Ameren Electric Vehicles Fact Sheet by efd15348


									                          ELECTRIC VEHICLES:
                          Encouraging and Exploring Greater Electric Vehicle Use

St. Louis-based           Over 100 years ago, the electric vehicle was a top competitor to the standard gas-
Ameren Corporation        powered vehicle. Popularity for these vehicles soon declined to the extent that electric
(NYSE: AEE) is among      vehicles became a rarity. Over the last 10 years, interest has grown in electric vehicle
the nation’s largest      technology. This fact sheet includes information on this technology and Ameren’s
investor-owned electric   interest in advancing the development of electric vehicles to reduce emissions caused
and gas utilities, with   by internal-combustion engines and to encourage non-peak use of power.
approx. $24 billion
in assets.                Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) – Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)
                          – Electric Vehicles (EVs)
The largest electric      The first hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), like the Toyota Prius or Ford Escape, are powered
utility in Missouri       by a battery as well as an internal combustion gasoline-powered engine. The battery, which
and the second            is recharged by the vehicle itself, is the sole source of power only at low speeds, while the gas-
largest in Illinois,      powered engine is used at higher speeds and for braking.
                              Enhanced versions, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), are hybrid electric
Ameren companies
                          vehicles that can be recharged by connecting to an electric power source. They typically use
provide energy
                          a larger battery allowing the vehicle to operate exclusively on electric energy for some travel
services to 2.4 million   distance. After the electric-only range is completed, the vehicle operation defaults to the
electric and nearly       same technology as hybrid electric vehicles on the road today.
one million natural
gas customers             Electric vehicles (EVs) are vehicles with one or more electric motors as
throughout its entire     the exclusive means for propulsion.
64,000 square mile        Fleet vehicles are the industry’s earliest target for marketing PHEVs. Test markets show that
territory.                batteries charged from an electrical outlet may be able to drive 10 to 40 miles exclusively on
                          battery power. A PHEV sedan can be charged through a 120-volt outlet in three to four hours.
                          A typical commercial delivery van charges in about four to five hours on a 240-volt connection
                          typically found in commercial garages.
                              Although there are no PHEVs currently offered by major manufacturers, there are retro-
                          fit kits that can be installed. The Tesla Roadster is currently offered as an EV, but only in
                          extremely low production numbers. According to the Electric Power Research Institute
                          (EPRI), 2010 is assumed to be the first year PHEVs would become readily available in the U.S.
                          market, while 2050 would allow sufficient time for technological advances in mass production.
                              Today’s advanced batteries, specifically lithium ion batteries, have demonstrated the

                          high energy storage, power delivery and longevity characteristics needed to make PHEVs
                          competitive with conventional vehicles. Initially, electric vehicles will cost more to build
                          than traditional gas-powered vehicles, but carmakers are hoping government subsidies will

  sheet                   bring down the price of these vehicles. In addition, building charging stations in homes
                          and mapping a future network of charging stations may be an obstacle, which may also be
                          advanced through government subsidies.

                                                                           Leading the Way to a Secure Energy Future
Plugging into the Grid
Docking stations, either in parking lots or home garages, may be offered in the future by
automakers. Carmakers are currently in talks with electricity utilities, municipalities and
operators of parking facilities to develop additional alternatives to recharge batteries.
   Currently, the electric grid has no basic, large-scale energy storage capability. Today global
auto manufacturers are not designing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology into their vehicles.
With a large battery and an on-board electrical generator, grid-connected vehicles may some
day be designed to not only recharge their batteries from the grid but also to allow electrical
energy to flow from the vehicle back to the grid.
   Electric grids and generation capacities must be designed to handle peak demand. This
leaves a huge amount of spare capacity available off-peak when the demand for power is
lowest. More than 40 percent of the nation’s generating capacity operates at reduced load
overnight. Conceivably, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, today’s grid
could support about 200 million PHEVs. Studies indicate that if all cars, pickup trucks and
sport utility vehicles were plugged in, preferably during off-peak hours, up to 84 percent of
them could be recharged by the grid without adding new generating capacity. According to the
EPRI, studies show that if PHEVs replaced half of all vehicles on the road by 2050, they would
require only an eight percent increase in electricity generation.

Ameren’s Efforts
Ameren owns three HEVs: two aerial trucks, one designated for Missouri and one for Illinois,
and one Ford Escape used by AmerenUE’s Revenue Protection Department. The aerial trucks
were two of the first 100 produced in the U.S., costing approximately 35 percent more than a
conventional diesel-powered aerial truck. This premium is expected to decrease as production
levels of hybrid components rise.
   Due to positive feedback from operations, AmerenUE has ordered three additional HEV
aerial trucks, which are scheduled to be delivered in 2010. These units will be assigned
throughout AmerenUE service territory to increase exposure to this technology.
   The average longevity of a hybrid truck is generally 10 years because the aerial device will
have the same wear and tear regardless of how the truck is powered. The age and length of
use for the aerial device is the deciding factor in replacing these trucks. Ameren believes
the engine and brakes may last longer because of the regenerative braking feature and the
reduced load and idle time on the engine due to the electric components bearing a portion of
the load. This will reduce repair costs for the hybrids, as well.
   The company continues to explore other environmentally friendly options as they become
available. As a participant in a program spearheaded by EPRI, Ameren has joined with other
utilities to purchase and test plug-in hybrid electric aerial trucks. Both AmerenUE and
Ameren Illinois Utilities are scheduled to receive two of these PHEV aerial trucks as part of an
effort to continue to “green” fleet operations of America’s utility companies. Funding for this
program has been subsidized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

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