Dec07 Jay by gajend6an



Indian Journal of Science and Technology                                Vol.1 No.2 (Dec. 2007)

                                                 Techniques of Communication

                                               M. Jayachandran1 and Manikandan2
                    1                                                                   2
                     Eritrean Institute of Technology, Asmara, Eritrea;                     NIT-Trichy, India
                          ;                    jmk_77@gmail.com2

Abstract: Communication is vital in teaching-                       through spoken word and silence: body
learning process. The appropriate selection                         postures, gestures and facial expressions,
and mixing of its component can help for the                        written word and other creative forms of
effective transmission of curricular material                       expression. Educationists are concerned about
from mentor to pupils. Body language and                            communication between teacher and student,
graphics language often communicate more                            between Institution and government and
than verbalism. Various types of graphics and                       between peers.
colours      make     communication       more                             Communication is a dyadic concept i.e.,
meaningful. ICT-driven digital communication                        a two-way process. Human ability to
can be an effective tool which can overtake the                     communicate depends upon the following
conventional verbal communication and black-                        factors:
board and chalk techniques.                                           1. Appreciation of psychology principles
Keywords: communication, sensory channels,                            2. Thinking skills
feedback, barriers, verbal & non-verbal                               3. Expression of skills
communication, effectiveness and efficiency.                          4. Media utilization
Introduction                                                        Attitude of the communicator plays an
Communication is basic means to all human                           important role. The following three aspects of
performance and interaction. It refers to the                       attitude are important:
transmission of thoughts, information and                             1. Towards Students
commands by employing the sensory                                     2. Towards the Subject
channels. The process of interpersonal                                3. Towards Oneself
communication is both an art and a science.                         Attitude towards others should be positive i.e.,
The aim of this paper is to highlight the                           a sense of respect, understanding and
elements of communication, overcome the                             confidence. One should demonstrate one likes
barriers of both verbal and non-verbal                              for the subject and its relevance. Attitude
communication and thus enhance the                                  towards self implies self-confidence, conviction
teaching-learning process more efficient.                           and believing in what one says or does.
Communication                                                       Model of Communication
Communication refers to the act of                                  Communication from a person to another or
communing, transmitting, imparting and                              some other persons may me modeled in terms
exchanging     thoughts,     sentiments    and                      of sender, receivers(s) and the channels(s) of
information. One may communicate to others                          communication2 as shown in Fig. 1. The signal

iSee© category: S&T Edu.                         “Techniques of communication”                  by Jayachandran & Manikandan
Indian Society for Education and Environment

Indian Journal of Science and Technology                           Vol.1 No.2 (Dec. 2007)

being communicated is called the message.
                  Table 1. Barriers and methods of overcoming barriers of communication
      Types                      Barrier details                             Methods of overcoming
  Physical                Noise, invisibility, physical          •  Appropriate seating arrangement
  barriers                discomfort and ill health              •  Ensure audibility and visibility
                                                                 •  Provide environmental comfort
  Language                Verbalism, verbosity            and    •  Use simple language and less verbalism
  barriers                unclear    graphics             and    •  Explain and use graphic symbols
                          symbols                                •  Prepare handout
                                                                 •  Use audio-visual resources
  Psychological           Disinterest, imperceptions,            •  Motivate listens
  barriers                redundancy,    unrewarding             •  Provide assistance and sympathy
                          experience                             •  Take feedback and take corrective action
  Background              Previous learning, cultural            •  Catch up with individual’s background
  barriers                disparities                            •  Explain the importance of message
                                                                 •  Employ different methods and resources
     The channels of communication refer to                            The most powerful of all nonverbal
the five senses of perception. In most cases                      language is graphics. Graphical representation
one or two channels are utilized. Often the                       includes figures, charts, graphs, tables,
sense of sight is underutilized and sense of                      matrices, flow diagram, schematics cartoons
hearing over utilized. In other words, the visual                 and pictures. Visuals are communicated in
channels have spare capacity and the audio                        variety of ways. In print, on charts, on chalk-
channel runs saturated, both operating at sub-                    boards, on the screen with help overhead
optimal efficiencies.                                             projectors, slide projectors and computers.
     Further, there is “Noise” i.e., undesirable                  Effectiveness and Efficiency
inputs due to factors called barriers into the                    Communication is said to be effective if the
system to diminish or distort the message.                        intended message transmitted from the sender
Noise may be introduced at the sender end                         to the receiver. Efficiency of communication
e.g, speaker not finding the right words or                       refers to the output i.e., message transmitted
stammering or writing illegible. It may rise in                   vis-à-vis the input, i.e., resources and time
the channel of transmission, e.g., echo from                      invested. Hence efficiency is related to the
the walls, reflection from the board or                           optimal use of the visual, aural and other
invisibility of the written word. Noise may be                    channels of communication. Overcoming the
generated at the receiver end e.g., lack of                       barriers to communication employing the
vocabulary, inattention or imperceptions.                         resources optimally may thus lead to improved
     The various barriers of communication3                       effectiveness as well as improved efficiency of
and methods of overcoming it are given in the                     communication.
Table 1.                                                                       Fig.2. Oral Communication
Dimension of Communication
A      general       component       of   normal
communication during one’s interaction is
given in Fig.2. It includes expression and facial
     From the above illustration it is understood                                   55% Nonverbal
that facial expression assumes more
importance than the verbal content of a
message. Vocal expression, i.e., the intonation
and inflection in a spoken message also
assumes more importance than the verbal                                                 45%
content.                                                                            Verbal + Vocal
     Appropriate      gestures    and     posture
constitute body language in communication.
Facial expressions including smiling and
frowning, nodding, shaking head and turning
the eye have their own effect. It is better to                                 Total Feeling = 7% Verbal +
avoid mannerism and undesirable gestures.                                      38% Vocal + 55% Facial

iSee© category: S&T Edu.                       “Techniques of communication”              by Jayachandran & Manikandan
Indian Society for Education and Environment

Indian Journal of Science and Technology                           Vol.1 No.2 (Dec. 2007)

When you speak, you create mental picture of                      colours using computer aided models make
your personality in the audience. This is what                    communication more meaningful than the
is known a spoken image. It refers to the                         conventional black-board-chalk method.
impact you make on the listeners i.e., on                         References
students. You can ensure your spoken image4                       1. Kumar KL (1994) Education Technology-
to be bright and clear by use the Fig. 3.                             the role: An Indian Scenario. Intnl J. Engg.
Art of Listening                                                      Edu. (Hamburg) 10, 76-82.
Good listeners make good communicators.                           2. Singh, Ummed and Deepika (1994)
Many professional do not wait and listen. Lack                        Communication technology and class
of listening may lead to erroneous                                    room Ethos, Prakshan Publn., New Delhi.
communication.                                                    3. Kumar KL (1982) Activity analysis of
Colour and Communication                                              teaching    methodology:     Frontiers    in
Human eye is sensitive to different colours.                          educational     conference     Proceedings
Hence usage of real–life colours and                                  ASEE/IEEE, pp: 212-218.,
appropriate to the media ensure sensory                           4. Mills HR (1994) Teaching and Training,
channel of communication with the brain is                            Macmillan Press Ltd ., U.K Edition.
The process of communication has been dealt
in order to visualize its element and barriers so
that one can keep them under control and
achieve high effectiveness and efficiency.
Words communicate, so do different non-
verbal means. Body language and graphics
language often communicate more than
verbalism. Various types of graphics and

iSee© category: S&T Edu.                       “Techniques of communication”              by Jayachandran & Manikandan
Indian Society for Education and Environment

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