drop
it effectively. General stress can help,    .
                                            Praise yourself
while focused stress can hinder. Telling    Talk to yourself using positive language. Treat yourself as you would a friend. By the way, this is good advice
                                             throughout life, not just during an exam. Rather than saying, 'Way to go dummy, you don't even know the answer to
yourself to STOP, daydreaming,              the first question!' try, 'Get back to that question, maybe it will come to you as you work through the rest of the exam.‘
                                             Encourage yourself and promise yourself a treat after you finish the exam regardless of your feelings toward your
visualization, and positive talk are ways    performance. This helps you to focus on something other than the importance of this particular exam. Keep in mind
to deal with stress.                         that no one exam is going to completely devastate your career as a student.
REMEMBER

   Summaries are short restatements of a work's
    main points.
   When writing a summary, be sure to record the
    work's major ideas.
   Summaries condense a text's main ideas into a
    few concise sentences.
   A summarized work is always much shorter than
    the original.
   A summary of a work's thesis and supporting
    points should be written in your own words.
Checklist
1.   Reread your source until you fully understand it.
2.   Write a one sentence restatement of the source's main idea
     without looking at the source.
3.   Use the text’s main idea as your summary's topic sentence.
4.   Pull out the text’s main ideas.
5.   Write the summary in your own words. Avoid looking at your
     source while writing your summary.
6.   If you must include some of the source's original words and
     phrases, quote and paraphrase accurately.
7.   Document the source's author, title, date of publication and
     any other important citation information.

								
To top