Indirect Statement by bib20662

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									Indirect Statement
           What Is Indirect Statement?


In English an indirect statement consists of a independent
clause that uses a verb of thinking, knowing, hearing,
perceiving, etc.,
and a dependent noun clause which is usually introduced
by the word that.
Example: Niobe said that she had many sons and
daughters.


Some Latin verbs that introduce indirect statement are:

audio – I hear      sentio -- I feel   video – I see
scio -- I know      dico -- I say      cerno -- I discern
ostendo -- I show   monstro – I show   (cog)nosco --I recognize
puto -- I think     spero -- I hope    insto – I threaten
                  What Is Indirect Statement?

In Latin the an infinitive phrase is used instead of the noun clause

        Example: Niobe dixit se multos filios et filias habere.
            The literal translation for this sentence is:
         Niobe said her to have many sons and daughters.

Remember the subject and object of an infinitive phrase are both in
the accusative case. Therefore you may have two accusatives in the
infinitive phrase. The first accusative is the subject and the second
is the direct object.

Since our translation should be in good English order, we
will convert the infinitive phrase into a noun clause that begins with
the word “that.”
                 Her to have many sons and daughters
                              is changed to
                that she had many sons and daughters
         How to Translate an Indirect Statement

The translation of the infinitive in the indirect statement depends
upon the tense of the main verb.



If the main verb is present tense and the infinitive is present
tense then the infinitive will be translated as a present tense
verb.

 Example:

 Present Active Infinitive
 Dico pueros vocare.
 I say that the boys are calling.

 Present Passive Infinitive
 Dico pueros vocari.
 I say that the boys are called.
         How to Translate an Indirect Statement

The translation of the infinitive in the indirect statement depends
upon the tense of the main verb.



If the main verb is past tense and the infinitive is present
tense then the infinitive will be translated as a past tense
verb.

 Example:

 Present Active Infinitive
 Dixi pueros vocare.
 I said that the boys called.

 Present Passive Infinitive
 Dixi pueros vocari.
 I said that the boys were called.
         How to Translate an Indirect Statement

The translation of the infinitive in the indirect statement depends
upon the tense of the main verb.



If the main verb is present tense and the infinitive is perfect
tense then the infinitive will be translated with the helping
verb “have.”

 Example:

 Perfect Active Infinitive
 Dico pueros vocavisse.
 I say that the boys have called.

 Perfect Passive Infinitive
 Dico pueros vocatos esse.
 I say that the boys have been called.
         How to Translate an Indirect Statement

The translation of the infinitive in the indirect statement depends
upon the tense of the main verb.



If the main verb is past tense and the infinitive is perfect
tense then the infinitive will be translated with the helping
verb “had.”

 Example:

 Perfect Active Infinitive
 Dixi pueros vocavisse.
 I said that the boys had called.

 Perfect Passive Infinitive
 Dixi pueros vocatos esse.
 I said that the boys had been called.
         How to Translate an Indirect Statement

The translation of the infinitive in the indirect statement depends
upon the tense of the main verb.



If the main verb is present tense and the infinitive is future
tense then the infinitive will be translated with the helping
verb “will.”

 Example:

 Future Active Infinitive
 Dico pueros vocaturos esse.
 I say that the boys will call.
         How to Translate an Indirect Statement

The translation of the infinitive in the indirect statement depends
upon the tense of the main verb.



If the main verb is past tense and the infinitive is future tense
then the infinitive will be translated with the helping verb
“would.”

 Example:

 Future Active Infinitive
 Dixi pueros vocaturos esse.
 I said that the boys would call.
       How to Translate an Indirect Statement
Memorize the chart below to assist you in translating an indirect statement.




     Main Verb             Infinitive        Translation of the
                                             Infinitive
     Present               Present           Present

     Past                  Present           Past

     Present               Perfect           Have verbed

     Past                  Perfect           Had verbed

     Present               Future            Will verb

     Past                  Future            Would verb
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar says that he will conquer Gaul.
Caesar dicit se Galliam ____________.


     a. victurum esse

     b. victum esse


     c. vincere


     d. vicisse




                                             next
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar said that Gaul had been conquered by him .
Caesar dixit Galliam a se ______________.


       a. victuram esse

       b. Victam esse


       c. vincere


       d. vicisse




                                                    next
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar says that he conquered Gaul.
Caesar dicit se Galliam _____________.


       a. victurum esse

       b. victum esse


       c. vincere


       d. vicisse




                                             next
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar says that he has conquered Gaul.
Caesar dicit se Galliam ____________


      a. victurum esse

      b. victum esse


      c. vincere


      d. vicisse




                                             next
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar said that he would conquer Gaul.
Caesar dixit se Galliam _________________.


        a. victurum esse

        b. Victum esse


        c. vinci


        d. vincere

								
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