ELECTRIC VEHICLES: Encouraging and Exploring Greater Electric Vehicle Use St. Louis-based Over 100 years ago, the electric vehicle was a top competitor to the standard gas- Ameren Corporation powered vehicle. Popularity for these vehicles soon declined to the extent that electric (NYSE: AEE) is among vehicles became a rarity. Over the last 10 years, interest has grown in electric vehicle the nation’s largest technology. This fact sheet includes information on this technology and Ameren’s investor-owned electric interest in advancing the development of electric vehicles to reduce emissions caused and gas utilities, with by internal-combustion engines and to encourage non-peak use of power. approx. $24 billion in assets. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) – Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) – Electric Vehicles (EVs) The largest electric The first hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), like the Toyota Prius or Ford Escape, are powered utility in Missouri by a battery as well as an internal combustion gasoline-powered engine. The battery, which and the second is recharged by the vehicle itself, is the sole source of power only at low speeds, while the gas- largest in Illinois, powered engine is used at higher speeds and for braking. Enhanced versions, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), are hybrid electric Ameren companies vehicles that can be recharged by connecting to an electric power source. They typically use provide energy a larger battery allowing the vehicle to operate exclusively on electric energy for some travel services to 2.4 million distance. After the electric-only range is completed, the vehicle operation defaults to the electric and nearly same technology as hybrid electric vehicles on the road today. one million natural gas customers Electric vehicles (EVs) are vehicles with one or more electric motors as throughout its entire the exclusive means for propulsion. 64,000 square mile Fleet vehicles are the industry’s earliest target for marketing PHEVs. Test markets show that territory. batteries charged from an electrical outlet may be able to drive 10 to 40 miles exclusively on battery power. A PHEV sedan can be charged through a 120-volt outlet in three to four hours. A typical commercial delivery van charges in about four to five hours on a 240-volt connection typically found in commercial garages. Although there are no PHEVs currently offered by major manufacturers, there are retro- fit kits that can be installed. The Tesla Roadster is currently offered as an EV, but only in extremely low production numbers. According to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 2010 is assumed to be the first year PHEVs would become readily available in the U.S. market, while 2050 would allow sufficient time for technological advances in mass production. Today’s advanced batteries, specifically lithium ion batteries, have demonstrated the fact high energy storage, power delivery and longevity characteristics needed to make PHEVs competitive with conventional vehicles. Initially, electric vehicles will cost more to build than traditional gas-powered vehicles, but carmakers are hoping government subsidies will sheet bring down the price of these vehicles. In addition, building charging stations in homes and mapping a future network of charging stations may be an obstacle, which may also be advanced through government subsidies. Leading the Way to a Secure Energy Future Plugging into the Grid Docking stations, either in parking lots or home garages, may be offered in the future by automakers. Carmakers are currently in talks with electricity utilities, municipalities and operators of parking facilities to develop additional alternatives to recharge batteries. Currently, the electric grid has no basic, large-scale energy storage capability. Today global auto manufacturers are not designing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology into their vehicles. With a large battery and an on-board electrical generator, grid-connected vehicles may some day be designed to not only recharge their batteries from the grid but also to allow electrical energy to flow from the vehicle back to the grid. Electric grids and generation capacities must be designed to handle peak demand. This leaves a huge amount of spare capacity available off-peak when the demand for power is lowest. More than 40 percent of the nation’s generating capacity operates at reduced load overnight. Conceivably, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, today’s grid could support about 200 million PHEVs. Studies indicate that if all cars, pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles were plugged in, preferably during off-peak hours, up to 84 percent of them could be recharged by the grid without adding new generating capacity. According to the EPRI, studies show that if PHEVs replaced half of all vehicles on the road by 2050, they would require only an eight percent increase in electricity generation. Ameren’s Efforts Ameren owns three HEVs: two aerial trucks, one designated for Missouri and one for Illinois, and one Ford Escape used by AmerenUE’s Revenue Protection Department. The aerial trucks were two of the first 100 produced in the U.S., costing approximately 35 percent more than a conventional diesel-powered aerial truck. This premium is expected to decrease as production levels of hybrid components rise. Due to positive feedback from operations, AmerenUE has ordered three additional HEV aerial trucks, which are scheduled to be delivered in 2010. These units will be assigned throughout AmerenUE service territory to increase exposure to this technology. The average longevity of a hybrid truck is generally 10 years because the aerial device will have the same wear and tear regardless of how the truck is powered. The age and length of use for the aerial device is the deciding factor in replacing these trucks. Ameren believes the engine and brakes may last longer because of the regenerative braking feature and the reduced load and idle time on the engine due to the electric components bearing a portion of the load. This will reduce repair costs for the hybrids, as well. The company continues to explore other environmentally friendly options as they become available. As a participant in a program spearheaded by EPRI, Ameren has joined with other utilities to purchase and test plug-in hybrid electric aerial trucks. Both AmerenUE and Ameren Illinois Utilities are scheduled to receive two of these PHEV aerial trucks as part of an effort to continue to “green” fleet operations of America’s utility companies. Funding for this program has been subsidized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.
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