Newton’s Laws Outlines by xro92584


									          Newton’s Laws Outline
  Before we start……. Lets review!!!!!!

  If someone dropped a bowling ball and a racquet ball from a
  height of 3m, which would easier for you to catch? Why?

  Which would hurt more walking or running into a door? Why?

  A ____________________or _____________________ that starts,
  stops, or changes the direction of an object.

  The unit for measuring force is a
  _____________________________, named after Sir Isaac Newton
  the scientist who explained how forces and motion relate to each
  other (better known as Newton’s Three Laws of Motion, which we
  will be covering shortly).
  They are represented by the size and length of

        Large Force

        Medium Force

        Small Force

Forces transfer _______________ to an object.

  Let’s list some forces on the lines below.

  _________________________          ___________________________
  _________________________          ___________________________
  _________________________          ___________________________
  _________________________          ___________________________
  _________________________          ___________________________
  _________________________          ___________________________
Forces can act in all ______________________ as well as acting
______________________ each other.
Forces act on any object with mass at _______ times.

Drawing Forces (aka Free-Body Diagrams)
      Arrows are used to represent force                     Ffriction
       strength and direction. The bigger the                 (Air Resistance)
       arrow, the stronger the force.


           Fapplied                     Ffriction             Fgravity

Now draw force diagrams for the following items in the space below
    1. Airplane                    Types of forces for diagramming.
    2. Boat              Normal       Lift           Air Resistance (drag)
    3. Car               Applied      Buoyancy
    4. Bicycle           Friction     Gravity
Balanced & Unbalanced Forces
     __________________ __________ are equal in size but opposite in
     direction, resulting in no motion.

      __________________ __________ are unequal in size, resulting in

      Place your hands together and push. Is this a balanced force?
      How do you know?

      Place your hands facing away from your chest and push. Is this a
      balanced force? How do you know?

_______ ___________ is the amount of force left over after 2 forces
combine or collide with each other.
     Forces in the same direction add.
                                                 +       =
           EXAMPLE: Pushing a car

      Forces in opposite directions subtract.
           EXAMPLE: Tug of War                      +         =

      Calculate the net force in the problems below:

      1.                                        net force = _______
      2.                                        net force = _______
                                                net force = _______
      4.                                        net force = _______

Any object, no matter how ________________ will have
___________________bumps that are not noticeable to us because they
are so small.
__________________ is a force that opposes motion. It comes from
objects rubbing against one another.

Type of Friction           Definition                 Examples

     If a feather and a coin were dropped from the same height at
     exactly the same time, which would hit the ground first? Why?

     What about in the absence of air resistance? Why?

     What about skydivers … how do they control the speed of their

           Lets think!!!!!!!!!!!!

           If you raced a small mass against a large mass on a flat surface,
           what mass do you think would win? Why? What about down a
                   Newton’s First Law of Motion

      THINK/PAIR/SHARE - - What are some of the outside forces that
      can change motion, either allowing objects to stay at rest or stop them
      from moving? ___________________________________________

         What can we do about these outside forces that affect our motion?
         For example, how can we get rid of friction?

            Materials that reduce friction are called
      _____________________. Friction can _______________ be

                                      1.   _______________________
                                      2.   _______________________
                                      3.   _______________________
                                      4.   _______________________

          What happens to an uncovered drink when a car abruptly
          What happens to an unbelted car occupant during a front –
            end collision?
          Why can some people pull a tablecloth out from under
            dishes without knocking anything over?

________________________is the tendency of an object to resist any
change in motion. It is completely dependent upon

            The more __________________ the more
              A bicycle rider is no longer pedaling, but the bike keeps
              moving forward, why?

                 What forces act on the bike to slow it down?

          Which would have more inertia …
                    Bowling ball or golf ball?
                    Car or airplane?
                    Gallon of milk or a 12 ounce soda?

                 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

    Newton understood that _________________, __________________,
    and ________________________ are related. He showed that the
    motion of an object changes when an outside force is applied (1 st law).
    He also showed that knowing the mass and the acceleration of an
    object, you could calculate its force (2nd law).

    Today this observation has been restated as the SECOND LAW OF
    MOTION, the net force on an object equals its mass times its
            _____________________= ______________X
    If the force remained constant
    and mass increased, acceleration would
             __________________.
             and mass decreased, acceleration would
    If the mass remained constant …
             and acceleration increased, the force would
             and acceleration decreased, the force would
                                                Walking versus
                                                running into a
                                                wall !
Example Word Problems
                  1. How much force is needed to accelerate a 20 kg
                     crate by 3m/s/s?
                       1. mass = _______________________
                       2. acceleration = __________________
                       3. force = _______________________
    How much force must be added to the
                  2. push it with 120 N of force?
                       1. mass = _______________________
                       2. acceleration = __________________
                       3. force = _______________________

     What is the force applied to each cart?                    a = 2.5 m/s2        a = 1.5 m/s2
           Use your formula!!!!!!
                                                                 30.0 kg             30.0 kg

     How much force would you need                                                  20.0 kg
     To add to the cart on the right if
     they are to have the
                                          Acceleration (m/s2)

     same acceleration?                                              100 kg

                                                                           200 kg
     This is a graph of force versus
     acceleration for a dog sled race.
     As the force increases so does the           Force (N)
     What can you conclude about how mass effects acceleration from the

     How would the addition of another dog effect the acceleration of the

     Newton’s Second Law of Motion can also be used to calculate an
     object’s weight.
            WHY? Because we know that your weight is calculated by the
               acceleration of gravity (9.8 m/s/s) X whatever your mass is.
            Each planet has a different acceleration of gravity because gravity is
            dependent upon the size of the planet. So how would your weight
            differ from planet to planet?

            All objects accelerate at 9.8 m/s/s. However all falling objects are
            affected by __________________________, which can cause
            different objects to actually fall faster. When one object stops
            accelerating because of air resistance, the object has reached its
            ______________________ _______________________.
            What types of objects would probably reach terminal velocity very
            quickly as the fall?

            Falling objects also experience __________________________.
            While an object is in freefall, the weight of the object is zero. This is
            because there is nothing to ____________ _______________ on
            the falling object. This leads us into the third law of motion.

Newton’s Third Law of Motion
     When one object exerts a force upon a second object, the second
     object exerts and equal and opposite force upon the first object … OR

      When you sit on a chair, your body exerts a force on that
      ______________, the chair in turn exerts a force on
      your_______________. This is why you do not fall through the chair.

      When you place a book on a table, the book exerts a force on
      that____________________, the table in turn exerts a force on the
      In the example of the balloon, the force propelling the balloon is equal
      and opposite to the force of the air leaving the balloon.
                Apply Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

DIRECTIONS: Use your group, your textbooks, your notes, and your
prior knowledge of Newton’s Three Laws of Motion to answer the
following questions IN COMPLETE SENTENCES.

Part A: Newton’s First Law of Motion and Friction

1. Recall or find Newton’s First Law of Motion and write it here.

2. Newton’s first law is sometimes called the “Law of Inertia”. Write
   the definition of inertia below. What is inertia solely dependent

3. If Newton’s first law is true, then, consider the following questions
   and try to answer them:
      a. Why won’t a book slide forever if I give it a push across the

      b. Why do I need a gas pedal in my car? Can’t I just give my car a
         little push and it will roll forever?

      c. What force is acting on the book and car to slow them down?

4. Imagine a place in space, far from all gravitational and frictional
   forces. Suppose that an astronaut throws a rock. The rock will:
   (Circle your answer.)
      a. gradually stop.
      b. continue in motion in the same direction at constant speed.
5. In space, in a weightless environment, would it require a force to set
   an object in motion? Explain your answer.

6. Ben Too Close is being chased through the woods by a bull moose
   which he was attempting to photograph. The enormous mass of the
   bull moose is extremely intimidating. Yet, if Ben makes a zigzag
   pattern through the woods, he will be able to use the large mass of the
   moose to his own advantage. Explain this in terms of inertia and
   Newton's first law of motion.

7. A marble dropped into a bottle of liquid soap quickly reaches a
   terminal velocity. What is the acceleration of the marble just before it
   hits the bottom of the container?

Part B: Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion

1. State Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion and write the formula that
   explains Newton’s 2nd Law. Define each variable in the formula.

2. What two factors affect the rate of acceleration of an object according
   to Newton’s 2nd Law?

3. According to Newton’s 2nd Law, what happens to the acceleration of
   a rocket if the net force is doubled?

4. Find Acceleration.
      a. What is the acceleration of a 500kg corvette if the net force on
         the corvette is 2,000N?

      b. What is the acceleration of a 1,000kg car if the net force on the
         car is 3,000N?

      c. The net horizontal force on a 50,000kg railroad boxcar is
         4,000N. What is the acceleration of the boxcar?
      d. A fully equipped astronaut has a mass of 150kg. If the
         astronaut has a weight of 555N standing on the surface of
         Mars, what is the acceleration due to gravity on Mars?

5. Find the Net Force.
      a. What is the net force needed to accelerate a 50.0 kg bowling
         ball at 2.0m/s2?

      b. A skydiver with a mass of 80.0 kg is accelerating at 4.0 m/s2.
         What is the force of the air resistance acting on the skydiver?

      c. An unbalanced force gives a 2.00kg mass an acceleration of
         5.00m/s2. What is the force applied to the object?

      d. A racing car has a mass of 710kg. It starts from rest and travels
         120m in 3.0s. The car undergoes uniform acceleration during
         the entire 3.0s. What is the unbalanced force applied to the

6. Find the Mass.
      a. If a skydiver has a net force of 400N and an acceleration of
         5m/s2, what is the mass of the skydiver?

      b. A child on roller blades accelerates at 5.0 m/s2, due to a
         horizontal net force of 18.0N. What is the mass of the child?

      c. An unbalanced force of 20N gives a stone an acceleration of
         4.0m/s2. What is the mass of the stone?

      d. An unbalanced force of 25N is used to accelerate an object at a
         rate of 2.1m/s2. What is the mass of the object?

Part C: Newton’s 3rd Law and Momentum

1. State Newton’s 3rd Law.
2. Explain how Newton’s 3rd Law is at work when you walk.

3. Or when you are just standing on the ground.

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