National Organizations Statements and Positions On Literacy

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					                                    Early Literacy Resouces - examples
National Organizations Statements and Positions On Literacy
     (Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children A joint position statement of
the International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young Children)
     (Learning to read and write opens doors to progress and prosperity across a lifetime. The years before kindergarten
are a particularly fertile and profitable time to prepare young children to read and learn by teaching them essential literacy
skills. The challenge of helping all children become successful readers requires early teaching, using home and school
instruction built upon proven research and effective practices. These are the messages being delivered as the National
Institute for Literacy releases findings from, "Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, A
Scientific Synthesis of Early Literacy Development and Implications for Intervention." The National Early Literacy Panel's
(NELP) report serves as the basis of several powerful, research-based recommendations to the early childhood
community – educators, caregivers, Head Start providers, and parents – on promoting the foundational skills of life-long
literacy. Some of the key findings of the report reveal the best early predictors of literacy, which include alphabet
knowledge, phonemic awareness, rapid naming skills, writing (such as writing one's name), and short-term memory for
words said aloud. Instruction on these skills may be especially helpful for children at risk for developing reading difficulties.
More complex oral language skills also appear to be important.)

See also:
     (In findings on reading, some surprises - A look at skills among the youngest could change how preschools teach
     (The preschool years, ages 3 and 4, are extremely important for children’s social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and
language and literacy development. Children’s development can be affected by high-quality preschool experiences that
can improve later academic and social competence (Barnett, 1995; Morrow, 2004; Neuman & Dickinson, 2001).
Preschools make a difference in children’s lives; therefore, every 3- and 4-year-old child should have access to free, high-
quality, public preschools. High-quality preschools embrace appropriate early literacy experiences delivered by well-
prepared, knowledgeable, caring preschool teachers. High-quality preschools can ensure that all children are prepared for
school and are developing literacy skills.)

Basic Texts
Handbook of Early Literacy Research - by Susan B Neuman, David K Dickinson, Published by Guilford Press, 2006
Handbook of Early Literacy Research Volume 2 - by David K Dickinson, Susan B Neuman Published by Guilford Press,

Head Start Resources
     (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children & Families)
     (Everyone who interacts with a young child is a teacher. This booklet is written for you. As preschool teachers and
child-care and family providers, you have both the wonderful opportunity and the important responsibility to teach and
nurture our youngest children. The years from birth through age five are a time of extraordinary growth and change. It is in
these years that children develop the basic knowledge, understandings, and interests they need to reach the goal of being
successful learners, readers, and writers. All young children deserve experiences that will help them to achieve this goal.)

Materials related to ongoing assessment systems used in Colorado
     (Preschool literacy experiences should be intentionally built into the entire daily schedule and all interest areas in the
classroom. Literacy: The Creative Curriculum® Approach shows teachers how to create literacy learning opportunities within
the structure of a comprehensive, integrated curriculum. This book presents a review of the latest research about literacy
development and describes the seven components of literacy in detail: literacy as a source of enjoyment, vocabulary and
language, phonological awareness, knowledge of print, letters and words, comprehension, and books and other texts.)
    (Finally — one concise book to show educators and education students which early literacy research really warrants
attention, why it's so important, and how to help young children learn to read in real classrooms. This book presents a
diversity of research-based viewpoints and is ideal for use in teacher education courses or workshops designed to expose
students to a broad range of perspectives.)

The ongoing assessment used in each preschool program (eg. Creative Curriculum, Work Sampling, High Scope)
includes items that address early literacy skills. This can be used at the universal level to identify all children’s strengths,
needs, and progress in broad areas. Individualized tasks that assess specific skills would need to be designed for that
specific skill to determine the level of competency. Research is just beginning on these types of quick, reliable and
repeatable assessments. Following are examples of resources that can be used to help guide your programs’ use of
recent research in the area of early childhood literacy.

     (Get it - Obtain informational materials and assessment tools for measuring the developmental growth of young
children Got it - Enter individual child data, get score recording forms, and generate graphical reports to monitor the
developmental growth of individual children and groups of children, and determine if intervention is necessary. Go -
Communicate and collaborate about a child's progress over time and about intervention plans to improve child outcomes.)
     (Use this 20-question research-based screening tool with your 4-year-olds. The score will show if a child's pre-reading
skills are weak, strong, or somewhere in between. And activities and resources to improve those skills will be provided.)
Kindergarten (universal screening tools reviewed/assessed)

Curriculum Information
     A recent report from the Albert Shanker Institute discusses the benefits of aligning preschool curriculum with new
research about how children learn in the academic areas of oral language, pre-literacy, mathematics, and science. It
provides guidance on appropriate accomplishments for pre-k children, effective instructional practices, components of a
strong curriculum, and working with English language learners.)

Resources for Literacy Instruction
     (Predictors of and Interventions Associated with Later Literacy Accomplishments)
     (The Center for Early Literacy Learning (CELL) has published 70 new practice guides to help practitioners and
parents promote the early and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities or delays. They are organized by
child age and type of literacy skill. There are 31 infant, 22 toddler, and 17 preschool practice guides that can be printed
and used by parents or practitioners)
    (The Literacy Partnership website provides information about the RTI model used in the project and includes
resources and additional contact information. The Literacy Partnership is funded by the U.S. Department of Education.
Dr. Froma Roth, principal investigator)
     (Get Ready to Read! Literacy Checklists)
     (Colorado Libraries for Early Literacy All children deserve the joy of reading and the skills in life that literacy brings.
Colorado Libraries for Early Literacy is passionately committed to strengthening children's literacy through library services
and community advocacy.)
         (The terms beginning reading and writing or early literacy development actually include several phases of learning
through which children progress in different ways and tempos. It is an exciting and complex process that usually occurs
between the ages 5 through 8. As in most other areas of development, all children do not follow one clear sequential path
in lock-step)
(You can now access a new Key Topic Resource List on Precursors to Early Literacy, which offers an overview and
resources related to children's early language and literacy skills. Research Connections' Key Topic Resource Lists are
compilations of selected resources from the collection on topics of interest, and include short descriptions of each
resource as well as direct links to the
     (CELL is a research-to-practice technical assistance center funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of
Special Education Programs, Research to Practice Division. The main goal of CELL is to promote the adoption and
sustained use of evidence-based early literacy learning practices by early childhood intervention practitioners, parents,
and other caregivers of young children, birth to five years of age, with identified disabilities, developmental delays, and
those at-risk for poor outcomes.)
     (Early Childhood: When does a child learn to read? Many would answer kindergarten or first grade. But researchers
have found strong evidence that children can begin to learn reading and writing in their earliest years, long before they go
to school.)

See the following articles in pdf format
A Team--Based Action Plan for Creating Language – Rich Preschool Classroom Environments.pdf
    (Laura M. Justice This article describes a systematic, team-based process for achieving language- rich classroom
environments for preschool children (see box, "What Does the Literature Say About Language-Rich Classroom
Environments?"). A fictitious school, Dell Preschool, served as the program site for the five-step collaborative process for
achieving such environments)

Bringing it all together: The Multiple Origins, Skills and Environmental Supports of Early Literacy.pdf
     (David Dickinson, Allyssa McCabe A selective review of research examining: 1) What are the interrelationships
among language and literacy skills at different points in development? 2) What environmentally factors support children’s
acquisition of early literacy-related abilities? 3) How can preschool teachers be helped to move effectively to support
children’s early literacy development?)

Collaborative Efforts to Promote Emergent Literacy and Efficient Word Recognition Skills.PDF
     (Froma P. Roth, PhD; Gary A. Troia, PhD In this article, 3 models of collaboration between speech-language
pathologists and classroom teachers are discussed to promote emergent literacy and accurate and fluent word
recognition. These models are demonstration lessons, team teaching, and consultations. A number of instructional
principles are presented for emergent literacy and decoding within the context of collaborative work designed to help a
preschool child with oral language difficulties and a second grader with word reading problems. Instructional principles
cover the areas of vocabulary, phonological awareness, and narrative discourse in the emergent literacy period, and
sounding out, reading by analogy, structural analysis, and routines to build fluency during the period of formal reading

     (Hollis S. Scarborough, Wanda Dobrich Four children with early language delays (ELD) were compared to a control
group of 12 children with respect to their preschool language abilities from age 2 ½ to 5 years and their verbal skills at the
end of Grade 2. The language-delayed children each initially showed severe and broad impairments in syntactic,
phonological, and lexical production. Over time, their deficits became milder and more selective, such that normal or
nearly normal speech and language proficiency was exhibited by age 60 months. Nevertheless, when followed up 3 years
later, three of the four cases were severely reading disabled. These findings were discussed with respect to prior findings
and hypotheses about the squeal of early language delay and the relationship of language development to reading

Evidence-Based Practice, Response to Intervention, and the Prevention of Reading Difficulties.pdf
    (Laura M. Justice This article provides an evidence-based perspective on response to intervention (RTI) as a means
to organize reading interventions for at-risk pupils in the emergent and early literacy stages of reading development.)

        (Leslie Rescorla This article discusses research into the impact of late speech development on the language skills
of adolescents. The study followed up on the adolescent educational achievements of students who had received special
education in language development during their early childhood education. The study found that early childhood language
development issues adversely impacted language related skills in adolescence.)

Phonological Skills of Children with Specific Expressive Language impairment.PDF
    (Provides information on a study which examined the phonological skills of 3-year-old children diagnosed with specific
expressive language delay (SLI-E). Brief review of related literatures; Materials and methods; Comparison with the
phonological skills of normal children; Clinical implications of the results; Conclusions)

    (Compares toddlers with slow expressive language development to normally speaking age-mates on three global
measures of phonological behavior. The average level of complexity of their syllable structures; The number of different
consonants correctly produced in intelligible utterances; Implications of findings for identifying and monitoring expressive
delay in toddlers; methods; Discussion)

    (The primary purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of the blending portion of the Promoting
Awareness of Sounds in Speech (PASS) program, a comprehensive and explicit phonological awareness intervention
curriculum designed for preschool children with speech and language impairments. A secondary purpose was to examine
the effects of stimulus characteristics on responsiveness to the phonological awareness intervention via post-hoc
analysis. A single-subject design was used to examine treatment effects among children with varying levels of
communicative abilities. The PASS blending module was implemented with 11 children with speech and/or language
impairments, following the establishment of the stable pretreatment baseline on a series of phonological awareness
probes. After instruction, the children demonstrated substantial improvement in their blending ability, which appeared to
be attributable to the intervention rather environmental or maturational factors. These findings suggest that PASS
blending training was an effective approach to phonological awareness instruction for the preschoolers with disabilities in
our sample. Additionally, word frequency and neighborhood density were found to influence performance on some
phonological awareness tasks. Specifically, children correctly blended high-frequency words more than low-frequency
words, but they correctly blended words from lower-density neighborhoods more than words from higher-density
neighborhoods. Findings are discussed with respect to predictions of the lexical restructuring hypothesis.)

Phonology and Literacy
     (Expressive Phonological Impairment and the Development of Literacy Margot E. Kelman, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Early
Language and Literacy Consultant, Wichita, KS)
     (Phonological Awareness and Phonemic Perception in 4-Year-Old Children With Delayed Expressive Phonology

For Families
     (The Center for Early Literacy Learning (CELL) has published 70 new practice guides to help practitioners and
parents promote the early and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities or delays. They are organized by
child age and type of literacy skill. There are 31 infant, 22 toddler, and 17 preschool practice guides that can be printed
and used by parents or practitioners)
     (Every minute you spend reading and talking with your child pays off. But dads can use some simple skills to help
their kids be even better readers—like knowing what kinds of questions to ask when you’re reading a story together. The
booklets listed below break down the ―secrets‖ of being a great literacy coach with your kids.)
     (The Spanish version of Supporting Early Literacy in Natural Environments: Activities for Caregivers and Young
Children has recently been updated. It includes forty-six home and community activities designed to address the three key
skills of 1) language development, 2) phonological awareness, and 3) general print awareness. The activities are
appropriate for children with disabilities as well as children who are developing typically.)
The May/June 2008 issue of the Harvard Education Letter discusses recent research findings related to the significant
difference parents can make in their children's literacy skills by increasing the quantity and quality of their conversations
beginning at birth.)
     (Storybooks Read about ideas for using family involvement storybooks in this article from Young Children, a journal of
the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). The authors describe five ways for teachers to
use family involvement storybooks in their classrooms. The article also includes a vignette about the impact of sharing a
family involvement storybook in one third grade class.)
     (Using family involvement storybooks is just one way to put into action Harvard Family Research Project's
"complementary learning" approach to closing the achievement gap. Complementary learning is a comprehensive model
that fosters partnerships between families, schools, and other non-school supports.)
     (You are your child’s first and most important teacher. This booklet gives you ideas on how to help your young child
get ready to read.)
     (You are your child’s first and most important teacher. This booklet gives you ideas on how to help your young child
get ready to read.)
     (Get Ready to Read! Literacy Checklists)

Designing Quality Tier One Learning Environments.pdf
     (The response-to-intervention (RTI) paradigm emphasizes the importance of providing children with every opportunity
to learn to read; consequently, when children fail to learn to read, we can identify this as a potential reading disability. In
RTI models, there are two opportunity contexts of import: Tier One and Tier Two. Tier One encompasses the reading
instruction that takes place within the general education classroom, whereas Tier Two is typically small-group or one-on-
one supplemental instruction that is added on for children who do not respond optimally in Tier One (see Justice, 2006).
Children who are ultimately referred to Tier Three – special education – are those who have failed to respond to Tier One
and Tier Two.)

     (At 2 ½ years of age, children who later developed reading disabilities were deficient in the length, syntactic
complexity, and pronunciation accuracy of their spoken language, but not in lexical or speech discrimination skills. As 3-
year-olds, these children began to show deficits in receptive vocabulary and object-naming abilities, and as 5-year-olds
they exhibited weaknesses in object-naming, phonemic awareness, and letter-sound knowledge that have characterized
kindergartners who became poor readers in other studies. These late preschool differences were related to subsequent
reading status as well as to prior language skills, but early syntactic proficiency nevertheless accounted for some unique
variance in grade 2 achievement when differences at age 5 were statistically controlled. The language deficits of dyslexic
children were unrelated to maternal reading ability and were not observed in children from dyslexic families who became
normal readers. The implications of the results for etiological issues are discussed.)

    (The National Research Council report, Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, reviews research on early
reading and recommends prevention strategies and optimal interventions for reading difficulties. Since speech-language
pathologists often treat children whose language problems co-occur with reading difficulties, they can help inform parents
and teachers about the relation between language and literacy difficulties, and help coordinate interventions across these
two areas. We summarize the NRC’s conclusions concerning normal reading development and key developmental
milestones in the various domains relevant to reading success (phonological awareness, letter identification, the
alphabetic principle, automatic word recognition, comprehension strategies).