HOW TO TEST ENVIRONMENTAL ACCEPTABILITY OF CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS by thebest11

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									“HOW TO TEST ENVIRONMENTAL ACCEPTABILITY OF
 CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS RELATED TO RELEASE
    TO SOIL AND GROUND/SURFACE WATER”
                               Margareta Wahlström
 NICe workshop ”Construction products – Environmental safety and future challenges”
                             April 15-16, 2008, Espoo
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




        OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
        OUTLINE


    •   NICe project
    •   Background
    •   Scenarios and products
    •   Applicable test methods
    •   Ongoing experimental work
    •   How to use test results
    •   Future work
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




    Project:
    ”General guidelines for environmental assessment related to
    CE-marking of construction products – regional requirements
    and test methods”
    Financier: Nordic Innovation Centre

    Partners:
    •     VTT, Finland (Margareta Wahlström, co-ordinator)

    •     DHI, Denmark (Ole Hjelmar)

    •     SGI, Sweden (David Bendz)

    •     SP, Sweden (Hans Gustafsson)

    •     Sintef, Norway (Christian J. Engelsen)

    •     Linuhönnun, Iceland (Harpa Birgisdottir)

    Timetable: 16.9.2006-31.12.2008
DRIVERS FOR UNIFORM TESTING CONCEPTS


 Inclusion of environmental requirements for CE-marking of
 construction products
 Market globalisation, customer awareness and needs,
 branding, product liability (product producers)
 Environmental awareness, comparison and choice of
 products (consumers)
 Uniform information on products, transparent quality and
 environmental systems (EPAs)
 Practical, standardised and harmonised test methods
 (testing labs)
                      BACKGROUND 1:
         ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS (ER) DEFINED IN CPD:

ER 1     Mechanical resistance and stability
ER 2     Safety in case of fire
ER 3     Hygiene, health and the environment
ER 4     Safety in use
ER 5     Protection against noise
ER 6     Energy economy and heat retention




ER3:
Focus on release of dangerous substances. Work divided in two parts:
emissions to indoor air
emissions to soil, ground water and surface water

Mandate M/366 given to CEN in year 2005
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND



    BACKGROUND 2: ORGANIZATION OF STANDARDISATION
    WORK UNDER TC 351 FOR DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS FOR
    DETERMINATION OF RELEASE TO SOIL/WATER


    •   Working group was established in year 2006 (chair: G. Thielen, Germany).
    •   Task: Preparation of horizontal leaching test taking into account their intended use
        (both for ITT and FPC)

    Current status:
    - Evaluation of applicability of existing standards for both granular and monolithic
       materials, identification on modification needs
    - Results from leaching test must be applicable as input data for modelling (ie.
       Transport of compounds to a selected point of compliance)


    Links to C 351: TG 4 Complement to sampling:

        Guidance/recommendations on key aspects in sampling (e.g. the specific
        precautions for dangerous substances that are necessary and other aspects
        related on sampling including scale)

        Responsible of Product TCs : specification of detailed procedures for both
        sampling and testing (e.g. sampling preparation, final testing conditions)
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




             QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED ABOUT CONSTRUCTION
                 PRODUCTS AND THEIR INTENDED USE:


     1. Is the CP in contact with water?
     2. Is the CP designed to function as a
        water route or as a barrier that will seal
        and redirect water from the
        construction?
     3. Is it possible for the water to get into
        the matrix of the CP?
     4. Is the moisture content in the matrix
        vary over time? That is, is it
        experiencing wet/dry cycles?
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




                                  PROPOSED SCENARIOS:


                   Scenario        Specificiaton             Products (example)
                                                             - sheet metal, surface coating, glazed
                                   Non permeable
                                                                tiles, glass surfaces
                                   product.
                                                             - foundations such as steel piles (coated)
                                   Water flowing over the
                                                                used in ground or in water.
                     I             surface of the product.

                                   Low permeable
                                   product.
                                                             tiles (non-glazed), bricks, concrete,
                                   Water is transported
                                                             structural concrete, treated wood, mortar,
                                   into the matrix by
                     II            capillary forces;
                                                             coatings, road materials, construction
                                                             debris and pipes.
                                   contribution of core to
                                   surface


                                   Permeable product.        unbound aggregate, drain concrete
                     III           Water may infiltrate      granular products, building debris, soil,
                                   into the matrix driven    etc
                                   by gravity
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND


    PROPOSED SCHEME FOR SELECTION OF BASIC TEST METHODS
                                 No
                                              1. Is the CP in contact with water?

                                                               Yes


                                              2. Is the CP designed to act as:
                                      a)         a) a water route/drainage
                                                 b) a water barrier? /
                                                      redirect water?

                                                               b)

                                                                                    No
                                              3. Can water get into the matrix
                                              of the CP?

                                                               Yes


                                              4. Does the CP experience
                                              dry/wet cycles?

                                               Yes                        No



               Scenario III                Scenario IIa                Scenario IIb        Scenario I




                              Take any specific aspects into consideration (e.g. water
                              composition)




             Test method:             Test method:                    Test method:       Test method:
             column test              DMLT +                          DMLT               DMLT or
             CEN/TS14405              supplementary?                                     Surface reaction
                                                                                         Leaching ?
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




                        METHODS FOR INITIAL TYPE TESTING


             PERCOLATION TESTS                   DYNAMIC MONOLITHIC LEACHING
        (prCEN/TS 14405, ENVIR 002, NEN7343)                METHOD (DMLT)
           • Granular materials                  • Monolithic materials that keep their
           • Percolation as a function of L/S-            form in water contact
             ratio under hydraulically              • Leaching diffusion controlled
             dynamic conditions                       and related to surface




                                LEACHATE




                             WASTE MATERIAL




      LEACHANT
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




                          EXAMPLES OF OTHER METHODS


     Total content:
     • Screening of presence of dangerous substances
     • Low content of dangerous substances in construction products
     • No applicable or practical method for determination of release

     pH dependence test:
     • Conditions in intended use (e.g. pH) different then testing construction product
       alone (ageing (e.g. carbonisation), wet/dry conditions, sample preparation
       (cutting/crushing)
     • In product development: influence of critical condition on release
     • Input data for modeling

     Ecotoxicity tests (mentioned in mandate)
     • Possibility to be used as sum-parameter
     • Supplement to chemical analysis, difficulties to analyse several compounds and low
       concentrations of organic substances in test eluates
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




                      PURPOSE OF ONGOING PRACTICAL WORK:

       •     to check how proposed testing schemes are suitable for Nordic construction products
       •     to bring up own results of important aspects to be taken into account both in testing and
             in interpretation of testing results.

       Construction product (examples)             Objective of study (examples)
       Expanded clay gravel (4-32 MM) –            Preparation of test sample (crushing, cutting,
       Application: earth construction, frost      Selection of test pieces for testing
       protection                                  Influence of testing conditions on results (scenario
                                                   related aspects)
       Pillar bar – Application: pillar bases in   Preparation of test sample (crushing, cutting,
       light constructions, terraces               Selection of test pieces for testing
       Paint coated metal roofing material         Sampling preparation
                                                   Adaption of test procedure for case
       Ashes (secondary raw materials              Additional information using ecotox characteristics
       /aggregates)                                Testing procedure and leaching metohds for organic
                                                   substances (PAH)
       Roofing material (bituminous material)      Adaption of test procedures for case
       Bricks                                      Additional information using ecotox characteristics
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND


                                    Biotest battery




      Bacteria: Microtox   (EC50 -30 min)    Prim. producer: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata; (EC50 -72 h)




     Primary consumer: Nitocra spinipes                  Secundary consumer Danio rerio
           (NOEC/LOEC 6 days)                                 (NOEC/LOEC 48 h)
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




                              Examples of regional features:


Climate aspects:
- Freezing and thawing (resistance to weathering)
- Use of winter tyres (mechanical impacts, erosion
  of the road surface)
- Use of de-icing agents in winter maintaince of
  roads
- Properties of construction products (use of
  biocides, additives etc)

Environmental aspects:
- Surface and groundwater properties (dissolved
  organic carbon, salt, temperature, buffer
  capacity)
- Soil properties (dissolved organic carbon,
  temperature, sulphidic soils, buffer capacity)
- Exposure routes
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




                            HOW TO USE RESULTS


     Note 1: decision is to be made on national basis, important also how to
     take into account uncertainty in the whole testing field

     Note 2: conclusion that no further testing is required

     Approach:
     - Check on requirements in existing regulation – safety levels defined (also
       coming regulations)
     - Modeling:
              – need to set an acceptance level for immission to soil/water
              - need for standard construction: easy contra complex approach
                 possible
              - case specific cases (risk based evaluation)
     - Other, e.g. development of database for data comparison
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




                                     FURTHER WORKS


        Active transfer and exchange of information with stakeholders (e.g. regulators,
        construction product producers, consumers, testing laboratories)
           • Case studies on construction products in relation to coming regulations for
             environmental assessment - Important to ensure that construction
             products conform with coming regulations (product development, choice of
             materials)
           • Collection of documents for national discussions and developments for
             establishing national acceptance values
           • Growing importance of CE-marking in future in marketing (ensuring
             environmental safety of construction products)
           • CE-marking in future also obligatory in Sweden/Finland
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND




                                   Acknowledgements

            Nordic Innovation Centre,
            Ministry of Environment in Finland
            Nordic stakeholders (Finnish Road Administration, Maxit,
            Rautaruukki, Svenska Energiaskor, Danish stakeholders)
            Participating research organizations

								
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