Sex Trafficking

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					   Smoky Hill High School
Model United Nations Conference




     Background Guide
      Security Council
           Topic 2-
    Nation-Sex Trafficking
                             Author- Luan Bui
                                 Kevin Wong
        Smoky Hill ― Cherry Creek High Schools Model United Nations
                                                 November 14, 2009

Overview:

        Sex trafficking is a widely spread international organized crime. The United
Nations (U.N.) estimates that there are approximately 1,000,000 persons trafficked
annually across 161 nations. According to the Polaris Project, the human trafficking
industry produces approximately $32 billion in revenue annually. In a 2006 study
aggregated by the United Nations in 61 participating nations, approximately 66% of sex-
trafficked persons are women, 22% are young children, and 12% are men. Conventional
wisdom has it that men are the prominent sexual traffickers; however, it should be noted
that women also play a major role in sexual trafficking.
        Within the U.N., the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons
and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others was created in 1949 and provides a
resolution that offers measures to combat international trafficking for the purpose of
prostitution and prohibits the running of brothels. In addition, the Protocol to Prevent,
Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, was
adopted by the U.N. in 2000 and requires ratifying states to aid victims of sexual
slavery, prevent and battle sexual trafficking itself, and promote cooperation between
states.
        The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) receives authority
from these conventions and even has a specialist group, INTERPOL‟s Specialist Group
on Crimes Against Children, that focuses on “commercial exploitation and trafficking in
children.” INTERPOL also gives feedback to local law enforcement officials on sex
trafficking and also carries out large operational investigations. Furthermore, local
officials and embassies may ask INTERPOL to “trace and help locals who have been
trafficked.” Other organizations, such as the Coalition Against the Trafficking of
Women-International (C.A.T.W.), Captive Daughters, the Salvation Army, the Polaris
Project, and Vital Voices, are involved in combating sex trafficking and aiding victims
rehabilitate back into society once they are freed.
        According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (U.N.O.D.C.), most
of the trafficking is done domestically and intra-regionally. There are less cases of trans-
regional trafficking. Regarding trans-regional trafficking, Europe receives the widest
range of nationalities, while victims from Asia are trafficked to the widest range of
destinations. Victims in the Americas are prominent in both origins and destinations.
Smuggling routes include: 1) Asia to Eastern Europe to Western Europe to North
America; 2) Middle East to Asia to Australia; 3) South America to Central America to
North America; 4) Africa to West Africa to Europe.
        While there have been attempts to prevent sex trafficking, East Asia in particular
has a prominent sexual trafficking industry. Commercial sexual exploitation has boomed
in the region and the International Labor Organization (I.L.O.) estimates that sex
tourism contributes approximately 2 to 14 percent of the gross domestic product of
Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. The Greater Mekong Sub-region is
one of Asia‟s most notorious sex-trafficking hotspots.




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        Smoky Hill ― Cherry Creek High Schools Model United Nations
                                                 November 14, 2009

Factors Contributing to Sex Trafficking:

        Among the various factors that contribute to sex trafficking, some of the most
prevalent are the demand, high profits, and negligible-to-low chance of prosecution. As
long as there is high demand for sex slaves and a desire from sex traffickers for better
opportunities, sex trafficking will remain a prominent human rights violation in the
world. Sex slaves are found not only on the streets, but in community businesses as well.
These include bars, strip clubs, massage parlors, and escort services.
        Contributing factors behind sex slavery are poverty, high unemployment rates,
and a desire for a better way of life and a way for the victims to aid their families.
Because of current economic times, more and more people fall victim to unemployment
and desperation; this increases peoples‟ vulnerability to the industry.
        Moreover, even corruption within the authoritative forces of a nation contributes
to the survival of the global sex trade. Often times, when sex-trade victims seek
assistance from local authorities they encounter further sexual violence and are often
returned to their owners. In addition, local authorities are bribed with money and sex
from traffickers in exchange for turning a blind eye. Even immigration laws have
benefited traffickers. As victims are charged with overstaying their visas, they are
deported immediately, without the ability to testify against their captors. Furthermore,
governments that tolerate and legalize prostitution for tax revenue are major destinations
for sex slaves. Some of these governments may not have had wanted to legalize
prostitution but sex traffickers are so powerful in their countries that they influence and
shape laws and policies in their favor. The culture in these countries also affect how
frequent sex trafficking occurs. Some cultures do not make it taboo to have sex with a
prostitute and even with “particular mass media, „sex workers‟ are represented as being
empowered, independent, liberated women.”
        Even a lack of global understanding has hindered efforts toward combating sex-
trafficking and human-trafficking as a whole. Unlike many other human rights
violations and crimes, human trafficking lacks a multidimensional data base that allows
nations and organizations to develop the appropriate legislation needed to prevent and
suppress trafficking. Without the necessary data, the preventers can neither target the
components of the industry (importing, exporting, price ranges, etc.) nor fashion
legislation that appropriately addresses the different circumstances for human trafficking
in each region.
        With “fragmented knowledge and disjointed responses” (Antonio Maria Costa,
Executive Director of the U.N.O.D.C.), we are unable to properly address this heinous
and egregious human rights violation. Attempts have been made to do so but they
ultimately lack the substance needed to finally dismantle this shameful industry.




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        Smoky Hill ― Cherry Creek High Schools Model United Nations
                                                 November 14, 2009

Key Concerns

        In light of the actions taken by the international community against human, and
specifically sex, trafficking and the current state of affairs, some key issues that need to
be addressed are:
     How to address the global community‟s lack of understanding of the issue as to
        improve preventative and disciplinary actions against traffickers?
     How to make information about sex trafficking more readily available to the
        public in order to educate the masses of this recondite issue?
     How to prevent and diminish corruption within a nation‟s authoritative forces,
        such as the government and police?
     How to insure that the persons of each gender are equally protected?
     How to address the demand for prostitution and slavery?
     How to better improve the world‟s systems of capturing and persecuting
        traffickers?
     How to deal with nations that fail to comply or have a lack of compliance?
     How to facilitate the recovering victims reintegrate into society?


Works Cited

http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=4297&It
        emid=429
http://www.onenewsnow.com/features.aspx?id=687534
http://www.unodc.org/documents/Global_Report_on_TIP.pdf
http://salvationist.ca/action-support/human-sexual-trafficking/around-the-world/
http://www.polarisproject.org/
http://www.captivedaughters.org/un.html
http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/prevention.html
http://www.rapeis.org/activism/sextrade/sextrade.html
http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/fromthefield/wvaspro/124475192035.htm
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/oct/20/trafficking-numbers-women-exaggerated
http://www.interpol.int/
http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/demand_rome_june04.pdf




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