How to build a garden pond by bwe11483

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									How to build a garden pond


                                         r
                                    s fo
                            tr a tip ond
                       + ex Koi p
                         t he




          Planning
        Construction
          Planting
            Fish
Contents

    1   A better quality of life for man and animal:
        Your own garden pond............................................................................................................ 3

    2   Preparation and pond construction .................................................................................... 4
        2.1 The best season ................................................................................................................ 4
        2.2 Size of the pond .............................................................................................................. 4
        2.3 Location .............................................................................................................................. 5
        2.4 Prefabricated pond or liner pond? .............................................................................. 6
        2.5 Determination of the liner size .................................................................................... 7
        2.6 Construction and design of the pond ........................................................................ 8
        2.7 Securing the edges: Examples ...................................................................................... 10
        2.8 Excavation of the pond pit ............................................................................................ 12
        2.9 Laying the pond liner ...................................................................................................... 14
        2.10 The bottom gravel .......................................................................................................... 15
        2.11 How to set up a Koi pond .............................................................................................. 16

    3   Water – the source of life........................................................................................................ 17
        3.1 How to fill the pond with water .................................................................................. 17
        3.2 How to condition the pond water .............................................................................. 18
        3.3 Clean water conditions – with sera pond filter systems ........................................ 20
            The sera pond filter W 1500 .......................................................................................... 20
            The sera Bio Pond Filters ................................................................................................ 21
            The sera 3 chamber biofilter ........................................................................................ 22
            The sera Pressure Filters T and sera Pressure Filters T + UV System ................. 23
            The sera UVC Pond Clarifiers ....................................................................................... 23
            The sera UV Systems ..................................................................................................... 24
            The sera fountain and pond filter pumps ............................................................... 24
            The sera fountain nozzles ........................................................................................... 25

    4   Planting ...................................................................................................................................... 26
        4.1 Submerged plants............................................................................................................ 27
        4.2 Plants for swamp zones,
            shallow water and bank zones .................................................................................... 28
        4.3 Floating leaf plants.......................................................................................................... 30
        4.4 Plants for the Koi pond .................................................................................................. 31
        4.5 How to plant correctly.................................................................................................... 32
        4.6 Stable water conditions with sera GH-KH plus ........................................................ 33

    5   The fish for your garden pond .............................................................................................. 34

    6   Buyer’s checklist........................................................................................................................ 35




2
                    A better quality of life for man and animal: 1
                                           Your own garden pond

   The ecosystem of a pond in your garden
   provides a living-environment that is con-
   ducive to animals and plants, which has
   nowadays become rare in nature. The
   species of animals and the splendid colors
   of lush flowering plants make the pond a
   leisure center for your home. The pond
   becomes a beautiful attraction in your gar-
   den as well as an invaluable ecosystem for
   plants and animals.




Tips for pond builders


   For best results when building a pond,
   design the infrastructure according to a
   natural water ecosystem. This guide shows
   you how. With the proper knowledge in
   pond construction you can avoid mistakes
   as you build or even correct those found in
   existing ponds.

   Our sera guide “How to maintain and cul-
   tivate a garden pond” offers additional
   guidance for the pond owner.

   Pond care is not difficult when you pay
   attention to our tips, but nature needs a
   bit of help from you. If a problem in the
   cycle of nature occurs, information on
   possible sources and measures are found
   in the sera guide “How to maintain and
   cultivate a garden pond.”

   We wish you success and, above all, a lot
   of pleasure!




                                                                 3
2 Preparation and pond construction
2.1 The best season                                   2.2 Size of the pond


    The best time for building a pond is in        For a pond to function biologically and
    spring. The plants will have gathered suffi-   regulate naturally, the pond area should be
    cient strength to take roots and thrive.       at least 10 m2 (108 ft.2). It is equal to an area
    The warm water in late spring and in sum-      of 3.2 m x 3.2 m (10.5 ft. x 10.5 ft.). The
    mer accelerates the expansion-phase of         deepest part of the pond should be at
    taking roots.                                  least 1 meter (3.3 ft.) with an area of 2 m2
    However, you can still build a pond until      (21.5 ft.2). There are two reasons for this:
    autumn, as long as there are warm days
    for placing the liner in the pond (see chap-   1 In hot summer, the fish and other living
    ter 2.9).                                        beings are drawn into cooler water
    In this case, you should wait until the fol-     zones, which contain more oxygen.
    lowing spring (April), when the water tem-
    perature is above 15°C (59°F), to plant.       2 The best hibernation temperature for
                                                     pond animals is +4°C (39°F). Water is at its
                                                     highest density at +4°C (39°F). The water
                                                     sinks at this temperature. During winter,
                                                     with temperatures as low as minus 20°C
                                                     (minus 4°F), the deeper water zone of
                                                     your pond would be exactly +4°C (39°F).
                                                     That is, the pond depth must be
                                                     1 meter (3.3 ft.) or deeper. The pond may
                                                     freeze entirely if it is not deep enough.




    Hibernation zone of the pond animals




                                                                                      0 cm (0 in.)
                               ice layer
                                                                                    20 cm (8 in.)
                             + 1°C / 34°F
                                                                                   40 cm (16 in.)
                             + 2°C / 36°F
                                                                                   60 cm (24 in.)
                             + 3°C / 37°F
                                                                                   80 cm (31 in.)
                              +4°C / 39°F
       mold                                                                       100 cm (40 in.)


4
              Preparation and pond construction 2
   Caution!
   Not all heaters are alike! For winter heat-    Remember, optimum water temperature
   ing, unless you use a pond heater specifi-     for hibernation is +4°C (39°F). Aquarium
   cally designed to keep the water at a con-     heaters must never be used in a pond, for
   stant 20°C (68°F) even in winter, you are      safety reasons. Most aquarium heaters are
   putting your fish at risk. When using other    developed and manufactured for indoor
   types of heaters in the pond, you create       use and have not been equipped with elec-
   warm water zones around the heater. Dur-       trical cords that are weather and UV light
   ing the winter or spring, if your fish swim    resistant or ground protected. You will
   into these areas from their hibernation        find more information about this in the
   zones it can result in the fish dying.         chapter 2.11 “How to set up a Koi pond.”




2.3 Location


   We recommend a location with some sun-         If the pond is to be located near large
   ny hours for the pond. If possible, do not     trees, it is virtually impossible not to dam-
   build the pond too near to trees with a        age their roots. Cut the roots carefully and
   heavy fall of leaves or needles. Leaves and    not too drastically. Smaller branching roots
   needles that fall into the pond will rot and   will form at the root ends where it has
   heavily pollute the water. The depletion of    been cut. Actually, this improves the
   oxygen caused by this endangers the fish       growth and the vitality of the tree.
   and other animals in your garden pond.
   Needles, especially, are very difficult to
   remove from the water.




          The ideal location

                                                                                                  5
2 Preparation and pond construction
2.4 Prefabricated pond
    or liner pond?


    Prefabricated plastic ponds and, above all,
    pond liners, have proved to be the best
    and most successful.

    Construction materials for prefabricated
    ponds are mainly polyethylene (PE) and
    reinforced fiberglass plastic. The advan-
    tages of prefabricated ponds are their high
    durability and their ease in setting-up.
    However, prefabricated ponds have their
    limitations. Even the larger models, made
    from a single molding, provide less than
    10 m2 (108 ft.2) surface area with a volume     Pond liners are the most advantageous for
    of less than 10 m3 (353 ft.3). Their depth is   the flexibility to build virtually any desired
    usually up to 80 cm (32 in.), which is not      shape and size, also they are very easy to
    suitable for fish to hibernate.                 handle. Greater water depths do not cause
                                                    any problems.

                                                    A well-proven material for pond liners is
                                                    the durable PVC plastic. Common liner-
                                                    thickness is between 0.5 and 1.5 mm.
                                                    Thicker liners are strongly recommended
                                                    especially for larger ponds as they have
                                                    more reserves for stretching.
                                                    Laminated PVC textured liners are unsuit-
                                                    able. Weather influences can cause the lay-
                                                    ers to loosen. This will severely damage the
                                                    pond and cause water leaks.

    There are larger prefabricated ponds            Polyethylene (PE) liner is an alternative.
    assembled from several parts with screws        This material cannot be glued with com-
    and glue, according to the modular assem-       mon pond liner glue. It requires a special
    bly principle. Especially with larger prefab-   gluing technique.
    ricated ponds, they are quite bulky and
    often have a problem with transportation.       Rubberized (EPDM) pond liner is UV and
                                                    frost-resistant. It is very elastic, durable,
    Almost all prefabricated ponds have steep       and is becoming a popular choice. This lin-
    walls and require “exit helps” so that fallen   er also needs a special gluing technique if
    animals can escape from the water. As well,     several pieces are to be combined. Rub-
    their shapes and sizes cannot always adapt      berized (EPDM) liner may be much more
    to individual desires.                          expensive than PVC or PE liner.




6
              Preparation and pond construction 2
   Tarpaulin contains toxic heavy metals            size in the drawing. If the pond pit is
   (cadmium) and should not be used for             already excavated, the liner requirement is
   ponds under any circumstance!                    easily measured with a cord. Just lay one
                                                    cord along and another across the exca-
   When buying a pond liner, sera suggests          vated pond. Then measure the lengths of
   paying more attention to the quality than        the laid cords. Add 140 cm (55 in.) to each
   to the price. The pond liner should be           of the measurements (along and across).
   resistant to UV light and frost (down to         The additional length is necessary for two
   minus 30°C / minus 22°F), otherwise it rap-      reasons:
   idly becomes brittle. It should also be
   harmless to fish and plants.                     1 The laid liner cannot be absolutely
                                                      smooth; the creases require additional
                                                      material.

                                                    2 If the liner sufficiently exceeds the
                                                      edges, you prevent the pond from being
                                                      hollowed out. Furthermore you avoid
                                                      the liner being pulled into the pond. An
                                                      appropriate capillarity barrier prevents
                                                      the pond water from being sucked out
                                                      of the pond by the surrounding soil and
                                                      the grass roots.




                                                                         pebbles     liner

                                                        fine sand
   Preparation steps for a liner pond, are
   shown on pages 12 and 13.

                                                            water


2.5 Determination of the liner size

                                                    Schematic drawing of a capillarity barrier
   Before buying a pond liner, you should
   draw a sectional drawing (along and
   across) of the planned pond. You draw in
   all troughs, plant terraces etc., with an
   additional 70 cm (28 in.) all around for the
   edge projection. We recommend a draw-            Before starting to make any calculations,
   ing scale of 1:50 metric (0.4:20 US standard).   we recommend that you read this guide
   This means that 1 cm (0.4 in.) in the draw-      thoroughly. Otherwise, you might miss
   ing represents 50 cm (20 in.) in the real        important information in designing your
   pond. Now you can measure the required           pond.

                                                                                                  7
2 Preparation and pond construction
2.6 Construction and design
    of the pond


    When designing the pond, use your imagi-
    nation. If you pay attention to the tips in
    our guide, you can have many hours of
    pleasure with your water garden.




      swamp zone
     (see page 28 +)                                                Basic design of a pond



                                                                          floating leaf plants
                                                                             (see page 30)        floating




                                  fine sand
    capillarity barrier
      (see page 7)                            pond liner
                                                                                                  min. 1 m
                                                                                                 with thick

                                                       stones as decoration
                                                       and light protection
                                                           (see page 10)




8
                   Preparation and pond construction 2




                                               growing plants


         submerged plants                                                       edge fixation
           (see page 27)                                                        (see page 10)
plants
                            sera pond filter
                            (see page 20 +)




                                                      max. 15 cm (6 in.) deep

(3.3 ft.) deep
gravel cover                   min. 30 cm (12 in.) wide,
                             40 – 50 cm (16 – 20 in.) deep




                                                                                                9
2 Preparation and pond construction
2.7 Securing the edges: Examples
                                                        lawn                      stone slab



     Important:                                                                                        liner


     Before securing the edges, fill water into
     the pond as described in the chapters 3.1
     “How to fill the pond with water” and 3.2
     “How to condition the pond water.” Stones          pebbles as
     (fist-sized or larger) that are easily piled,      capillarity
                                                         barrier
     even at steep slopes, are very suitable for
     the layout of the edges.
                                                                              fine sand

                                                       Pond edge with lawn surrounding



        coarse
        gravel                                           stone slabs and
                                                           foundation
                                                                                               liner
                                               liner




                                                                                                       deco-
                                                                                                       ration
                                                        limitation
      approx. 10 cm (4 in.) meager   fine sand             slab
       concrete (1 part cement,
           16 parts gravel)
                                                                                   fine sand

     Pond edge with footpath                           Steep bank with footpath



          stone garden                                                               stacked stones as
                                                                                      decoration and
                                                                                      light protection
                        pavement
                      (descent away            liner
                     from the pond!)
                                                                                                  liner




     drainage from coarse gravel,                           limitation slab
       approx. 10 cm (4 in.) wide, fine sand
     so that no soil can be washed
             into the pond                                                      fine sand

     Pond edge with pavement                           Pond edge with slope angle
     and stone garden                                  steeper than 45°

10
         Preparation and pond construction 2




Examples for the design
of bank zones




                                        Recommended only for the professional:
                          a concrete bowl instead of a finished pond or pond liner




                                                                                     11
2 Preparation and pond construction
2.8 Excavation of the pond pit


     First, excavate the pond pit where it           The hose spirit-level is an important instru-
     should be situated and build the various        ment to control the level. You can easily
     plant terraces according to your ideas.         prepare one by yourself: Simply buy sever-
     Consider the requirements (swamp, shal-         al meters of transparent filter hose and fill
     low water, deep water, etc.) of the desired     it with water (bubble-free) to a large
     pond plants.                                    extent. Place this hose into the pit. It is not
     The look of the bank is determined espe-        important whether the hose is laid flat, in
     cially by the highest plant terrace. The        curves, or partly rolled-up on the ground.
     slopes, also between the plant terraces,        The hose spirit-level works according to
     should be as smooth as possible. Mostly a       the principle of “communicating vessels,”
     descent of 1:2, this means 50 cm (20 in.)       this means that water level at each hose
     height difference per meter (3.3 ft.), is       end is always the same.
     best.
     If the pond is to be placed in a lawn we rec-
     ommend cutting-out the lawn into lengths
     of sod and stacking these aside. The exca-
     vated matrix soil is perfectly suitable for
     building a hill bed.

     Make sure the pond edge is on one level.        Quite simple:
     Otherwise, the bank on the higher side will     the hose spirit-level
     remain water- free after the pond is filled.




12
          Preparation and pond construction 2




Excavating the pit                            Smoothing the pond pit



Also suitable for smaller ponds, a            Tip: The water overflow
spirit-level may be laid upon a long
straight board, across the pond.              During the excavation you should have
                                              already considered a place where the pond
                                              can overflow in the direction you wish. For
                                              example, attach a plastic pipe so that it
                                              directs the overflowing water onto a grit
;;
;;;
;;;
;;;
;

                                              bed or into the drainage of the house. The
                                              pipe should be fixed to the liner. Attach a
                                              suction screen to the pipe to prevent fish
                                              and other animal from entering and caus-
                                              ing a clog in the pipe.
                                              Edging the pipe with stones is also suitable
                                              to keep young fish away from the pipe.




After excavating the pit, you must thor-
oughly remove all sharp objects (stones,
nails, glass fragments etc.), and then pad
the pit with fine sand. On steep slopes you   Water overflow
will need an underlay for liner protection.

This must be done very carefully, because              prevention lattice
any sharp stone can destroy the work of
                                                    stone
days within a few hours.                           edging
                                                                   overflow pipe


                                                                                      grit bed




                                                                          descent into the
                                               liner                  direction of the grit bed

                                                                                                  13
2 Preparation and pond construction
2.9 Laying the pond liner


     The warmer the weather, the smoother
     the liner becomes. It fits and conforms to
     the shape of the pond pit with fewer
     creases. So, if possible, lay the pond liner
     on a warm day. This is easily done with a
     few helpers. Grasp the liner at the edges
     and carry it over the pond. Let the liner
     down from above.
     Smooth out the creases as much as possi-
     ble. Do not wear sharp-edged shoes while
     you are doing this. For all kinds of work
     that make it necessary to step on the liner,
     it is best to wear shoes with rounded rub-     By using liner almost no line is drawn to
     ber soles.                                     the pond in respect of size or form



     Tips:

     1 Increase the liner durability by covering
       it with gravel completely, and attaching
       slope mats. These coarsely structured
       mats serve as light protection, and pro-
       vide good support for the growing
       plants.

     2 Avoid stretching the liner. In time, the
       stretching will inevitably cause damage
       and will require considerable repairs.




14
             Preparation and pond construction 2




2.10 The bottom gravel


   Now you can put the bottom gravel into          Tightly pile with larger pebbles to cover
   the pond. In the deep water zone you only       the steeper slopes. The upper plant ter-
   need a layer of approximately 1 cm (0.4 in.)    race is not filled for the time being.
   of gravel; as the years progress enough         For bottom gravel, gravel and pebbles are
   material will fall into the pond to fill this   suitable – but never use garden soil or top
   area. The other plant terraces should be        soil.
   covered with a layer of gravel between
   5 and 8 cm (2 – 3.2 in.).




                                                                                                 15
2 Preparation and pond construction
2.11 How to set up a Koi pond


     The instructions in the main section also       by land animals such as raccoons or cats.
     apply to Koi ponds, with some additions to      Sometimes these land animals can splash
     be considered.                                  the fish out of the pond.
     Koi can grow to more than 1 meter (3.3 ft.)     The average Koi pond should be about
     long! Due to their size, Koi need more          0.5 – 1 m (20 – 40 in.) deep. Deep water zones
     space than other pond fish.                     for fish hibernation should be at least 1.5 m
     A basic rule is:                                (5 ft.), or better 2 m (6.6 ft.).
     A Koi of about 50 cm (20 in.) long requires     Many passionate Koi lovers are now using
     1 m3 / 35.3 ft.3 (1,000 liters / 265 gal.) of   special heaters for their ponds. The water
     water. Except for a few models, most            temperature is maintained at 20°C (68°F)
     prefabricated ponds are not suitable. Gen-      year-round. In such cases, the fish stay
     erally, the larger the pond, the better. A      active throughout the year and must be
     larger pond requires less work for water        fed. Hibernation then of course is inappli-
     care than a small one!                          cable to the fish. There is no harm for the
     Koi ponds are usually laid out with steep       ornamental fish, Koi are not compelled to
     slopes. In shallow swamp zones, the fish        hibernate.
     may get trapped in the plant thicket and        A possible alternative, is to install an air-
     often are not able to free themselves. Ide-     permeable roof, like a greenhouse, which
     ally, the wall in Koi ponds has a vertical      covers the pond in winter. Here, the rise in
     slope of about 25 cm (10 in.) high. By this,    water temperature will be insufficient to
     it hinders the ornamental fish from injuries    keep the fish active during the winter.




                                                     Especially recommended
                                                     for Koi ponds:
                                                     vertical slopes as prevention
                                                     against raccoons or cats

                      approx. 25 cm (10 in.)




16
                                    Water – the source of life 3
3.1 How to fill the pond with water


   Do not fill your pond with water all at           Pond filled by 2/3:
   once. Fill only in several stages. Strong
   water pressure induces force to the pond          Final filling:    +
   liner and the ground. If the pond is filled
   with water in several stages, the liner will      Addition of both
   have enough time to adjust and adapt              = complete filling:
   under moderate pressure. This is because
   of the lesser impact of the force. After fill-    The water content of your garden pond is
   ing the pond two-thirds of the way, the           important for all further maintenance
   water should be conditioned. Please read          because the dosage of the various condi-
   the chapter 3.2, “How to condition the            tioners and water care products depends
   pond water” before the pond is complete-          on the amount of water.
   ly filled.
   Two important tips for filling the pond:          2 Do not use a strong water jet to fill the
                                                       pond. You will destroy much of your
   1 Control by recording the display of your          decoration and whirl up the gravel. It is
     water meter before and after the filling.         easiest to direct the water jet into a flat
     If possible, avoid any greater water              plastic tub or a bucket. To remove the
     requirements for the household. In the            container from the pond later, it is best
     space provided, write the water con-              to have it attached to a cord. Do not use
     sumption for filling the pond two-thirds:         containers previously used with cleaning
                                                       agents or other chemicals.




                                                    At last!




                                                                                                     17
3 Water – the source of life
3.2 How to condition the pond water


     Due to the increase of environmental pol-        ences that affect the
     lution, the quality of our tap water is con-     pond water. The sera
     stantly decreasing and is treated with           guide “How to maintain
     strong chlorine or disinfectant to destroy       and cultivate a garden
     germs that are harmful to humans.                pond” offers tips on
     The pH value is usually in the mild alkaline     the correct care of
     region (7.5 to 8.5). Other trouble sources       pond water. sera has
     are the high nitrate and phosphate values        developed several effective water
     that are responsible for the growth of           care products so that you can condition
     floating and smear algae. Of course, there       the water according to the requirements
     are also many other environmental influ-         of the fish and plants:




     sera KOI PROTECT ensures pond water con-         sera crystal binds water turbidity in the
     ditioning according to natural require-          pond water making it easy to filter-out.
     ments. sera KOI PROTECT contains skin pro-       Thus, sera crystal cleanses the pond water.
     tecting colloids, a vitamin B complex and a      Bound particles must be removed regular-
     water cleansing additive. Thus, the pond is      ly until the water is filtered. Make sure to
     provided with healthy water conditions           agitate the water well to enhance oxygen
     according to the demands of the fish. It is      supply. The carbonate hardness must be at
     indispensable, from the initial filling of the   least 5°dKH.
     pond, to every water change and after
     heavy rainfalls. Furthermore, it protects
     your precious fish against heavy metals,
     chlorine and harmful environmental influ-
     ences.




18
                               Water – the source of life 3
sera pondmorena supports the combat          A 2-kilogram bag of sera biopeat granu-
of algae. Its light filtration capabili-     late is sufficient for 5,000 liters (1,320 gal.)
ties shield the spectrum required               of water. If necessary, the dosage can be
by the algae. sera pondmorena also              increased without harmful effects. The
helps prevent against many fish                humic acids in sera biopeat granulate
diseases and enhances plant                    are released slowly and constantly, for a
growth.                                       long-lasting effect. We recommend
After the pond has been filled by            replacing sera biopeat granulate with an
approx. 2/3, we recommend ad-                appropriate amount every two months.
ding a single dose of sera KOI
PROTECT and a double dose of                 Now let your pond settle in for a couple of
sera pondmorena. Please calcu-               days as the liner will still need to adjust
late the required dose accord-               itself at certain spots.
ing to the water consumption                 Also, the water pressure settles the gravel
you wrote down on page 17.                   inside the pond and it makes planting
                                             much easier.
Now put sand onto the upper plant terrace    Now fix the liner at the edges. Just look at
and completely fill the pond with water.     the sketches in chapter 2.7. There is no
The water consumption taken now and the      problem in planting marsh plants above
total consumption, is the total content of   the liner at the pond edge.
your pond. Record this valuable informa-     Afterwards, install one or several sera
tion on page 17.                             pond filters according to the pond size. We
Again condition the additional water as      will provide more information about this in
described above.                             the next chapter.
As a support for long-term measures, we
recommend the addition of sera biopeat
granulate. In doing so, sera pondmorena
increases the light filtrating effect.




                                                                                                19
3 Water – the source of life
3.3 Clean water conditions –
    with sera pond filter systems


     Biologically clean water is important for       The ecosystem of your pond water is well
     the living conditions of the animals and        looked after by the sera pond filters. They
     plants in and around the garden pond.           clean the pond water according to the
                                                     principles of nature.




The sera pond filter W 1500


     The large filter tub consists of a variety of   One sera pond filter W 1500 is sufficient for
     filter media that is included with the set      garden ponds up to 10,000 liters (2,650 gal.)
     (filter sponge, sera biofibres and sera         – or more, if the water is very clean. For
     biopur). It provides plenty of settling space   larger ponds, we recommend installing
     for the bacteria that break-down waste          several sera pond filters.
     products. Because of this the pond water
     is mechanically and biologically cleaned.


     Cross sectional drawing
     of the filter tub


                        sera
       sera             filter sponge
       biofibres



                            sera
                            biopur




     The sera pond filter W 1500 is provided         the combination fountain an below-sur-
     with a T-piece that allows you to adjust the    face water outlet. Due to its high power,
     water outlet as desired. You may choose         the sera pond filter W 1500 is ideal for
     from the beautiful fountain spray, which        attaching to a waterfall or a spout.
     reaches 1.60 meters (63 in.) high! or select

20
                              Water – the source of life 3
Fountain and water outlet
when using the sera water height regulator




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The motors of the sera pond filters are      job throughout the year. Of course, they
maintenance free and very economical. The    meet the strict VDE regulations and are
sera pond filters do an unobtrusively good   tested by the TÜV and the ULC.




                                                The sera Bio Pond Filters


                                             The sera Bio Pond Filter is available in
                                             three different sizes holding 25, 35 and
                                             50 liters (6.6, 9.2 and 13.2 gal.). They are
                                             suitable for ponds up to 5,000, 8,000, or
                                             10,000 liters (1,320, 2,110 or 2,650 gal.),
                                             respectively.
                                             It is installed in a suitable place near the
                                             pond and run with a separate pump. Its
                                             large filter volume is filled with plastic fil-
                                             ter material to allow the beneficial bacte-
                                             ria to settle.


                                                                                               21
3 Water – the source of life

                                                filter mat
            honey-
                                                                                       sera
            comb
                                                                                       siporax
            struc-
                                                                                       pond
            tured
            plastic
            material
                                                                                         ➨
                                                                                       water
                                                                                       outlet




            water                                                                      sludge
            inlet                                                                      removal

          ➨                                                                            valve




The sera 3 chamber biofilter


     The sera 3 chamber biofilter is recom-              When cleaning the filter, you
     mended for very large ponds and Koi                 also remove useful bacteria.
     ponds. It has a 220 l (55 gal.) capacity. This      After each cleaning, reacti-
     pond filter is also installed beside the            vate the filter medium bio-
     pond.                                               logically with sera KOI BIO-
     Before starting the filter, activate the filter     CLEAR to continue the break-
     media biologically with sera KOI BIOCLEAR,          down of waste products in
     according to the instructions for use.              the pond.
     We recommend sera siporax pond for
     optimal biological filter performance.




                                               Tip:
                                               We re
                                                        comm
                                               pond             end se
                                                        for th          ra sipo
                                              W 150            e sera            rax
                                                       0, the          pond
                                                               sera B         filt
                                              ters, s
                                                       era Pr         io Pon er
                                             and se           essure          dF
                                                       ra Pre          Filters il-
                                             UV Sys           ssure             T
                                                      tem fo         Filt
                                            ical fil           r optim ers T +
                                                     ter pe             al biolo
                                                            rform                 g-
                                                                   ance.


22
                                     Water – the source of life 3
The sera Pressure Filters T and sera Pressure Filters T + UV System


                                                     The sera Pressure Filters consist of heavy-
                                                     duty ABS-plastic and are also ideal for
                                                     operating a waterfall and the required
                                                     water pressures. They are equipped with
                                                     connectors for all common hose diame-
                                                     ters.
                                                     The new sera Pressure Filters T have been
                                                     designed for the biomechanical filtration
                                                     of all ponds. The sera Pressure Filters T +
                                                     UV System provide long-term clean water
                                                     by a high efficient UV System. You can
                                                     increase capabilities with a full electronic
   These biomechanical double-chambered              CEFT control unit.
   pressure filters have especially high filter
   volumes of 11, 25, 40 or 50 liters (2.9, 6.6,     Norms: TÜV – GS – IPX6 – CE
   10.5, 13.2 gal.). They are suitable for ponds
   up to 12,000 liters (3,170 gal.). They can eas-
   ily be buried in the ground and be “hid-
   den”. Nevertheless, filter maintenance and
   cleaning are very easy.




The sera UVC Pond Clarifiers


   Installation of a UVC Pond Clarifier is rec-      avoids parasites passing the clarifier in the
   ommended for preventing and combating             shadow of particles. For this purpose the
   water cloudiness and parasites. The sera          filter should be located before the sera
   UVC Pond Clarifier operates without any           UVC Pond Clarifier in the water circuit. The
   chemicals and is easy to service.                 location of the pump is less important, just
   The appropriate order of pump, filter and         make sure the pump cannot be clogged by
   UV-C Clarifier depends on the application         particles if it is installed before the filter.
   range:
                                                     Depending on construction and light per-
   The filter is installed behind the UV-C Clar-     formance the UV-C Clarifiers are suitable
   ifier in the water circuit for removing float-    for different flow rates. The range of UV-C
   ing algae. By doing so, the bound algae are       Clarifiers with different wattages makes it
   immediately collected by the filter and are       easy for you to choose the correct per-
   easy to remove by cleaning the filter.            formance for every pond.

   If the sera UVC Pond Clarifier is installed
   for disinfection or support of a disease
   treatment it is important to remove
   cloudiness before passing the clarifier. This

                                                                                                       23
3 Water – the source of life
                  Type                        Pond size                      Pump performance

         sera Pond UVC 8 (8 W)            4–8m /  3
                                                         5 – 10 yd   3
                                                                         max. 1,100 l/h   (290 gal./h)

         sera Pond UVC 16 (16 W)         8 – 16 m /
                                                  3
                                                        10 – 21 yd   3
                                                                         max. 2,000 l/h   (528 gal./h)

         sera Pond UVC 25 (25 W)      12.5 – 25 m / 16 – 32.5 yd
                                                  3                  3
                                                                         max. 3,300 l/h   (870 gal./h)

         sera Pond UVC 30 (30 W)        15 – 30 m / 19.6 – 39 yd
                                                  3                  3
                                                                         max. 4,000 l/h (1,056 gal./h)

         sera Pond UVC 55 (55 W)      27.5 – 55 m /
                                                  3
                                                        36 – 72 yd   3
                                                                         max. 7,300 l/h (1,928 gal./h)


     Using a lower setting than the maximum           the UV light, the efficiency of the clarifier
     pump performance is not a problem, as            is increased.
     the longer time the water is exposed to


The sera UV Systems


     The new sera UV Systems guarantee                               Both models tolerate pres-
     long-term clean pond water. They are                             sure up to 0.4 bar (e.g., 4 m /
     absolutely weatherproof (no trans-                                13 ft. waterfall height). This
     former included) and can be buried in                            allows you to use the outlet-
     the ground, and out of sight, to maintain                       water for additional filters,
     the natural beauty of your pond.                                spouts, fountains, or brooks.

                                                                  Norms: TÜV – GS – IPX6 – CE



The sera fountain and pond filter pumps


     The robust, quiet and long life sera pumps
     are suitable for operating the sera Bio
     Pond Filter and the sera 3 chamber biofil-
     ter. You can choose from the following
     types, depending on the pond size and the
     required flow rate:
                                                      sera SB 2500 for larger ponds, brooks
                                                      and waterfalls




     sera SP 1500 for smaller biotopes and gar-       sera SF 6000 / SF 9000 for large ponds
     den ponds up to 10,000 l (2,650 gal.)            and fish with high requirements

24
                                             Water – the source of life 3
    Type                sera SP 1500                 sera SB 2500                 sera SF 6000                 sera SF 9000

    Power
    consumption,                  20 W                         35 W                         90 W                        125 W
    Supply                    230 V/ 50 Hz                 230 V/ 50 Hz                 230 V/ 50 Hz                 230 V/50 Hz
    voltage


    Threaded
                                 1/2“                          1“                           1“                           1“
    connection

    Vertical rise:    H m/ft.       l/h – gal./h   H m/ft.       l/h – gal./h   H m/ft.       l/h – gal./h   H m/ft.       l/h – gal./h
    meters/feet
                      0/0             1,350/356    0/0              2,820/745   0/0           5,880/1,553    0/0           8,820/2,330
    Maximum flow      0.4/1.3         1,125/297    0.5/1.6          2,300/607   0.5/1.6       4,900/1,294    0.5/1.6       7,800/2,060
    rate:             0.8/2.6           875/231    1.0/3.2          1,800/475   1.0/3.2       3,900/1,030    1.0/3.2       6,600/1,743
    liters/hour –     1.2/4             600/158    1.5/4.9          1,350/356   1.5/4.9          2,800/739   1.5/4.9       5,600/1,479
    gal./hour         1.6/5              250/66    2.0/6.5           900/237    2.0/6.5          1,850/488   2.0/6.5       4,400/1,162
                      1.85/6                 0/0   2.5/8             550/145    2.5/8            1,200/317   2.5/8            3,400/898
                                                   2.9/9                  0/0   3.2/10.5               0/0   3.0/9.8          2,100/554
                                                                                                             4.0/13                0/0




The sera fountain nozzles


   You can choose from several
   fountain nozzles for the sera
   fountain and pond filter pumps.
   You can make your choice from
   different atmospheric water
   displays. The following types
   are available:                                                                                   sera foaming bubble jet




                                                     sera calyx jet




   sera volcano jet                                sera bell water jet                                                 sera star jet

                                                                                                                                          25
4 Planting
     Plants play a very important role in a well     Some species and their category are
     functioning pond. Besides decorative            shown on the following pages.
     aspects they provide oxygen, hideouts and       Specialized retailers keep many more
     spawning places for the fish. Furthermore,      species in stock and provide you with qual-
     they serve as nutrient competitors to the       ified assistance for the right choice.
     annoying algae. The large number of plant       Please do not remove any plants from
     species allows a great variety of possible      nature! This is forbidden by law in many
     designs. We differentiate between sub-          cases, even if the growth place does not
     merged plants, floating leaf plants, floating   appear to be private property!
     plants (their roots are not fixed in the
     ground), plants for the swamp zone and
     plants for the marsh zone.




26
                                                                  Planting 4
                                               4.1 Submerged plants


                                            These plants are important for the bio-
                                            logical equilibrium in the pond. They pro-
                                            vide the water with oxygen and break
                                            down pollutants.
                                            Rapid growing plants, especially hornwort
                                            and waterweed are direct nutrient com-
                                            petitors to algae and are therefore, highly
                                            recommended.




waterweed
Elodea sp.
takes roots quickly and enriches the
water with oxygen. Suitable for the first
planting.
• water depth: up to 100 cm (40 in.)
• growth height: exceeding 100 cm
  (40 in.)
                                            water crowfoot / buttercup
                                            (Ranunculus circinatus)
                                            • water depth: up to 30 cm (12 in.)
                                            • growth height: approx. 100 cm (40 in.)




hornwort
(Ceratophyllum demersum)
floats mostly in nutrient-rich,             bladderwort
calm water                                  (Utricularia vulgaris)
• water depth: up to 150 cm (59 in.)        • water depth: up to 50 cm (20 in.)
• growth height: approx. 50 cm (20 in.)     • growth height: up to 50 cm (20 in.)

                                                                                          27
4 Planting
4.2 Plants for swamp zones,
    shallow water and bank zones



     The bank zones are the optical border of
     your pond and provide valuable living
     space for many animals. If you properly
     compile the plants in these zones, you will
     enjoy a blooming splendor from spring to
     autumn. Arrange the plants so that the
     tallest species are at the back (seen from
     the main view). In that way your garden
     pond will be gorgeously attractive.




                                                   flowering rush
                                                   (Butomus umbellatus)
                                                   • flowering time: June – August
                                                   • water depth: up to 30 cm (12 in.)
                                                   • growth height: 80 to 100 cm
                                                     (32 in. – 40 in.)




                                                   geum / avens
                                                   (Geum rivale)
                                                   • flowering time: May – June
                                                   • growth height: 30 cm (12 in.)




     bog bean
     (Menyanthes trifoliata)
     to be planted at sunny spots!
     • flowering time: May – June
     • height: up to 30 cm (12 in.)




28
                                                                       Planting 4




marsh marigold (Caltha palustris)
mostly floating in nutrient-rich,               iris Iris sp.
calm waters                                     in nature this plant is protected!
• flowering time: April – June                  • flowering time: May – July
• growth height: approx. 30 to 40 cm            • height: approx. 60 to 80 cm
  (12 – 16 in.)                                    (24 – 32 in.)




                                                bog arum (Calla palustris)
                                                rhizomes without roots can also be let
                                                floating free in the water.
                                                • flowering time: May – July
                                                • growth height: up to 30 cm (12 in.)




swamp loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)
form bushes!
• flowering time: July – September
• water depth: up to 20 cm (8 in.)
• growth height: up to 150 cm (59 in.)

Caution: In some countries swamp loose-
strife (a.k.a. purple loosestrife) is consid-   water plantain Alisma sp.
ered a noxious weed and may not be              • flowering time: June – August
kept.                                           • height: approx. 60 to 80 cm (24 – 32 in.)

                                                                                              29
4 Planting
4.3 Floating leaf plants


     The best known and most popular floating
     leaf plants are water lilies. Make sure they
     do not cover the light area needed by the
     submerged plants. We recommend re-
     stricting the floating leaf plants to a cer-
     tain area of the pond. If the plants out-
     grow the restricted area, reduce the leaves
     moderately.
     Water lilies are among the most beautiful
     pond plants. Choose water lilies whose
     size fits with your pond size, because there
     are many varieties suited only to large
     ponds.
     Remove rotting spots from the roots be-
     fore planting. Your specialized retailer will
     give you more tips for planting, hiberna-
     tion and care.




30
                                                                        Planting 4
4.4 Plants for the Koi pond


   Delicate and fragile plants are often eaten    Beside the main pond is placed a canal,
   by large Koi within a short time; therefore,   which is not accessible to the Koi. This
   only robust species should be chosen.          canal is planted with swamp plants into
   Large water lilies have proven best.           which the pond water is directed by a
   As a swamp zone is problematic in the Koi      pump. This “plant filter” replaces the
   pond (see chapter 2.11 “How to set up a Koi    breakdown of nitrate by the submerged
   pond”), many pond owners have chosen           plants and the swamp zone; however, it
   another solution:                              does not replace the biological activity of
                                                  the pond filter.




                                                                                                31
4 Planting
4.5 How to plant correctly


     The best time for planting is from spring to
     summer (April to August). During this peri-
     od, the plants rapidly take root because of
     the higher water temperature. Your retail-
     er can also offer you the largest choice
     during this time.
     Submerged and floating leaf plants are
     best grown in plant baskets, which can be
     easily moved (e.g., by means of a long
     stick), even after they have been placed in
     one location for a long time.
     These baskets should be first lined with
     fabric; then filled with coarse sand or grav-
     el. Afterwards, plants such as hornwort or
     waterweed are placed inside.
     To support healthy and rapid plant growth,
     insert up to 4 tablets of sera florenette T
     (according to the plant and basket size)
     close to the roots. Then put the planted
     baskets into the garden pond at your
     desired location.

     sera florenette T contains only minerals
     and trace elements. It combines with the
     existing nutrients, nitrate and phosphate,
     which are always present in the pond, to
     optimally nourish the plants.
     Thus, sera florenette T ensures splendid
     plant growth, and helps relieve the water
     by preventing an overload of nutrient sup-
     ply for the algae.
     Swamp plants are planted directly into the
     gravel of the plant terrace.




32
                                                                       Planting 4
Support the growth of your plants with
sera florenette T. When the planting is
complete, allow three weeks for your pond
to rest. By then the plants have settled-in
and you may carefully start introducing
fish to the pond.

sera pond florena and sera florenette T are
an ideal fertilizer combination for all
aquatic plants. Fertilizer tablets sera flo-
renette T strengthen the roots of plants.
sera pond florena ensures lush green,
splendid leaves.




                                                  4.6 Stable water conditions
                                                      with sera GH-KH plus


                                               To stabilize the water conditions, a total
                                               hardness (GH) of 6 – 16°dH and a carbonate
                                               hardness (KH) of 5 – 10°dH is very impor-
                                               tant. With KH values below 5°dKH, drastic
                                               changes of the pH value can occur. With
                                               the heavy growth of algae during summer,
                                               and acid rainfalls (in some rural areas, rain-
                                               water can have a pH value of 3.5!) the level
                                               of carbonate hardness can drop rapidly.

                                               We recommend checking the water hard-
                                               ness regularly with the sera gH-Test and
                                               the sera kH-Test. If necessary, increase it
                                               with sera GH-KH plus to at least 6°dGH and
                                               5°dKH.




                                               You will find more information about
                                               water maintenance in the sera guide “How
                                               to maintain and cultivate a garden pond.”




                                                                                                33
5 The fish for your garden pond
     Only fish can provide a pond with the right       Use sera KOI BIOCLEAR according to direc-
     atmosphere, life and constant motion.             tions. Check the nitrite level of the water
     Goldfish or the splendid Koi, are examples        with the sera nitrite-Test after a day or
     of beautiful fish for the garden pond. In         two. As soon as the nitrite level is below
     specialty retailers or garden centers, you        0.1 mg/l (ppm), you may introduce the fish.
     will find a great selection of fish, as well as   Bear in mind that your fish usually will
     the correct advice for the best possible          grow considerably and may multiply quick-
     stocking of your garden pond.                     ly!

     We recommend that you start with just a           If you build your pond in autumn, wait
     few fish (2 – 4 fish); and then increase the      until spring before introducing fish so
     number a few at a time over the next sev-         your pond and fish will not be burdened
     eral weeks until your pond is stocked the         during the first winter season.
     way you wish. By doing this, you give your
     pond time to cultivate enough nitrifying          You will find detailed information on how
     bacteria to break down the waste prod-            to care for and feed Koi and other pond
     ucts from the fish. This waiting period can       fish in our guide “How to maintain and cul-
     be shortened considerably with sera KOI           tivate a garden pond.”
     BIOCLEAR:




34
                                                                  Buyer’s checklist 6
a. Tools and utensils                                       f. Fish food
   spade                                                    Food for goldfish
   shovel                                                      sera goldy, sera goldy Royal,
   pointed hoe                                                 sera goldy Color
   cord for measuring                                       sera food for Koi
leveling aid:                                                  sera KOI ROYAL STAPLE DIET,
      transparent hose as                                      sera KOI COLOR, sera KOI SPIRULINA,
      spirit-level or                                          sera KOI JUNIOR
      long, straight board and                              Food for different species
      spirit-level                                             sera bioflakes, sera biogranulat,
   plastic bucket                                              sera mix royal, sera Sturgeon Granules
   brush and roller for gluing the liner                    g. Vitamins
   pieces (liner ponds only)                                   sera KOI MULTIVITAMIN
b. Pond construction material                                  sera activant
Basic material:                                             h. Equipment
      finished pond or                                      Filters and Pond Clarifiers
      pond liner and glue                                      sera pond filter W 1500
   liner protection fabric                                     sera Bio Pond Filters
   slope mats                                                  sera 3 chamber biofilter
c. Bottom gravel and boundary                                  sera Pressure Filters T
   if desired, stones for the banks                            sera Pressure Filters T + UV System
   fine sand for the pit                                       sera UVC Pond Clarifiers
   (below the liner)                                           sera UV Systems
bottom material: gravel or                                  Pumps
                     pebbles (ideal                            sera fountain pump SP 1500
                      with big fish such                       sera fountain pump SB 2500
                      as Koi)                                  sera pond filter pump SF 6000 / SF 9000
d. Plant substrate                                          i. Plants
   gravel or coarse sand                                       submerged plants
                                                               floating leaf plants
e. Care and water conditioning                                 floating plants
   sera KOI PROTECT, sera KOI BIOCLEAR,                        swamp plants
   sera crystal                                                plants for the bank zone
   sera biopeat granulate, sera pond-
   morena, sera algenstop*                                  j. Plant fertilizer
   sera pH-Test, sera gH-Test,                                 sera florenette T
   sera kH-Test, sera nitrite-Test                             sera pond florena
   sera KOI AQUA-TEST BOX                                   k. Other / Accessories
   sera pH-plus, sera pH-minus,                                sera fish net
   sera GH-KH plus                                             sera fountain nozzles
                                                               for the pond pump
                                                            l. Fish
                                                            _______________________________

                                                            _______________________________

                                                            _______________________________




*Use biocides safely. Always read the label and product information before use.
                                                                                                         35

								
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