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					                                               ISSN 1018-5593




                   Renewable Energy
                   Technologies
                   Long Term Research in the
PROJECT SYNOPSES




                   6th Framework Programme 2002 I 2006
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EUROPEAN COMMISSION

Directorate-General for Research
Directorate Energy
E-mail: rtd-energy@ec.europa.eu
Internet: http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/
       Renewable Energy
       Technologies
       Long Term Research in the
       6th Framework Programme 2002 I 2006




           Directorate-General for Research
2007          Sustainable Energy Systems      EUR 22399
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Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007

ISBN 92-79-02889-8
ISSN 1018-5593

© European Communities, 2007
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

Printed in Belgium

Printed on white chlorine-free paper
Table of Contents

Foreword.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                      5


Photovoltaics ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................                                 7
Thin Film Technologies ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................                                      8
New and Emerging Concepts .......................................................................................................................................................................................                                                     20
Wafer-Based Silicon .................................................................................................................................................................................................................                                 30
Pre-normative Research and Co-ordination Activities ...............................................................................................................                                                                                                   36


Biomass..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                  41
Biofuels for Transport.............................................................................................................................................................................................................                                   42
Energy from Crops ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................                              46
Gasification and H2-production................................................................................................................................................................................                                                        50
Biorefinery .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................             64
Combustion and Cofiring ..................................................................................................................................................................................................                                            68
Pre-normative Research and Co-ordination Activities ...............................................................................................................                                                                                                   74


Other Renewable Energy Sources and Connection to the Grid ......................                                                                                                                                                                                      83
Wind ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................   84
Geothermal ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                90
Ocean............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................     98
Concentrated Solar Thermal ..........................................................................................................................................................................................                                                 106
Connection of Renewable Energy Sources to the Grid ..............................................................................................................                                                                                                     118


Socio-economic Tools and Concepts for Energy Strategy..........................................                                                                                                                                                                       133
Economic and Environmental Assessment
of Energy Production and Consumption ......................................................................................................................................................                                                                           134
Social Acceptability, Behavioural Changes
and International Dimension related to Sustainable Energy RTD ................................................................................                                                                                                                        140


Annexes.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                  155


List of Country Codes .................................................................................................................................................................................................                                               156


List of Acronyms ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................                                   157


Energy Units Conversion .......................................................................................................................................................................................                                                       158




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3
Foreword



The use of renewable energy sources in Europe will increase, leading to a more sustainable energy
mix, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and a lower dependency from oil. In pursuit of the Kyoto
protocol and the revised Lisbon strategy the European Union has set itself the ambitious goal to
derive 12% of its total energy consumption from renewable energy sources by 2010.
The Framework Programmes for Research and Development (FP) of the European Union have contributed
from their beginning to the development of renewable energy technologies. These Community actions
have a proven European added value in terms of building critical mass, strengthening excellence and
exercising a catalytic effect on national activities. In combination with national activities, working at
European level with an adequate combination of innovation and regulatory measures has produced
substantial results.
For example technological progress has enabled a ten-fold increase in the sizes of wind turbines,
from 50 kW units to 5 MW, in 25 years and a cost reduction of more than 50% over the last 15 years.
In consequence, the installed capacity has increased 16 times in the last ten years to reach 40 GW in
Europe. In 2005, the world production of photovoltaic modules was 1760 MW compared to 90 MW
in 1996. Over the same period, the average module price has decreased from about 10 €/W (1996)
to about 3 €/W (2005).The average annual growth rate of about 35% in the past decade makes
photovoltaics one of the fastest growing energy industries.
The European technology platforms (ETPs) established in the energy field (hydrogen and fuel cells,
photovoltaics, biofuels, solar thermal technologies, wind energy, smart grids, zero-emission fossil
fuels power plant) have demonstrated the readiness of the research community and industry,
together with other important stakeholders, such as civil society organisations, to develop a common
vision and establish specific roadmaps to achieve it. These technology platforms are already having
an influence on the European and national programmes. The platforms themselves are calling for
action at European level and a framework for the elaboration of large-scale integrated initiatives
needs to be developed for this to happen.
This brochure presents an overview on the 64 medium-to-long term research projects aiming at the
development of renewable energy sources and technologies, including their connection to the grid
and socio-economic research related to renewable energy sources, which were funded through the
‘Sustainable Energy Systems’ programme managed by DG Research under the 6th Framework
Programme in the period 2002-2006.
Amongst the 64 projects presented here photovoltaics and biomass were the most important sectors,
supported with 66.5 M€ and 82.5 M€ respectively, while for the other sources of renewable energy
such as wind, geothermal, solar concentrating and ocean energy 45.5 M€ were spent in total. The
socio-economic aspects of renewable energy were also studied in projects funded to the level of 20 M€.
These long-term research efforts were supplemented by short-term research and demonstration
actions in the short to medium term part of the programme, which is not included in this brochure.
The projects are grouped by energy source, i.e. photovoltaics, biomass etc. rather than funding
instrument. This allows the reader to gain a quick and comprehensive view of the European research
activities in each technical area. An electronic version of this brochure will be available on the web
(http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/index_en.htm) allowing easy online access to the projects.
I hope that this publication will be of interest to many, and particularly those considering further
industrial development of renewable energy sources and those planning to participate in FP7.




                                                                                    Raffaele LIBERALI
                                                                                              Director
                                                                                                            5
Photovoltaics



Thin Film Technologies .................................................................................................................................................................................                                                              8
ATHLET.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................       8
BIPV-CIS....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................          12
FLEXCELLENCE...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                       14
LARCIS .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................      16
SE-POWERFOIL .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                        18


New and Emerging Concepts..........................................................................................................................................................                                                                                   20
FULLSPECTRUM ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................                          20
HICONV ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................         24
MOLYCELL ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................              26
ORGAPVNET .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                   28


Wafer-Based Silicon............................................................................................................................................................................................                                                       30
CRYSTAL CLEAR ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................                         30
FOXY...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................   34


Pre-normative Research and Co-ordination Activities .......................................................                                                                                                                                                           36
PERFORMANCE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                          36
PV-CATAPULT .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                     38




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           7
ATHLET

         Advanced Thin Film Technologies
         for Cost Effective Photovoltaics

OBJECTIVES                                Challenges                                              Project Structure
                                          Long-term scenarios for a sustainable global            To meet these challenges, existing concepts for
The overall goal of this project          development suggest that it should be feasible, by      materials and technology will be improved and
is to provide the scientific and          the middle of this century, to provide over 80% of      brought to maturity in close cooperation with
                                          electric power by a mix of energy from renewable        industry, and new options will be investigated for
technological basis for industrial mass
                                          sources. Photovoltaics are one important option         materials and new types of solar cells to provide
production of cost-effective and
                                          which can provide a significant share of over           the scientific and technological basis for the
highly efficient large-area thin film     30% of such a mix. This Integrated Project (IP) is      next generation of PV devices. Accordingly, the
solar modules. This includes the          focused on the development, assessment and              research activities range from basic research to
development of the process know-how       consolidation of photovoltaic thin film technology,     industrial implementation. This is reflected in
and the production technology,            and on the most promising material and device           the division of the project into 4 horizontal
                                          options, namely cadmium-free cells and modules,         (trans-disciplinary) and 2 vertical (along value
as well as the design and fabrication
                                          based on amorphous, micro- and polycrystalline          chain) sub-projects:
of specialised equipment.
                                          silicon as well as on I-III-VI2-chalcopyrite compound
                                          semiconductors.
A successful development will
                                          The overall challenge is to provide the scientific
establish Europe as the leading
                                          and technological basis for industrial mass pro-
producer of thin film solar modules       duction of cost-effective and highly efficient,
and maintain European leadership          environmentally sound and economically compliant
in photovoltaics (PV) over the longer     large-area thin film solar cells and modules. By
term. The main objectives are             drawing on a broad basis of expertise, the entire
                                          range of module fabrication and supporting
two-fold: development and
                                          R&D will be covered: substrates, semiconductor
improvement of existing thin film
                                          and contact deposition, monolithic series inter-
PV technologies, with the goal of         connection, encapsulation, performance evaluation
increasing the module efficiency/cost     and applications. Photovoltaics have become an
ratio towards a target of € 0.5/Wp,       increasingly important industrial sector over the
and the establishment of know-how         past ten years. PV is a widely accepted technology
                                          and numerous kinds of solar modules and PV
and a scientific basis for a future
                                          systems are commercially available. The expansion Two vertical sub-projects (SP) are oriented along the value
generation of PV modules by
                                          of the production volume of PV systems will be chain:
developing new device concepts,           accompanied by considerable cost reductions.       SP III focuses on large area, environmentally sound
materials and production processes.                                                                     chalcopyrite modules with improved efficiencies;
                                          Therefore the main challenges are:                      SP IV deals with the up-scaling of silicon-based tandem
                                                                                                        cells to an industrial level.
                                          • Significantly reducing the cost/efficiency
                                            ratio towards € 0.5/WP in the long run.    Four horizontal sub-projects have a trans-disciplinary
                                                                                                  character:
                                          • Providing the know-how and the scientific SP V will provide analysis and modelling of devices and
                                            basis for large-area PV modules by identifying       technology for all other sub-project;
                                            and testing new materials and technologies SP I will demonstrate higher efficiencies of lab scale cells;
                                            with maximum cost reduction.                   SP II will focus on module aspects relevant to all thin
                                                                                                        film technologies;
                                          • Developing the process know-how and the
                                                                                         SP VI will ensure that the performed work will have a
                                            production technology, as well as the design       positive impact on the environment and society.
                                            and fabrication of specialised equipment, An experienced management will help the consortium
                                            resulting in low costs and high yield in the meet its goals.
                                            production of large area thin film modules.




8         THIN FILM TECHNOLOGIES
This Integrated Project, which consists of the six    exchange and flow of know-how in both direc-
interlinked sub-projects visualised above, covers     tions. All sub-projects are embedded in a man-
the area of fundamental research, technological       agement unit. The management controls the
development and production issues relating to         compliance with the objectives, which are
the most relevant photovoltaic thin film tech-        defined in milestones and deliverables. It will
nologies. For the first time, the research on these   also coordinate all reporting required, provide
technologies will be carried out within a joint       legal assistance and moderate all negotiations
scientific framework. Close cooperation of the        between project partners concerning relevant
research teams in the horizontal and vertical         commercial and scientific results. The six sub-
projects, in combination with common workshops        projects contain 23 work packages altogether.
and panel discussions, will guarantee a continuous




Table 1: IP sub-projects and work packages

Sub-project (SP)                  SP leader   Work packages
                                              WP1   CIGS on flexible substrates and for tandem solar cells
I. High Efficiency Solar Cells    FZJ         WP2   Advanced multi-junction Si thin film solar cells
                                              WP3   High-efficiency poly-Si solar cells
                                              WP4   Isolated substrates
                                              WP5   Contact technologies
II. Thin Film Module Technology   ECN
                                              WP6   Encapsulation
                                              WP7   Serial interconnection and demonstration
                                              WP8   Process-related absorber surface modification,
                                                    wet-chemical or dry interface engineering
III. Chalcopyrite Specific                    WP9 Buffer layer deposition by CBD technique
                                  Shell
     Heterojunctions                          WP10 Buffer layer deposition by spray techniques
                                              WP11 Buffer layer deposition by sputter technique
                                              WP12 Low-cost reactive TCO sputtering from rotatable target
                                              WP13 Large-area optics
                                              WP14 Process studies and plasma diagnostics
IV. Thin Film Modules on glass    UniNE       WP15 Inline deposition of silicon
                                              WP16 Batch deposition of silicon
                                              WP 17 Module characterisation
                                              WP18 Advanced electrical and optical modelling
V. Analysis and Modelling                           of thin film solar cells
                                  UGENT
   of Devices and Technology                  WP19 Materials and device analysis
                                                    (structural, optical and electrical)
                                              WP20 Sustainability assessment
VI. Sustainability,               UNN-              of new developments in ATHLET
    Training and Mobility         NPAC        WP21 Thin film implementation scenarios
                                              WP22 Mobility and training
Management                        HMI         WP23 Consortium management




                                                                                                             9
ATHLET

         Advanced Thin Film Technologies
         for Cost Effective Photovoltaics

                                  Expected Results
                                  The state-of-the-art for advanced thin film PV
                                  technology and the enhancement within the
                                  proposed project is summarised in Table 2.




                                  Table 2: Expected enhancement of the state-of-the-art

                                  Technology        State-of-the-art      Substrate, process              Planned enhancement in IP
                                                                          (efficiencies)                  (for Europe)
                                                                                 Lab cells
                                  a-Si/µc-Si        12% (Kaneka)          On glass, PE-CVD                14%
                                                    11% (UniNE, FZJ)
                                  Poly Si           9% (Sanyo)            On metal substrate, SPC         15% on foreign substrates
                                  CIGS low gap      19.2 % (NREL)         On glass, co-evaporation
                                                    16-17% (NREL)         On metal foil, co-evaporation   18% on metal foil
                                                                                                          9% on polyimide foil
                                  CIGS wide gap     12-13% (HMI)          On glass, sputtering, PVD       13-14%, advanced equipment.
                                                                                                          10% @ 60% IR transparency
                                                                                                          for tandem applications
                                  CIGS tandem       7% (HMI)            On glass, co-evaporation          15%
                                                                     Prototypes, pilot production
                                  a-Si/µc-Si        10% (Kaneka, FZJ) On glass 30x30 cm2 (FZJ)            Equipment for cost-effective
                                                                        On glass 3738 cm2 (Kaneka)        production of 10% modules
                                                                                                          (1 m2 @ costs towards € 0.5/Wp)
                                  CIGS wide gap     10% (Sulfurcell)      On glass 5x5 cm2, sputtering,   10% on 125x65 cm2
                                                                          PVD
                                                                          Commercial product
                                  a-Si              6-7% (Unisolar,       On glass, PE-CVD
                                                    SCHOTT, Kaneka,...)
                                  CIGS low gap      10% (Shell, Würth)    On glass, co-evaporation        11-12%, cost-effectiveness,
                                                                                                          environmentally sound




10       THIN FILM TECHNOLOGIES
                                                                                                         Project Information
                                                                                                         Contract number
                                                                                                         19670

                                                                                                         Duration
                                                                                                         48 months

                                                                                                         Contact person
                                                                                                         Prof. Dr. Martha Ch. Lux-Steiner
                                                                                                         Hahn-Meitner-Institut GmbH
                                                                                                         Lux-Steiner@hmi.de

                                                                                                         List of partners
                                                                                                         Applied Films GmbH & Co. KG – DE
                                                                                                         CIEMAT – ES
                                                                                                         CNRS (ENSCP) – FR
                                                  • Reinforcing competitiveness of small and
                                                                                                         ECN – NL
                                                    medium-size enterprises (SME): the technology
                                                                                                         Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH – DE
                                                    transfer of new solar cell technologies from         Free University of Berlin – DE
                                                    the lab to industry will help to reinforce           Fyzikalni ustav Akademie
                                                    competitiveness of small and medium-size             ved Ceske republiky – CZ
                                                    enterprises (Solarion, Sulfurcell). It can be        Hahn-Meitner Institut GmbH – DE
                                                    assumed that results from this project will          Inter-university
                                                    inspire the foundation of new companies.             Micro-electronics Centre – BE
                                                                                                         Institut für Zukunftsstudien und
                                                  • Innovation-related activities, exploitation and      Technologiebewertung GmbH – DE
                                                    dissemination plans: international consolidated      Saint-Gobain Recherche – FR
                                                    solar cell producers, like Shell Solar and           Schott Solar GmbH – DE
                                                    SCHOTT Solar, are an integral part of the project.   Shell Solar GmbH – DE
                                                    They co-operate closely with the R&D partners.       Solarion GmbH – DE
                                                    The industries will exploit the results generated    Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH – DE
                                                    within the project. Dissemination of the R&D         Swiss Federal Institute
                                                    results will occur internally and externally.        of Technology Zürich – CH
                                                                                                         Unaxis Balzers AG – LI
Other expected results are:                        • Added value of the work at EU level: this           University of Gent – BE
                                                     project aims at decreasing the cost of PV           University of Ljubljana – SI
• Strategic impact: reinforcing competitiveness                                                          University of Neuchâtel – CH
                                                     electricity to competitive levels by focusing
  and solving societal problems: the aim is to                                                           University of Northumbria at Newcastle – GB
                                                     on new and improved thin film technologies
  improve the cost-effectiveness of thin film                                                            University of Patras – GR
                                                     and materials.
  PV modules to substantially increase their                                                             ZSW – DE
  contribution to the sustainable energies supply.
  Europe, Japan and the US contribute the                                                                Website
  largest share of PV production worldwide.                                                              www.hmi.de/projects/athlet/
  Europe was on a level with Japan in 1997.                                                              Project officer
  During 2002 Japan was already responsible                                                              David Anderson
  for almost 50% of global PV production.
                                                                                                         Status
                                                                                                         ongoing




                                                                                                                                                11
BIPV-CIS

           Expanding the Potential for the Integration
           of Photovoltaic Systems into Existing Buildings

 OBJECTIVES                              Challenges                                            Project Structure
                                         In most cases, the integration of PV systems          The project consortium consists of seven indus-
Building integration of PV (BIPV)        gives a building a ’high tech’ modern appearance,     trial partners, two research institutes and three
often leads to a ’high-tech’ and         since most conventional PV modules have a typical     universities. The project comprises a very broad
                                         window-like surface. Considering, however, that       approach to the building integration of CIS
modern appearance of buildings,
                                         90% of the building stock is older than 10 years      modules since two proposals were merged
caused by the typical window-like
                                         and therefore has a more or less ‘old-fashioned’      together by the European Commission. The fol-
surface of most conventional             appearance, it is evident that aesthetic building     lowing topics are now being developed and
PV modules. In many PV systems           integration of PV calls for a lot of willingness      investigated within the project:
integrated into existing buildings,      from planners and creativity from architects.
                                                                                               • The integration of PV into the ventilated
the modules do not harmonise with        Many PV systems integrated into existing buildings
                                                                                                 building skin
                                         do not harmonise with the building and its sur-
the surroundings.
                                         roundings, indicating a potential for conflict with   • The integration of PV into the insulated
                                         urban planners. We therefore pay special attention      building skin
The objectives of this project are       to architectural and aesthetic questions. Another
                                                                                               • Roof integration with CIS roof tiles.
to identify the potential and needs      key fact is that the market for refurbishing and
for improved BIPV components and         modernising old buildings is much larger than         Furthermore, we are investigating aesthetic,
systems, as a basis for developing       the market for new buildings. Therefore, there are    technological and legal aspects of integrating
                                         not only aesthetic but also important economic        PV into existing buildings, as well as developing
modules without a glass/window-like
                                         grounds for accessing this market.                    module components.
appearance, to develop and investigate
façade elements and overhead glazing,                                                          As a basis for the work mentioned above, studies
                                                                                               were conducted into European building regulations
both for the ventilated and the
                                                                                               that strongly influence the construction and
insulated building skin based on
                                                                                               dimensioning of the modules and often forbid the
CIS thin-film technology, to develop                                                           use of what are known as standard PV modules in
PV roof tiles which have a modified                                                            building integration. Also European surveys on
optical appearance for better                                                                  roofing elements and on mullion/transom
adaptation to the building skin,                                                               constructions were conducted. A market study
                                                                                               provided information about market needs.
to fabricate and test prototypes
according to relevant standards and                                                            Cost-optimised junction boxes which are especially
carry out subsequent performance                                                               suited for thin film modules are being developed in
                                                                                               the project. A solution for the invisible connection
tests, and to develop electrical
                                                                                               of modules integrated in the insulated building
interconnection components suitable
                                                                                               skin will also be developed. The prototypes will be
for thin-film modules.                                                                         tested in accordance with the relevant standards.




12         THIN FILM TECHNOLOGIES
                                                                                                             Project Information
                                                                                                             Contract number
                                                                                                             503777

                                                                                                             Duration
                                                                                                             48 months

                                                                                                             Contact person
                                                                                                             Dieter Geyer
                                                                                                             Zentrum für Solarenergie und
                                                                                                             Wasserstoffforschung Baden-Württemberg
                                                                                                             dieter.geyer@zsw-bw.de

                                                                                                             List of partners
Expected Results                                      Progress to Date                                       Dresden University of Technology – DE
                                                                                                             JRC – IT
The main goal of the project is to improve the
                                                                                                             Ove Arup & Partners Ltd – GB
acceptance of PV in architectural environments.       PV in façades                                          Permasteelisa Group – IT
For that purpose, the results of this project as                                                             Saint Gobain Recherche – FR
                                                      Prototypes of CIS modules with modified optical
regards modification of module appearance will                                                               Shell Solar GmbH – DE
                                                      appearance on both front and rear sides, for
be exploited by the CIS producing partners. The                                                              Swiss Sustainable Systems – CH
                                                      improved integration into surroundings, were
junction box for thin film modules to be developed                                                           Tyco Electronics AMP – GB
                                                      developed and characterised.
in the project, as well as innovative edge con-                                                              Warsaw University of Technology – PL
nectors, will be used by the partners in their                                                               Wroclaw University of Technology – PL
module production line: they will also be available   PV in overhead glazing                                 Würth Solar – DE
for the entire thin film module industry.                                                                    ZSW – DE
                                                      A prototype of novel overhead glazing includes
                                                      semi-transparent CIS modules optimised for             Website
                                                      daylight transmission.                                 www.bipv-cis.info

                                                                                                             Project officer
                                                      Interconnection                                        Georges Deschamps

                                                      Prototypes of a small junction box especially          Status
                                                      suited for thin-film modules were developed.           ongoing
                                                      Limiting the by-pass diodes to only one per box
                                                      allows a reduction in both size and cost. It is also
                                                      possible to use the box for parallel inter-
                                                      connection of the modules.


                                                      PV and architects
                                                      A workshop on the architectural fundamentals
                                                      of BIPV was held at the Glasstec fair in
                                                      Düsseldorf on 9 November 2004.


                                                      Building regulations
                                                      European surveys were conducted on building
                                                      regulations concerning PV building integration,
                                                      on architectural glass, on mullion/transom con-
                                                      structions, and on roofing materials suited for PV.




                                                                                                                                                     13
FLEXCELL E N C E

                   Roll-to-roll Technology for the Production
                   of High-efficiency, Low-cost, and Flexible
                   Thin Film Silicon Photovoltaic Modules
 OBJECTIVES                                 Challenges                                           Expected results
                                            The technical challenges of the project are, on      All aspects necessary for a successful implemen-
The Flexcellence project aims at            the one hand, to allow the module manufacturers      tation of this novel production technology are
developing the equipment and the            to implement new equipment and processes in          considered simultaneously.
                                            their production lines and, on the other hand, to
processes for cost-effective                                                                     In order to achieve high efficiency µc-Si:H/a-Si:H
                                            give the equipment manufacturers the possibility
roll-to-roll production                                                                          tandem devices, effective light-trapping
                                            of constructing and selling equipment for complete
of high-efficiency thin film modules,                                                            schemes are implemented on flexible substrates
                                            production lines producing unbreakable modules
                                                                                                 and high-efficiency solar cells and modules are
involving microcrystalline (µc-Si:H)        at unbeatable cost.
                                                                                                 developed on these new surfaces. Laboratory-
and amorphous silicon (a-Si:H).
                                            Consequently, all the commercially exploitable       scale solar cells and mini-modules (10*10 cm2)
                                            results of the project are foreseen as being used    with 11% and 10% efficiency respectively are to
In particular its objectives are:           directly by the companies involved in Flexcellence:  be fabricated in order to demonstrate that tandem
to achieve a final blueprint planning       VHF-Technologies is to set up an advanced pilot      junction µc-Si:H/a-Si:H can compete with current
of a complete production line for thin      production line for 2 MW annual capacity by          technologies for electricity output par square meter.
                                            end-2006, and R&R and Exitech are expected to
film silicon photovoltaic modules with                                                            The deposition rates of the intrinsic micro-
                                            be able to offer standardised roll-to-roll deposition
production costs lower than € 0.5/Wp;                                                             crystalline silicon (µc-Si:H) layers need to be
                                            systems and laser scribing processes by the end
to design and test the equipment                                                                  increased from typically 0.1nm/s to 2nm/s: three
                                            of the project.
                                                                                                  of the most promising techniques for high rate
necessary for the realisation
                                            The scientific challenges of the project are to deposition are being investigated: Very High
of such lines; to demonstrate
                                            master the different interfaces in multi-layer Frequency Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour
the high-throughput manufacturing           devices, to develop effective light-trapping Deposition VHF-PECVD, Hot Wire Chemical
technique for intrinsic µc-Si:H layer       schemes for n-i-p cells on flexible substrates, and Vapour Deposition HWCVD and Microwave
(equivalent to static deposition rate       to understand the interaction between the depo- Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition
higher than 2nm/s); and finally             sition conditions (for different kind of deposition MW-PECVD. A benchmarking of the different
                                            techniques) and device properties.                    deposition techniques will take place and will
to show that the technology
                                                                                                  indicate which method emerges as the most
developed in the project is suitable
                                                                                                  cost-effective and could be implemented in the
for the preparation of flexible             Project structure
                                                                                                  different pilot production lines of the partners.
µc-Si:H/a-Si:H tandem cells and             The project is divided into eight work packages
                                                                                                  In parallel system aspects, going from the cells to
modules which satisfy the strictest         (WP) with a minimum of three participants in
                                                                                                  the modules, is being studied. The critical aspect
reliability tests and guarantee             each. The composition of the WP should ensure
                                                                                                  of monolithic cell integration with minimum
                                            a maximum cross-fertilisation and exchange of
long-term outdoor stability.                                                                      electrical and optical losses will be solved by
                                            the scientific and technological know-how. The
                                                                                                  using scribing/screen-printing techniques and new
                                            seven R&D work packages are organised in a logical
                                                                                                  concepts for more cost-effective encapsulation
                                            way, starting from substrate preparation (WP 2), to
                                                                                                  materials and processes will be investigated.
                                            cells with increased complexity (WP 3-5), to the
                                            monolithic interconnection issue (WP 6). Then, All the innovative results, hardware develop-
                                            the complete modules including packaging are ments, concepts and designs developed in the
                                            tested (WP 7) and finally, detailed cost assessments project will lead to new systems (substrate
                                            for multi-megawatt roll-to-roll production lines preparation/deposition reactor/laser scriber/
                                            are given in WP 8.                                    screen-printer) that will be integrated directly
                                                                                                  into the pilot production lines. They will also be
                                            The exploitation panel is formed of representatives
                                                                                                  used for the final blueprint of multi-megawatt
                                            of the industries in order to optimise the
                                                                                                  production lines that can achieve the production
                                            exploitation strategy of the project.
                                                                                                  of modules with production costs of less than
                                                                                                  € 0.5/Wp.




14                 THIN FILM TECHNOLOGIES
                                                                                                           Project Information
                                                                                                           Contract number
                                                                                                           019948

                                                                                                           Duration
                                                                                                           36 months

                                                                                                           Contact persons
                                                                                                           Prof. C. Ballif / Dr. V. Terrazzoni
                                                                                                           University of Neuchâtel
                                                                                                           Vanessa.Terrazzoni@unine.ch

                                                                                                           List of partners
                                                                                                           ECN – NL
Progress to date                                                                                           Exitech – GB
                                                                                                           Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-FEP) – DE
As regards the high-quality and cost-effective        Finally, VHF-Technologies has conducted a cost
                                                                                                           Roth und Rau – DE
substrates, a first generation of metal foils with    simulation for 1 Mio m2 per year capacity plants
                                                                                                           University of Barcelona – ES
insulating layers and plastic webs with nano-         for different type of cell technologies on polymer   University of Ljubljana – SI
textured surfaces has been developed. High-           substrates. Preliminary results show that:           University of Neuchâtel – CH
quality reflectors have already been obtained on                                                           VHF- Technologies – CH
                                                      • The standard EVA/ETFE encapsulation materials
PET and PEN (Fig 1(b)). The first devices deposited
                                                        dominate the bill for single and tandem cells.     Website
on these substrates coated by FEP have reached
efficiencies higher than 7% and 8% for a-Si:H         • The production costs could be reduced to less      www.unine.ch/flex
and µc-Si:H cells respectively (laboratory scale).      than € 0.8/Wpeak for 5% efficiency a-Si:H          Project officer
Single junction a-Si:H modules (surface area:           modules.                                           David Anderson
30*60cm2) with stable efficiency higher than 4%
                                                      • The preliminary estimation for µc-Si:H/a-Si:H
have been obtained on flat substrates on the                                                               Status
                                                        tandem cells (10% efficiency) leads to pro-        ongoing
pilot production line at VHF-Technologies.
                                                        duction cost lower than € 0.6/Wpeak.
With respect to the high-throughput manufac-
turing technique, ECN and R&R are commissioning
a roll-to-roll MW-PECVD deposition system and
the UBA is designing a new laboratory scale
HW-CVD reactor. On its side, UniNE has already
demonstrated the possibility of depositing
device-quality intrinsic µc-Si:H layers at 1.7nm/s
on 35*45 cm2 substrate area.
For the series connection, two priorities are
currently addressed by EXI and VHF: the melting
induced by the laser scribing at the edge of the
laser line, which must be minimised, and the
removal of the ITO layer on top of the silicon
that must be further developed. On its side, the
UL-FEE succeeded in developing a 2D electrical
model which already provides information on
suitable designs for the metallic contact on VHF-
Technologies’ modules.




                                                                                                                                                    15
LARCIS

         Large-area CIS-based Thin-film Solar
         Modules for Highly Productive Manufacturing

OBJECTIVES                                Challenges                                             Project Structure
                                          The parallel development objectives of increasing      The consortium, 10 partners from five countries,
The overall objective of the project      the production yield and efficiencies on large areas   consists of four independent industrial firms,
is to develop advanced manufacturing      and, at the same time, reducing manufacturing          three research institutions and three universities.
                                          costs and material costs are not self-evident.         Three firms are CIS module producers in the
technologies for CIS thin film solar
                                          However, these production-relevant criteria are        starting phase or already in an advanced state.
modules both for the electrodeposition
                                          not independent of each other. Some challenges         The fourth company is a leading European glass
and coevaporation approach.               to be overcome in this context are:                    manufacturer equipped to provide back-contact-
The project will improve the                                                                     coated substrates on a production level for the
                                          • CIS coevaporation approach on an area of
manufacturing techniques for low-cost,                                                           CIS module plants. The research institutes and
                                            60 x 120 cm2: to reduce absorber thickness (i.e.
stable and efficient CIS thin film                                                               universities offer expertise in the different and
                                            materials consumption) but also to increase
                                                                                                 complementary approaches to the development
large-area solar modules.                   large-area efficiencies above 13% at the
                                                                                                 of high-quality and low-cost CIS modules and
                                            same time; to demonstrate high efficiencies on
                                                                                                 will enable the industrial companies to reach
This includes work on the molybdenum        large area by 3-stage in-line CIS coevaporation.
                                                                                                 their ambitious goals.
back contact, the buffer layer,           • CIS electrodeposition approach: to demonstrate
                                                                                                 The project work is distributed between seven
the CIS absorber, and the quality           homogeneous large-area CIS deposition
                                                                                                 work packages (WPs) which are generally fur-
and process control. Special emphasis       providing modules with efficiencies > 10% at
                                                                                                 ther split into sub-WPs (see Figure 1). Two main
                                            high production yield; precise know-how
is placed on the development of                                                                  approaches are investigated, aiming at the cost
                                            about the hydrodynamic flux of the reactant is
cadmium-free large-area modules                                                                  effective development of:
                                            necessary to obtain high lateral homogeneities
and of electrodeposition methods            on large areas.                                      • Large-area modules based on coevaporated
for CIS absorbers. The project will                                                                Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers (60 x 120 cm2)
                                          • To implement a Cd-free buffer for large-area
provide a framework for the
                                            application on coevaporated and electro- • Large-area modules based on electrodeposited
knowledge, know-how and                     deposited absorbers, resulting in at least the    Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorbers (30 x 30 cm2).
cross- fertilisation between the groups     same module efficiencies, yield and production
                                                                                           Common targets are high production yields and
and technologies involved in the            costs as for those with CdS buffer.
                                                                                           high efficiencies at reduced costs. The WPs such
project, i.e. between coevaporation       • To find appropriate in situ and ex situ CIS as contact layers, buffer, quality/process control
and electrodeposition.                      growth control methods to be implemented and technological/economic assessment provide
                                            in a production line for both electrodeposited results and tools which support both absorber
                                            and coevaporated modules.                      approaches.




                                                                                                 Figure 1: Work packages




16        THIN FILM TECHNOLOGIES
                                                                                                 Project Information
                                                                                                 Contract number
                                                                                                 019757

                                                                                                 Duration
                                                                                                 48 months

                                                                                                 Contact person
                                                                                                 Dr. Michael Powalla
                                                                                                 Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-
                                                                                                 und Wasserstoff-Forschung
                                                                                                 Baden Württemberg
                                                                                                 michael.powalla@zsw-bw.de
Expected Results                                                                                 List of Partners
                                                                                                 CNRS – FR
Overall result should be to leverage the
                                                                                                 Electricité de France – FR
European CIS technologies and to improve their
                                                                                                 Hahn-Meitner Institut – DE
competitiveness, both in relation to established                                                 Saint Gobain Recherche – FR
PV technologies and to international markets.                                                    Solibro – SE
The cooperation and cross-fertilisation of different                                             University of Barcelona – ES
institutes, firms and approaches are expected to                                                 University of Uppsala – SE
result in:                                                                                       Würth Solar – DE
                                                                                                 ZSW – DE
• Large-area modules manufactured by                                                             Zürich University of Technology – CH
  coevaporation and applying cost-effective
  methods with efficiencies > 13.5% on 0.7 m2.                                                   Website
                                                                                                 to be defined
• The development of cadmium-free buffer
  layers for modules on an area of up to 0.7 m2                                                  Project officer
  with an efficiency > 12%.                                                                      Georges Deschamps

• The development of electrodeposited low-                                                       Status
  cost CIS modules with efficiency > 10% on                                                      ongoing
  0.1 m2 (estimated cost < 0.8 €/Wp).
It is expected that basic investigations at universities
and R&D institutes on, for example, stabilisation of
the back contact, in situ and ex situ CIS process Figure 2: Façade integration of CIS modules:
control, substitution of the CdS buffer by an the ‘Schapfenmühle’ tower in Ulm (Germany) with
environmentally harmless and physically superior 1400 frameless CIS modules of 60 x 120 cm .
                                                                                          2


alternative, will be successfully transferred to
production-relevant areas. Thus any result
achieved can be directly exploited within the
consortium.


Progress to Date
All activities and work packages are within the
time schedule. Very promising results have already
been achieved with a novel chemical-bath-
deposited Zn(S,O) buffer layer resulting in at least
the same efficiencies as achieved by standard
CdS buffers. Best cell efficiencies with this novel
buffer on inline-deposited CIS exceed 15%.
Within the first months of the project, four
additional bilateral meetings were held between
UB-EME and EDF/CNRS and between ZSW and
CNRS/EDF in order to organise the cooperation
in detail.




                                                                                                                                        17
SE-POWERFOIL

               Development of Roll-to-roll Manufacturing
               Technology for Production of High-efficiency
               Flexible Photovoltaic Modules
 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges                                            Project Structure
                                           Solar energy is the ultimate future energy            At the beginning of the project, a small work
SE-PowerFoil focuses on high-efficiency    source. It is a clean and sustainable source of       package WP 1 is devoted to detailing the specifi
flexible thin film silicon PV modules,     energy that can provide a significant share of        cations of the high-performance flexible
                                           our energy needs and greenhouse gas emission          PV modules and underlying systems. In WP 2 the
produced in a roll-to-roll process on
                                           reductions. At present, solar energy is much          full efficiency potential of flexible thin film silicon
metal foil. The scientific and technical
                                           more expensive than conventional energy.              PV modules is explored on a lab scale: the chal-
objectives are to achieve high                                                                   lenge in this WP is to assemble all individually opti-
                                           SE-Powerfoil aims at the development of roll-to-
efficiency 12% thin film silicon                                                                 mised building blocks of a micromorph device
                                           roll manufacturing technology for production of
laboratory devices, the development                                                              and drive their cooperative performance in an
                                           high-efficiency flexible photovoltaic (PV) modules.
of 10% tandem or triple- junction                                                                actual flexible module to a world class level of
                                           These photovoltaic modules allow for easy
                                                                                                 12% stable efficiency. The basic approach will be
large-area pilot line modules,             integration and installation leading to low-cost
                                                                                                 to pursue parallel research on the individual
and a high rate (1-3 nm/s) industrial      PV systems. This is essential to create mature
                                                                                                 building blocks and systematically measure
plasma deposition technology for           subsidy-independent markets for solar electricity,
                                                                                                 progress by integration into complete flexible
                                           cost-competitive with conventional electricity
high-performance microcrystalline                                                                micromorph modules.
                                           sources. The target is to develop 12% efficient PV
silicon layer deposition.
                                           modules, with more than 20 years’ outdoor lifetime WP 3 deals with the production cost of flexible
                                           and manufacturing costs below € 0.5/Wp.               thin film PV modules. Focus will be on the crucial
The innovative deposition technology                                                             production steps of the applied roll-to-roll proces-
                                           Flexible PV laminates will allow versatile use in
in the pilot line for novel transparent                                                          sing technologies. This includes the development of
                                           growth markets with € billion-size economic
conductive oxide (TCO) in                                                                        large-scale, reliable and fast homogeneous
                                           potential:
                                                                                                 deposition technologies for the high-performance
a high-throughput thermal CVD
                                           • Large power markets in which the PV laminates transparent conductive oxide (TCO) window
deposition process will be tested, and
                                               will substantially contribute to European layer and for the active silicon layer. In WP 4,
a prototype flexible module installed          objectives to establish a future dent electricity pilot line PV flexible thin film Si PV modules will
in representative outdoor monitoring           supply system and to strengthen the be manufactured, with an efficiency of 10%, based
stations for lifetime monitoring,              European industry and export position.            on existing know-how and the (preliminary)
demonstrating less than 2%                                                                       results of the WPs 2 and 3. At the start of the
                                           • Mass markets where flexible solar cell laminates
                                                                                                 project as well as at mid-term, PV modules from
performance decrease per year and              provide cost-efficient lightweight portable
                                                                                                 the pilot line will be exposed to outdoor climate
improved yield compared to existing            power, including, for example, personal
                                                                                                 conditions for true power output monitoring.
PV technologies. A full economic               electronics, ICT, security, leisure, medical,
                                                                                                 This work package also deals with an accelerated
                                               military and affordable power for electrifi-
assessment of €/kWh potential                                                                    lifetime assessment in accordance with to IEC
                                               cation in rural and remote regions.
of project results will be included.                                                             standard 61646.




18             THIN FILM TECHNOLOGIES
                                                                                                       Project Information
                                                                                                       Contract number
                                                                                                       038885

                                                                                                       Duration
                                                                                                       36 months

                                                                                                       Contact person
                                                                                                       Dr. R. Schlatmann
                                                                                                       Helianthos
                                                                                                       Rutger.Schlatmann@akzonobel-chemicals.com

                                                                                                       List of partners
                                                                                                       CNRS – FR
                                                         Expected Results                              CVD Technologies Ltd – GB
                                                                                                       Forschungszentrum Jülich – DE
Combination of the results of WP 2 (efficiency), • Highly efficient lab-scale PV module devices
                                                                                                       Helianthos b.v. – NL
WP 3 (crucial elements of production cost) and
                                                  • Processing technologies for the TCO, silicon       Institute of Physics, Academy of Science
WP 4 (pilot line manufacturability, monitored                                                          of the Czech Republic, Prague – CZ
                                                    and back contact layers
output and accelerated lifetime) will allow for a                                                      Uniresearch b.v. – NL
realistic overall economic assessment of flexible • L x 30 cm2 modules with 10% efficiency and         University of Salford – GB
thin film Si PV modules produced in a full          20 years’ lifetime.                                University of Utrecht – NL
production plant.
                                                                                                       Website
                                                                                                       www.se-powerfoil.project.eu

                                                                                                       Project officer
                                                                                                       David Anderson

                                                                                                       Status
                                                                                                       ongoing

           Detailing (WP 1)         Project potential         Objectives and assessment criteria


           Efficiency               Device potential          Light management
                                                              Transparent conductive oxide
                                                              Top cell
                        12%                                   Bottom cell
                                                              Tandem
           = Work package 2                                   Triple

           Production costs         Manufacturing potential   Roll to roll manufacturing technique
                                                              Automated and continuous process
                                                              Fast deposition techniques
                        < 05 €/Wp                             Low costs metal subtrates

           = Work package 3

           Lifetime                 Economic potential        Pilot line module manufacturing
                                                              Stability and climate tests (IEC 1646)
                                                              Outdoor monotoring
                        > 20 year                             Economic evaluation

           = Work package 4

           Project management       Business potential        Planning monitoring and control
                                                              Explotation and IPR management
           = Work package 5                                   Dissemination




                                                                                                                                                  19
FULLSPECTRUM

               Towards the Production
               of Cost-competitive Photovoltaic Solar Energy
               by Making the Most of the Solar Spectrum
 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges                                                Project Structure
                                           Solar radiation is a diluted energy source: only          The Project is coordinated by Prof. Antonio
FULLSPECTRUM is a project whose            approximately 1000 Joules of energy per second            Luque (Instituto de Energía Solar) assisted by
primary objective is to make use           per square meter are accessible. It is clear to us        Projektgesellschaft Solare Energiesysteme GmbH
                                           that strategies to reach the ultimate goal of a           (PSE). The Consortium involves 19 research insti-
of the full solar spectrum to produce
                                           module cost of € 1/Wp will necessarily have to            tutions listed at the end of this text.
electricity. The need for this research
                                           go through the development of concepts capable            As mentioned, to make better use of the afore-
is easily understood, for example, from    of extracting the most of every single photon             mentioned solar spectrum, the project is structured
the fact that present commercial solar     available. In this respect, each of the five activities   along five research development and innovation
cells used for terrestrial applications    envisaged in this project to achieve the general          activities:
are based on single-gap semiconductor      goal has to confront its own challenges.
                                                                                                • Multi-junction solar cells. This activity is led by
solar cells. These cells can by            The multi-junction activity pursues the develop-       FhG-ISE with the participation of RWE-SSP,
no means make use of the energy            ment of solar cells that approach 40% efficiency.      IES-UPM, IOFFE, CEA-DTEN and PUM.
of below band-gap energy photons           To achieve this, it faces the challenge of finding
                                                                                                • Thermophotovoltaic converters. Headed by
                                           materials with a good compromise between lat-
since these simply cannot be absorbed                                                             IOFFE and CEA-DTEN. IES-UPM and PSI are
                                           tice matching and band-gap energy. The
by the material.                                                                                  also participating in this development.
                                           thermophotovoltaic activity bases part of its
                                           success on finding suitable emitters that can • Intermediate-band solar cells. This activity is
The achievement of this general            operate at high temperatures and/or adapt their        led by IES-UPM. The other partners directly
objective is pursued through five          emission spectra to the cell’s gap. The other part     involved are UG, ICP-CSIC and UCY.
strategies: the development of high        relies on the successful recycling of photons so
                                                                                                • Molecular based concepts. This activity is led by
                                           that those that cannot be used effectively by the
efficiency multi-junction solar cells                                                             ECN. The other groups involved are FhG-IAP,
                                           solar cells can return to the emitter to assist in
based on III-V compounds;                                                                         ICSTM, UU-Sch and Solaronix.
                                           keeping it hot.
the development of thermophotovoltaic                                                           • Manufacturing techniques and pre-normative
                                           The intermediate-band solar cell approach
converters; research into                                                                         research. This activity is led by ISOFOTON. IES-
                                           addresses the challenge of proving a principle of
intermediate-band solar cells;                                                                    UPM, INSPIRA and JRC are also involved.
                                           operation which would see a significant
the search for molecules and dyes          improvement in the performance of the cells. In addition, every two years, the project sponsors
capable of undergoing two photon           The activity devoted to the search for new molecules a public seminar on its results and provides
processes; and the development             engenders the challenge of identifying molecules grants to students worldwide to enable them to
of manufacturing techniques suitable       capable of undergoing two-photon processes: attend the seminar as part of dissemination
                                           that is molecules that can absorb two low-energy activities. Formal announcements are made on
for industrialising the most promising
                                           photons to produced a high-energy excited the FULLSPECTRUM webpage.
concepts.
                                           state or, for example, dyes that can absorb one
                                           high-energy photon and re-emit its energy in
                                           the form of two photons of lower energy.
                                           Among all of the above concepts, the multi-
                                           junction approach appears to be the most readily
                                           available for commercialisation. For that, the
                                           activity devoted specifically to speeding up its
                                           path to market is the development of trackers,
                                           optics and manufacturing techniques that can
                                           integrate these cells into commercial concentrator
                                           systems.




20             NEW AND EMERGING CONCEPTS
                                                          Expected Results
                                                          The multi-junction solar cell approach pursues
                                                          the better use of the solar spectrum by using
                                                          a stack of single-gap solar cells incorporated in
                                                          a concentrator system, in order to make
                                                          the approach cost-effective (Fig. 1). The project,
                                                          at its outset, aimed at cells with an efficiency
                                                          of 35%. This result has already been achieved
                                                          by FhG-ISE in the second year of the project and
                                                          the consortium now aims to achieve efficiencies
                                                          as close as possible to 40%.
                                                          In the thermophotovoltaic approach the sun heats
                                                          up, through a concentrator system, a material
                                                          called the ‘emitter’, leading to incandescence
                                                          (Fig. 2). The radiation from this emitter drives an
                                                          array of solar cells, thus producing electricity.
                                                          The advantage of this approach is that, by an
                                                          appropriate system of filters and back-reflectors,
                                                          photons with energy above and below the solar
                                                          cell band-gap can be directed back to the emitter,
                                                          helping to keep it hot by recycling the energy of
                                                          these photons that otherwise would not be con-
                                                          verted optimally by the solar cells. By the conclusion
                                                          of the project, it is expected that the system,
                                                          made up basically of the concentrator, emitter and
                                                          solar cell array can be integrated and evaluated.
                                                          The ‘intermediate-band’ approach pursues better
Figure 1: Schematic illustrating the operation            exploitation of the solar spectrum by using
of a multi-junction solar cell in a concentrator system
                                                          intermediate-band materials. These materials are
                                                          characterised by the existence of an electronic
                                                          energy band within what otherwise would be a
                                                          conventional semiconductor band-gap. According
                                                          to the principles of operation of this cell, the inter-
                                                          mediate band allows the absorption of low
                                                          band-gap energy photons and the subsequent
                                                          production of enhanced photocurrent without
                                                          voltage degradation. The project also expects to
                                                          identify as many intermediate-band material
                                                          candidates as possible, as well as demonstrate
                                                          experimentally the operating principles of the
                                                          intermediate-band solar cell by using quantum
                                                          dot solar cells as workbenches.




Fig. 2. Emitter heated up by the sun through
a concentrator system.




                                                                                                                    21
FULLSPECTRUM

               Towards the Production
               of Cost-Competitive Photovoltaic Solar Energy
               by Making the Most of the Solar Spectrum
                                                                                                    Progress to date
                                           As mentioned under the ‘molecular based concepts’        As far as multi-junction activity is concerned,
                                           heading, it is expected to find dyes and molecules       monolithically stacked triple-junction solar cells
                                           capable of undergoing two-photon processes.              (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge), with an efficiency exceeding
                                           Dyes - or quantum dots - suitable for incorporation      35% at a concentration of 600 suns, have been
                                           into flat concentrators are also being evaluated. Flat   obtained. Because of their band-gap (1 eV),
                                           concentrators are essentially polymers that, by          (GaIn)(NAs) solar cells are being researched for
                                           incorporating these special dyes into their structure,   their possible implementation as the fourth cell
                                           are capable of absorbing high-energy photons and         in a four-junction monolithic stack, in order to
                                           re-emitting them as low-energy photons that              approach the goal of 40% efficiency. In this
                                           match the gap of the solar cells ideally. This           regard, efficiencies of 6% have been measured
                                           emitted light is trapped within the concentrator         for this cell.
                                           usually by internal reflection and, if the losses
                                                                                                    The technological processes related to the
                                           within the concentrator are small, can only
                                                                                                    mechanical stacking of thin film GaAs solar cells
                                           escape by being absorbed by the cells.
                                                                                                    onto silicon as well as the mechanical stacking
                                           Within the manufacturing activity, it is expected        of a dual-junction GaInP/GaAs cell onto a GaSb cell
                                           to clear the way towards commercialisation for           have also been experimentally studied. In this
                                           the most promising concepts. This is the case for        respect, it has been necessary to research the crystal
                                           multi-junction solar cells and, within this activity,    growth of GaSb using the Czochralski method of
                                           it is expected to develop for example trackers with      sufficient quality. As a result, a 6%-efficient GaSb
                                           the necessary accuracy to follow the sun at              solar cell has been obtained when operated
                                           1000 suns, and ‘pick and place’ assembly techniques      below a GaInP/GaAs solar cell at 300 suns.
                                           to produce concentrator modules at competitive
                                                                                                 In the thermophotovoltaic activity, GaSb solar
                                           prices, as well as draft the regulation that has to
                                                                                                 cells with 19% efficiency, for integration in a
                                           serve as the framework for the implementation
                                                                                                 thermophotovoltaic system with a tungsten
                                           of these systems.
                                                                                                 emitter, have been measured. Moreover, in con-
                                                                                                 nection with the multijunction activity, these
                                                                                                 cells show 6% efficiency when used at the back of
                                                                                                 a GaInP/GaAs dual-junction cell in a mechanical
                                                                                                 stacked multi-junction approach operated at
                                                                                                 300 suns. Two geometries (cylindrical and conical)
                                                                                                 have been analysed for the chamber that has to
                                                                                                 contain the cells. The cylindrical configuration has
                                                                                                 been found to be more suitable for final system
                                                                                                 production.
                                                                                                    Within the framework of research into the inter-
                                                                                                    mediate-band solar cell, test devices have been
                                                                                                    manufactured using quantum dots (Fig. 4). These
                                                                                                    devices have demonstrated the production of
                                                                                                    photocurrent for sub-band-gap energy photos,
                                                                                                    and experiments have been best interpreted when
                                                                                                    a quasi-Fermi level has been associated with each
                                           Figure 4: Atomic force microscope image                  band, just as the related theory has proposed.
                                           of a layer of quantum dots.                              Chalcopyrite semiconductors substituted by
                                                                                                    several transition metals have been identified
                                                                                                    recently as plausible intermediate-band materi-
                                                                                                    al candidates. These add up to the TiGa3As4 and
                                                                                                    TiGa3P4 systems previously identified and
                                                                                                    whose energetics as intermediate-band materials
                                                                                                    has been studied. The analysis has revealed that

22             NEW AND EMERGING CONCEPTS
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            502620

                                                                                                            Duration
                                                                                                            60 months

                                                                                                            Contact person
                                                                                                            Prof. Antonio Luque
                                                                                                            Polytechnical University of Madrid
                                                                                                            luque@ies-def.upm.es

                                                                                                            List of partners
                                                                                                            Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
                                                                                                            Consejo Superior
                                                                                                            de Investigaciones Cientificas – ES
the incorporation of Ti is characterised by figures
                                                                                                            ECN – NL
similar to those of Mn in GaAs, a system in which
                                                                                                            Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-ISE) – DE
such incorporation has been found experimentally                                                            Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-IAP) – DE
to be possible.                                                                                             Imperial College – GB
As regards research into new molecules and                                                                  Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute – RU
                                                                                                            Inspiria S.L. – ES
dyes for a better use of the solar spectrum, the
                                                                                                            Isofoton S.A – ES
efficiency of some solar cells has been improved
                                                                                                            JRC – IT
by the application of a polymer coating containing                                                          Paul Scherrer Institute – CH
a luminescent dye that shifts the spectrum                                                                  Philipps University of Marburg – DE
towards wavelengths that are better converted                                                               Polytechnical University of Madrid – ES
into electricity by the cells. The research on                                                              Projektgesellschaft
a dye-doped flat concentrator has increased its                                                             Solare Energiesysteme mbH – DE
efficiency from below 1% to over 1.7% through                                                               RWE Space Solar Power – DE
the application of better mirrors and dyes.             Figure 6: Computer-assisted design of an advanced   Solaronix – CH
Moreover, the use of quantum dots has also              concentrator.                                       University of Cyprus – CY
been anticipated in order to increase the photo-                                                            University of Glasgow – GB
                                                                                                            University of Utrecht – NL
generated current of a solar cell by spectrum
shifting. Optical modelling has been developed and      Thus far, results achieved comprise:                Website
has become a valuable tool in the optimisation of                                                           www.fullspectrum-eu.org
                                                        • 35.2% efficient multijunction solar cell at
the flat concentrator.
                                                          600 suns                                          Project officer
Among the concepts above, multi-junction solar                                                              Garbiñe Guiu Etxeberria
                                                        • 6% efficient (GaIn)(NAs) solar cell
cells are closest to commercialisation. In this
regard, significant progress has been made, for         • 19% GaSb solar cell in thermophotovoltaic         Status
example, in aspects related to the manufacture of         system                                            ongoing
the optics, and the development of encapsulation
                                                        • Different configurations for the thermo-
and trackers with high pointing accuracy to operate
                                                          photovoltaic systems studied
these cells in high-concentration systems. Up to
five new releases of advanced concentrators             • Quantum dot intermediate-band solar cell
(primary) have been moulded (Fig. 6), improving           test devices operational
moulding conditions in order to achieve the
                                                        • Chalcopyrite substituted by several transition
highest possible optical efficiency. More than
                                                          metals studied as IB materials
100 optical assemblies with these new releases
have been encapsulated on 1mm-2--single                 • Spectrum shift achieved using polymer coating
junction III-V-cells Off-track angle under 0.1º           with luminescent dyes
with 95% probability for several complete days
                                                        • Advanced compact concentrators
has been proven in first trials. As for the devel-
opment of a pre-regulation for the deployment of        • Trackers of increased accuracy.
concentrator systems, the consortium is partici-
pating in the preparation of the IEC TC82 WG7
regulation. Solar simulators for the characterisation
of concentration modules are also being developed.




                                                                                                                                                      23
HICON-PV

           High Concentration PV Power System



 OBJECTIVES                                 Challenges
                                            Existing and innovative solar concentrators were     under real manufacturing constraints. The proposed
The aim of this project is to develop,      evaluated for their properties in high-concen-       final configuration was not optimised for 1000x
set up and test a new                       tration photovoltaics. Plant types were identified   but rather close, so it is necessary to take into
                                            that fulfil the technical requirements of            account the optimised structural heliostat concept,
high-concentration – 1000x or more –
                                            homogenous irradiation distribution with solar       where the shape of the concentrator is no
PV system with a large-area
                                            concentration factors of 500 to 2000 suns and        longer round but rectangular. Rectangular con-
III-V-receiver. This will be achieved       cost-effective implementation perspectives. The      centrators allow us to keep the gravity centre
by integrating two technology fields:       conclusions were that Modified Spherical Dish        lower for the same aperture area. This has a
the high concentration of the sunlight      (Tailored Concentrator) configurations look          strong influence on the structural design and
will be obtained using technologies         more suitable for meeting current technology         the final cost.
                                            requirements than classical Parabolic Dish solu-
experienced in solar thermal systems
                                            tions. The results shown with this design are
like parabolic dishes or tower systems.                                                          Project Structure
                                            promising. It has been proposed to build and test
                                            a tailored concentrator for HICONPV technology       In this project, two ways will be explored in
The high-concentration photovoltaic         with this design.                                    order to reach a cost-effective solution: the use
receiver is based on the III-V solar cell                                                        of existing mature concentrators and the use of
technology. To deal with the high                                                                a new tailored concentrator. During development,
                                                                                                 the focus will be on significant cost reduction.
concentration, Monolithic Integrated
                                                                                                 Therefore, current cost-efficient concentrators
Modules (MIM) will be developed
                                                                                                 developed in the area of concentrating solar
and will be assembled as Compact                                                                 thermal power plants will be used in combination
Concentrator Modules (CCM).                                                                      with high-concentration PV. The concentrator
The CCM prototypes will be                                                                       system has to meet specifications on flux distri-
implemented at three solar test                                                                  bution and accuracy, safe operation and reliability.
                                                                                                 Taking advantage of the achievements in
installations in Cologne, Almería and
                                                                                                 concentrating solar thermal systems, this will
Israel. The tests will be evaluated and
                                                                                                 reduce system costs significantly due to mass
compared with other types of systems.                                                            production. Further cost reduction aspects of
                                            An innovative heliostat variant was evaluated
The objectives of the project are                                                                the selected concentrator system will be
                                            for its properties in high-concentration photo-
directed towards high-efficiency                                                                 addressed.
                                            voltaics, demonstrating that the proposed
concentrating photovoltaics to reach the    Torque Tube Heliostat design concept promises
system cost goal of € 1/Wp by 2015.         significant cost advantages over existing heliostat Expected Results
                                            designs. This can be achieved with a much lower
                                                                                                 The concept of this research project focuses
                                            construction height of the TTH, which reduces
                                                                                                 specially on:
                                            drastically the wind loads on the structure and
                                            the required specific drive power.                   • New monolithic integrated modules with
                                                                                                    efficiencies of 20% and above.
                                            The aim of this tailor concentrator is to prove
                                            the real possibilities of this innovative conceptual • Module design for irradiation up to 1000 suns.
                                            design, and to see the performance of the concept
                                                                                                 • Adaptation of already proven concentrators
                                                                                                    concepts that promise high quality and high
                                                                                                    reliability.




24         NEW AND EMERGING CONCEPTS
                                                                                                        Project Information
                                                                                                        Contract number
                                                                                                        502626

                                                                                                        Duration
                                                                                                        36 months

                                                                                                        Contact person
                                                                                                        Valerio Fernández Quero
                                                                                                        Solucar
                                                                                                        valerio.fernandez@solucar.abengoa.com

                                                                                                        List of partners
                                                                                                        Ben Gurion University of Negev – IL
                                                   Progress to Date                                     CIEMAT – ES
                                                                                                        DLR – DE
• High cost-reduction potential due to the use of • An advanced heliostat concept has been
                                                                                                        Electricité de France – FR
   adapted concentrators that will be produced in   developed with small low-cost ganged units: this
                                                                                                        Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG–ISE) – DE
   high numbers for solar thermal power plants.     has the potential to reduce the concentrator cost   PSE GmbH – DE
                                                    to below € 500/kW of capacity.                      RWE Space Solar Power GmbH – DE
The result will be a high-quality, high-concen-
trating PV system prototype that promises high • A spherical concentrator has been proposed             Solúcar Energía, S.A.– ES
                                                                                                        University of Malta – MT
cost-reduction potentials compared to non-          for small systems with up to 5 m of focal length.
concentrating PV. This concept is unique in the     With a central and a peripheral reflector, this     Website
world and will be an import step for the EU         will be able to provide flux profiles which         www.hiconpv.org
towards the most competitive and dynamic            seem appropriate for PV arrays. It is an on-axis-
knowledge-based economy in the world in this        design with two-axis tracking that provides         Project officer
targeted area.                                      even power levels over the whole year.              Rolf Ostrom
                                                    Drawings have been presented.                       Status
                                                   • An industrial dish concentrator design has         ongoing
                                                     been prepared. The concentrator is composed of
                                                     hexagonal spherical-curved low-cost mirror
                                                     facets. Prototype components are in preparation.
                                                   • IMs have been delivered for the prototype
                                                     modules. A prototype CCM has been fabricated
                                                     and successfully tested at the solar furnace.
                                                     Several MIM modules and CCM prototypes
                                                     have been prepared and delivered to the test
                                                     facilities. Tests have been performed at the
                                                     big-dish Petal facility at Ben Gurion
                                                     University and at the DLR solar furnace.
                                                     A test set-up has been developed for the PSA
                                                     solar furnace for solar flashing of prototype
                                                     cells by means of a mechanical shutter and a
                                                     high-speed control and data acquisition system.
                                                     CCM interconnection schemes have been
                                                     studied and the inverter design has been
                                                     optimised for the high currents and the modular
                                                     concept.




                                                                                                                                                 25
M O LY C E L L

                 Molecular Orientation, Low Band-gap
                 and New Hybrid Device Concepts for
                 the Improvement of Flexible Organic Solar Cells
 OBJECTIVES                                  Challenges                                            Project Structure
                                             To reach MOLYCELL goals, the following points The project is managed as a series of six linked
Molycell aims at demonstrating the           are addressed in parallel:                           work packages, covering a large field of research
technical feasibility of organic solar                                                            from the development of new materials to their
                                             • Design and synthesis of new materials to
                                                                                                  characterisation, the elaboration of solar cells
cells. The project has targeted two             overcome the large mismatch between the
                                                                                                  and their evaluation.
different technologies: hybrid                  absorption characteristics of currently available
organic/inorganic solar cells and bulk          polymer materials and the solar spectrum, and WP 1: Design, Synthesis and Basic Chemical
                                                also to improve the relatively slow charge Analysis of Novel Organic Hole Conductors: the
hetero-junction organic solar cells.
                                                transport properties of organic materials.        objective of reducing the band-gap of conjugated
                                                                                                  polymers to 1.8 eV in a first stage and then to 1.6 eV
                                             • Development of two device concepts to
                                                                                                  have been achieved through the development of
                                                improve efficiencies: the ‘all-organic’ solar
                                                                                                  efficient synthetic strategies. The charge carrier
                                                cells concept and the nanocrystalline metal
                                                                                                  mobilities of these polymers are in line with
                                                oxides/organic hybrid solar cells concept.
                                                                                                  expectations, and hole mobilities above 10-4 cm2/V.S
                                                                                                  have been demonstrated.
                                             All-organic solar cells
                                                                                                   WP 2: Metal Oxide Development: new low-
                                             Devices are based on donor-acceptor bulk hetero-      temperature processes for the deposition of
                                             junction built by blending two organic materials      mesoporous nanocrystalline metal oxide films
                                             serving as electron donor (hole semiconductor,        on flexible substrates have been developed for
                                             low band-gap polymers) and electron acceptor          the elaboration of solid-state nanocrystalline
                                             (n-type conductor, here soluble C60 derivative) in    metal oxide/organic hybrid solar cells. Due to
                                             the form of a homogeneous blend and sandwiching       accelerated recombination of injected electrons,
                                             the organic matrix between two electrodes. One of     the efficiencies of cells built on these films
                                             these electrodes is transparent and the other is      remain low compared to benchmark devices, and
                                             usually an opaque metal electrode. In addition        further studies should reveal the exact origin of
                                             to the incorporation of polymers with improved        this behaviour.
                                             light harvesting and charge transport properties,
                                                                                                   To overcome this difficulty, an alternative strategy
                                             two concepts are developed to improve efficiencies:
                                                                                                   based on the elaboration of cells on flexible
                                             • An innovative junction concept based on the         Ti foils has been developed, leading to an inverted
                                               orientation of polar molecules                      structure which shows highly promising initial
                                                                                                   results. Alternative methodologies for the fabri-
                                             • A multi-junction bulk donor-acceptor hetero-
                                                                                                   cation of mesoporous nanocrystalline metal
                                               junction concept.
                                                                                                   oxide films have also been studied. Among
                                                                                                   these, evaluation of mesoporous films made by
                                             Nanocrystalline metal oxides/organic                  supramolecular templating has led to promising
                                             hybrid solar cells                                    results and a novel approach has been developed
                                                                                                   in which the porous metal oxide layer is replaced
                                             Devices are based upon solid-state hetero-junctions
                                                                                                   by a blend of TiO2 nanorods with a conjugated
                                             between nanocrystalline metal oxides and
                                                                                                   polymer.
                                             molecular/polymeric hole conductors. Two
                                             strategies are addressed for light absorption: the    WP 3: Advanced Characterization and Modelling:
                                             sensitisation of the hetero-junction with molecular   a detailed understanding of the fundamental
                                             dyes, employing transparent organic hole transport    properties and behaviour of the novel materials
                                             materials and the use of polymeric hole conductors    developed in WP 1 and WP 2 is necessary to check
                                             having the additional functionality of visible        their mutual compatibility and suitability for
                                             light absorption.                                     improved solar cell energy conversion efficiency.




26               NEW AND EMERGING CONCEPTS
                                                                                                           Project Information
                                                                                                           Contract number
                                                                                                           502783

                                                                                                           Duration
                                                                                                           30 months

                                                                                                           Contact persons
                                                                                                           Stéphane Guillerez
                                                                                                           Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique
                                                                                                           Stephane.guillerez@cea.fr

                                                                                                           List of Partners
                                                                                                           Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
                                                       Expected Results                                    ECN – NL
                                                                                                           Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale
For that, quantitative models of device function The results expected at the end of the project
                                                                                                           de Lausanne – CH
have been developed and validated by a range of with one or both devices concepts are:
                                                                                                           Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-ISE) – DE
experimental data, leading to:                                                                             Imperial College – GB
                                                      • Certified 5% solar to electric energy conversion
• Identification of parameters limiting device          efficiency under Standard Test Conditions          Inter-university Microelectronic Centre – BE
    performances.                                       (AM1.5 simulated sunlight, 100 mW/cm2, 25°C)       J. Heyrovsky Institute
                                                                                                           of Physical Chemistry – CZ
                                                        for a 1 cm2 cell on glass substrate.
• Identification of specific design improvements.                                                          Johannes Kepler University of Linz – AT
                                                      • Certified 4% solar to electric energy conversion   Konarka Austria – AT
• Prediction of optimum device efficiencies                                                                Konarka Technology AG – CH
                                                        efficiency under Standard Test Conditions
    achievable with each device concept.                                                                   Siemens – DE
                                                        (AM1.5 simulated sunlight, 100 mW/cm2, 25°C)
WP 4: All-Organic Device Development: based             for a 1 cm2 cell on flexible substrate.            University of Ege – TR
                                                                                                           University of Vilnius – LT
on the donor-acceptor bulk hetero-junction
                                                      • Fabrication methodologies compatible with
concept, two innovative principles are explored                                                            Website
                                                        large-scale reel-to-reel production on flexible
in parallel and low band-gap polymers issued from                                                          http://www-molycell.cea.fr/
                                                        substrates.
WP 1 are tested. The two innovative principles
explored are one based on a junction induced by • 3000 hours of stable operation under indoor              Project Officer
the orientation of polar molecules, and one             conditions, defined in consultation with end-      Garbiñe Guiu Etxeberria
based on a multi-junction bulk donor-acceptor           users, with a roadmap for establishing the         Status
hetero-junction concept. Proofs of concept              stability required for outdoor operation.          ongoing
studies for the innovative devices are now in
                                                      • Fabrication from non-toxic materials.
progress. First two-terminal multi-junction solar
cells, in particular, were shown with near doubling Materials and fabrication costs determined
of the open-circuit voltage as compared to the to be consistent with projected production
single-junction device. A prototype device with costs < € 1/Wp.
a certified efficiency of 4% on 1 cm2 glass substrate
has been realised, and an efficiency of 3% on
10 cm2 flexible substrate has also been
demonstrated.
WP 5: Metal Oxide/Organic Hybrid Device
Development: solid-state metal oxide/organic
solar cells on glass and flexible substrates have
been developed following two distinct routes
and employing an optically transparent organic
hole conductor or an organic material that
serves the functions of both hole transport and
light absorption. Using different organic or
inorganic dyes, in combination with a transparent
molecular hole conductor, efficiencies of over
4% have been reached.
WP 6: Device Evaluation/Cost Assessment: an initial
evaluation of device processing and stability for
metal oxide/organic and all organic devices has
been carried out, leading to the identification of
critical stress factors. A definition of the speci-
fications requested for a 4% flexible solar cell (5%
on glass substrate) has also been established.




                                                                                                                                                    27
ORGAPVNET

            Coordination Action Towards Stable
            and Low-cost Organic Solar Cell Technologies
            and their Application
 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          One can observe a strongly growing R&D effort                                                           In order to have a real impact on the PV market,
The goal is the establishment of          in the domain of solar cells based on organic                                                           additional progress is needed at the level of
a common understanding for future         layers. This progress is essentially based on the                                                       efficiency, stability and application technologies
                                          introduction of nano-structured material systems                                                        to allow the exploitation of these solar cell
investments and strategies concerning
                                          to enhance the photovoltaic performance of                                                              technologies for power generation on a larger scale.
organic photovoltaics by allowing
                                          these devices. The growing interest is fuelled by                                                       The OrgaPvNet coordination action consortium
closer relations between the various      the potentially very low cost of organic solar cells,                                                   aims to foster the progress needed on these
organisations of scientific and           thanks to the low cost of the involved substrates,                                                      issues by integrating a number of leading insti-
technological cooperation in the two      the low cost of the active materials of the solar                                                       tutions in association with the main industrial
largest organic solar cell communities    cell, the low energy input for the actual solar                                                         players in this field.
                                          cell/module process and, last but not least, the
in Europe; by facilitating the transfer
                                          asset of flexibility.
of results from European research to
the European PV industry,                 In addition, the ease of up-scalability of the
                                          required application technologies lowers the
and by fostering measurement
                                          threshold for new players to enter this field.
standards and prediction of the
                                          These efforts have resulted in the creation of
performance of organic PV cells           technologies which are approaching the stage of
and modules. Other objectives are to      first industrialisation initiatives. These industrial
disseminate results to the whole          activities target in the first instance the market
sector by means of various tools such     of consumer applications where energy autonomy
                                          can be ensured by integrating these flexible
as an OrgaPvNet website and
                                          solar cells with a large variety of surfaces.
identification of technology gaps and
determination of requirements for
sustainable future growth. The result     Project Structure
will be an integrated vision in the
form of a European Organic                                                                                                1 Project Manager
                                                                       WP6                                                                                                                Auditors
Photovoltaics Technology Roadmap.                                      Network Management
                                                                                                                    Dr. Laurence Lutsen (IMEC)
                                                                                                                                  &                                                                                       European
                                                                                                                      2 Scientific Coordinators                                                                       Commission
                                                                                                                 Prof. Dr. Michael Grätzel (EPFL)                                   Reporting
                                                                                                                Prof. Dr. Serdar Sariciftci (JKU Linz)
                                                                       Project coordinator                                                                                          Dissemination
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exploitation
                                                                       IMEC



                                                                                                                                                                                                         Advisory Board
                                                                                                                     Coordination Committee                                                              EU Networks,
                                                                                                         1 Project Manager (PM), 2 Scientific Coordinators                                                Industrials,
                                                                                                           (SC) and 6 Expert Group Leaders (EG) Leaders                                                  Interest Groups




                                                    Expert   Group 1           ExpertGroup2                 ExpertGroup 3                   ExpertGroup      4       ExpertGroup 5                   ExpertGroup 6

                                                    Materials and              Cell                         Cell & Modules                  Stability &              Technology for                  Analysis of
                                                    Cell                       characteriza    -            performances                    Sealing                  large volume                    socio -
                                                    Development                tion and                                                                              production                      economical
                                                                               modelling                                                                                                             impact of OSC
                                                                                                                                                                                                     technology


                                                    Expert group               Expert group                 Expert group                    Expert group             Expert group                    Expert group
                                                    Leader                     Leader                       Leader                          Leader                   Leader                          Leader
                                                    Jef Poortmans              James Durrant                Jan Kroon                       Andreas                  Christoph                       Geert Palmers
                                                    (IMEC)                     (ICL)                        (ECN)                           Hinsch                   Brabec                          (3E)
                                                                                                                                            (FHG/ISE)                (Konarka A.)




                                                                                               17 R&D Partners from 15 different European and Associated Countries
                                                                                                     who are also National Representatives of the PV Community
                                                                                                                                  +
                                                                                                                 4 Innovative European SMEs Partners
                                                                                                                                  +
                                                                                                                           1 industrial Partner




28          NEW AND EMERGING CONCEPTS
                                                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                                                            038889

                                                                                                                                            Duration
                                                                                                                                            30 months

                                                                                                                                            Contact person
                                                                                                                                            Dr. Laurence Lutsen
                                                                                                                                            Inter-university Microelectronics Centre
                                                                                                                                            laurence.lutsen@uhasselt.be

                                                                                                                                            List of partners
                                                                                                                                            3E nv – BE
Expected Results                                                                                                                            Bar-Ilan University – IL
                                                                                                                                            CNRS – FR
We believe that a Coordination Action is an                                     OrgaPvNet will contribute to this by:
                                                                                                                                            Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
appropriate vehicle by which the isolated com-
                                                                                • The exchange of information during the                    Consiglio Nationale Ricerche Milano – IT
petences that exist around Europe in this field                                                                                             ECN – NL
                                                                                  workshops organised by the network
can be integrated, structured and organised.                                                                                                Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-ISE) – DE
In this way a powerful Organic Photovoltaic                                     • Scientific exchanges between partners by                  Greatcell Solar S.A – CH
Platform will be created that can sustain the                                     research visits by scientists and student                 Hahn-Meitner-Institute Berlin GmbH – DE
leading R&D position of Europe within this                                        grants                                                    Imperial College – GB
domain and, in the end, strengthen European                                                                                                 Institute Català d’Investigacio Quimica – ES
                                                                                • The setting-up of a web-based database con-               Inter-university Microelectronics Centre – BE
competitiveness in a sector which is of high
                                                                                  taining news, resources, project results,                 IVF Industrial R&D Corporation – SE
strategic relevance in ensuring a sustainable
                                                                                  reports, links, seminars, training courses, job           J. Heyrovsky Institute
energy supply.
                                                                                  opportunities, grants                                     of Physical Chemistry – CZ
Key actions to reach the above-mentioned                                                                                                    Konarka Technologies Austria – AT
                                                 • Elaboration of a ‘Who is Who’ guide to the
objectives are:                                                                                                                             Merck – GB
                                                   organic photovoltaic field                                                               Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale
• To promote interaction between scientists                                                                                                 de Lausanne – CH
                                                 • Elaboration of the European Organic
• To take advantage of the previous experience     Photovoltaic Roadmap: identification of                                                  Solaronix S.A – CH
                                                                                                                                            University of Ege – TR
   of research groups                              scientific priority areas and formulation of
                                                                                                                                            Johannes Kepler University of Linz – AT
                                                   research and development strategies.
• To join forces to maximise the synergy                                                                                                    University of Patras – GR
   between individual skills, thus obtaining the                                                                                            University of Vilnius – LT
   best achievable global results
                                                                                                                                            Website
• To provide an appropriate communication                                                                                                   not yet available
  channel between academic groups, SMEs and
                                                                                                                                            Project Officer
  industrials.
                                                                                                                                            Garbiñe Guiu Etxeberria

                                                                                                                                            Status
                                                                                                                                            ongoing


                                                                                      Workshops,
                                                         Website/
                                             Who is                                    Symposia
                                                          E -tools
                                            Who guide
                                                                                                           Expert groups
                                                                                                             Meetings


                      Contacts with other
                       EU and non-EU                                                                               Scientific
                                                                       WP1
                      Networks, projects                                                                           personnel
                                                               Coordination and                                exchange activities
                                                             Information Exchange
                                                                     Platform



                                                                            Input




                         WP2 (a-e)                                      WP3                                             WP4
                      Techno-economic                          Socio-economic and                           Synergy with the National
                           study                                     Policy study                                  PV programs




                                                            State of the Art Report
                                                        Comparison Study with Asia & U.S



                                                                                                                           Advisory Board
                                                                                                                           EU Networks,
                                                                                                                            Industrials,
                                                                                                                        Interest Groups

                                                                                                   Input


                                                                   WP5
                                                           Organic Photovoltaic
                                                                Roadmap




                                                                                                                                                                                       29
CRYSTALCLEAR

               Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics:
               Low-cost, Highly Efficient and Reliable Modules

 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges                                                        Sub-project 1: Feedstock
                                           There is a rapidly increasing awareness and                       Of the five sub-projects dealing with the different
The integrated CrystalClear project        urgency concerning the transition to a sustainable                steps of the value chain, SP 1 is dedicated to the
is a research and development project      energy supply. The greenhouse effect and also                     subject of the so-called feedstock, the high-purity
                                           dependence on energy imports, local air pollution                 silicon from which solar cells are made. For solar
dedicated primarily to cost reduction
                                           and unavailability of energy for poor people are                  cells (as well as for microelectronic chips) a high
of solar (photovoltaic, PV) modules,
                                           seen as major problems to be addressed ambi-                      grade of silicon is required. It is customary to
which form the heart of any solar          tiously and immediately. For the longer term, the                 speak of solar-grade silicon. The production of
energy system and which account            depletion of fossil fuel reserves needs to be                     this high-purity silicon requires advanced
for some 60% of the turnkey price of       faced. Solar energy can play a key role in solving                equipment, is expensive and energy-intensive.
roof-top installations. The objective      all these problems, but still has a very small                    SP 1 aims at testing alternative manufacturing
                                           impact today. By far the most important barrier                   methods for high-purity silicon that are under
of the CrystalClear project is to enable
                                           to large-scale use of solar energy is the current                 development. In addition to this, SP 1 aims at
a price reduction to a level of
                                           price of systems. Therefore CrystalClear tries to lower           gaining better scientific understanding and
€ 3.0-3.5/Wp, which roughly                the direct fabrication costs of PV modules, while at              practical know-how on solar-grade silicon.
corresponds to electricity generation      the same time improving the environmental profile.
costs of 15-40 eurocents per kWh,
                                           Key activities for achieving this are:                            Sub-project 2: Wafers
depending on location in the EU.
                                           • Strongly reducing the consumption of                            Once high-purity (solar-grade) silicon has been
                                             expensive materials (especially silicon, but                    obtained, it has to be brought into a form suitable
At the same time, CrystalClear aims
                                             also others), as well as introducing the use of                 for solar cells. CrystalClear is about crystalline
to improve the environmental quality         cheaper materials.                                              silicon in the form of wafers. SP 2 focuses on the
of solar modules by the reduction                                                                            two crucial steps required to turn feedstock into
                                           • Increasing the electricity output of solar
of material consumption, replacement                                                                         wafers: ingot crystallisation and wafer sawing.
                                             modules.
of materials, and design for recycling.                                                                      First, emphasis will be on achieving a higher
                                           • Developing highly automated, high-throughput,                   productivity of the crystallisation equipment
Last but not least CrystalClear wants
                                             low-cost manufacturing processes.                               (the furnaces), by applying larger crucibles and
to enhance the applicability of solar
                                                                                                             better use of the capacity, which will lead to an
modules by tailoring to customer           • Screening materials, processes and products
                                                                                                             increase of ingot weight by about 80%. Second,
                                             in relation to sustainability and suitability for
needs and improving product lifetime                                                                         the utilisation of ingot material will be increased
                                             large-scale use.
and reliability.                                                                                             dramatically by different improvements of the
                                                                                                             sawing process. Next to an increase in wafer size
                                           Project Structure                                                 (from standard size of 125 x 125 mm2 to 200 x
                                                                                                             200 mm2), the wafer thickness will be decreased
                                           To reach these goals, CrystalClear is organised in
                                                                                                             from about 300 µm to 150 µm or even less.
                                           eight sub-projects (SPs), five of which deal with
                                                                                                             In addition to the work on ingots and sawing or
                                           a specific part of the production chain. In addition,
                                                                                                             cutting, research will be done on an alternative
                                           one sub-project (SP 6) covers all sustainability
                                                                                                             method of wafer formation, namely ribbon
                                           aspects, while SP 7 focuses on integration.
                                                                                                             growth (EFG, Edge-defined Film-fed Growth,
                                           Finally, SP 0 is devoted to management of this
                                                                                                             and RGS, Ribbon Growth on Substrate).
                                           large consortium and to communication with the EC
                                           project officers and contracting departments. The
                                           sub-projects are divided in different work packages,
                                           in which the actual research is being carried out.
                                                                                                     © REC




                                                                                                             Multicrystalline silicon blocks.
30             WAFER-BASED SILICON
Sub-project 3: Thin film                              Sub-project 6: Sustainability
Another research line pursued in the project is       Although PV is based on the use of sunlight and
the use of so-called thin-film ‘wafer-equivalents’    therefore a fully renewable energy technology,
(SP 3). In this case, a thin (typically 10-20 m)      its environmental quality (sustainability) is partly
high-quality silicon layer is deposited onto          dependent on energy consumption during manu-
a cheap substrate such as low-grade silicon or        facturing and on the materials used. SP 6 covers
ceramic material. If well designed, the cell pro-     two main aspects:
perties determined by the thin active layer can
                                                      • Further development of module recycling
be very good, while the costs may be reduced,
                                                        technology
both because of the small amount of high-grade
silicon used and because no sawing is needed.         • Analysis of the environmental impacts of
The work in this sub-project is aimed at achieving      module manufacturing by means of the Life
efficiencies comparable to those of solar cells         Cycle Assessment (LCA) method.
based on cut wafers or ribbons, but at lower
manufacturing costs.
                                                      Sub-project 7: Integration
                                                      The CrystalClear project tackles all aspects from
Sub-project 4: Cells
                                                      the starting materials up to the completed solar
Solar cell manufacturing is a key issue in cost       module. However, it is important that no one
reduction strategies for PV. By enhancing cell        aspect of this value chain is optimised without
efficiency, using thin (< 200 µm) and large           due regard to the others or to the sustainability
(> 150 x 150 mm2) silicon wafers, processing          of the overall technology. SP 7 will be the focus
low-cost material, increasing process quality,        for this integration. Key activities concern cost
yield and throughput, and implementing cell           calculations, internal roadmapping, communication
designs to allow for low-cost module assembly         and a socio-economic impact study of the factors
(such as back-contact schemes), a substantial         that will influence the exploitation of the
decrease of production costs per watt peak can        technology.
be achieved. The different work packages in SP 4
deal with each of these topics.
                                                      Expected results
                                                      CrystalClear is targeted to attain a price reduction
Sub-project 5: Modules
                                                      for grid-connected systems to a level of roughly
The research and development efforts of sub-          € 3/Wp or less, which roughly corresponds
projects 1 to 4, from silicon feedstock to finished   to electricity generation costs of € 0.15-0.35/kWh,
cells, come together in SP5 which deals with the      depending on location. This is within the range
final ‘product’ of CrystalClear: the solar module.    of consumer electricity prices in parts of Europe,
This sub-project aims at developing advanced          which will greatly encourage the use of solar
module concepts and corresponding highly auto-        energy on a large scale. To assure its sustainability,
mated and fast module assembly technologies,          CrystalClear aims to decrease the energy pay-back
which should of course be fully matched with          time of PV systems from 3-5 years to roughly
the cells developed in SP 4. The research is          1-2 years, depending on different locations
specifically targeted at advanced cell intercon-      corresponding to different levels of insolation
nection schemes for large and thin wafers and         (NW and Central Europe versus Southern Europe).
for back-contact cells, at new module materials,
and at ‘single shot’ encapsulation as well as one-
material concepts.




                                                                                                               31
CRYSTALCLEAR

               Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics:
               Low-cost, Highly Efficient and Reliable Modules

                                                        Progress to date
                                                        In SP 1 the first tests of new silicon material        • recrystallised silicon layers on mechanically
                                                        (Wacker solar-grade silicon produced in a fluidised      supporting substrates.
                                                        bed reactor) have been carried out. For such
                                                                                                               Significant progress was achieved with the SiC
                                                        evaluation of new solar-grade silicon feedstock
                                                                                                               intermediate layers that are needed to allow
                                                        materials developed outside the CrystalClear
                                                                                                               recrystallisation of high-quality layers on a low-
                                                        consortium, well-defined baseline cell manufac-
                                                                                                               quality substrate: they are now conductive and
                                                        turing processes have been established. Three
                                                                                                               mechanically stable. High-speed Zone Melting
                                                        baselines at different partners have been used to
                                                                                                               Recrystallisation (ZMR) to recrystallise silicon
               Mc-Si wafers covered with PECVD SiN as   process wafers from two different directionally
               they come out of a quasi in-line PECVD                                                          layers was done up to 400 mm/min. Cells of
                                                        solidified reference ingots. These baseline solar
               system. Source: IMEC                                                                            high-speed layers showed a comparatively large
                                                        cell results are used for comparison of the Si
                                                                                                               detrimental effect of the high scanning speed
                                                        material quality of new feedstock materials.
                                                                                                               on layers which were epitaxially thickened after
                                                        The impurities present in normal multicrystalline      ZMR. Cells directly made from ZMR layers (no
                                                        silicon (mc-Si) wafers were determined by a lite-      epitaxy) show nearly no decrease in voltage.
                                                        rature study as well as by chemical analysis of        A large-area ZMR cell (86 cm2) achieved 8.4%
                                                        wafers and ingot samples. The effect of relevant       efficiency in a 20µm ZMR + epitaxy layer.
                                                        impurities on solar cell performance has been
                                                                                                               SP 4 aims for low-cost cell processes for thin
                                                        investigated, to work towards a practical speci-
                                                                                                               and large solar cells resulting in high efficiency.
                                                        fication of the so far rather vaguely defined
                                                                                                               Key research issues are new passivation process
                                                        term, ‘solar-grade’ silicon. The experimental
                                                                                                               schemes for the rear side, such as dielectric layers
                                                        approach for this investigation was established.
                                                                                                               combined with local back-surface fields (BSFs),
                                                        In SP 2 the first super-size ingots of 80%             new cell designs and novel processes for high
                                                        increased weight (400-450 kg) were analysed            efficiencies. Furthermore, new BSF processes are
                                                        and their electrical and mechanical quality was        under development for the standard cell concept
                                                        found to be very similar to the standard ingots of     to reduce wafer bowing.
                                                        today’s production. In silicon ribbon growth by the
                                                                                                               Fundamental studies on SiNx:H passivation are
                                                        EFG (Edge-defined Film-fed Growth) technique,
                                                                                                               performed in CrystalClear. It has been found that
                                                        two new feedstock materials have been tested and
                                                                                                               the SiN bond density in the layer is the parameter
                                                        compared to reference material. No differences
                                                                                                               that determines the surface and bulk passivating
                                                        with respect to feeding, ribbon growth and
                                                                                                               quality for layers deposited with very different
                                                        mechanical and electrical quality of the wafers
                                                                                                               methods.
                                                        were found. The use of new materials gives more
                                                        flexibility in the selection of starting silicon and   Using laser-fired contacts with low-temperature
                                                        less dependency on few suppliers.                      PECVD a-Si/SiO2 stack, an efficiency of 21.3%
                                                                                                               was reached. This is the highest efficiency
                                                        The first new Ribbon-Growth-on-Substrate
                                                                                                               reported for non-thermal oxide rear-side passi-
                                                        (RGS) wafers of regular and small thickness
                                                                                                               vation. Using a process based on screen-printed
                                                        (down to 110 µm) were produced and processed to
                                                                                                               and SiNx:H as passivating layer at the rear, effi-
                                                        cells. Efficiencies obtained were 13% for regular
                                                                                                               ciencies up to 16.0% were obtained on 180 µm
                                                        thickness and 11% for thin wafers. The latter
                                                                                                               thin mc-Si wafers.
                                                        corresponds to a record low silicon consumption
                                                        of 3.3 grams per watt-peak.                           Solar cells on ultra-thin wafers have been prepared
                                                                                                              and reached >15% efficiency on mechanically
                                                        In SP 3 of CrystalClear, three approaches to
                                                                                                              thinned 80-90 µm mono-crystalline silicon.
                                                        wafer-equivalents are being pursued:
                                                                                                              Spraying has been used as diffusion source to
                                                        • free-standing thin films produced by lift-off fabricate solar cells. This process is very well
                                                            of thin silicon films from a wafer                suited for thin wafers. On standard thicknesses
                                                                                                              of about 270 µm, 17.5% efficiency has been
                                                        • epitaxial wafer equivalents, a sole silicon epitaxy
                                                                                                              reached on mono-crystalline silicon. The process
                                                            on low-cost silicon substrates
                                                                                                              is now transferred to wafers of reduced thickness.

32               WAFER-BASED SILICON
                                                                                                              Project Information
                                                                                                              Contract number
                                                                                                              502583

                                                                                                              Duration
                                                                                                              60 months

                                                                                                              Contact person
                                                                                                              Wim Sinke
                                                                                                              Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands
                                                                                                              pmo@ipcrystalclear.info

                                                                                                              List of partners
                                                                                                              BP Solar – ES
                                                                                                              CNRS (PHASE) – FR
                                                                                                              Deutsche Cell – DE
The introduction of thinner and larger cells is      advantage that they are now based on real
                                                                                                              Deutsche Solar – DE
expected to have a large impact on the yield of      production data.
                                                                                                              ECN – NL
module manufacturing. Therefore, in sub-project                                                               Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-ISE) – DE
                                                     In the outlook for near-future silicon technology,
5, alternative interconnection technologies are                                                               Inter-university Microelectronics Centre – BE
                                                     it was estimated that an energy pay-back time
being explored which can relieve the stress                                                                   Isofoton – ES
                                                     of around one year can be achieved for multi-
experienced by the cell. After an evaluation, the                                                             Polytechnical University of Madrid – ES
                                                     and ribbon silicon technology. If fluidised bed
developments have focused on replacing the                                                                    Photowatt – FR
                                                     reactor technology can be applied successfully to
conventional soldering technology by the use of                                                               REC – NO
                                                     deposit solar-grade silicon feedstock material, wafer    Scanwafer – NO
fast- curing conductive adhesives. Modules have
                                                     thickness can be halved and module efficiency can        Shell Solar – DE
been manufactured and have entered a test phase.
                                                     be increased to 15-16%.                                  Schott Solar – DE
The industrial introduction of back-contacted                                                                 University of Konstanz – DE
                                                     Modules from different project partners have
solar cells is supported by the development of                                                                University of Utrecht – NL
                                                     been recycled at the pilot recycling installation.
advanced module manufacturing concepts. Of
                                                     Reclaimed wafers have been successfully                  Website
the suggested novel manufacturing technologies
                                                     reprocessed and used in a new module.                    www.ipcrystalclear.info
and concepts, module casting and roll lamination
were selected for further exploration. For roll      SP 7 has the role in CrystalClear of bringing            Project officer
lamination the first conceptual tests using exist-   together the activities of the other sub-projects        Rolf Ostrom
ing equipment from other fields are promising        (that have specific roles in the PV module value
and dedicated equipment has been installed.          chain) and of ensuring consistent focus in order         Status
                                                     to achieve the overall project objective of delivering   ongoing
In SP 6 the environmental analysis activities
                                                     solutions offering a € 1/Wp module cost. A cost
were focused mainly on current silicon, cell and
                                                     model has been developed as a project tool to
module production technology. Together with
                                                     evaluate the prospective technology innovations
11 European and US photovoltaic companies,
                                                     and to analyse benchmark cost data collected
most of them partners in the CrystalClear project,
                                                     from the industrial partners. The analysis has
an extensive effort has been made to collect Life
                                                     detailed the average module cost of the industrial
Cycle Inventory data for production of crystal-
                                                     partners on the project in 2003, just prior to the
line silicon modules. On the basis of such LCI
                                                     start of the CrystalClear project. Looking to
data the environmental impacts of PV systems
                                                     future cost reductions by stretching the existing
can be evaluated using a Life Cycle Assessment
                                                     technology to limits not yet contemplated (as
approach.
                                                     defined in the roadmapping activity) could
The new set of LCI data covers all processes from    reduce the module cost close to the project goal
silicon feedstock production to cell and module      of € 1/Wp.
manufacturing. All commercial wafer technologies
                                                     • First samples of new solar-grade silicon tested
are covered, that is multi- and mono-crystalline
wafers as well as ribbon technology. The collected   • Super-size silicon ingots successfully grown
data can be considered representative for the
                                                     • Conductive silicon carbide barrier layers for
technology status in 2004. The data have also
                                                       wafer-equivalent substrates developed
been made available to the public domain
(www.ecn.nl/solar). The energy pay-back times        • Secrets of silicon nitride passivation unveiled
of PV systems were calculated to be respectively
                                                     • High-efficiency cells made on very thin silicon
1.6, 2.1 and 2.5 years for ribbon, multi and
                                                       wafers
mono-Si technology (Southern Europe). These
results are considerably lower than previously       • Innovative method for cell interconnection
published estimates, and they have the great           developed
                                                     • Energy pay-back time of solar modules
                                                       unexpectedly short
                                                     • Crystalline silicon solar modules may be
                                                       produced at very low costs

                                                                                                                                                        33
FOXY

        Development of Solar-grade Silicon Feedstock
        for Solar Cells by Purification and Crystallisation

OBJECTIVES                               Challenges                                                                    Expected results
                                         The FoXy partnership will answer the need of the • Remove inclusions above 20 µm and reduce
FoXy aims to develop cleaning            PV market for low-price and high-quality solar      the level of inclusions down to 5 µm by 80%
and crystallisation processes            grade (SoG) Si feedstock by:                        of initial levels. The particles to be removed
                                                                                             include SiC from primary silicon and recycled
for metallurgical SoG-Si feedstock,      • Further developing and optimising refining,
                                                                                             silicon, Si3N4 from recycled silicon, and oxides
optimise associated cell and module         purification and crystallisation processes for
                                                                                             from slag treatment processes and remelting
processes, and set parameters               metallurgical SoG-Si feedstock, as well as for
                                                                                             of silicon.
                                            recycled n-type electronic grade Si.
for these types of feedstock.
                                                                                           • Estimates based on similar figures for refining
                                         • Optimising associated cell and module
                                                                                             of aluminium show that the total cost of
By developing a close partnership           processes.
                                                                                             electrochemically refined SoG-Si would be
along the whole value chain from         • Setting input criteria for metallurgical and      less than € 10 per kg. The raw silicon will be
feedstock to module production,             electronic n-type silicon to be used as raw      purified with new techniques, such as fast-
a foundation is created for new             materials for SoG-Si feedstock.                  casting and electrochemical treatment,
                                                                                             reducing the cost of the final feedstock
investments in SoG-Si feedstock          Transferring the technology from laboratory to
                                                                                             considerably from the present situation.
production and subsequent                industrial pilot tests.
commercial use of the material
produced. The FoXy consortium aims       Project structure
at achieving a significant cost
reduction (down to € 15 per kg)
                                                  WP2: Cleaning &                  WP1: Cleaning & Refining DMR                                 WP3: Electrochemical
through more efficient cleaning                        Refining HDN                                                                                  refining
                                                       Deutsche Solar:
                                                      Deutsche Solar:                                                                               ScanA/SUN:           Fesil :
processes for raw materials,                            Highly doped
                                                      Highly doped n
                                                                                        ScanA/SUN:                         SINTEF/ Fesil :
                                                                                                                                                     SOLSILC            MG -Si
                                                                                     SOLSILC feedstock                       Recycled Si
                                                         type waste
                                                        n-type waste                                                                                  feedstock       production
and.securing high-volume production
of SoG-Silicon by developing recycling                 Deutsche Solar:
                                                     n-type purification
                                                                                       SINTEF: Small scale purification           SINTEF:
                                                                                                                                                          NTNU, SINTEF:
                                                                                                                                                           Electrochemical
                                                                                         Fesil: Pilot scale purification          Modelling
techniques for end-of-life products.                 in pilot equipment                                                                                        refining
                                                                                                                                                                                   WP7: Integration & exploitation
                                                       Deutsche Solar:                    Pillar:                         SINTEF:                              SINTEF:
                                                   Bridgman crystallisation                 Cz                     Bridgman crystallisation             Bridgman crystallisation
                                                        (large scale)                 crystallisation                   (small scale)                        (small scale)


                                                  WP4: Material               SINTEF: SIMS, LECO analysis                          UKON: lifetime
                                                  Characterisation            NTNU: GD -MS, PVScan (particle analysis)
                                                                              UMIB: PL, EBIC, IR, SEM
                                                                              ECN: ICP -AES, IR, lifetime analysis

                                                  WP5: Cell                        P-type cell process:                                     N -type cell process:
                                                  optimisation       UKON: high efficiency baseline, ECN: industrial           UKON: high efficiency baseline, ECN: industrial
                                                                           baseline, Isofoton : industrial pilot                     baseline, Isofoton : industrial pilot
                                                                      Characterisation: UKON: lifetime, IV/SPR, IR                             Increased yield:
                                                                        thermography, UMIB: PL, EBIC,IR, SEM.                    ECN: RPECVD, belt furnace gett., UKON:
                                                                           ECN: lifetime, IV/SPR, FTIR, CoRe                    mechanical stability, MIRHP, tube furnace gett,

                                                  WP6:Modules&                    Isofoton : demo module, n-type module
                                                  Recycling                                recycling, ECN: LCA




                                         Figure 1: Graphical presentation of work packages




34        WAFER-BASED SILICON
                                                                                                                             Project Information
                                                                                                                             Contract number
                                                                                                                             019811

                                                                                                                             Duration
                                                                                                                             36 months

                                                                                                                             Contact person
                                                                                                                             Aud Wærnes
                                                                                                                             SINTEF
                                                                                                                             Aud.N.Warnes@sintef.no

                                                                                                                             List of partners
                                                                                                                             Deutsche Solar – DE
                                                                                                                             ECN – NL
                                                                                                                             FESIL – NO
• Transfer the developed processes into industrial   All the partners will benefit from the FoXy results.
                                                                                                                             Isofoton – ES
  (pilot) lines within the project (months 30-36),   After successful completion of the project, Deutsche
                                                                                                                             Norwegian University
  and create a platform for acceptance of the        Solar is planning to invest in a 600 ton/year vacuum                    of Science and Technology – NO
  new (standardised) SoG-Si.                         refining plant to remove n-type dopants. The                            Pillar – UA
                                                     treated material is for internal use within the                         SINTEF – NO
•   Test refined material under production con-
                                                     Solarworld group and for external use as well.                          ScanArc – SE
    ditions.
                                                     Deutsche Solar intends to deliver n-type solar                          Sunergy Investco – NL
•   Set standards for SoG-Si.                        silicon wafers to international solar cell manu-                        University of Konstanz – DE
                                                     facturers as a new product.                                             University of Milano-Bicocca – IT
•   Establish a pilot plant on recycling of highly
    doped n-type material.                           The Solsilc route will be further developed and                         Website
                                                     commercialised in parallel with the FoXy project.                       www.sintef.no\foxy
•   Optimise processes for refining of solar grade
                                                     The Solsilc material will benefit from the new
    feedstock and waste from the ingot and                                                                                   Project officer
                                                     cleaning and crystallisation processes developed
    wafer producer.                                                                                                          Rolf Ostrom
                                                     by FoXy. The project results will be presented at
•   A lifecycle analysis on the developed processes: appropriate conferences and fairs.                                      Status
                                                                                                                             ongoing
    • At least one of the processes will have an
      energy payback time of six months. For Progress to date
      average Southern European solar irradiation,
                                                   The FoXy project started on 1 January 2006 and
      the energy payback time (EPBT) for complete
                                                   is still in an early phase. A series of artificially
      installed PV systems ranges from 1.7 to
                                                   contaminated n-type ingots has been made in
      2.7 years depending on the technology.
                                                   order to optimise the n-type cell process. In
    • Industrially produced wafers with at least addition, small-scale refining has been carried
      16% cell efficiencies and improved yield.    out with promising results.



    Impurity                       Refining by directional solidification
    level                                                                                             Liquid
          >100ppm
                                                                              Liquid
                                                     Liquid
                            Liquid
                                                                              Solid                   Solid
                                                     Solid

         <0.01 ppm           01p p
      time
      solid

Figure 2: Principle for refining by directional solidification (The dark colour indicates level of impurity where white is
<0.01ppm and black is > 100ppm)




                                                                                                                                                                 35
PERFORMANCE

              A Science Base on PV Performance
              for Increased Market Transparency
              and Customer Confidence
 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges                                            Expected Results
                                           The main objective of PERFORMANCE is to conduct   The general idea behind the project is to provide the
The general idea behind the                pre-normative research, to develop more reliable  PV community with tools to measure the quality of
PERFORMANCE project is to provide          test procedures and measurement methods for       products – devices, systems and services –, to
                                           standard and innovative types of PV modules, and  ensure their usefulness and reliability, and to
the photovoltaics (PV) community
                                           to harmonise system performance measurement       deliver data to predict the useful lifetime of the
with tools to measure the quality
                                           and evaluation techniques.                        products. It is safe to say that the results of the
of products – devices, systems and                                                           effort in this project will meet with strong interest
                                           The project covers all relevant aspects from cell
services –, to ensure their usefulness                                                       from the whole PV community.
                                           to system level and from instantaneous device
and reliability, and to deliver data
                                           characterisation and system measurement to Thus, PERFORMANCE creates the platform to
to predict the useful lifetime of these    life-time performance prediction and assessment. transfer and liaise between the scientific
products. The project will develop         The limitations of current indoor and outdoor community (the creator of the necessary know-
reliable test and calibration              calibration measurement technology will be ledge), the industry, the end-user and the
procedures for both standard               investigated and precision will be improved, implementing bodies (the standardisation bodies)
                                           covering current technologies as well as new in order to meet the goals of European decision-
and innovative types of PV modules,
                                           and advanced cell and module concepts. makers (represented by the Member States and
and will harmonise measurement and
                                           Methods will be developed to link measurements the European Commission).
evaluation techniques for PV systems.      of module power to module energy production.
                                           In addition, PERFORMANCE covers the development
                                                                                             The PERFORMANCE Sub-Projects
PERFORMANCE will cover all relevant        and validation of PV module life-time assessment
aspects from cell to system level          procedures for several PV technologies, including
                                           crystalline silicon and thin film PV, and also 1. Traceable performance measurement
and from instantaneous device
                                           building industry-integrated PV codes and of PV devices
characterisation and system
                                           standards. All activities aim at improving the
measurements to life-time performance                                                        Set up of traceability chains of indoor module
                                           competitiveness of the European PV industry for
                                                                                             measurements in test labs and in industry, adap-
prediction and assessment.                 both the European and the world markets.
                                                                                             tation of measurement procedures for new and
                                                                                             emerging technologies (thin film cells, multi-
                                           Project Structure                                 junction cells, back-contact silicon cells, etc.).
                                           From the demands of market players, eight
                                           topics have been identified and transformed into
                                           a consistent set of sub-projects.
                                           Following this work programme, PERFORMANCE
                                           will produce a coherent framework of measurement
                                           and modelling methodologies to create the
                                           transparency needed for the European market
                                           and industry. Intense involvement of all
                                           European companies along the value chain will
                                           be organised systematically through feedback          2. Energy delivery of photovoltaic devices
                                           loops. These include project workshops, seminars
                                                                                                 Bridge the gap between indoor STC measurements
                                           and the involvement of an Industry Advisory
                                                                                                 and outdoor ‘real world’ measurements for any
                                           Board. Project results will be fed directly into
                                                                                                 place in Europe.
                                           standardisation processes on CENELEC and IEC level.




36            PRE-NORMATIVE RESEARCH AND CO-ORDINATION ACTIVITIES
                                                                                                        Project Information
                                                                                                        Contract number
                                                                                                        019718

                                                                                                        Duration
                                                                                                        48 months

                                                                                                        Contact Person
                                                                                                        Dr. Christian Reise
                                                                                                        Fraunhofer Institut für Solare
                                                                                                        Energiesysteme
                                                                                                        christian.reise@ise.fraunhofer.de

                                                                                                        List of Partners
3. PV system performance evaluation              5. Service life assessment of PV modules               Arsenal – AT
                                                                                                        Ben Gurion University of the Negev – IL
Analysis of system performance data towards an Develop ageing models based on ‘real life’ stress
                                                                                                        CIEMAT – ES
understanding of yields and losses, assessment factors, develop new accelerated ageing proce-
                                                                                                        Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
of different approaches towards `guaranteed dures, facilitate innovation in module technology.          Conergy – DE
results´.                                                                                               ECN – NL
                                                                                                        Ecofys – NL
                                                                                                        EPIA – BE
                                                                                                        Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-ISE) – DE
                                                                                                        Hochschule Magdeburg Stendal – DE
                                                                                                        Isofoton – ES
                                                                                                        IT Power Ltd – GB
                                                                                                        JRC – IT
                                                                                                        Meteocontrol – DE
                                                                                                        Phönix Sonnenstrom – DE
                                                                                                        Polymer Competence Centre Leoben – AT
                                                 6. PV as a building product                            Projektgesellschaft
4. Modelling and analysis                                                                               Solare Energiesysteme – DE
                                                Assessment of standards and performance
Development of a coherent set of models of requirements for building integrated PV modules,             Scheuten Solar Systems BV – NL
                                                                                                        Schott Solar – DE
PV modules and system performance, to translate suggestions for module technologies which fit
                                                                                                        Scuola Universitaria Professionale
PV module data and PV component data into into the existing codes of the building industry.
                                                                                                        della Svizzera Italiana – CH
long-term system performance figures.                                                                   Shell Solar – DE
                                                 7. & 8. Industry interaction                           Swedish National Testing
                                                 and dissemination,                                     and Research Institute – SE
                                                                                                        Tallinn University of Technology – EE
                                                 Standardisation processes
                                                                                                        TÜV Immissionsschutz
                                                 Accelerate feedback loops between industry and         und Energiesysteme GmbH – DE
                                                 standardisation processes, communicate project         University of Loughborough – GB
                                                 results to industry, politics and users in a rapidly   University of Northumbria at Newcastle – GB
                                                 growing market. Contribute to revision of standards,   Wroclaw University of Technology – PL
                                                                                                        ZSW – DE
                                                 initiate new standards, develop a long term
                                                 vision for European standardisation.                   Website
                                                                                                        www.pv-performance.org

                                                                                                        Project officer
                                                                                                        Garbiñe Guiu Etxeberria

                                                                                                        Status
                                                                                                        ongoing




                                                                                                                                               37
PV CATAPULT

              Accelerating the European PV Industry



 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                           The costs of PV have come down considerably               • CREST improved module performance meas-
The overall aim is to strengthen the       over the last decade, but must decrease further             urements and modelling, setting a basis for
position of the European PV sector.        (perhaps by a factor of five to ten), by the middle         standardisation.
                                           of the century, in order to fulfil the promise of
New routes will be identified to                                                                     Cross-fertilisation was used to identify links
                                           solar energy becoming a significant factor in the
decrease costs of PV electricity,                                                                    between the different activities, maximising the
                                           future energy supply. Fortunately, there is great
to improve the quality of PV and                                                                     synergy effects and bringing together the different
                                           potential for cost reduction. However, this
                                                                                                     stakeholders.
PV thermal systems and to open new         requires a long-term coordinated technology and
markets. A SWOT analysis will be           market development. The present learning rate of
made for the whole PV sector covering      around 20% must be maintained alongside a long-           Results
                                           term average growth rate of at least 20-30%.
the complete value chain. Innovative                                                                 It was the first time a SWOT analysis was performed
finance schemes are discussed and          The present market in the EU is heavily dependent         for the whole PV Sector covering the complete pro-
new market approaches are developed        on a very effective feed-in tariff system in Germany,     duction chain. An in-depth analysis was performed
                                           accompanied by easy allowance for access to               on three main issues:
for PV implementation in developing
                                           the grid. It is important to develop new markets
countries, as well as in the new EU                                                                  • Solar grade silicon is not available at a reasonable
                                           for sustainable growth, both in new countries and
Member States and for building-                                                                        price for the quantities needed.
                                           in market sectors where the value of PV is highest.
related PV. The technology transfer        Europe has a very strong research community but           • Thin film technologies are not taken off
from research laboratories to industry     time-to-market needs to be improved. Central to             as expected.
will be improved by setting up             market development is the need for products
                                                                                                     • Feed-in tariffs are a very effective support
                                           that have a high conversion efficiency and deliver
a strategic research agenda by                                                                         instrument, worthwhile to apply more.
                                           the amount of energy expected by the system
industry and the research community.
                                                                                                The analysis led to valuable recommendations for
                                           purchasers. If there is a need for both electricity and
                                           hot water, a PV thermal system is a high-efficiency  action. Many of them can be taken by the PV sector
Roadmaps will be developed for             solar system with commercial potential.              itself, with a coordinating and initiating role for
building-related PV and for PV                                                                  EPIA, but in some cases a closer collaboration with
                                           Professional investors need accurate information
thermal systems in order to define                                                              other industrial sectors, such as the building and
                                           on the amount of electricity that a proposed
                                                                                                glass trades, is needed.
the path for future R&D and market         PV system will produce. The relation between
introduction. The uncertainty in power     the power rating determined indoors with a A common European industry-research vision
and energy rating will be assessed,        flash tester by a manufacturer, and the energy yield on future R&D needs was achieved. Based on
                                           under real operating conditions, is not unam- the Vision Report of PV-TRAC, priorities for
enabling the consumer to get a better
                                           biguous if different technologies are compared or future technology development were set,
insight into PV systems performance.
                                           if thin film modules are applied.                    encompassing the whole chain from materials
                                                                                                to systems. To permit the cost reductions
                                                                                                required for PV, a significantly higher R&D
                                           Project Structure
                                                                                                budget is needed from public as well as private
                                           The PV CAtapult consortium comprises 19 con- sources, in particular for technology transfer to
                                           tractors: representatives of research institutes, industry, systems development and non-technical
                                           universities and the PV industry. The project, issues such as monitoring, training and standardi-
                                           coordinated by ECN, was divided into eleven sation. A budget breakdown is proposed based
                                           work packages that combine to give three
                                           sub-projects:
                                           • EPIA addressed technological, marketing,
                                             socio-economic and financial issues, based on
                                             a general SWOT analysis for the European PV               1

                                                                                                           SWOT
                                                                                                                     2
                                                                                                                           R&D
                                                                                                                                    3

                                                                                                                                           PVT
                                                                                                                                                      4
                                                                                                                                                              PV
                                                                                                                                                               &&
                                                                                                                                                                       5
                                                                                                                                                                            Finance
                                                                                                                                                                                       11
                                                                                                                         Strategy                          Buildings
                                                                                                                                                          Buildings          issues                          Accelerating
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Accelerating
                                             industry.                                                 6             7              8                 9                10
                                                                                                                                                                                          Dissemination
                                                                                                                                                                                        Dissemination
                                                                                                                                                                                                            the European
                                                                                                                                                                                                          the European
                                                                                                                                                                                                             PV Industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                           PV Industry
                                                                                                       Enlarged
                                                                                                                        Rural
                                                                                                                       Rural                Performance                    Cross
                                                                                                         EUEU
                                                                                                                  Electrification       Measurement Modelling          Fertilisation
                                                                                                        Market
                                                                                                       Market
                                           • ECN brought together all the key players in
                                             R&D and the industrial PV thermal energy
                                             (PVT) field to build up a strong network.
38            PRE-NORMATIVE RESEARCH AND CO-ORDINATION ACTIVITIES
                                                                                                                 Project Information
                                                                                                                 Contract number
                                                                                                                 502775

                                                                                                                 Duration
                                                                                                                 26 months

                                                                                                                 Contact person
                                                                                                                 Hugo de Moor
                                                                                                                 Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands
                                                                                                                 demoor@ecn.nl

                                                                                                                 List of partners
                                                                                                                 Arsenal – AT
                                                                                                                 Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
                                                                                                                 ECN – NL
on a concrete list of priorities, with two-thirds       A new financial model was presented based on
                                                                                                                 Ecofys – NL
dedicated to short- to-medium- term-oriented            the creation of ESCOs (Energy Service Companies).
                                                                                                                 EPIA – BE
R&D and one-third for medium- to long-term.             A fund of around ? 150 million is required to meet       Esbensen Raadgivende Ingenioerer A/S – DK
More interaction between short-term technology          the needs of extending production capacities and         Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-ISE) – DE
transfer and long-term material science is recom-       financing ground-based PV power plants.                  Institut für Solarenergieforschung GmbH
mended. Of the total budget, 40% is allocated for                                                                Hameln/Emmerthal – DE
                                                        A ‘round robin’ was organised for indoor calibrations
crystalline silicon technology and 25% for thin                                                                  University of Loughborough – GB
                                                        and for outdoor power and energy ratings.
film technology; the remainder (35%) is for systems                                                              Scuola Universitaria Professionale
                                                        The results show that for crystalline and poly-          della Svizzera Italiana – CH
technology.
                                                        crystalline devices, substantial agreement has           Solstis SARL – CH
To effectively and efficiently support the technology   been achieved between laboratories. Less agree-          Tallinn University of Technology – EE
development of PV over the necessary extended           ment between laboratories has been achieved              TÜV Immissionsschutz
period, an R&D strategy must be formulated not          regarding thin film devices, in particular for           und Energiesysteme GmbH – DE
only in a European PV programme, but also               indoor measurements, and further research is             University of Patras – GR
implemented in the national PV programmes of            needed. A rather surprising level of agreement           Warsaw University of Technology – PL
the Member States.                                      has been reached between the different outdoor           Wirtschaft und Infrastruktur & CO
                                                        test facilities, with much reduced PV technology-        Planungs KG – DE
Three markets segments were explored in more                                                                     World Science – Technology – Trade –
                                                        related problems despite their one-of-a kind
detail:                                                                                                          Business – Company SPRL – BE
                                                        designs.
                                                                                                                 Wroclaw University of Technology – PL
• Building related (integrated) PV                                                                               ZSW – DE
                                                        The accuracy of several modelling methodologies
• The new EU Member States                              of the energy yield of photovoltaic devices has
                                                                                                                 Website
                                                        been investigated by means of a questionnaire to
• Rural electrification.                                                                                         www.pvcatapult.org    general
                                                        evaluate the state-of-the-art, leading to a series       www.pvtforum.org      PVT
A roadmap has been prepared indicating possible         of modelling ‘round robins’ to investigate the
routes to creating a mature European market for         strengths and weaknesses of the different                Project Officer
BIPV (Building-integrated or -related PV). As PV        approaches. The best case of the models, i.e. only       Georges Deschamps
has to compete with the relatively high end-user        statistical variations, is in the order of 2-3%
                                                                                                                 Status
electricity prices, it will be the first large market   deviation of the predicted energy yield with respect
                                                                                                                 terminated
segment where PV will be competitive, given BoS         to measured values. Once translations from one
(system) costs comparable with the BoS costs of         site to another are considered, this inaccuracy goes
large PV installations. It is essential that BIPV       up to 4-6% if the precise efficiency of the module
become a regular building product, integrating          is known. If the modules have changed significantly
with the building process and attractive for all        or the name-plate efficiency of the module to be
actors in the value chain.                              modelled deviates significantly from the input,
                                                        errors in the 15% range have been observed.
The status of the PV sector in the new Member
States was analysed and recommendations                 PV thermal is a relatively new technology that
given for strengthening its presence. A position        converts the power of the sun not only into
paper for an EU-wide feed-in tariff for PV was          electrical but also thermal energy. A technology
published, as an analysis has shown this to be the      and marketing roadmap has been made, based
most effective measure for developing a sustainable     on discussions in workshops and with relevant
market for PV.                                          stakeholders. The most promising market segments
                                                        identified are multi-family buildings as early-
An initiative based on a position paper on rural
                                                        market potential, domestic water and space heating
electrification and the UN Millennium
                                                        for the medium term and, for the long term, solar
Development Goals was established: this is the
                                                        cooling or industrial high-temperature applica-
ARE (Alliance for Rural Electrification). It will
                                                        tions. The systems can use liquid or air to transport
provide a platform for all stakeholders. The aim
                                                        the heat collected. Barriers, such as unknown
is to create synergies of all the initiatives taken
                                                        legal status, lack of financial support, product
at the global level and to contribute to the
                                                        certification and track record are identified and an
poverty eradication process.
                                                        action plan has been established for all stakeholders.

                                                                                                                                                         39
Biomass



Biofuels for Transport......................................................................................................................................................................................                                                            42
NILE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
     .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  42
RENEW ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................          44


Energy from Crops...................................................................................................................................................................................................                                                    46
BIOCARD ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................              46
CROPGEN ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                48


Gasification and H2-production ..............................................................................................................................................                                                                                           50
AER-GAS II.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                 50
BIGPOWER .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                  52
BIOCELLUS .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                 56
CHRISGAS ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                58
GREENFUELCELL .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................                             60
HYVOLUTION .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                      62


Biorefinery ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                          64
BIOCOUP ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................              64
BIOSYNERGY .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                      66


Combustion and Cofiring.........................................................................................................................................................................                                                                        68
BIOASH .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................          68
BIO-PRO ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................            70
COPOWER ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                 72


Pre-normative Research and Co-ordination Activities .......................................................                                                                                                                                                             74
BIONORM II ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                   74
NOE-BIOENERGY ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................                               76
NETBIOCOF ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                  80




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             41
NILE

        New Improvements
        for Lignocellulosic Ethanol

OBJECTIVES                                Challenges                                             Project Structure
                                          At this moment, there is no commercial production      To address these various issues, the project struc-
NILE will design and investigate new      of ethanol from ligno-cellulose because of eco-        ture is mainly based on the steps of the process
solutions for an efficient conversion     nomic and technical barriers. The main questions       converting ligno-cellulose to bioethanol, i.e.:
                                          that remain to be solved for a successful imple-
of ligno-cellulosic feedstocks to                                                                Therefore, the project comprises seven work pack-
                                          mentation of such a process are:
bioethanol, especially novel enzymatic                                                           ages. WP 1 and WP 2 are devoted to enzymatic
systems and new ethanol-producing         • How to decrease the cost of enzymatic                hydrolysis and to ethanol fermentation respec-
                                            hydrolysis which may represent 30-40% of             tively; WP 3, named process technology, covers
yeasts strains, and make an integrative
                                            the production cost of ligno-cellulosic ethanol?     the whole process including pilot plant tests;
evaluation of the advances in
                                                                                                 WP 4 is focused on environmental and socio-
a dedicated and unique pilot plant        • Can the pentose-rich hemicelluloses be effi-
                                                                                                 economic impacts; WP 5 aims at evaluating
                                            ciently converted to ethanol?
to obtain reliable data for technical,                                                           ligno-cellulosic bioethanol for automotive appli-
socio-economic and global                 • How should the process be scaled up and              cations; and dissemination and training activities
environmental assessments.                  integrated to minimise the energy and water          are grouped in WP 6.
                                            demand?
                                          • What quality of lignin can be obtained and           Expected Results
                                            how to optimise the value of this product?
                                                                                          Different approaches will be used to improve enzy-
                                          • How to obtain representative and reliable matic hydrolysis: identification of new efficient
                                            data for cost estimation and evaluation of ligno-cellulose-degrading enzymes, improvement
                                            environmental and socio-economic impacts? of the key enzymes (e.g. by directed evolution),
                                                                                          creation of multifunctional enzymes, and devel-
                                          • Is bioethanol from ligno-cellulose fully com-
                                                                                          opment of an enzyme production system that is
                                            patible with internal combustion engines?
                                                                                          easy to integrate.




                                                                                         Enzyme
                                                                                        production


                                                                                        Cullulases


                                                                                        Enzymatic
                                            LCB     Pretreatment   Cellulose + lignin                   Glucose      Fermentation       Ethanol
                                                                                        hydrolysis

                                                                                                                                       Distillation
                                                                     Hemicellulose                     Lignin
                                                                      hydrolysate

                                                                                                                                        Ethanol

                                                                                                                                        Internal
                                                                                                                                      Combustion
                                                                                                                                        Engines




42        BIOFUELS FOR TRANSPORT
                                                                                                           Project Information
                                                                                                           Contract number
                                                                                                           019882

                                                                                                           Duration
                                                                                                           48 months

                                                                                                           Contact person
                                                                                                           Frédéric Monot
                                                                                                           Institut Français du Pétrole
                                                                                                           frederic.monot@ifp.fr

                                                                                                           List of partners
                                                                                                           AEBIOM – BE
                                                                                                           BioAlcohol Fuel Foundation – SE
                                                                                                           Centro Ricerche FIAT – IT
                                                                                                           CNRS – FR
                                                                                                           DIREVO Biotech – DE
                                                                                                           Eni Tecnologie – IT
                                                                                                           Etek Etanolteknik – SE
                                                                                                           EUREC – BE
                                                                                                           Granit Recherche Développement – CH
                                                                                                           Imperial College – GB
                                                                                                           Institut Français du Pétrole – FR
                                                                                                           Institut National de la Recherche
                                                                                                           Agronomique – FR
                                                                                                           Latvian State Institute
                                                                                                           of Wood Chemistry – LV
                                                                                                           New University of Lisbon – PT
                                                                                                           Roal Oy – FI
                                                                                                           SAF-ISIS – FR
                                                                                                           Svensk Etanolkemi – SE
                                                                                                           Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
                                                                                                           Zürich – CH
                                                                                                           Johann-Wolfgang von Goethe University
                                                                                                           of Frankfurt/M – DE
                                                                                                           University of Lund – SE
                                                                                                           VTT – FI
                                                                                                           Weizmann Institute of Science – IL

                                                                                                           Website
The current intrinsic limitations on the conver- characterised and its suitability as a solid fuel         www.nile-bioethanol.org
sion of fermentable sugars will be removed by: investigated. A flow sheeting model will be                 Project Officer
                                                 developed for studying various process configu-           Maria Fernandez Gutierrez
• The construction of inhibitor-tolerant pen-
                                                 rations and for economic evaluation. The
   tose-fermenting yeast strains.
                                                 ethanol produced will be evaluated as a liquid            Status
• The selection of the best fermentation strat- fuel in terms of potential contaminants coming             ongoing
   egy, paying special attention to simultaneous from the biomass and the process used, and
   saccharification and fermentation.            from different levels of final product refining.
The new enzymes and yeasts will be tested in a        All the data that will be obtained in the frame-
fully integrated pilot plant facility. The pilot      work of the project constitutes a prerequisite for
plant will also be used to obtain reliable data for   the reasonable design and implementation of
process design and economic and environmental         a future demonstration unit.
assessments. The lignin produced will be




                                                                                                                                                   43
RENEW

        Renewable Fuels for Advanced
        Power Trains

OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                          Mobility in the future demands CO2-neutral             RENEW is assessing the fuel production pathways
The main objective of this project is     transportation means characterised by low              shown in Fig. 1. The focus is on the gasification of
the development and comparative           emissions and high energy efficiency on a ‘well-       lingo-cellulosic bio¬mass, the subsequent gas
                                          to-wheel’ basis. The gasification of biomass with      cleaning/treatment, the deter¬mination of suitable
assessment of pathways from biomass
                                          subsequent synthesis of fuels could provide a          gas composit¬ions, and the required purity levels
to various motor vehicle fuels with
                                          substantial contribution to this demand. This          of the synthesis gas for fuel production. From the
a single common intermediate product:     project assesses the thermochemical production         synthesis gas, several fuel types can be produced
the synthesis gas. The fuel pathways      pathways and aims to support the major objec-          which can easily be applied in current and future
will be compared through Life Cycle       tives of EU energy policy, notably the Kyoto           combustion engines. The production pathways for
Analysis (LCA) and a technical            Protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gases          Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FT diesel), Homogeneous
                                          and policy on security and diversification of          Charged Compression Ignition fuel (HCCI fuel),
analysis. Relevant boundary conditions
                                          energy supply. This will include developing, testing   Dimethylether/Methanol (DME) and ethanol will
for the comparison will be defined in
                                          and evaluating new biomass-based energy carriers       undergo a Life Cycle Assess¬ment (LCA), as well
the consortium, immediately after         for individual sustainable mobility (i.e. motor        as an economic and technological assessment.
starting the project.                     vehicles):
                                          • Use of primary energy sources with sustainable
The main focus is on biomass                availability
gasification issues related to the
                                          • Energy biomass-to-wheel chains with highest
subsequent gas cleaning/treatment.
                                            efficiency
Work will be done to determine
                                          • Lowest possible biomass-to-wheel emissions
suitable gas compositions and required
                                            (pollutants and CO2)
purity levels of the synthesis gas with
regard to synthesis of premium fuels.     • Potential for European technical implemen-
                                            tation at affordable cost
Apart from marketable biofuels, for                                                              Pathways for the production of BTL fuels
which innovative production paths are     The conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass via
explored, a new type of synthetic fuel,   gasification into a synthesis gas offers a variety
                                          of opportunities for the production of liquid As a result of this project, a comprehensive
biomass-to-liquid (BTL), will be
                                          fuels made from biomass and will lead to recom- knowledge-base regarding BTL fuels (Biomass to
produced at pilot level through
                                          mendations for future realisation.                   Liquid) produced through gasification of ligno-
Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis.                                                                cellulosic biomass will become available to relevant
The latter will be submitted to tests                                                          stakeholders in the EU, thus allowing for a more
                                          Project structure
both in current and in new internal                                                            profound assessment of the impact of future
combustion engines.                       A European consortium led by Volkswagen AG road transport at the environmental, economic
                                          has joined forces to develop, demonstrate and and social levels.
                                          comparatively assess pathways from biomass to
                                                                                               RENEW is structured in six sub-projects. The first
                                          different energy carriers with a single common
                                                                                               four are devoted to research and development
                                          intermediate product: synthesis gas. The conver-
                                                                                               of fuels and production pathways. Sub-project
                                          sion of lingo-cellulosic biomass (wood, straw and
                                                                                               five undertakes the assessment activities and sub-
                                          energy plants) via gasification into a synthesis gas
                                                                                               project six is devoted to knowledge dissemination
                                          offers a variety of opportunities for the production
                                                                                               and training.
                                          of fuel for transportation means.
                                          Major vehicle manufacturers, oil companies and
                                                                                                 Expected results
                                          plant builders are working together with research
                                          and development institutes in a four-year project      This project is expected to provide the scientific
                                          called RENEW to make a technical, economic             and technological base for the transition to sus-
                                          and environmental assessment of production             tainable and environmentally friendly road
                                          pathways for renewable fuels.                          transport, based on renewable fuels.



44        BIOFUELS FOR TRANSPORT
                                                                                                           Project Information
                                                                                                           Contract number
                                                                                                           502705

                                                                                                           Duration
                                                                                                           48 months

                                                                                                           Contact person
                                                                                                           Juliane Muth
                                                                                                           Volkswagen AG
                                                                                                           Juliane.Muth@volkswagen.de

                                                                                                           List of partners
                                                                                                           Abengoa Bioenergia S.L. – ES
                                                     Progress to Date                                      Asociacion de Investigacion y Cooperacion
                                                                                                           Industrial de Andalucia – ES
As a result of this project, a reliable knowledge    The halfway mark of the project has been reached
                                                                                                           B.A.U.M. Consult GmbH – DE
base covering a broad range of biofuels produced     and all activities of the project have started. The
                                                                                                           Biomasse-Kraftwerk
through gasification of the ligno-cellulosic bio-    overall progress achieved is close to plan:           Güssing GmbH & Co. KG – AT
mass open to relevant stakeholders in the EU will                                                          CERTH – GR
                                                     • 2500 litres of BTL fuels were produced
be available, thus allowing for a more profound                                                            Chemrec AB – SE
                                                       according to predetermined specifications
assessment of the impact of future road transport                                                          Clausthaler Umwelttechnik
                                                       regarding distillation cut and Cetane number
at the environmental, economic and social levels.                                                          Institut GmbH – DE
                                                       and were tested in engines at Volkswagen,
                                                                                                           CRES – GR
This IP will contribute to:                            DaimlerChrysler and Regienov/Renault.               DaimlerChrysler AG – DE
• Investigating and developing a broad spectrum • Engine tests with BTL and fuel analysis                  Deutsche BP AG – DE
   of pathways for the production of road fuels         revealed the potential for reducing emissions.     EC Baltic Renewable Energy Centre – PL
                                                                                                           Ecotraffic ERD AB – SE
   from a broad range of biomass, notably ligno-        Preliminary specifications for BTL fuels were
                                                                                                           Electricité de France – FR
   cellulosic.                                          agreed on by manufacturers and VW,
                                                                                                           ESU-services Rolf Frischknecht – CH
                                                        Daimler-Chrysler and Regienov/Renault.             Europäisches Zentrum für Erneuerbare
• Making the technologies available for produc-
   tion, distribution and use of renewable fuels. • The gasification processes at several gasifiers        Energie Güssing GmbH – AT
                                                        ranging from 400 kW to 7 MW were optimised         Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH – DE
• Assessing, optimising and comparing the                                                                  Institut für Energetik und
                                                        and two synthesis routes were installed for
   respective processes in detail with regard to                                                           Umwelt GmbH – DE
                                                        further testing.
   feasibility and application.                                                                            Instytut Technologii Nafty – PL
                                                      • The integration of a black liquor gasification     National University of Ireland – IE
• Producing Fischer-Tropsch fuels on a pilot                                                               Paul Scherrer Institut – CH
                                                        plant at a paper mill was analysed and the
   scale.                                                                                                  Renault Recherche et Innovation – FR
                                                        basic engineering was performed.
                                                                                                           Renewable Power Technologies
• Testing different charges of fuel through
                                                      • The production of ethanol via the thermo-          Umwelttechnik GmbH – CH
   detailed and long-term test-bench studies
                                                        chemical pathway is being studied in detail and    Skogsindustrins tekniska
   under realistic conditions.                                                                             forskningsinstitut AV – SE
                                                        work is focussed on the catalytic conversion.
• Assessing the energy chains, the costs and                                                               Södra Cell AB – SE
                                                      • The biomass potential in EU-28 was                 Syncom F&E-Beratung GmbH – DE
   emissions of CO2 by well-to-wheel and LCA
                                                        reviewed. Theoretical potential for BTL fuels      Total – FR
   analysis.
                                                        produced via gasification from biomass grown       UET Umwelt- und Energietechnik
• Providing the scientific and technological            on available arable land has been estimated at     Freiberg GmbH – DE
   basis needed for market decisions.                   1.5 EJ/y for the short term perspective and at     University of Lund – SE
                                                        over 12 EJ/y for long term perspective (> 2040),   Vienna University of Technology – AT
• Deducing lessons for large-scale implemen-                                                               Volkswagen AG – DE
                                                        based on energy crops. Estimating the transport
   tation and related socio-economic effects at                                                            Volvo Technology Corporation AB – SE
                                                        energy demand in 2040 and a 50% use of
   EU level.                                                                                               ZSW – DE
                                                        available biomass for BTL fuel production, a
• Drawing strategic conclusions and deriving            substantial part of the transportation energy      Website
   practical recommendations for mastering an           demand could be substituted.                       www.renew-fuel.com
   early transition to an affordable and sustainable
                                                      • Goal and scope for the LCA and an economic         Project officer
   transportation system.
                                                        and technological assessment were agreed.          Erich Naegele
• Providing the basis for achieving a cost target       The acquisition of necessary data from the
   of 70 eurocents/litre diesel equivalent within       thermochemical production pathways was             Status
   the subsequent demonstration phase of the            completed in 3/2006.                               ongoing
   best selected technologies.
                                                      • In August 2005 the 1st European Summer
Based on an understanding among relevant                School on Renewable Motor Fuels took place at
players in industry, SME, agriculture, research, etc,   the University of Trier’s campus in Birkenfeld,
RENEW has the vision to develop commonly                Germany. More than 120 people participated in
agreed strategic recommendations concerning the         the three-day course dedicated to all aspects of
technological and market potential of different         second-generation biofuels. The next European
fuels and their production technologies.                Summer School on Renewable Motor Fuels is
                                                        planned for summer 2007 in Poland.
                                                                                                                                                   45
BIOCARD

          Global Process to Improve Cynara Cardunculus
          Exploitation for Energy Applications

OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                                                                                                                 –
                                         The proposal aims at demonstrating the technical • Reduce emissions from fossil fuels –> CO2
The use of biomass in Europe for         and economic feasibility of a global process for    reduction costs
energy applications is growing in        exploitation of cardoon (Cynara Cardunculus L.)
                                                                                           • Develop a heterogeneous process to produce
                                         in energy applications. This energy crop is par-
importance year by year. Northern                                                            biodiesel, offering several advantages over
                                         ticularly suited to the Mediterranean region,
European countries have higher                                                               homogeneous processes:
                                         where problems of water insufficiency prevail.
biomass exploitation, with a high                                                            • A solid catalyst can be re-used
                                         A combined process to produce a low-cost liquid
                                                                                             • The washing steps, reducing large water
production of wood and crop residues     biofuel from seeds and energy from lingo-cellu-
                                                                                               volumes
due to a more appropriate climate.       losic biomass is proposed. Different technologies
                                                                                             • High-quality glycerine
Mediterranean countries must find        for biomass energy conversion will be studied
                                         and compared. In addition to breaking the cost • New raw material for energy production
proper dry-farming methods with low
                                         barriers, new heterogeneous catalysis for liquid
exploitation costs and targeting the
                                         biofuel production will be tested.
use of land set aside in recent years.                                                            Project Structure
                                         The main objectives are:
In order to achieve this goal, the                                                        The project has been subdivided into six work
BIOCARD project is focused on ‘Cynara    • Promote the use of biomass and liquid biofuels packages:
Cardunculus’, commonly know as             in Mediterranean areas
                                                                                          WP 0 Project coordination
‘Cynara’, as an alternative crop for     • Improve:
                                                                                          WP 1 Energy crop management and
solid and liquid biofuel production.       • Cynara crop
                                                                                                 harvesting
                                           • Cynara biomass valorisation
                                           • Cynara seeds valorisation                    WP 2 Biomass valorisation for energy
                                                                                                 conversion
                                         • Reduce liquid biofuel production costs:
                                           • New heterogeneous catalysis                  WP 3 Cynara seeds valorisation for energy
                                               –
                                              –> Regeneration of the catalyser                   conversion
                                         • Use as an alternative fuel in fossil power plant WP 4 Overall technical and economical
                                                                                                 evaluation. Feasibility study
                                                                                                  WP 5 Dissemination and exploitation
                                                                                                       activities



                                                                           TWO WAYS FOR WHOLE CYNARA BIOMASS
                                                                                      VALORISATION


                                                                FIELD WHOLE CYNARA                             FIELD SEPARATIVE CYNARA
                                                                BIOMASS HARVESTING                                BIOMASS HARVESTING


                                                                        Whole cynara                     Heads              Lignocellulosic
                                                                        biomass bales                                       Biomass bales

                                                                                                   THRESHING PLANT
                                                                SEPARATION STATIC PLANT

                                                                                                                   Waste
                                                               Fruits           Lignocellulosic     Fruits        biomass
                                                                                   biomass

                                                               Oil                ENERGY              Oil                    ENERGY
                                                           Press-cake                             Press-cake
                                                                                   PLANT                                      PLANT


                                         Cynara Valorisation

46        ENERGY FROM CROPS
                                                                                                                                          Project Information
                                                                                                                                          Contract Number
                                                                                                                                          19829

                                                                                                                                          Duration
                                                                                                                                          39 months

                                                                                                                                          Contact person
                                                                                                                                          Juan Azcue Salto
                                                                                                                                          Tecnatom S.A
                                                                                                                                          jmazcue@tecnatom.es

                                                                                                                                          List of Partners
                                                                                                                                          Centro de Investigation de Recursos
                                                                                                                                          y Consumos Energeticos – ES
                                                                                                                                          Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
                                         FEASIBILITY STUDY OF THE OVERALL PROCESS                                                         Cientificas – ES
                                                                                                                                          Endesa – ES
                                                                                                                                          Experimental Institute for the Mechanisation
                                                                                                                                          of Agriculture C.R.A. – IT
                                                                   New heterogeneous catalysis                                            Fundacion Gaiker – ES
                                                                                                                  LIQUID
                                                                                                                LIQUID
                                              CYNARA OIL
                                                                                                                BIOFUEL
                                                                                                                  BIOFUEL
                                                                                                                                          MAN B&W – DE
                                                                     Homogeneous catalysis
                                                                                                                                          Tecnatom SA – ES
                                                                                                                                          Polytechnical University of Madrid – ES
                                                                                                                                          Queens University, Belfast – GB
                                                                                                            Mixes characterization for
                                                                                         ANIMAL              stationary engine use.       Technical University of Denmark – DK
                                              OIL SEEDS
                                               OIL                SEEDCAKE             FEEDSTOCK
                                                                                                                                          University of Bologna – IT
                   Commercial mower                                                                                                       VTT – FI
                   + Static separation

     CYNARA                                                                    Pulverised Burners tests                                   Website
                     New mobile                                                                                             ELECTRICITY
                     Harvesting                                                                                                           http://projects.tecnatom.es/opencms/
                      machine
                                                 BIOMASS                        Grate -fired boiler tests                                 opencms/Biocard/Web
    Increase
      yield
                                                                                                                              ASHES       Project Officer
                                                                                    Fluidised bed tests.                                  Erich Naegele
                                               Pre -treatments

                                                                                                                                          Status
                                                                                                                                          ongoing
                            Logistic issues


Project Structur




Expected Results
This project is expected to promote the use of • Reduce liquid biofuel production costs:
biomass and liquid biofuels in Mediterranean       • Use of Cynara seeds to produce biofuel
areas where climatic conditions are not advan-        through traditional catalysis process
tageous, through the complete exploitation of      • Use a new heterogeneous catalysis process
Cynara products, giving a global solution that        for biodiesel production
could contribute to European policies of energy
                                                • Analyse biodiesel combustion alternatives for
supply and CO2 reduction.
                                                   electricity production:
The main BIOCARD objective will be covered         • Develop mixes of Cynara biofuel and
through several intermediate goals:                   Cynara oil for use in large stationary diesel
                                                      engines
• Optimisation of crop conditions to yield in
   biomass production                           Finally and taking account of the project results,
                                                a technical and economic assessment will be
• Development of new machinery to improve
                                                made of the global process as an alternative to
   seed separation from Cynara biomass
                                                traditional fuels for electrical generation.
• Analyze biomass combustion alternatives:
   • Co-combustion in burners
   • Combustion in grates
   • Combustion in fluidised beds




                                                                                                                                                                                   47
CROPGEN

          Renewable Energy from Crops
          and Agro-wastes

OBJECTIVES                               Challenges                                               Expected Results
                                         The concept is based on the use of anaerobic             The results will add to EU databases on bio-
The overall objective is to produce      digestion (AD) as a means of producing methane           energy crops, give engineers the necessary tools
from biomass a sustainable fuel source   from biomass, including energy crops and agri-           to further develop the technology, and provide
                                         cultural residues. The technology of biochemical         the farming community with evidence of pro-
that can be integrated into the
                                         methane generation is well established: the              fitable energy production without subsidy and
existing energy infrastructure in the
                                         breakthrough to a cost-effective and competitive         within the EU’s target cost for renewable energy.
medium term, and in the longer term      energy supply will come from engineering and             The work contributes to security and diversification
will also provide a safe and             technical improvements to increase conversion            of the energy supply, reduction in greenhouse gas
economical means of supplying the        efficiencies and from reductions in the cost of          emissions, soil amelioration and reduced water
needs of a developing hydrogen fuel      biomass by the introduction of integrated systems,       pollution. It will also create opportunities for
                                         including novel and multi-use crops and agro-            increased employment in agriculture and rein-
economy.
                                         wastes. The research aims to determine how the           forced competitiveness in technology exports.
                                         technology can best be applied to provide a ver-
                                         satile, low-cost carbon-neutral biofuel in an
                                                                                                  Progress to Date
                                         environmentally sound and sustainable agricultural
                                         framework.                                               Methane potential of crops
                                                                                                  • A range of plant species grown and sampled
                                         Project Structure                                          to provide material for Biochemical Methane
                                                                                                    Potential (BMP) assay.
                                         The first phase of the work identified energy
                                         crops and agro-wastes best fitted to energy pro-
                                         duction in an integrated farming environment.
                                         It considered the energy losses in production and
                                         processing, and used these to set net energy
                                         production targets as a technological goal. The
                                         role of storage and pre-treatments to enhance
                                         or reduce energy production is considered.
                                         Co-digestion is being evaluated as a means of
                                         improving energy yields from materials which
                                         are uneconomic for biogas production.
                                         Some agricultural residues are also being inves-
                                                                                                  • Working BMP protocol established and being
                                         tigated as potential high-yielding substrates.
                                                                                                    used as a basis for further development to
                                         Innovative bioreactor designs and operation modes
                                                                                                    look at growth stages and optimum harvest
                                         have been tested to determine their suitability for
                                                                                                    times.
                                         energy production from crop materials. A European
                                         database of bio-kinetics for use in design and           • Conditions of the test evaluated and found
                                         operation is being established. True life-cycle            to depend on a number of factors.
                                         costs of biogas production are being determined
                                                                                                  • Database established for different crop types.
                                         from large-scale trials. These will allow verification
                                         of laboratory data and predictive models, including
                                         decision support systems to optimise energy              Crop preparation and storage
                                         production. The work allows for the need to
                                                                                                  • Some potential to increase methane production
                                         achieve continuity of energy supply in an integrat-
                                                                                                    by alkaline and water-based pre-treatments,
                                         ed farming environment, and addresses broader
                                                                                                    and certain spoilage organisms.
                                         issues of sustainability, environmental impact and
                                         the influence of socio-economic factors on               • More important, poor treatment or storage
                                         application and uptake.                                    conditions reduce biogas yields.




48        ENERGY FROM CROPS
                                                                                                         Project Information
                                                                                                         Contract number
                                                                                                         502824

                                                                                                         Duration
                                                                                                         36 months

                                                                                                         Contact person
                                                                                                         Prof Charles Banks
                                                                                                         School of Civil Engineering
                                                                                                         and the Environment
                                                                                                         University of Southampton
                                                                                                         CJB@soton.ac.uk
Digestion trials                                                                                         List of partners
                                                                                                         Centre for Under-utilised Crops,
Trials conducted over a range of operational loading • Two-phase systems:
                                                                                                         University of Southampton – GB
rates and retention times to establish kinetic data
                                                       • treatment of post-distribution agro-wastes      Greenfinch Ltd – GB
for different crop species and agricultural wastes.                                                      Institute for Agrobiotechnology,
                                                         at thermophilic temperatures shows no
                                                         advantage in process stability or perform-      BOKU University – AT
                                                         ance compared to single phase controls;         Institute of Applied Microbiology,
                                                                                                         BOKU University – AT
                                                       • uncoupling of solids and liquids retention
                                                                                                         Consejo Superior
                                                         time in a first-phase mixed reactor with
                                                                                                         de Investigaciones Cientificas – ES
                                                         maize as a substrate failed to show             Metener Ltd – FI
                                                         improvement in rates of hydrolysis and          Organic Power Ltd – GB
                                                         solids destruction.                             University of Jyväskylä – FI
                                                                                                         University of Southampton – GB
                                                                                                         University of Venice – IT
                                                    Process modelling
Technology innovations                                                                                   University of Verona – IT
                                            • Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1) being                   University of Wageningen – NL
• Permeating bed reactors
                                              used as a basis for Virtual Laboratory and
                                                                                                         Website
• Single-bed systems using grass and maize    DSS.
                                                                                                         www.cropgen.soton.ac.uk
  give poor results – even with pH control:
                                                                                                         Project officer
   • permeating bed with second-stage high-rate Energy models
                                                                                                         Philippe Schild
     reactors gives greater potential for stable
                                                   • Database of energy inputs into the cultivation
     operation and biogas production;                                                                    Status
                                                     of different crop types established.
   • may be some potential for certain crop                                                              ongoing
     types, but preliminary results indicate • Energy usage model developed based on typical
     overall process efficiency is poorer than for   plant configurations and substrates.
     single-phase mixed reactors.
                                                    Integrated farming systems
                                                    • Major progress in understanding the relative
                                                      importance of factors affecting crop selection
                                                      and overall energy yield in an integrated farm-
                                                      ing environment: in particular effect of biomass
                                                      yield and fertiliser input requirements.


                                                    Dissemination
                                                    • Successful dissemination activities have led
                                                      to the exchange of ideas and the creation of
• Plug flow reactors:
                                                      valuable links with key actors and audiences.
   • interesting gas and acid production profile;
                                                       • IWA ADSW-2005 conference: special
   • may have some potential for certain waste
                                                         workshop on AD of agricultural residues.
     types, and the concept could be further
                                                       • Jyvasyla University Summer School 2005:
     exploited for refined fuel production and
                                                         Renewable Energy – biogas from energy
     biorefinery intermediates;
                                                         crops and agro-wastes.
   • still to explore very high solids systems
                                                       • Joint CROPGEN-IEA Bioenergy workshop
     with high recycle rates.
                                                         2005: Energy crops and biogas – pathways
                                                         to success?




                                                                                                                                               49
AER-GAS II

             AER-gasification with in-situ Hot Gas
             Cleaning Using Biomass for Poly-generation

 OBJECTIVES                                 Challenges
                                            The main characteristic of the AER (Absorption                       agglomeration, these feedstocks are difficult to
The project work concentrates on            Enhanced Reforming) process for the efficient                        handle in fluidised bed gasifiers. In the case of
the development and demonstration           and low-cost conversion of biomass is a CaO-                         AER conditions, low gasification temperatures
                                            containing bed material, a CO2 sorbent. It circu-                    (< 750°C) and the CaO-containing bed material
of a new, efficient and low-cost steam
                                            lates between two fluidised bed reactors, takes                      are supposed to prevent agglomeration.
gasification process for clean
                                            up CO2 in the reaction zone of a steam gasifier,
conversion of solid biomass.                                                                     The comparable low AER gasification temperature
                                            and releases CO2 in the combustor. As a result of
                                                                                                 has further interesting effects. The methane
By in situ gas cleaning/conditioning,       the in situ CO2 removal, the reaction equilibriums
                                                                                                 content of the raw gas increases, and tars mainly
a product gas with a high H2 content        are shifted towards hydrogen production and
                                                                                                 consist of primary and secondary tar components
(> 70 vol. %), high heating value           the tar concentration is reduced. Since the CO2
                                                                                                 (like phenol and toluene) instead of poly-cyclic
                                            absorption is a highly exothermic reaction, the
(15 MJ/Nm3; due to low CO2 and                                                                   compounds, being problematic in subsequent
                                            released heat is integrated directly into the
negligible N2 contents), and low                                                                 process steps. Despite the low temperature level,
                                            endothermic gasification/reforming process. The
tar/alkali/sulphur concentration is                                                              the tar content is still small due to the CO2 sor-
                                            principle of the AER process is illustrated in Fig. 1,
                                                                                                 bent. Considering commercial realisation, the
generated. Due to the high product          applying two fluidised bed reactors with circulating
                                                                                                 downstream gas cleaning unit can be simplified,
gas quality, it is suitable for various     sorbent bed material.
                                                                                                 because the product gas quality is increased by
applications like CHP (Combined Heat        While biomass is gasified with steam in the first implementing in situ hot gas cleaning, thereby
and Power) generation,                      fluidised bed reactor at 650-700°C (1 bar), the reducing plant complexity and costs.
SNG (Substitute Natural Gas),               loaded absorbent material is transported –
                                                                                                 Important advantages of the AER process were
hydrogen or synthesis gas production.       together with gasification residues – into a second
                                                                                                 demonstrated in the recent European AER-GAS
                                            fluidised bed reactor for regeneration. This calci-
                                                                                                 project. They are briefly summarised as follows:
                                            nation reaction at ca. 800°C is achieved through
Besides the delivery of an improved
                                            combustion of biomass residuals. Additional fuel • Product gas with high hydrogen content (up
catalytic CO2 sorbent bed material,         is needed, allowing the adjustment of the                to 80 vol. %)
the project aims to open up new             process temperature. Two gas streams are
                                                                                                 • Low CO2 content
biomass potentials such as humid and        obtained, a H2-rich product gas as well as a CO2-
mineral-rich resources. The overall         enriched flue gas.                                   • Low tar content (< 500 mg/m3) by in situ hot
                                                                                                     gas cleaning
goal is the operation of the 8 MWth         The requirements on appropriate CO2-sorbent bed
power plant at Guessing in AER mode.        materials are high: sufficient mechanical stability, • In situ heat supply for endothermic biomass
                                            suitable sorption properties, and preferably also        conversion. The following figure shows a typical
                                            catalytic activity encouraging tar removal.              composition of the raw product gas and of
                                                                                                     the lower heating value (LHV) obtained dur-
                                            Further challenges are to consider mineral-rich
                                                                                                     ing continuous wood gasification in the AER-
                                            biomass resources like straw as fuel for gasifi-
                                                                                                     FICFB gasifier.
                                            cation. Due to ash melting, leading to bed material

                                                                                   H2 -rich                                CO2 -rich
                                                                                Product Gas                               Flue Gas



                                                                               ABSORPTION
                                                                                ABSORPTION                CaO
                                                                                 ENHANCED
                                                                                ENHANCED
                                                                                 REFORMING
                                                                               REFORMING
                                                                                                                        COMBUSTION
                                                                                                                       COMBUSTION
                                                                                                      Chemical
                                                                             Gaseous     Products       Loop                  +
                                                                                                                              +
                                                                                                                         CALCINATION
                                                                                                                       CALCINATION

                                                                Biomass                                 CaCO3                                        Additional
                                                                                                     Solid Products                                  Fuel

                                                                                           AER Gasifier                                Regenerator

                                                                                       Steam                                 Air

                                                                          T = 600 – 700 °C (1 bar)                    T > 800 °C (1 bar)


                                            Principle of AER process: Coupling of two fluidised bed reactors for the continuous production of an H2-rich gas from bio-
                                            mass. The sorbent bed material circulates between the AER gasifier (CO2 absorption) and the combustor (CO2 desorption).
50           GASIFICATION AND H 2 -PRODUCTION
                                                                                                         Project Information
                                                                                                         Contract number
                                                                                                         518309

                                                                                                         Duration
                                                                                                         36 months

                                                                                                         Contact person
                                                                                                         Dr. Michael Specht
                                                                                                         Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen
                                                                                                         Research (ZSW)
                                                                                                         michael.specht@zsw-bw.de

                                                                                                         List of partners
                                                                                                         Biomasse-Kraftwerk Guessing GmbH – AT
                                                                                                         FORTH (ICE-HT) – GR
These results show that the product gas is not   Within WP 4, the 8 MWth plant at Guessing is
                                                                                                         Institute for Energy Technology – NO
only suitable for combined heat and power gen-   operated in order to prove the feasibility of
                                                                                                         GE Jenbacher GmbH & Co OHG – AT
eration, but also for e.g. hydrogen or substitutescale-up of the AER process and in order to             Paul Scherrer Institute – CH
natural gas (SNG) production. On one hand, the   assess the economic aspects of the process. The         University of Cyprus – CY
product gas composition can be controlled by     existing gas engine is modified to be operated with     University of Stuttgart – DE
process conditions (e.g. by temperature). On the the H2-rich product gas for electricity production.     Vienna University of Technology – AT
other hand, it can be upgraded downstream e.g.   Recorded data will be provided for process              ZSW – DE
by machination or by gas separation.             analysis, efficiency calculation and economic
                                                 analysis, undertaken in WP 5. As a result, the          Website
Thus, the AER process has a high potential for                                                           www.aer-gas.de
                                                 AER mode will be compared with the normal
decentralised efficient poly-generation of heat,
                                                 gasification mode in order to point out the market      Project officer
power and fuel from different biomass resources.
                                                 potential and the cost-reduction potential of the       Maria Fernandez Gutierrez
                                                 new technology.
Project Structure                                                                                        Status
                                                                                                         ongoing
The structure of the project with its five work Expected Results
packages (WP) and the contributing partners. Main
                                                   Whereas in the former AER-GAS project the
outcomes of single WPs are added to show the
                                                   feasibility of the AER process was proven with
networking.
                                                   very good results (e.g. high product gas quality),
WP 1 concentrates on the delivery of a suitable this follow-up project concentrates on the
CO2 sorbent bed material, a core component of demonstration of the technology on an industrial
the AER process. Natural materials (e.g. dolomite, scale, as well as on new aspects like multi-fuel
limestone) are characterised in terms of:          compatibility, material research and tar formation/
                                                   removal mechanisms. Important expected
• Mechanical stability
                                                   results are listed as follows.
• Catalytic activity towards tar reforming
                                                   • Production of a raw product gas from bio-
• CO2 absorption capacity during repeated             mass with low tar, sulphur and alkali content,
   absorption/regeneration cycles. Pre-treatment      increased H2 concentration, and high calorific
   methods are developed and deactivation             value.
   mechanisms are investigated in order to
                                                   • Proof of the multi-fuel compatibility of the
   improve the performance of the CO2 sorbent.
                                                      technology by using different fuels, e.g.
WP 2 deals with the analysis of the tar formation/    straw, and wood with various moisture levels.
decomposition process in the presence of different
                                                   • Availability of CO2 sorbent with high
absorbents in order to further reduce the tar
                                                      mechanical and chemical cycle stability.
content and to optimise the in situ gas cleaning.
Furthermore, natural and commercial catalysts are • Mechanically and chemically stable catalyst
screened and characterised in terms of attrition      (preferable natural catalyst or sorbent) to
and activity. Pre-selected materials are delivered    enhance conversion reactions in the gasifier.
to partners in WP 3 and WP 4.
                                                   • Proof of scale-up by adaptation of the existing
In WP 3, the multi-feedstock compatibility is         power plant at Guessing (8 MWth biomass
investigated by gasification of mineral-rich bio-     gasifier) to the AER technology; data basis
mass (e.g. straw) and of humid wood. Due to low       for future plant design.
gasification temperatures and the presence of
                                                   • Proof of power generation from H2-rich AER
CaO (increasing the ash melting point), agglom-
                                                      product gas by adaptation of the existing gas
eration of the bed material is not expected.
                                                      engine at Guessing.
The gas composition is analysed, not only with
respect to the major compounds (H2, CH4, CO, • Proof of the economic and energetic advan-
CO2), but also alkali, tar and sulphur.               tages of the innovative technology.


                                                                                                                                                 51
BIGPOWER

           Advanced Biomass Gasification
           for High-efficiency Power

 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          The BiGPower project aims to develop reliable,       In all biomass gasification processes, the product
The BiGPower project is related to the    cost-effective and fuel-flexible gasification        gas contains several types of gas contaminants
development of second-generation          technologies for high-efficiency small-to-medium     which have to be efficiently removed before
                                          scale (1-100 MWe) power production from              utilising the gas in advanced power systems. The
high-efficiency biomass-to-electricity
                                          biomass. The project is designed to create the       key technical solutions to be developed are:
technologies which have the potential
                                          fundamental and technical basis for successful
to meet the targets of cost effective                                                          • High-temperature catalytic removal of tars
                                          industrial follow-up developments and demonstra-
                                                                                                 and ammonia by new catalytic methods
electricity production (< € 0.05/kWh      tion projects aiming for commercial breakthrough
by 2015) from a wide range of             by 2010-2020. This overall aim is approached by      • Development of innovative low-cost gas
biomass and waste fuels in size ranges    carrying out, in a pre-competitive manner,             filtration and the control of different gas
                                          well-focused R&D activities on the key bottlenecks     contaminants by sorbents (HCl and alkali/
typical of locally available feedstock
                                          of advanced biomass gasification power systems.        heavy metals).
sources (below 100 MWe).
                                                                                               Three of the most potential power production
                                          Project Structure                                    cycle alternatives are examined and developed:
                                          Three promising European gasification technologies • Gas engines
                                          in this target size range have been selected to form
                                                                                               • Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC)
                                          the basis for the development of the second-
                                          generation processes:                                • The simplified Integrated Gasification Combined
                                                                                                   Cycle (IGCC) process.
                                          • Air-blow novel fixed-bed gasifier for size range
                                              of 0.5-5 MWe.                                    The performance and techno-economic feasibility
                                                                                               of these advanced gasification-to-power concepts
                                          • Steam gasification in a dual-fluidised-bed
                                                                                               will be examined by carrying out case studies in
                                              gasifier for 5-50 MWe.
                                                                                               different European regions.
                                          • Air-blown pressurised fluidised-bed gasification
                                              technology for 5-100 MWe.




                                          Figure 1: Focus of BIGPOWER project.

52         GASIFICATION AND H 2 -PRODUCTION
                                                      Expected Results
The work plan for BiGPower is divided into seven The most economical gasification technology that
R&D work packages and supporting project can be realised on a small scale (below 5 MWe) is
management:                                          fixed-bed gasification. However, most of the
                                                     available biomass residues in Europe do not
WP 1 Advanced gas cleaning
                                                     meet the requirements of commercial fixed-bed
WP 2 Dual fluid-bed gasification                     gasifiers. Usually the bulk density is low, the fuel
                                                     is fibrous and also contains fines, which creates
WP 3 Novel air-blown gasification
                                                     problems with the gas flow in gasifiers relying
WP 4 Improved pressurised gasification               on gravity for fuel feed in the reactor. Thus, fixed-
                                                     bed gasifiers can only be operated with high-
WP 5 Advanced gasifier engine plants
                                                     quality and expensive wood chips, briquettes or
WP 6 Biomass Gasification Molten Carbonate pellets, which makes their use uneconomical. The
         Fuel Cell system development                new NOVEL-gasification technology uses forced
                                                     fuel feeding, making it possible to effectively
WP 7 Case studies and techno-economic
                                                     utilise such biomass residues and energy crops that
         assessment
                                                     cannot otherwise be used in fixed-bed gasifiers
The partners in this project are complementary in without expensive pre-treatment.
their expertise and, clearly, the close cooperation
                                                     The gasifier can be operated with a wide range
of top research groups and innovative industrial
                                                     of biomass residues (moisture content 0-55%,
companies will strongly promote the introduction
                                                     particle size from sawdust to large chips). The
of the advanced gasification technologies to the
                                                     first generation Novel CHP plant (2 MWe and 4
European market. The three gasification tech-
                                                     MW district heat) is presently under construction
nologies of the project consortium represent the
                                                     in Kokemäki, Finland. The basis of this technology
most promising technologies for the biomass-to-
                                                     was created in previous EU projects realised in
electricity markets as defined in the RES-e and
                                                     1997-2002 (by project partners VTT and
CHP Directives and, together, they can cover the
                                                     Condens). The BiGPower project is aiming to create
whole range of potential sizes, different fuels
                                                     a basis for the second-generation Novel process,
and applications. The cooperation of gasification
                                                     which can be used in advanced power cycles of
manufacturers, gas cleaning developers, and
                                                     the project and with the whole range of biomass
engine and fuel cell suppliers is also a unique
                                                     and waste fuels.
feature of the BiGPower project, which could not
have been realised on a national or bilateral basis.




                                                                                                             53
BIGPOWER

           Advanced Biomass Gasification
           for High-Efficiency Power


                                          The innovative dual fluidised-bed gasification        selected optimised gasification technologies with
                                          process was originally developed in Austria in the    new innovative gas engine and MCFC concepts.
                                          late 1990s (by TUV and Repotec). This gasification
                                                                                              In all biomass gasification processes, the product
                                          process can produce a medium-heating-value
                                                                                              gas contains several types of gas contaminants,
                                          gas without the need for expensive oxygen plant.
                                                                                              which have to be efficiently removed before
                                          As the product gas does not contain diluting
                                                                                              utilising the gas in advanced power systems. The
                                          nitrogen, it can be utilised more easily in gas
                                                                                              high concentrations of tars, nitrogenous species
                                          engines, fuel cells or gas turbines originally
                                                                                              and alkali-metals are typical challenges for bio-
                                          developed for natural gas. This gasification
                                                                                              mass gasification that have created numerous
                                          process also has a good potential for small-scale
                                                                                              operational problems in previous gasification
                                          production of hydrogen or synthetic natural gas.
                                                                                              plants. The project partners have already been
                                          The first-generation dual fluid-bed process has
                                                                                              able to overcome this critical barrier of biomass
                                          been demonstrated in Guessing, Austria (2 MWe
                                                                                              gasification by using first-generation catalytic
                                          and 5 MW district heat). The BiGPower project is
                                                                                              gas-cleaning and/or oil-scrubbing. However, these
                                          aiming to create the basis for the second-
                                                                                              present gas-cleaning methods are expensive and
                                          generation dual fluid-bed process, which can be
                                                                                              have only limited utilisation potential. The
                                          used in advanced power cycles of the project
                                                                                              BiGPower project is aiming to develop effective
                                          (gas engines, fuel cells) as well as in future
                                                                                              and reliable novel gas cleaning methods which can
                                          H2/CH4 production systems.
                                                                                              be realised with substantially lower investment and
                                          The third gasification technology of the project operation costs and with higher availability than
                                          team, air-blown pressurised fluidised-bed gasifi- the present technology.
                                          cation, was developed in the 1990s (by Carbona
                                                                                              The simplified IGCC process based on pressurised
                                          and VTT), originally for Integrated Gasification
                                                                                              air-blow gasification and hot-gas filtration offers
                                          Combined Cycle power plants and for size ranges
                                                                                              the best potential for increasing substantially the
                                          30-150 MWe. The gasification and gas-cleaning
                                                                                              efficiency of biomass-based electricity production
                                          steps of the first-generation process were suc-
                                                                                              in large-scale power production. This gasification
                                          cessfully demonstrated in the 20 MW pilot plant
                                                                                              technology was developed in Finland in the early
                                          in Tampere, Finland. Presently this technology is
                                                                                              1990s and successfully demonstrated in two pilot
                                          applied in a gas engine demonstration project in
                                                                                              plants in ca. 20 MW fuel size-range (Tampere and
                                          Skive, Denmark (5 MWe, 15 MW district heat). In the
                                                                                              Värnämo). However, the commercial break-
                                          BiGPower project, the basis for second-generation
                                                                                              through of BIGCC technology requires further
                                          pressurised fluidised-bed gasification will be
                                                                                              development and cost reduction of the processes,
                                          created for IGCC plants and large gas engine
                                                                                              which is the target of the BiGPower project.
                                          plants.
                                          In small-scale (1-15 MWe) power production,
                                          the most potential systems are based on either
                                          advanced gas engines or molten carbonate fuel
                                          cells (MCFC). The most developed state-of-the-art
                                          gas engines for the target size-range have been
                                          developed in Austria (by GE Jenbacher) and,
                                          according to VTT preliminary studies, the most
                                          potential fuel cell system for biomass gasification
                                          applications has been developed in Germany (by
                                          project partner MTU CFC Solutions). The aim of
                                          the BiGPower project is to study and develop
                                          new innovative power concepts integrating




54         GASIFICATION AND H 2 -PRODUCTION
                                                                                                                  Project Information
                                                                                                                  Contract number
                                                                                                                  019761

                                                                                                                  Duration
                                                                                                                  36 months

                                                                                                                  Contact person
                                                                                                                  Esa Kurkela
                                                                                                                  VTT
                                                                                                                  esa.kurkela@vtt.fi

                                                                                                                  List of participants
                                                                                                                  Biomasse Kraftwerk Güssing – AT
                                                            Progress to Date                                      Carbona Oy – FI
                                                                                                                  CERTH – GR
In gasification applications especially, the CO slip        The project started in October 2005, in accordance
                                                                                                                  Condens Oy – FI
from the engine can be considerable. The values             with the work plan. In WP1 first new catalyst
                                                                                                                  Helsinki University of Technology – FI
can be in the range of thousands of ppm, which              materials have been produced by MEL, Norta,           GE Jenbacher GmbH & Co KG – AT
clearly exceeds the emission standards in many              TKK and VTT and catalytic filter samples have         Madison Filter Ltd. – GB
European countries. Consequently, this matter can           been made by Madison Filter. The laboratory and       MEL Chemicals – GB
become a major hurdle in the commercialisation              bench-scale testing has also started. In WP2          MTU CFC Solutions GmbH – DE
of gasification-based engine power plants.                  (Novel fixed-bed gasifier), studies on waste          Notra UAB – LT
Therefore special emphasis has to be paid to the            water minimisation have been carried out and          Repotec GmbH – AT
control of CO, in addition to all other gaseous             the slip-stream testing of new catalysts from         Vienna University of Technology – AT
emissions. Furthermore, contaminated waste-                 WP1 has been started. In WP3, the experimental        VTT – FI
water from gas scrubbers and condensers requires            activities at TUV on improved fuel flexibility have
                                                                                                                  Website
treatment before it can be discarded, and it would          been started by TUV and Repotec. In WP4, IGCC         http://www.vtt.fi/proj/bigpower
be advantageous if complete wastewater recycling            process modelling and a gas turbine survey have
in the process could be achieved. Therefore the             been carried out by Carbona and CERTH. In WP5         Project officer
development of near-zero emission power plant               and WP6, GEJ and MTU have started their activities    Philippe Schild
concepts is one of the main R&D topics in the               on optimised gas engine and fuel cell processes
                                                                                                                  Status
BiGPower project.                                           for biomass gasification gas.
                                                                                                                  ongoing
All the technologies selected for this project
have the required potential to meet the targets
of efficient, reliable and economically attractive
power production. In addition, these technologies
cover the whole range of most potential electricity
production capacities from 0.5 MWe up to 100
MWe. Only the very small scale (kW-scale) and,
on the other hand, the 500-1000 MWe concepts
are excluded from this proposed project.




Slip stream catalyst testing at Kokemäki Novel gasification demonstration plant.

                                                                                                                                                           55
BIOCELLUS

            Biomass Fuel Cell Utility System



 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges                                            Project Structure
                                           Energy from biomass needs highly efficient           The BIOCELLUS project addresses in particular
Fuel cell systems for biomass have         small-scale energy systems in order to achieve       these two aims. Hence the first part of the project
to meet at least two outstanding           cost-effective solutions for decentralised gener-    will focus on the investigation of the impact of
                                           ation. Especially in Mediterranean and southern      these pollutants on the degradation and perfor-
challenges: fuel cell materials and
                                           areas and for applications without adequate          mance characteristics of SOFC fuel cells, in order
the gas cleaning technologies have
                                           heat consumers, highest efficiencies are needed      to specify the requirements for an appropriate
to treat the high dust loads of the        due to the fact that no revenues for heat may be     gas cleaning system. These tests will be per-
fuel gas and gas pollutants like tars,     achieved. Thus fuel cells are an attractive option   formed at four existing gasification sites, which
alkalines and heavy metals, and the        for distributed generation from biomass and          represent the most common and applicable
system integration has to allow            agricultural residues.                               gasification technologies. A long-term test at a
                                                                                                commercial gasification site will demonstrate
efficiencies of at least 40-50%            Due to their robustness, solid oxide fuel cells
                                                                                                the selected gas cleaning technologies in order
even within a power range of a few         (SOFCs) are applicable above all other concepts
                                                                                                to verify the specifications obtained from the
tens or hundreds of kW in order to         to the use of gaseous fuels from biomass. They
                                                                                                gasification tests.
                                           operate with exhaust gas temperatures between
achieve the cost targets of € 0.05/kW.
                                           800°C and 1000°C and are able to convert not The results will be used for the development,
                                           only hydrogen but also carbon monoxide and installation and testing of an innovative SOFC gasi-
The BIOCELLUS project addresses in         even hydrocarbons. But; even if the fuel gas fication concept, which will especially match the
particular these two aims –                matches the strict requirements of SOFC mem- particular requirements of fuel cell systems for the
the investigation of the pollutants’       branes, the main challenge of the conversion of conversion of biomass feedstock. The innovative
impact on the fuel cell, and the           biogenous fuel gas is to achieve the required concept comprises heating an allothermal gasifier
                                           efficiency of the fuel cell system. Common bio- with the exhaust heat of the fuel cell by means of
development and demonstration of
                                           mass fuel cell systems with realistic boundary liquid metal heat pipes. Internal cooling of the
an integrated fuel cell system which
                                           conditions will hardly reach efficiencies above stack and the recirculation of waste heat increases
meets the special requirements of          30%, due to the low hydrogen and methane the system efficiency significantly. This so-called
biofuels.                                  content of biogenous fuel gases, which reduces TopCycle concept promises electrical efficiencies of
                                           the fuel cell efficiency and the physical limitation above 50% even for small-scale systems without
                                           of the cold gas efficiency of any gasification any combined processes.
                                           system. Thus the system performance and the
                                           thermal integration of the gasification process
                                                                                                Expected Results
                                           are of particular importance.
                                                                                                The main three results of the project will be:
                                           Fuel Cells for biomass conversion therefore have
                                           to meet at least two outstanding challenges:         • The performance characteristics of SOFC mem-
                                                                                                   branes (‘polarisation curves’: cell voltage with
                                           • Fuel cell materials and the gas cleaning tech-
                                                                                                   respect to the current density) for different gas
                                               nologies have to treat high dust loads of the
                                                                                                   compositions and varying operational condition.
                                               fuel gas and pollutants like tars, alkalines and
                                                                                                   Measuring the cell voltage and its degradation
                                               heavy metals.
                                                                                                   under realistic conditions is inevitably necessary
                                           • The system integration has to allow efficiencies      for a reliable estimation of fuel cell efficiency,
                                               of at least 40-50% even within a power              requirements for the gas conditioning system
                                               range of a few tens or hundreds of kW: this         and the economic assessment of upcoming
                                               can be realised with the TopCycle concept.          SOFC concepts based on biomass feedstock.
                                                                                                 • The design and demonstration of an appropriate
                                                                                                   gas cleaning concept which matches the
                                                                                                   severe requirements of SOFC systems.




56          GASIFICATION AND H 2 -PRODUCTION
                                                                                                              Project Information
                                                                                                              Contract number
                                                                                                              502759

                                                                                                              Duration
                                                                                                              36 months

                                                                                                              Contact person
                                                                                                              PD Dr.-Ing. J. Karl
                                                                                                              Munich University of Technology
                                                                                                              karl@es.mw.tum.de

                                                                                                              List of partners
                                                                                                              Aristotle University of Thessaloniki – GR
                                                                                                              COWI – DK
                                                                                                              Delft University of Technology – NL
                                                                                                              DM2 GmbH – DE
                                                                                                              ECN – NL
                                                                                                              Graz University of Technology – AT
                                                                                                              HTM Reetz GmbH – DE
                                                                                                              iT consult – DE
                                                                                                              MAB Anlagenbau – AT
                                                                                                              Munich University of Technology – DE
                                                                                                              National Technical University of Athens – GR
                                                                                                              Prototech – NO
                                                                                                              Siemens – DE
                                                                                                              Technical University of Denmark – DK
                                                                                                              University of Ljubljana – SI
                                                                                                              University of Stuttgart – DE

                                                                                                              Website
Testing set-up at 168 hours testing                                                                           www.biocellus.de

                                                                                                              Project officer
• The conception and demonstration of an              SOFCs. The gas cleaning device has proved its           Jeroen Schuppers
  innovative stack and system design (internal        functionality and reliability during testing at the
  stack cooling by means of heat pipes) that          different gasifiers, as no degradation was              Status
  meets the special requirements of highly effi-      observed during the 24-hour tests. It will be further   ongoing
  cient fuel cell systems with integrated gasifi-     improved and adapted for long-term testing at a
  cation of biomass and wastes. This will be          commercial gasification site.
  measured and evaluated by means of a
                                                      An innovative stack design, which implements
  detailed cost analysis based on the chosen
                                                      the TopCycle concept with its high efficiencies
  system design.
                                                      by means of heat pipes, has been conceived for
                                                      planar and for tubular fuel cells. These two
Progress to Date                                      designs achieve an effective heat transfer from
                                                      the stack towards the gasifier on the one hand,
In order to characterise the performance of SOFC
                                                      and an isothermal temperature distribution
membranes with different gas compositions and
                                                      within the stack which avoids carbon deposition
varying operational conditions, two test rigs
                                                      on the other hand. The two concepts will be
have been designed and built, one for planar and
                                                      tested by building short prototype stacks first,
one for tubular SOFCs. With the help of these test
                                                      after which the consortium will vote for the
rigs preliminary tests with synthetic wood gas have
                                                      most promising concept to be realised through a
been carried out, in order to identify degradation
                                                      5kW stack.
processes with gas mixtures of hydrocarbons. After
successful testing with synthetic gases, tests at
three different gasifiers have been carried out.
At all gasifiers, two fixed bed and one fluidised
bed gasifier, no degradation of the membranes
was observed during short-term testing, the
longest lasting 168 hours. The testing will be
continued at one other gasifier with different
testing parameters.
In order to make these tests at the gasifiers feasible,
a gas cleaning device has been designed and
built which comprises desulphurisation, particle
removal and pre-reforming. The pre-reforming
can be bypassed in order to examine the effects
of higher hydrocarbons on the performance of TopCycle Concept
                                                                                                                                                       57
CHRISGAS

           Clean Hydrogen-rich Synthesis Gas



 OBJECTIVES                                 Challenges
                                            The Kyoto Protocol addresses the need to reduce      The project also concentrates on research-related
The primary aim of the CHRISGAS             the transport sector’s dependence on oil. The        networking, training and dissemination activities,
project is to demonstrate within            CHRISGAS project responds directly to this chal-     as well as on socio-economic research on the
                                            lenge with its aim of arriving at a cost-effective   non-technical obstacles for penetration into the
a five-year period an energy-efficient
                                            and attractively viable solution to producing a      markets of the technologies concerned.
and cost-effective method of
                                            high-quality syngas from the thermochemical
producing hydrogen-rich gases               process of the gasification of biomass. This gasi-
from biomass which can then                                                                      Progress to Date
                                            fication/synthesis route is expected to be lower
be transformed into renewable               in cost than the hydrolysis/fermentation route.      As mentioned, the key work areas of the project
automotive fuels such as FT diesel,         Cost-effective means high-energy efficiency for      are related to the activities around the Värnamo
                                            process competitiveness. This implies the high-      pilot plant. During the first 18 months a study
DME and hydrogen. This syngas
                                            est possible gas filtration temperature – in the     providing conceptual engineering design alter-
process is based on steam/oxygen-blown
                                            range of 800 to 900°C – with, preferably an          natives (including mass and energy balances,
gasification of biomass, followed           acceptable function of catalytic steam reforming     definitions of all streams, PFD, PID, basic equip-
by hot-gas cleaning to remove               to decompose methane, tar and other hydro-           ment specifications, etc.) has been performed, as
particulates, and steam-reforming           carbons when in the presence of certain sulphur      well as an initial risk assessment. A basic engi-
of tar and light hydrocarbons to            compounds.                                           neering study of the planned rebuild using an
                                                                                                 external engineering consultant has also been
further enhance the hydrogen yield.         The major forthcoming challenge in the project
                                                                                                 completed. This later part has been funded out-
                                            is rebuilding and putting back into operation the
                                                                                                 side the project. In addition a thorough status
The process is planned for                  large complex pilot unit, Växjö Värnamo Biomass
                                                                                                 review of the existing pilot plant at Värnamo has
                                            Gasification Centre, which has been mothballed
demonstration at Värnamo, Sweden,                                                                been conducted. Maintenance needs and modi-
                                            under a conservation programme for more than
after modifications to the world’s first                                                         fication requirements have been identified and
                                            five years. The Centre can then be used as a plat-
complete IGCC demonstration plant                                                                this work is ongoing at the plant. In the status
                                            form for advanced research, development and
                                                                                                 review the gasifier, feed system, ash system and
for biomass. Parallel R&D activities        demonstration and testing of biomass gasifica-
                                                                                                 gas cooling as well as auxiliary systems were
cover the whole value chain from            tion. It is hence being designed to include possi-
                                                                                                 checked for function and/or quality.
biomass to syngas and include:              bilities for gas cleaning and upgrading as well as
                                            conversion of gases to gaseous and/or liquid
feedstock biomass logistics, biomass
                                            energy carriers at semi-industrial level.
drying integration, pressurised fuel
feeding, gasification, hot synthesis gas    Another significant technical challenge is to find
                                            a solution to reducing the inert gas consump-
characterisation, high-temperature
                                            tion and its presence in the syngas. An innova-
filtration/cleaning, catalytic steam
                                            tive piston system for feeding biomass to the
reforming and shift gas catalyst            gasifier is being developed within the project to
characterisation. This will all lead onto   tackle this.
the next phase: conversion of gas into
motor fuels (Biomass to Liquids, BTL).      Project Structure
                                            The hub of this project is based around the Växjö
                                            Värnamo Biomass Gasification Centre (VVBGC)
                                            in Sweden and the use of the biomass-fuelled
                                            pressurised IGCC (integrated gasification com-
                                            bined-cycle) CHP (combined heat and power)
                                            plant in Värnamo as a pilot facility. By building
                                            VVBGC around this plant, gasification research
                                            and demonstration activities can be conducted
                                            at a much lower cost than if a new R&D facility
                                            was to be built. This part of the project is sup-
                                            ported by the RTD and demonstration parts of
                                            the CHRISGAS project.
58         GASIFICATION AND H 2 -PRODUCTION
                                                                                                               Project Information
                                                                                                               Contract Number
                                                                                                               502587

                                                                                                               Duration
                                                                                                               60 months

                                                                                                               Contact Person
                                                                                                               Dr Sune Bengtsson
                                                                                                               Växjö Värnamo Biomass Gasification Centre
                                                                                                               Sune.Bengtsson@vxu.se

                                                                                                               List of Partners
                                                                                                               AGA-Linde – DE
                                                                                                               Catator – SE
                                                                                                               CIEMAT – ES
                                                       Catalyst lifetime and degradation rate in the
                                                                                                               Delft University of Technology – NL
                                                       gasifier raw-gas atmosphere is another signifi-
                                                                                                               Foschungszentrum Jülich – DE
                                                       cantly important area within CHRISGAS. The              KS Ducente – SE
                                                       specific trends of the deactivation using 20 and        Pall Schumacher – DE
                                                       50 ppm of H2S in the feed have been observed in         Perstorp – SE
                                                       laboratory tests, as well as the positive effect of     Royal Technical University – SE
                                                       increasing the temperature and O2 concentration.        S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project – SE
                                                       The analysis of the catalyst exposed to sulphur         Södra – SE
                                                       deactivation has shown a specific decrease of           TK Energi – DK
                                                       available Ni atoms attributed to NiS formation.         TPS Termiska Processer AB – SE
                                                       An increase of the Ni0 crystal size, associated         University of Bologna – IT
                                                                                                               University of Växjö – SE
                                                       with the high temperature obtained during the
                                                                                                               Valutec – SE
The studies within the work area ‘Fuel Supply          tests with oxygen, has also been observed.
                                                                                                               Växjö Energi – SE
and Management’ are well advanced. The                 A reactivation of catalyst activity takes place         Växjö Värnamo Biomass
methodological approach to estimating poten-           when adding oxygen to the catalyst. This is very        Gasification Centre – SE
tial biomass resources has been developed, and         significant in making the catalytic reforming
data concerning agricultural and forest residues       process viable. In conjunction with the charact-        Website
has been collected for Spain, France, Italy and        erisation and activity studies on reformer catalysts,   www.chrisgas.com
Greece. In these evaluated countries, the poten-       the first year of the project has indicated that the
                                                                                                               Project Officer
tial of agricultural field residues have been          pilot plant would benefit from studies on com-          Philippe Schild
found to reach 160 million o.d.t/year and the          mercial water gas shift catalysts. Work has therefore
forest residues potential 36 million o.d./t year.      been expanded within CHRISGAS to encompass              Status
The required databases are ready to be used            such water gas shift catalyst investigations.           ongoing
throughout the EU.
To investigate the influence of process/fuel
parameters on steam/oxygen blown CFB gasifi-
cation, a considerable number of experiments
have been carried out in atmospheric conditions
at the laboratories of two of the partners, using
common fuels supplied by one of the partners.
These results are a very valuable base for the
large pilot demonstration programme at
Värnamo. Pilot research work has also been con-
ducted, resulting in knowledge within the area
                                                       The main dissemination activities have concen-
of measurement techniques and the characteri-
                                                       trated on raising public awareness of the project
sation of gaseous and aerosol trace components
                                                       and of the technical possibilities of producing
that are present in the gasifier raw gas. The
                                                       automotive fuels from biomass. The production
experiments in this area are aimed at using and
                                                       of a flyer, a website and posters with their broad
developing methods for high-temperature
                                                       approach, as well as project presentations at
measurement of particles without changing the
                                                       conferences in Washington DC, Moscow, Beijing,
original aerosol.
                                                       Seville, Stockholm and in several other European
A key process area and piece of equipment for          cities, have formed a major part of dissemina-
the CHRISGAS project is an efficient and robust        tion activities. One of three planned workshops
hot gas filter. A design has been produced for a       has already taken place and a further training
novel hot gas filtration unit, to be placed and        and dissemination activity is planned at the
tested for filtration on the laboratory gasifier at    University of Bologna for early September this
the research premises of one of the partners. The      year, with a summer school covering the whole
novelty is related to the new type of back-pulsing     scope of the CHRISGAS project.
system, as well to the application of a catalyst for
tar cracking on the filter material surface.
                                                                                                                                                         59
GREENFUELCELL


                From Biomass to Electricity through
                Integrated Gasification/SOFC system

  OBJECTIVES                                   Challenges
                                               The overall technical objective is to develop a tar be suitable as a catalytic agent for the reduction
The project aims at developing                 decomposition and gas cleaning system that can      of tar concentration at high temperatures
an innovative biomass-to-electricity           be integrated with biomass gasifiers. The resulting (900°C or higher). Two new designed up-scalable
                                               challenge is to prepare a basic design for a full-  staged gasifiers are being developed, integrating
concept with high electric efficiency
                                               scale (1-50 MWth) innovative gasifier and gas       tar removal technologies based on char beds.
based on SOFC technology combined
                                               treatment system for integrated biomass gasifica-   Two different char-bed systems (with or without
with a gasification process.                   tion SOFC systems with the following expectations:  bed material) are being developed and tested on a
The main objective is thus to produce                                                              laboratory and pilot scale. The advantages of both
                                               • Tar content of the gas < 10 mg tar/Nm3 gas
a gas suitable for SOFC application                                                                designs will be further evaluated and compared.
through reliable, up-scalable                  • Cold gas efficiency > 85% for the whole gasi- A specific and more fundamental task aims at better
                                                  fication process                                 understanding tar formation and its destruction in
and cost-effective staged gasification
                                                                                                   char beds, in order to minimize the tar content
of biomass, with less environmental            • Carbon conversion > 99%
                                                                                                   in the gas.
problems from stream containing                • Minimal process waste streams and by-
                                                                                                   Moreover, the performance of an SOFC is investi-
tars or char.                                     products so as to reduce the environmental
                                                                                                   gated in relation to the presence of organic com-
                                                  impact of the waste from the gasifier and the
                                                                                                   pounds (representing tars) and inorganic impurities
                                                  operational cost.
                                                                                                   in the feed gas, in order to determine the required
                                                                                                   gas specification for possible utilisation in an SOFC.
                                               Project structure                                   According to these specifications, a complete train
                                                                                                   of a dry gas cleaning system downstream from the
                                               The technical concept for this project is to design
                                                                                                   gasifier will be implemented and the operation
                                               an up-scalable char bed that can be integrated
                                                                                                   parameters will be identified. Finally a long-term
                                               into existing gasifiers, in order to reduce tar
                                                                                                   testing of two complete integrated gasification/fuel
                                               concentrations to a level low enough to avoid
                                                                                                   cell stack plants will be performed on woody bio-
                                               tar-related problems in a solid oxide fuel cell
                                                                                                   mass, for at least 100 hours each.
                                               (SOFC) system. Indeed char has been proven to




                                                   GREEN FUEL CELL

                                                     biomass                          tar                S and Cl                particle                         electricity
                                                                     gasifier                                                                        SOFC
                                                                                  reduction             adsorption              reduction


                                                                                               WP1: project co-ordination

                                                                                     WP2        TKE char-bed

                                                                                     WP3        ECN char-bed

                                                                                     WP4               processevaluation

                                                                                        WP5            tar research

                                                                                                                        WP6                 inorganicsreduction

                                                                                WP7: technical, economical and ecological assessment

                                                                                        SOFC sensitivity and proof-of-concept                         WP8

                                                                                                   WP9: dissemination



                                               Units of the system with the working packages acting on the different parts




60              GASIFICATION AND H 2 -PRODUCTION
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            503122

                                                                                                            Duration
                                                                                                            36 months

                                                                                                            Contact person
                                                                                                            Dr. Philippe Girard
                                                                                                            Cirad
                                                                                                            philippe.girard@cirad.fr

                                                                                                            List of partners
                                                                                                            Cirad – FR
Expected results                                     Inorganics behaviour and modelling                     Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
                                                                                                            ECN – NL
The two suggested concepts are innovative gasi-      Thermodynamic calculations were performed by
                                                                                                            FORCE Technology – DK
fication technologies which enable an efficient      CEA to evaluate the composition of syngas at
                                                                                                            Institute of Chemical Technology – CZ
conversion of biomass into a tar-free gas. As the    equilibrium, taking into account the conditions of     Risoe National Laboratory – DK
produced gas is expected to be a clean gas with      gasification. For condensable species in the gas,      Technical University of Denmark – DK
very low tar content, and because an appropriate     the range of temperature where condensation            TK Energi AS – DK
dry cleaning system will solve inorganic contam-     occurs is determined for each species. This is of
ination, various applications can be considered,     importance for corrosion risks evaluation and          Website
including fuel synthesis. The achievement within     also for gas cleaning strategy.                        http://gfc.force.dk
the project will be the two fuel cells coupled to                                                           Project officer
gasifiers for at least 100 hours each.                                                                      Jeroen Schuppers
                                                     Gas cleaning system
                                                     A dry gas cleaning system is currently being           Status
Progress to date                                                                                            ongoing
                                                     designed in order to reduce the levels of particles,
During the first 18 months of the project, the       S-compounds, Cl-compounds and alkali to a
work has been devoted to the following activities:   level acceptable to the SOFC. Three gas cleaning
                                                     trains (two lab-scale and one pilot-scale) are going
                                                     to be dimensioned and built. ICT has constructed
Char-bed gasification
                                                     the facility and performed experiments to test
The two different designs are in progress of         the efficiency of sorbents that will be used,
development by TKE and ECN. In both cases, cold      mainly with regards to HCl and H2S.
models have been built and led to experimental
data useful to the design and construction of hot
                                                       SOFC vs pollutants
lab-scale pilots which are currently being or have
been tested. A pilot gasifier including a hot char So far, the sensitivity of a single SOFC has been
bed has been designed and constructed at TKE.          investigated with respect to organic compounds
                                                       with synthetic pre-mixed gases. There was no
                                                       impact of C2H2 and C2H4, which are reformed.
Tar research
                                                       Toluene is reformed but induces a degradation
The activities are carried out to gain knowledge of the cell due to carbon deposition. Naphtalene
on tar formation and destruction in char beds: creates a sharp and irreversible degradation. This
                                                       degradation might be decreased or avoided by
• An analytical quantitative protocol with a
                                                       increasing the H2O content and/or limiting the
   SPME method is under development at CEA.
                                                       maximum allowable concentration of the organic
• Lab-scale experiments have been conducted at compounds. The facility aiming at studying the
   DTU to characterise char in terms of residual tar influence of inorganic pollutants on SOFC material
   release. A comparison with char obtained on a is almost ready for experiments at CEA.
   pilot-scale pyrolysis unit at CIRAD is in progress.
• The partial oxidation mechanisms of tar
  destruction are being investigated at DTU.
• Axperiments are in progress at RISOE and CIRAD
  to study tar destruction in char beds, with
  regards to the nature of tars and the origin of
  char. At RISOE, experiments with isotope-
  labelled compounds aim at determining the
  mechanisms of irreversible binding.




                                                                                                                                                     61
HYVOLUTION

             Bacteria also like to make Hydrogen!



 OBJECTIVES                                 Challenges
                                            The main challenge addressed in this project is                                               advantage of the process is the production of
The main scientific objective is            the expected increase in demand for hydrogen                                                  acetate as the main by-product in the first
the development of a two-stage              from renewable resources which will arise from                                                fermentation. Acetate is a prime substrate for
                                            the transition to the hydrogen economy.                                                       photoheterotrophic bacteria. Through the
bioprocess for the cost-effective
                                            Furthermore, the project adds to the number                                                   combination of thermophilic fermentation with
production of pure hydrogen from
                                            and diversity of routes for supply of hydrogen                                                a photoheterotrophic fermentation, complete
biomass. Amongst the challenges are         from renewable sources, giving greater security                                               conversion of the substrate to hydrogen and CO2
pretreatment technologies for optimal       of energy supply at the local and regional level.                                             can be achieved.
biodegradation of energy crops and
                                                                                             HYVOLUTION is structured around this core
bio-residues, maximum efficiency in                                                          issue with a design aimed at closely associating
conversion of biomass to hydrogen,          Project structure
                                                                                             the events in the chain from biomass to hydrogen.
assessment of installations for optimal     The aim of HYVOLUTION is described by the full The work packages addressing hydrogen production
gas cleaning, minimal energy demand         title: non-thermal production of pure hydrogen are surrounded by studies in system integration and
                                            from biomass.                                    societal integration in order to develop an econo-
and maximal product output through
                                                                                             mically viable, fully sustainable process for
system integration and identification       The core issue at stake is the combination of
                                                                                             hydrogen production (Fig. 1).
of market opportunities for a broad         a thermophilic fermentation (also called dark
                                            fermentation) with a photoheterotrophic fermen- The process starts with the conversion of biomass
feedstock range.
                                            tation. In the first fermentation, thermophilic to make a suitable feedstock for the bioprocess
                                            bacteria are used to start the bioprocess. This (WP 1). The ensuing bioprocess is optimised in
The main technological objective is         offers two important advantages. First, ther- terms of yield and rate of hydrogen production
the construction of prototype modules       mophilic fermentation at >70 °C is superior in through integrating fundamental and techno-
of the plant which form the basis of        terms of hydrogen yield when compared with logical approaches, addressed in WP 2 and 3.
a blueprint for the whole chain from        fermentations at ambient temperatures. In ther- Dedicated gas upgrading is developed for high
                                            mophilic fermentations, glucose is converted to, efficiency in small-scale production units dealing
biomass to pure hydrogen.
                                            on the average, 3 moles of hydrogen and 2 moles with fluctuating gas streams (WP 4). Production
Points to be studied are prototypes
                                            of acetate as the main by-product. In contrast, costs will be reduced by system integration,
of equipment for mobilisation               in fermentations at ambient temperatures, the combining mass and energy balances (WP 5).
of fermentable feedstock, reactors for      average yield is only 1-2 moles of hydrogen per The impact of small-scale hydrogen production
thermophilic and photoheterotrophic         mole of glucose: butyrate, propionate, ethanol plants is addressed in socio-economic analyses
hydrogen production, devices for            or butanol are the main by-products. The second performed in WP 6.
monitoring and control, and
equipment for optimal gas cleaning.
Socio-economic objectives are to                                                       WP 5       System integration                          Simulation        Exergy analyses
                                                                                                                                                           Exergy



increase public awareness and societal
acceptance and the identification of                                                                gas

                                                                                                                                       gas
future stakeholders.
                                                                                                WP 2                                 WP 3                     WP 4
                                                                                              Thermophilic
                                                                                          Thermophilic                               Photo
                                                                                                                                    Photo --                   Gas
                                                            WP 1 Biomass
                                                           WP 1 Biomass                      fermentation
                                                                                           fermentation                           fermentation
                                                                                                                               fermentation                  upgrading
                                                                                                                                                           upgrading

                                                             Pretreatment
                                                                 Pretreatment
                                                                 logistics
                                                             andand logistics
                                                                                              Fermentables
                                                                                                  Fermentables
                                                                                                       to
                                                                                                                                    Organic
                                                                                                                                Organic acidsacids
                                                                                                                                         to
                                                                                                                                                             Cleaning
                                                                                                                                                                  Cleaning
                                                                                                                                                             and quality
                                                                                                                                                                  and quality                H2
                                                                                                                                                                                             H2
                                                                                                         CO
                                                                                                  H H2,, CO 2
                                                                                                    2           2                      2 and CO
                                                                                                                                  H 2 Hand CO 2      2
                                                                                                                                                             assessment
                                                                                                                                                                  assessment
                                                                                                     and
                                                                                                 organic acids
                                                                                              organic acids




                                                                                                                      liquid
                                                                                                                    liquid




                                                                                WP 6   Societal integration                              -
                                                                                                                                         -economics
                                                                                                                                 Socio Socio economics        Dissemination       Training




                                            Figure1: Structure of HYVOLUTION

62           GASIFICATION AND H 2 -PRODUCTION
                                                                                                           Project Information
                                                                                                           Contract number
                                                                                                           019825

                                                                                                           Duration
                                                                                                           60 months

                                                                                                           Contact person
                                                                                                           Dr. P.A.M. Claassen
                                                                                                           University of Wageningen
                                                                                                           Pieternel.Claassen@wur.nl

                                                                                                           List of Participants
                                                                                                           Agrotechnology & Food Innovations - NL
                                                     Expected results                                      ADAS - GB
                                                                                                           Air Liquide - FR
In HYVOLUTION, 10 EU countries, Turkey and           Production of hydrogen from biomass at 75%
                                                                                                           A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical
Russia are represented with prominent specialists    of theoretical efficiency.
                                                                                                           Synthesis - RU
from academia and industries and six Small and                                                             Awite Bioenergie, Martin Grepmeier & Ernst
                                                     Introduction of crop-to-hydrogen chains in EU
Medium-size Enterprises. The participants in                                                               Murnleitner GbR - DE
                                                     agricultural systems and the systematic utilisation
HYVOLUTION have a complementary value in                                                                   Bioreactors and Membrane Systems - RU
                                                     of bio-residues in hydrogen generation.
being biomass suppliers, end-users or stakeholders                                                         Enviros Ltd - UK
for developing specialist enterprises, stimulating   Optimal application of thermophilic bacteria          Middle East Technical University - TN
the new agro-industrial development that will be     through an increased understanding of metabo-         National Technical University of Athens - GR
needed to make the HYVOLUTION objectives of          lism, genomics and proteomics.                        Profactor Produktionsforschungs GmbH - AT
small-scale sustainable hydrogen production                                                                Provalor BV - NL
                                                   Industrial application of the thermophilic pro-         RWTH Aachen - DE
from locally produced biomass come true.
                                                   duction processes that will result from the             Technogrow B.V. - NL
The aim of HYVOLUTION is to deliver prototypes development of dedicated bioreactor prototypes              University of Lund - SE
of the process modules which will be needed to with associated monitoring and control.                     University of Szeged - HU
produce hydrogen of high quality in a bioprocess                                                           University of Wageningen - NL
                                                   Dedicated, high-efficiency gas upgrading systems        Vienna University of Technology - AT
which is fed by multiple biomass feedstock. To
                                                   designed to handle small and frequently changing        Warsaw University of Technology - PL
achieve this aim, a coherent set of scientific and
                                                   flow rates with different compositions.                 Wiedemann Polska - PL
technological activities is required which are
interdependent and accompanied by system and Special gas sensor systems to enable monitoring               Website
societal integration to ensure optimal economics and exert control.                                        www.hyvolution.nl
and societal implementation.
                                                   Modelling and simulation software of unit               Project officer
                                                   processes to produce control strategies for bio-        Philippe Schild
                                                   processes.
                                                                                                           Status
                                                     Identification of the markets which will benefit      ongoing
                                                     from a local industry for hydrogen production
                                                     from biomass.
                                                     Blueprint for an industrial bioprocess for decen-
                                                     tralised hydrogen production on a small scale
                                                     from locally produced biomass.




                                                                                                                                                    63
BIOCOUP

          BIOCOUP Integrated Project:
          ‘Co-processing of Upgraded Bio-liquids
          in Standard Refinery Units’
OBJECTIVES                              Challenges
                                        The overall innovation derives from integration      transport fuels and chemicals, and thus provide
The BIOCOUP Integrated Project          of bio-feedstock procurement with existing           an important stimulus to biomass acceptance and
is aimed at developing a chain          industries (energy, pulp and paper, food) and        further technological development of biomass
                                        processing of upgraded biomass forms in existing     production routes.
of process steps to allow a range
                                        mineral oil refineries. This will allow a seamless
of different biomass feedstocks to be
                                        integration of bio-refinery co-processing products
co-fed to a conventional oil refinery   to the end-consumer for products such as
to produce energy and oxygenated
chemicals. The overall objective is
to respond to the increasing demand
for biofuels with a new innovative
processing route that may become
industrial after 2010.




64        BIOREFINERY
                                                                                                        Project Information
                                                                                                        Contract number
                                                                                                        518312

                                                                                                        Duration
                                                                                                        60 months

                                                                                                        Contact person
                                                                                                        Yrjo Solantausta
                                                                                                        VTT
                                                                                                        Yrjo.solantausta@vtt.fi

                                                                                                        List of partners
                                                                                                        Albemarle – NL
Project Structure                                                                                       Alma Consulting Group – FR
                                                                                                        Arkema – FR
The structure of the project reflects the different • Conversion to chemicals: to identify optimal
                                                                                                        Biomass Technology Group – NL
steps of the BIOCOUP processing route depicted        recovery and fractionation strategies and
                                                                                                        Boreskov Institute of Catalysis – RU
in the diagram below:                                 technologies for the production of discrete       Chimar – GR
                                                      target compounds from bio-liquids.                CNRS – FR
The project has six sub-projects, each of which
deals with critical areas of the proposed biomass • Scenario and life cycle analysis: to outline a      Helsinki University of Technology – FI
                                                                                                        Institute of Wood Chemistry – DE
utilisation chain. The overall objectives in each     low-risk, low-cost development path for the
                                                                                                        Metabolic Explorer – FR
sub-project are:                                      most promising bio-refinery chain(s), a path
                                                                                                        Shell Global Solutions – NL
                                                      based on stage-wise validation, demonstration     Slovenian Institute of Chemistry – SI
• Biomass liquefaction and energy production:
                                                      and implementation.                               STFI-Packforsk – SE
    to reduce bio-oil production costs.
                                                    • Transversal activities: to optimise the impact    Uhde Hochdrucktechnik GmbH – DE
• Upgrading technologies: to develop de-                                                                University of Groningen – NL
                                                      of the project by a structured management
    oxygenation technology and scale it up to                                                           University of Twente – NL
                                                      of the project and the coordination of the
    process development unit scale.                                                                     VTT – FI
                                                      standardisation, exploitation and dissemination
• Evaluation of upgraded bio-liquids in standard      activities.                                       Website
    refinery units: to assess the viability of                                                          to be defined
    upgraded bio-liquids co-processing in a
    standard refinery.                                                                                  Project Officer
                                                                                                        Maria Fernandez Gutierrez

                                                                                                        Status
                                                                                                        ongoing


Expected Results

Objectives                                         Main results
Fractionation and liquefaction of the biomass      Processes to produce bio-oils from viable
                                                   biomass feedstocks to be used in subsequent
                                                   de-oxygenation process
De-oxygenation of bio-oils                         De-oxygenation processes
Co-refining of intermediates in existing plants    Co-refining processes
Produce bio-fuels by co-refining                   Bio-fuels
Produce chemicals from biomass                     Bio-based raw materials for chemicals
Chemicals
Conversion of intermediates to valuable            Processes for bio-transformation
products by bio-chemical processes                 of intermediates




                                                                                                                                                 65
BIOSYNERGY

             Biomass for the Market
             Competitive and environmentally friendly synthesis of bioprodu
             of secondary energy carriers through the biorefinery approach

 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                           The use of biomass for the production of trans-
BIOSYNERGY aims to use biomass             portation fuels, and to a lesser extent energy, is
for synthesis processes (transportation    still more costly than the use of traditional
                                           petrochemical resources. The overall aim of BIO-
fuels, platform chemicals) and energy
                                           SYNERGY is to achieve sound techno-economic
production (power, CHP) by the
                                           process development of integrated co-production
application of innovative, fully           of chemicals, transportation fuels and energy
integrated and synergetic biorefinery      from lab scale to pilot plant. This project will be
concepts using advanced fractionation      instrumental in the foreseen establishment of
and conversion processes,                  facilities for integrated co-production of bulk
                                                                                               BCyL bioethanol pilot plant of Greencell in Babilafuente
                                           quantities of chemicals, fuels and energy from (Salamanca, Spain)
and combining biochemical and
                                           a wide range of biomass feedstocks.
thermochemical pathways. The use
of biomass for the production of           The major innovations include:
transportation fuels, and to a lesser      • Advanced technologies for the physical/              Project Structure
extend energy, is still more costly than     chemical fractionation of various biomass
                                                                                                  The activities within this BIOSYNERGY IP are
the use of traditional petrochemical         feedstocks (pre-treated barley straw and
                                                                                                  subdivided into nine separate but strongly inte-
                                             DDGS from the pilot plant, and straw and
resources.                                                                                        grated work packages, viz.:
                                             clean wood as representatives of European
                                             biomass streams) into their components for           WP 0 Management activities
                                             further downstream processing.
                                                                                               WP 1       Advanced physical/chemical fractionation
                                           • Innovative technologies for the thermo-
                                                                                               WP 2       Innovative thermochemical conversion
                                             chemical/biochemical conversion of these
                                             feedstocks into biomass-derived intermediate WP 3            Advanced biochemical conversion
                                             products (e.g. butanol, phenolic oils, furfural).
                                                                                               WP 4       Innovative chemical conversion and
                                           • Downstream processing of biomass-derived                     synthesis
                                             intermediates into value-added chemicals and
                                                                                               WP 5       Conceptual design of biorefinery validation
                                             energy carriers, using integral biomass-to-
                                                                                                          pilot plant of Greencell in Salamanca
                                             products chain design, analysis and optimi-
                                             sation.                                           WP 6       Integral biomass-to- products chain
                                                                                                          design, analysis and optimisation
                                                                                                  WP 7 Demonstration at pilot scale
                                                                                                  WP 8 Training of personnel and knowledge
                                                                                                       dissemination




66           BIOREFINERY
                                                                                                                      Project Information
                                                                                                                      Contract number
                                                                                                                      038994

                                                                                                                      Duration
                                                                                                                      36 months
cts together with the production                                                                                      Contact person
                                                                                                                      Drs. ing. René van Ree
                                                                                                                      Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands
                                                                                                                      vanree@ecn.nl

                                                                                                                      List of partners
                                                                                                                      Agroindustrie Recherches
    Expected Results                                                                                                  et Développement – FR
                                                                                                                      Agrotechnology & Food Innovations – NL
    The most important results, i.e. those with great • Basic design of an innovative cellulose
                                                                                                                      Aston University – GB
    relevance towards meeting the EU programme          ethanol based biorefinery process in which the
                                                                                                                      Biomass Technology Group – NL
    goals, are:                                         residues are upgraded to added-value products                 Biorefinery.de – DE
                                                        (chemicals, power, CHP).                                      Cepsa – ES
    • Technical, socio-economic and ecological
        European perspective of integrated refinery • Appropriately trained personnel in the relevant                 Chimar – GR
                                                                                                                      CRES – GR
        processes for the co-production of chemicals,   industries, RTD institutes and universities.
                                                                                                                      Delft University of Technology – NL
        transportation fuels and energy from biomass
                                                      • Knowledge dissemination (website, work-                       DOW Benelux – NL
        by performing integral biomass-to-products                                                                    ECN – NL
                                                        shops, lectures, etc.)
        chain design, analysis and optimisation.                                                                      Glowny Instytut Gornictwa – PL
    • Lab-scale development and pilot-scale                                                                           Greencell – ES
                                                                                                                      Institut Français du Pétrole – FR
      demonstration of biorefinery-based composing
                                                                                                                      Joanneum Research – AT
      sub-processes, i.e.: physical/chemical fractio-
                                                                                                                      JRC – BE
      nation processes, thermochemical conversion                                                                     VTT – FI
      processes, biochemical conversion processes,
      and chemical conversion and synthesis                                                                           Website
      processes.                                                                                                      www.biosynergy.nl

                                                                                                                      Project officer
                                                                                                                      Maria Fernandez Gutierrez

                                                                                                                      Status
                                                                                                                      ongoing




    Interrelation of the WPs and their execution as a function of project development (integrated project approach)




                                                                                                                                                               67
BIOASH

         Ash and Aerosol Related Problems
         in Biomass Combustion and Co-firing

OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                         The overall aim of the project is to contribute to     bark, waste wood) and straw are considered.
BIOASH focuses on solving open           the solution of open ash- and aerosol-related          Olive residues and sawdust are investigated for
ash-related problems in biomass          problems in biomass combustion and biomass/            biomass co-firing in coal-fired power stations.
                                         coal co-firing systems. For medium- and large-
combustion and biomass/coal co-firing
                                         scale systems these problems mainly concern
systems. BIOASH therefore aims to                                                               Expected Results
                                         deposit formation in furnaces and boilers, as
investigate the release behaviour of     well as corrosion, while for small-scale applica-     BIOASH will provide new insights into ash and
ash-forming compounds from biomass       tions fine particulate emission control is of         aerosol formation during biomass combustion
fuels in fixed-bed and pulverised fuel   interest. Moreover, health risks caused by partic-    and biomass/coal co-firing and provide the basis
combustion systems, and to determine     ulate emissions from biomass combustion and           for developing improved models to predict
                                         co-firing need to be investigated.                    aerosol and deposit formation in furnaces and
missing thermodynamic and viscosity
                                                                                               boilers. These models should be applicable for
data as a basis for investigations       Some previous projects have already attempted
                                                                                               the design and optimisation of combustion
concerning aerosol and deposit           to investigate the basic mechanisms responsible
                                                                                               plants but should also be used as supporting
                                         for the behaviour of ash-forming elements in
formation.                                                                                     tools for optimised fuel choice and fuel blending.
                                         combustion units, and this work is being continued
                                         within BIOASH. A major starting point is thus A second relevant result of the project will be the
BIOASH also focuses on                   basic research into the release of ash-forming development of a new aerosol precipitation techno-
the development of advanced models       elements from the fuel to the gas phase. These logy for small-scale biomass combustion units, with
for a more precise prediction            release data provide the basis for developing high separation efficiency at comparably low costs.
of aerosol and deposit formation,        new codes for the simulation of aerosol and
                                                                                               Finally, the project will provide new data concerning
                                         deposit formation. An improved data basis con-
with respect to the release behaviour                                                          health risks caused by fine particulate emissions
                                         cerning thermodynamic and viscosity data of
of ash-forming elements from the                                                               from biomass combustion. This data, together with
                                         typical biomass combustion- derived ashes is
fuel. Furthermore, a new technology                                                            available comparable data for particulate emissions
                                         needed, however, to further advance these models.
                                                                                               from other emission sources (e.g. diesel soot),
for cost-effective and efficient
                                         No economically affordable and efficient fine should support regional and national authorities in
aerosol precipitation in small-scale
                                         particle separation devices are presently avail- the definition of emission limits.
biomass combustion units is being        able for small-scale biomass combustion units:
developed. Another focus                 therefore, the project also focuses on the devel-
                                                                                               Progress to Date
is on investigating the effect of        opment of such a technology. Air pollution
particulate emissions from biomass       caused by particulate emissions affects human One important objective of the project is the
                                         health but it is still unclear which parameters characterisation of the BIOASH fuels, using both
combustion and co-firing on ambient
                                         (chemical composition, particle size) are the conventional and novel methods. Wet chemical
air quality and related health risks.
                                         most relevant concerning the toxicity of these analyses, SEM/EDX analyses, CCSEM analyses,
                                         particles. In order to determine the toxicity of fine chemical fractionation tests as well as investiga-
                                         particulate emissions from biomass combustion tions by DTG/DSC were undertaken, and thermo-
                                         and biomass/coal co-firing plants, in vivo and in dynamic equilibrium studies were carried out
                                         vitro studies are carried out using particle samples based on the results of these analyses. All
                                         collected during real-scale test runs.                BIOASH fuels were investigated and evaluated
                                                                                               and the analytical data was summarised in data-
                                                                                               bases.
                                         Project Structure
                                                                                                The release behaviour of ash-forming elements
                                         The investigations within BIOASH are based on
                                                                                                from the fuels was studied under fixed-bed con-
                                         laboratory tests as well as test runs at pilot-scale
                                                                                                ditions and under pulverised fuel combustion
                                         and real-scale biomass combustion and co-firing
                                                                                                conditions. The laboratory-scale tests as well as
                                         plants. Furthermore, theoretical mathematical
                                                                                                the planned evaluation work were successfully
                                         modelling of ash, aerosol and deposit formation
                                                                                                concluded, providing comprehensive information
                                         is applied. In this context, the results from the
                                                                                                about the release of relevant ash- and aerosol-
                                         test runs are used to gain substantial high-quality
                                                                                                forming elements (K, Na, S, Cl, Zn and Pb) during
                                         data for the calibration and validation of the
                                                                                                combustion.
                                         models developed. Woody biomass fuels (wood,
68        COMBUSTION AND COFIRING
                                                                                                               Project Information
                                                                                                               Contract number
                                                                                                               502679

                                                                                                               Duration
                                                                                                               36 months

                                                                                                               Contact person
                                                                                                               Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Ingwald Obernberger
                                                                                                               Graz University of Technology
                                                                                                               Ingwald.Obernberger@tugraz.at

                                                                                                               List of partners
                                                                                                               ECN – NL
                                                                                                               Eindhoven University of Technology – NL
                                                                                                               Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-ITEM) – DE
                                                       So far test runs at four real-scale biomass com-
                                                                                                               Graz University of Technology – AT
                                                       bustion and co-firing plants have been performed.
                                                                                                               Institute of Power Engineering – PL
                                                       Innovative high-temperature particle sampling           Mawera Feuerungsanlagen GmbH – AT
                                                       devices (new types of deposit probes as well as a       Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd. – GB
                                                       high-temperature low-pressure impactor),                Standardkessel GmbH – DE
                                                       developed during the first project year to pro-         Technical University of Denmark – DK
                                                       vide deeper insights into particle and deposit          University of Abo – FI
                                                       formation processes, were successfully applied
                                                       during these test runs for the first time. The con-     Project officer
                                                                                                               Erich Naegele
Release of Cl under fixed-bed conditions Explanations: siderable volume of data obtained (fuel and ash
BM1: spruce, BM2: bark, BM3: waste wood, BM6: straw    compositions, data about aerosol and deposit            Status
                                                       formation etc.) will be compared with the data          ongoing
                                                       from the lab-scale tests. Furthermore, the data will
The final aim will be to link fuel characterisation
                                                       be utilised as a basis for calibrating and verifying
data with models describing the release of ash-
                                                       the models developed within the project.
forming elements from the fuel and thereby
build up an appropriate basis for the modelling A code for the simulation of aerosol formation
of residual ash, aerosol and deposit formation in biomass combustion processes was also
processes during biomass combustion and co- improved. The comparison of modelling results
firing processes.                                      and measurement data gained from the test
                                                       runs has already proven the applicability of this
DTG/DSC studies are carried out in order to predict
                                                       code for aerosol formation prediction in biomass
the melting behaviour of Zn- and Pb-rich ash
                                                       combustion processes. Work on deposit formation
mixtures. The results of the tests have been used
                                                       modelling has already started and will continue
to improve a thermodynamic melting model for
                                                       during the third project year.
alkali salt mixtures containing Pb and Zn. During
the third project year this model will be further During the real-scale test runs aerosol emission
improved and will then act as an important tool samples were taken and forwarded for in vivo
for the development of a deposit formation model and in vitro studies concerning health effects of fine
for biomass combustion and co-firing plants.           particulate emissions from biomass combustion and
                                                       co-firing. The results of this work will be available
Viscometer measurements have been performed
                                                       at the end of the project.
to validate and extend the range of existing
empirical correlations for calculating particle
viscosities. Carefully selected synthetic samples
as well as pre-ashed fuel samples of the BIOASH
fuels have been analysed. The results of these
tests have already provided valuable input for
modelling tasks. Further viscosity measurements
are planned for the third project year.
Another important task of the project is to
determine the corrosion potential of ash
deposits. To do this, small pieces of superheater
material coated with different types of synthetic
deposits are exposed to a synthetic flue gas.
Experiments are conducted at different exposure
times (up to 3-4 months) at two different tem-
peratures. The results will help to address the
corrosive potential of deposits formed during
biomass combustion and biomass co-firing.         Fly ash particles impacting a deposit probe




                                                                                                                                                          69
BIO-PRO

          New Burner Technologies for Low Grade
          Biofuels to Supply Clean Energy for Processes
          in Biorefineries
OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                          The production of fuels and other materials              the fuel quality and an adoptive control loop
The project aims at developing new        from biomass, summarised as biorefineries, is            on-line. This will first be applied to the
combustion technologies for               expected to grow steadily over coming years.             GL-burners and then transferred to the
                                          Several of the existing technologies like biodiesel      S-burners.
bio-residues. Innovative combustion
                                          or bio-alcohol production suffer from the fact
technologies like flameless oxidation                                                           This methodology will be used to develop a first
                                          that they consume considerable amounts of fossil
(FLOX®) and continuous air staging                                                              and a second generation of prototype burners.
                                          energies while converting only a fraction of the
                                                                                                The second generation will be equipped with the
(COSTAIR) will be enhanced by             carbon input into the desired product. Advanced
                                                                                                control system. A GL- and an S-burner of this
re-burning and co-firing in order to      technologies are necessary to overcome this
                                                                                                second-generation prototype will be tested on
meet this goal. Two basic types of        drawback and to utilise the residues arising in the
                                                                                                industrial appliances.
                                          process. The BIO-PRO European project aims at
BIO-PRO burners will be developed to
                                          the development of easy and robust technologies
meet this goal, a pilot burner for gas
                                          to convert the residues of the biorefinery            Expected Results
and liquid fuels and a pilot burner for   processes to energy, thus allowing them to self-
                                                                                                The prototypes of the new burners will be
solid fuels applying a pre-gasification   supply the required energy.
                                                                                                brought to pre-commercialisation level (two
step for the solids without gas
                                          The core activity of the project is to convert new    pilot scale burners and operation guidelines).
cooling. The technology to be             burner technologies, originally developed for         The accompanying socio-economic assessment
developed will be able to self-adjust     natural gas, to burn low calorific value (LCV) gases  will assess the economic viability of the new
to different fuel qualities               generated from biomass. Within the BIO-PRO            technology (life-cycle assessment) on the one
(fuel moisture 10-50%). For emissions     project, the flameless oxidation technology           hand, and will show promising markets for a
                                          (FLOX) and the continuous air staging technology      subsequent dissemination of the technology on
of the investigated fuels, the upper
                                          (COSTAIR) are being transferred to these new          the other (dissemination strategy). A successful
limit for CO will be 30 mg/m3
                                          applications. Both technologies have several          development and application of the technology
(currently 50 mg/m3 is typical) and       benefits compared to conventional combustion          is expected to have the following impact:
NOx will be reduced by 50% (starting      systems, especially the high reduction potential
                                                                                               • Increased use of bio-residues, increasing the
point for dry wood chips in available     in thermal NOx and CO emissions. Of particular
                                                                                                 utilisation of biomass in Europe by up to 50%
combustion systems = 210 mg/m3).          importance for the combustion of gases generated
                                                                                                 (basis 54.175 toe in 1998): this will reduce
                                          from biomass is the improved flame stability,
                                                                                                 CO2 emissions by 46 Mio t/a (basis: energy
                                          despite varying fuel qualities.
                                                                                                 consumption 1998).
                                                                                             • Improved European competitiveness in the
                                          Project Structure
                                                                                               global market, accounting for up to 15,000
                                          Based on the waste materials derived from            new jobs.
                                          biorefinery processes, two types of burners will
                                                                                             • NOx emissions from biomass combustion sys-
                                          be developed in line with the fuel mix: biogas,
                                                                                               tems will be reduced within 10 years by
                                          fermentation residues, fibres etc. The methodology
                                                                                               approx. 76,500 t/a (basis: biomass consump-
                                          of the work programme is as follows:
                                                                                               tion 1998).
                                          • Every development will start with the work
                                             on gas/liquid BIO-PRO burners (GL-burner):
                                             first experiments will be made on existing
                                             burner test rigs, subsequently new burners
                                             will be developed.
                                          • In parallel, a pre-gasification unit will be
                                            installed in order to facilitate the development
                                            of the solid BIO-PRO burner (S-burner):
                                            developments in the GL-burners will be trans-
                                            ferred and adapted on this test rig.
                                          • A new control technology will be developed, Figure 1: NOx and CO emissions for LCV gases (mixture of
                                            incorporating a self-diagnosis module assessing methane/flue gases) with different calorific values
70        COMBUSTION AND COFIRING
                                                                                                             Project Information
                                                                                                             Contract number
                                                                                                             502812

                                                                                                             Duration
                                                                                                             36 months

                                                                                                             Contact person
                                                                                                             Dr. Roland Berger
                                                                                                             University of Stuttgart
                                                                                                             berger@ivd.uni-stuttgart.de

                                                                                                             List of partners
                                                                                                             Delft University of Technology - NL
Progress to Date                                                                                             Foster Wheeler - FI
                                                                                                             Foundation of Appropriate Technology and
GL-burner development – FLOX technology can be operated at a low level of excess oxygen
                                                                                                             Social Ecology - CH
                                                         (below 4% O2) that results in a higher efficiency
The development of a FLOX burner adapted to                                                                  Gas-Wärme-Institut - DE
                                                         of the total system, and the emissions can be       Institut Energetiky - PL
LCV gases and bio-liquids is carried out at the
                                                         significantly decreased. Compared to the original   TPS Termiska Processer AB - SE
Foundation of Appropriate Technology and
                                                         burn-out zone, CO emissions are reduced by          University of Stuttgart - DE
Social Ecology in Switzerland. The investigations
                                                         60-80% and NOx emissions by 20% respectively.       University of Ulster - GB
are conducted with a 20 kW FLOX combustor
                                                         Tests with other bio-residues, especially ones      WS Wärmeprozesstechnik - DE
provided by WS Wärmeprozesstechnik. The tests
                                                         with high N-content, are ongoing. For further
with combustion air temperatures of 300°C and                                                                Website
                                                         NOx reduction an external flue gas recirculation
higher have shown that a stable and complete                                                                 www.eu-projects.de/bio-pro
                                                         will be installed.
combustion can be achieved with LCV gases
above 2.1 MJ/Nm3                                                                                             Project officer
                                                                                                             Philippe Schild
                                                         S-burner development
High emission of nitrogen oxides originated
                                                         COSTAIR technology                                  Status
from fuel nitrogen will doubtless occur when
                                                   Tests with an S-burner based on the COSTAIR
solid biofuels, e. g. residues of flour or oil mills,                                                        ongoing
are burned. Therefore, further investigations      technology and combined with a cyclone gasifier
concentrate on possible measures for NOx emis-     (BIOSWIRL) were conducted at TPS Termiska
sion reduction for the solid burner system. A      Processer AB. Comparative tests with the developed
first approach is to provide a reduction zone      COSTAIR burner and the original burner showed
downstream from the pre-gasification zone.         similar results in tests with three different fuels.
First tests regarding NOx reduction potential      CO emission was on the same level for both
were carried out in a double-staged combustion     types of burners, but emission of NOx was slightly
chamber with a FLOX combustor using methane        lower in tests with the original burner, compared
as fuel. The tests have shown that the proposed    to the COSTAIR burner. The performance of the
reduction measure can reduce the NOx emissions     burner was however satisfactory at this stage of
by 40%.                                            development, considering the difficulties
                                                   encountered regarding adapting the COSTAIR
                                                   concept to the Bioswirl gasifier and scaling up
S-burner development – FLOX technology
                                                   the design from a laboratory scale of 30 kW to a
The S-burner development based on the FLOX pilot scale of 1 MW.
technology is carried out at the University of
Stuttgart (USTUTT). A new FLOX burner for the test
                                                   Industrial test of 1st FLOX burner prototype
facility at USTUTT was designed and combined
with a fixed-bed pre-gasifier that provides a hot Industrial tests with a first prototype FLOX burner
and tar-loaded LCV gas to the burner. First tests were carried out on a 1.5 MW atmospheric CFB
with wood chips have shown that the burner gasifier operated by Foster Wheeler. The burner
                                                   was tested over a period of 176 hours. The FLOX
                                                   burner operated very reliably and without any
                                                   problems over the whole test period. The CO
                                                   emissions in all test runs were below 15 mg/Nm3
                                                   (@ 3% O2) and the NOx emissions mostly below
                                                   the limit value of 400 mg/Nm3 (@ 3% O2).
                                                   Thermal NOx emissions are mostly eliminated
                                                   by the FLOX burner. The emitted NOx is mainly
                                                   generated by fuel nitrogen. Further optimisation
                                                   of the burner is necessary to further reduce NOx
                                                   emissions.


Figure 2: NOx and CO emissions with and without an NOx
injection


                                                                                                                                                    71
COPOWER

          Synergy Effects of Co-processing of Biomass
          with Coal and Non-toxic Wastes for Heat and
          Power Generation
OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                          Apart from securing the supply of different • The economics of the whole supply chain for
The proposed study aims at                resources at the expense of fossil fuels, particu-    energy have yet to be demonstrated on a full
determining the limits of optimised       larly biomass, there are other problems like lack     commercial scale.
                                          of experience, economics and environmental
operation that could be beneficial                                                            • The social acceptance of the co-firing concept
                                          consequences:
in disposing of waste and promoting                                                             using multi-fuels has still to be demonstrated,
biomass for energy in an                  • Experience with multi-fuel use is very limited      as there is a great need for a detailed environ-
                                              or, in many case, confined to solving localised   mental analysis, management and communi-
environmentally acceptable way.
                                              environmental problems, even if some effort       cation towards local and neighbouring
Fluidised bed systems are particularly
                                              has been made in the past at research level in    populations to control possible negative
well suited for such a co-firing              the EU by various research centres.               reactions.
operation, because of their versatility
                                          • The management practices of handling
with regard to fuel.
                                            multi-fuels are less developed than in many Project Structure
                                            industrial plants, because this may require
                                                                                              COPOWER is managed according to the following
The important output of the proposed        investment: without any apparent benefits,
                                                                                              structure created ad hoc for the project.
work would be that biomass and              companies are not willing to make such
wastes would be used in co-firing           investments.                                      Steering Committee: this committee is responsible
                                                                                              for the execution of the project and will assess
applications, thus enhancing the          • The selection of different fuels to blend could
                                                                                              the progress of the project with regard to the
prospect for wide range of availability     be important for operational considerations
                                                                                              work plan presented. The leader of the steering
of the co-fuel.                             and could undermine the economics.
                                                                                              committee, the project manager, is the coordi-
                                          • Uncertainties can arise about what could be nator of the project, INETI. Each organisation
It has still to be demonstrated that        expected, as operational problems introduce has a representative on the steering committee.
some combinations of, for example,          high risk levels not acceptable to companies. It is the steering committee which is responsible
                                                                                              for the successful execution of the project and
biomass with a certain waste could        • Uncertainties associated with the cost of dif-
                                                                                              reports to the European Commission. It prepares
have specific advantages, either for        ferent fuels could dissuade companies to use
                                                                                              the regular technical and financial progress
the combustor performance or for            them.
                                                                                              reports to be sent to the Commission. The coor-
the flue gas cleaning, or for ash         • The environmental benefits of establishing a dinator is responsible for the transfer of funds
behaviour. The integration of biomass       new chain of fuel supply are still not well from the Commission to the partners. It is in
with its whole supply chain into            understood.                                       touch with those responsible for each work
                                                                                              package group to contribute their elements of
a multi-fuel-based nationwide heat        • There is a lack of information about the synergy
                                                                                              progress reports and to ensure that each partner
and energy supply system is also            between different fuels to achieve high pro-
                                                                                              executes its part in accordance with the targets
comprehensively investigated                ductivity during energy production.
                                                                                              defined over the time period specified.
for Portugal, Italy and Turkey.           • The use of biomass and wastes for electricity
                                                                                              Work Package Groups (WGs): each group com-
                                            production is technically possible, but efficien-
                                                                                              prises by partners actively participating in the
                                            cies are low compared with more traditional
                                                                                              specific work package. The leader of the work
                                            systems, especially for smaller plants: there is
                                                                                              package is responsible for the group, under the
                                            a need for policies to provide incentives.
                                                                                              leading guidance of a nominated Work Group
                                          • There is a lack of environmental impact studies Leader. Each Work Group Leader is responsible
                                            for multi-fuel systems, due to a shortage of for the implementation of each task of the work
                                            information about the environmental conse- programme as set out in the proposal. Joint
                                            quences.                                          meetings in the form of workshops are held to
                                                                                              exchange the information between different
                                                                                              work package groups.




72         COMBUSTION AND COFIRING
                                                                                                          Project Information
                                                                                                          Contract number
                                                                                                          503806

                                                                                                          Duration
                                                                                                          36 months

                                                                                                          Contact person
                                                                                                          Prof. Ibrahim Gulyurtlu
                                                                                                          INETI
                                                                                                          Ibrahim.Gulyurtlu@ineti.pt

                                                                                                          List of partners
                                                                                                          Carmona SA – PT
                                                      Progress to Date                                    Chalmers University of Technology – SE
                                                                                                          ENEL Produzione S.p.A. – IT
Dissemination Manager: a special group dedicated      The project has six work packages and WP 1 has
                                                                                                          Hamburg-Harburg University
to the dissemination activities is set up and man-    been completed at the end of the first year, as
                                                                                                          of Technology – DE
aged by a specific WG Leader. This group is           planned. WP 2 is about to finish, and WP 3 will     Imperial College London – GB
responsible for transfer of information outside the   last until the end of the project’s combustion      INETI – PT
consortium and for the implementation of the          studies and is hence currently ongoing. WP 4 is     New University of Lisbon – PT
dissemination strategies, as agreed internally, to    progressing in accordance with the original plan.   Sabanci University – TR
the project partners.                                 WP 5 has just started. WP6 is the coordination,     Stadtwerke Duisburg AG – DE
                                                      which is ongoing.                                   University ‘Federico II’, Naples – IT

Expected Results                                                                                          Website
                                                                                                          www.copowerproject.com
The project aims:
• To provide for three countries – Portugal,                                                              Project officer
                                                                                                          Erich Naegele
  Italy and Turkey – information on the potential
  of biomass and non-toxic waste materials                                                                Status
  from different sources for co-firing.                                                                   ongoing
• To assess the fluidised bed co-firing potential
  to deal with the types of fuels to be considered,
  evaluating the process requirements to
  improve the combustion of the different
  blends of fuels to be used.
• To perform a complete environmental impact
  assessment and LCA of the product from data to
  be obtained, thus assessing the socio-economic
  impact of the co-firing in large-scale power
  plants.
• To collect data and provide knowledge for
  engineering to optimise the whole of the
  supply-to-energy-production chain by cor-
  rectly applying the synergic combinations of
  multi-fuel use
• To assess the applicability of the proposed
  system in other EU countries as well as in
  developing countries.




                                                                                                                                                   73
BIONORM II

             Boosting the Energetic Use of Biomass
             by Standardisation

 OBJECTIVES                                 Challenges
                                            To develop the market for solid biofuels within        Due to the wide range of standards to be devel-
The development of European                 the EU, European standards are urgently needed.        oped by CEN TC 335, this project will focus on
standards is seen as a major driver to      At the moment several ‘Technical Specifications’       aspects urgently needed by the industry to
                                            (or pre-standards) are available which have to be      increase the markets for solid biofuels where
expand the market for and the use of
                                            upgraded to European standards within the next         significant pre-normative R&D effort is required.
solid biofuels. This expansion is needed
                                            three years. But industrial applications have
to fulfil the aims defined within the                                                              The specific aims of the different work packages
                                            shown that there are still considerable gaps in
                                                                                                   are as follows:
European Commission’s White Paper           knowledge and that additional information has
on renewable energy, the directive          to be integrated.
on ‘green’ electricity from renewable                                                              WP 1 ‘Sampling, sample reduction
                                            Against that background, the goal of the
energy and the European Biofuel                                                                    and sample planning’
                                            BioNorm II project is to support the ongoing
Directive, as well as various political     standardisation efforts, especially for the devel-     The objective of WP I is to provide essential
goals at the national level.                opment of improved solid biofuel specifications and    information to CEN TC 335 ‘Solid Biofuels’ about
                                            rules for conformity of the products with their        three aspects of sampling of solid biofuels:
                                            specified requirements.
As a result the European Commission                                                                • The size and number of increments to be
had already given a mandate a couple        To achieve this, the following aspects will be           taken from a wider range of material-types
                                            addressed within this project in detail:                 than was covered in the recently completed
of years ago to CEN, the European
                                                                                                     BioNorm project.
Standardisation Organisation,               • Development of sampling and sample reduc-
to develop standards for solid biofuels.      tion methods for further materials as well as • The most appropriate systems for reducing
                                              sampling plans                                  those samples to test-portions.
A Technical Committee – CEN TC 335
‘Solid Biofuels’ – was founded by CEN       • Improvement of existing reference test methods • The best location(s) in typical production
to develop such standards. Against                                                             processes at which to take samples, and the
                                            • Development of new reference test methods
                                                                                               appropriate frequency of sampling and testing,
this background the aim of the
                                            • Development of rapid on-site test methods        again for a wide range of solid biofuels.
BioNorm II project is it to carry out
pre-normative research in the field         • Development of improved quality measures, Task I.1 of WP I of BioNorm II will extend the
                                               especially adapted to solid biofuels.           work of the BioNorm I project on increments and
of solid biofuels, in close collaboration
                                                                                               sample reduction by applying broadly the same
with the work of CEN TC 335 “Solid          Additionally the results of this pre-normative
                                                                                               methodology to a second selection of materials
Biofuels’.                                  work will be transferred directly into the ongoing
                                                                                               and test methods, including solid biofuels that
                                            standardisation process to allow for the deve-
                                                                                               are specially relevant for Southern Europe (e.g.
                                            lopment of improved European Standards and
                                                                                               agricultural residues from the production and
                                            acceptable Technical Specifications.
                                                                                               processing of olives and grapes), as well as some
                                                                                               others that are of general interest across the EU
                                            Project Structure                                  (other kinds of wood chips and bark).
                                            The work packages of BioNorm II and their inter-       Task I.2 of WP I covers a subject not considered
                                            dependencies are shown below. WP0, the project         in the recently completed BioNorm project, i.e.
                                            management part, has not been included in this         matching the location and frequency of sampling
                                            diagram since it is in the nature of this work pack-   and testing to the variance of the materials in
                                            age that it interacts with all other work packages.    real time.


                                            Expected Results                                       WP 2 ‘Test procedures’
                                            Against the background of the above-                   In several areas concerning the test methods for
                                            mentioned challenges, it is the aim of the BioNorm     solid biofuels, the European standardisation
                                            II project to carry out pre-normative research in      process cannot continue without pre-normative
                                            the field of solid biofuels in close collaboration     work. This applies to both reference test methods
                                            with the work of CEN TC 335 ‘Solid Biofuels’.          and rapid tests.


74           PRE-NORMATIVE RESEARCH AND CO-ORDINATION ACTIVITIES
                                                                                                              Project Information
                                                                                                              Contract number
                                                                                                              038644

                                                                                                              Duration
                                                                                                              3 years

                                                                                                              Contact person
                                                                                                              Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kaltschmitt
                                                                                                              Institut für Energie und Umweltforschung
                                                                                                              mk@ieleipzig.de

                                                                                                              List of partners
                                                                                                              Austrian Research Institute for
Reference test methods                                                                                        Chemistry and Technology – AT
                                                                                                              Bruins & Kwast – NL
Among the reference test methods, concepts for         Against this background WP III focuses on:
                                                                                                              Bundesanstalt für Landtechnik – AT
the determination of impurities and for the deter-
                                                       • Quality planning (Task III.1)                        Centre Wallon de Recherches
mination of bridging properties of fuels are not                                                              Agronomiques – BE
available so far. Such definitions had been included   • Quality improvement (Task III.2)                     CIEMAT – ES
in the business plan of CEN TC 335 ‘Solid Biofuels’,                                                          Comitato Termotecnico Italiano – IT
                                                       • Quality policy (Task III.3)
but their elaboration had to be postponed due                                                                 CERTH – GR
to the lack of suitable testing methods and the        resulting in procedures and methodologies              Danish Technological Institute – DK
relevant basic experience. It is the objective of      which give operators throughout the overall            ECN – NL
Task II.1 to develop and test appropriate measuring    provision chain valuable information about the         Elsam Kraft – DK
technologies for both parameters.                      following aspects:                                     Hamburg-Harburg University
                                                                                                              of Technology – DE
                                                       • Most appropriate technical and managerial            Institut für Energie
Rapid test methods                                       quality measures.                                    und Umweltforschung – DE
                                                                                                              Institute of Process Engineering
The very successful basic research, method • Most appropriate test methods for quality                        and Power Plant Technology – DE
development and method evaluation carried out             control of different biofuels at different posi-    Kompetenzzentrum
in the recently completed BioNorm project led to          tions within the different supply chains            für Nachwachsende Rohstoffe – DE
a number of drafts of CEN Technical Specifications        applied.                                            Kraft und Wärme aus Biomasse – AT
for the determination of chemical parameters in                                                               Latvian Forestry Research Institute – LV
                                                      • Most effective procedure to improve the fuel
solid biofuels. During this pre-normative R&D work,                                                           Mann Engineering GmbH – DE
                                                          quality considering both the use of potentials      Marche University of Technology – IT
questions arose that need to be clarified before the
                                                          for improvement as well as cost effects in the      Partner Halm80 Aps – DE
Technical Specifications can be transformed into
                                                          light of quality improvement.                       Sparkling Projects – NL
European Standards. Furthermore, additional
                                                                                                              Riga University of Technology – LV
rapid test methods are necessary to decrease • Guidance on how to deal in practice with inter-
                                                                                                              Royal Veterinary
analyses costs and to obtain necessary information        actions of quality assurance, quality control,
                                                                                                              and Agricultural University – DK
much faster.                                              quality planning and quality improvement, and       Swedish University
                                                          further management aspects. This should             of Agricultural Sciences – SE
Currently, the available methods are not suffi-
                                                          result in the development of a management           Swedish National Testing
ciently developed for the characterisation of
                                                          tool for companies dealing with solid biofuels.     and Research Institute – SE
biofuels with low sulphur and low chlorine con-
                                                                                                              VTT – FI
tent. The proposed research will improve the
methods accordingly. Additionally, the methods WP 4 ‘Biofuel specifications’                                  Website
will be extended to apply to the determination of                                                             http://www.ie-leipzig.de/
                                                      Biofuels are specified by some key properties, e.g.
bromine and iodine in biofuels. These elements                                                                BioNorm/Standardisation.htm
                                                      moisture content, particle size and ash content.
are currently completely neglected.
                                                      Such key properties could be for wood pellets,          Project officer
                                                      e.g. the diameter, the average length including         Erich Naegele
WP 3 ‘Quality measures procedures’                    the degree to which this length might vary, the
                                                      maximum allowed share of fines (i.e. wood powder),      Status
To allow for an increase of the market for solid                                                              ongoing
                                                      and the maximum ash content. But for the time
biofuels, a steady fulfilling of required fuel spe-
                                                      being only aspects resulting from the fuel supply
cification of a defined product quality is essential.
                                                      chain have been considered. This does not
The specification of the fuel (according to a
                                                      reflect the needs of industry fully since the
standard or specific needs defined by a certain
                                                      requirements set by the end-use technology (i.e.
plant) should be the result of an agreement
                                                      the combustion or gasification unit) also have
between one operator and the next operator
                                                      to be taken into consideration. In small-scale
within the overall supply chain. The next operator
                                                      combustion units, fuel quality has a great influence
should be considered as the customer of the
                                                      on the emission levels of combustion; it is therefore
previous one. Specifications can also be estab-
                                                      essential to determine limit values of the properties
lished according to anticipated market demands,
                                                      for different type of units by combustion tests.
whereas the specification is often a combination
of customer requirements, market demands and
the operator’s preconditions.

                                                                                                                                                         75
NOE-BIOENERGY

                The Network of Excellence
                ‘Overcoming Barriers to Bioenergy’

 OBJECTIVES                                  Challenges
                                             Bioenergy has the potential to provide the                    Each partner has its area of expertise and initial
The aim of the Bioenergy NoE is              largest share of renewable energy sources in                  responsibility coordinated within the NoE. The
to identify and address key RTD needs        Europe. The use of bioenergy has to be increased              mapping of partners´ activities, together with the
                                             significantly if the goals of the EC on security of           subsequent barrier analysis and RTD goal definitions
that can help overcome barriers
                                             supply and environmental drivers are to be met.               carried out within the WPs, will provide the basis for
to the expansion of bioenergy markets
                                             To allow bioenergy to reach its full potential, key           final integration with JER activities.
in Europe. To overcome these barriers,       barriers must be resolved: the challenge is to
                                                                                                           A new WP structure was implemented in 2006.
development of the entire chain from         identify and address key RTD needs that can
                                                                                                           It is based on those industrial sectors in which
resource base to end-use markets             help overcome the barriers to the expansion of
                                                                                                           bioenergy plays a role and future business
has to be considered. A significant          the bioenergy market.
                                                                                                           opportunities may be identified. The WP structure
increase in the use of bioenergy             Integration in bioenergy R&D, in addition to new              will be built upon the initial work, JER project ini-
cannot take place without the                technology and business concepts, is needed,                  tiatives, identified strategic drivers including key
involvement of industry and,                 and the Bioenergy NoE has to respond to the                   EC directives, and identified market opportunities.
                                             demands of the EC and industry. The critical                  The RES-E, Biofuels, Emissions Trading and Land-
as a result, such a desired increase
                                             tasks will be to:                                             fill Directives are the most essential of the key
can be viewed in terms of business
                                                                                                           drivers and market opportunities within the area.
opportunities. The primary objective         • Support generation of new bioenergy oppor-
                                               tunities through improved RTD capabilities.
is to integrate partner activities
                                                                                                           Expected Results
to create a ‘Virtual Bioenergy RTD           • Back up and influence policies and legislation.
Centre’ and to develop a deep and                                                                   The expected principal result at the end of the
                                             • Enhance knowledge-sharing, education and
                                                                                                    five-year period is an integrated R&D structure,
durable integration, to be extended             mobility.
                                                                                                    a ‘Virtual Centre of Excellence’ that will influence
beyond the period of Community
                                             The mission is to create a ‘Virtual Bioenergy RTD the implementation of the main EC directives and
financial support. Interaction               Centre’ that exploits the capabilities of the partners the expansion of R&D and business opportunities
with other European public R&D               in building a thriving and successful bioenergy in the bioenergy area in Europe. A considerable
instruments will also be encouraged.         sector in Europe.                                      increase in the use of bioenergy cannot occur
                                                                                                    without the participation of industry. Therefore
                                                                                                    the intended increase has to be analysed in
                                             Project Structure
                                                                                                    terms of business opportunities.
                                             Bioenergy NoE is a partnership of eight leading
                                                                                                    The integration was initially intended to focus
                                             institutes in bioenergy RTD from across Europe
                                                                                                    on the non-technical barriers. During the second
                                             and is coordinated by VTT, Finland. In 2004-2005,
                                                                                                    phase, the target will be to activate and carry
                                             activities were carried out within Work Packages
                                                                                                    out a JER phase and to plan the integration
                                             (WPs): Integration Activities 1-8, Spreading of
                                                                                                    structure. During the final phase, the focus will be
                                             Excellence (SEA), Jointly Executed Research (JER),
                                                                                                    on executing the integration. After the mapping
                                             and Coordination. The initial joint programme of
                                                                                                    of partner activities and barrier analysis with
                                             activities and the integration structure was
                                                                                                    RTD goals definition, integration will proceed with
                                             based on the detailed integration areas (Figure 1).
                                                                                                    the planning and establishing of JER projects.
                                                                                                    Integration will take place in practice through
                                                                                                    common NoE projects, which will be funded
                                                                                                    outside the current NoE framework, resulting in
                                                                                                    the preparation of integrated projects and identi-
                                                                                                    fication of market opportunities and industry
                                                                                                    needs.




                                             Figure 1. Structure of partnership and responsibility areas
                                             of Bioenergy NoE.

76              PRE-NORMATIVE RESEARCH AND CO-ORDINATION ACTIVITIES
                                                                                                                 Project Information




                                                        Barriers to market introduction
                                                        and the definition of RTD goals
                                                        Identification and analysis of barriers to bioenergy
                                                        and the definition of RTD goals have been carried
                                                        out within the different WPs. A uniform
                                                        approach was created for the barrier analysis,
                                                        dividing the expected barriers into the following
                                                        categories: economics, legislation, technology,
                                                        biomass supply, sustainability and social aspects.
                                                        Most of the main barriers to the increase in
                                                        bioenergy utilisation relate to these topics.
Integration is also expected to result in wide human
mobility, researcher exchange, and education and        The Bioenergy NoE covers almost the entire field
training among the partners. Interaction with other     of bioenergy, from production to use. The barrier
European public R&D instruments, such as the            analyses carried out within the WPs resulted, as
ERANET Bioenergy and Research Infrastructure,           expected, in a wide variety of non-technical and
will be a target. European Technology Platforms         technical barriers. The overall impression is that the
for the 7th Framework Programme are examples            non-technical barriers dominate, and economic
of initiatives in which NoE can also have an            barriers are the most prominent ones. However,
active role.                                            no single barrier stands out as the most impor-
                                                        tant; it is the interaction of many barriers that
                                                        impedes the rapid expansion of bioenergy use.
Progress to Date
                                                        Insufficient availability of low-cost biomass
                                                        feedstock has been seen as a major barrier in most
Initial mapping of partners´
                                                        areas, except biowaste-to-energy applications.
RTD activities
                                                        There might be competition for biomass resources
The mapping exercise on RTD activities of the           in large-scale applications, e.g. forest industry
partners was carried out and completed in 2004,         and liquid biofuel production. Furthermore,
and has been since analysed and reviewed. The           competition for land use is discussed in terms of
mapping report provides a solid foundation that will    energy crops. The price structure of biomass is
determine the future work of the NoE. The analysis      influenced by local, national and European policy
shows that there is comprehensive coverage of all       issues, environmental and energy taxes as well
the identified bioenergy topics with an overall         as supporting and legislative instruments.
high level of complementarity in most areas.
                                                        As well as non-technical barriers, a large number
There are clearly some areas of overlap but often
                                                        of technology-related barriers were identified
at different scales of operation and with different
                                                        within the different areas of bioenergy. Even
objectives, and early integration attempts will focus
                                                        omitting the economic barriers and biomass
on these areas. There is also an extensive range of
                                                        availability constraints, technical barriers were
facilities and expertise within the consortium that
                                                        considered critical in introducing novel production
permits almost every aspect of bioenergy systems
                                                        and utilisation technology, e.g. in the area of
to be studied, from fundamental science and
                                                        transportation biofuels. A whole-chain approach
technology R&D to system analysis. Detailed
                                                        and demonstration were emphasised in most WPs.
information on the capabilities and capacities of
                                                        R&D work was suggested to overcome a wide
partners can be found on their websites, which
                                                        variety of technical barriers related to individual
can be accessed from the NoE website,
www.bioenergynoe.com




                                                                                                                                  77
NOE-BIOENERGY

                The Network of Excellence
                ‘Overcoming Barriers to Bioenergy’

                                                                                                 Initial recommendation of integration
                                                                                                 actions
                                                                                                 The technical and organisational scope for inte-
                                                                                                 gration has received a preliminary analysis. The
                                                                                                 integration structure based on business sectors
                                                                                                 scenario has been proposed as the most con-
                                                                                                 structive approach. The second 18-month period
                                                                                                 starting in 2006 is built upon this approach. The
                                                                                                 final structure of integration can be established
                                                                                                 only after the RTD goals and RTD market oppor-
                                                                                                 tunities have been analysed in detail and major
                                                                                                 common JER initiatives have been launched.
                                                                                                 The NoE interaction with other European public R&D
                                                                                                 instruments, such as the Technology Platforms,
                                                                                                 ERANET Bioenergy, and IP projects, has been
                                             process steps within production and utilisation addressed. The NoE partners have representatives in
                                             schemes.                                            the Forest Industry and Biomass for Road
                                                                                                 Transport Platforms.
                                             The RTD goals identification of JER topics and
                                             proposal preparation is currently in progress A summary of the NoE activities for the first three
                                             within the WPs. The next step is to prioritise com- years is schematically presented in Figure 3.
                                             mon topics and proposals regarding integration
                                             benefits and business opportunities.
                                                                                                 Spreading of Excellence
                                             An overview ‘Bioenergy in Europe: Opportunities
                                                                                             SEA has developed a communication plan that
                                             and Barriers’ was published in 2006 and can be
                                                                                             provides a coherent programme of internal and
                                             found on the Bioenergy NoE website,
                                                                                             external communications targets for the life of
                                             www.bioenergynoe.com
                                                                                             the project. For the first 18 months, the target
                                                                                             audience was the EC, as well as NoE partners
                                                                                             and researchers, in order to promote a strong
                                                                                             corporate identity and build a sound foundation
                                                                                             for future integration. After this period, the target
                                                                                             audience will be expanded to include other
                                                                                             governmental organisations across Europe, the
                                                                                             European bioenergy industry and bioenergy
                                                                                             research community.




78              PRE-NORMATIVE RESEARCH AND CO-ORDINATION ACTIVITIES
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            502788

                                                                                                            Duration
                                                                                                            60 Months

                                                                                                            Contact person
                                                                                                            Kai Sipilä
                                                                                                            VTT
                                                                                                            Kai.Sipila@vtt.fi

                                                                                                            List of partners:
                                                                                                            Aston University – GB
                                                     Highlights of Results                                  EC Baltic Renewable Energies Centre – PL
                                                                                                            ECN – NL
A Bioenergy NoE internal newsletter has been        The mapping of partners’ RTD activities carried
                                                                                                            Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe – DE
established. It is a quarterly publication and the  out in 2004 provides a solid foundation for
                                                                                                            Institut National
first five editions have been published. A website  future work. Identification and analysis of barriers    de la Recherche Agronomique – FR
has been created (www.bioenergy-noe.com),           to bioenergy and definition of RTD goals were           Joanneum Research
and a dedicated programme of Researcher             carried out in the WPs as a well-defined task and       Forschungsgesellschaft mbH – AT
Exchange has been launched to give every            resulted in the pinpointing of a wide variety of non-   University of Lund – SE
researcher the opportunity to exchange findings.    technical and technical barriers. The integration       VTT – FI
Two annual NoE researchers´ meetings have been      process has continued through the planning of
organised, the first at FZK in Karlsruhe in 2004    jointly executed projects. A new WP structure           Website
                                                                                                            www.bioenergynoe.com
and the second at ECN in Petten 2005. During        driven by policy and business opportunities was
the first phase, nine joint project proposals were  developed and implemented in 2006. A commu-             Project officer
submitted to the 6th Framework Programme.           nication plan for internal and external targets         Jeroen Schuppers
                                                    was developed, a Bioenergy NoE newsletter was
                                                    established, and a website was created. Several         Status
Coordination                                                                                                ongoing
                                                    researcher exchange visits have been organised.
All partners have a representative in the During the first phase, nine joint project proposals
Bioenergy NoE board which meets about five were submitted to the 6th Framework Programme.
times a year. A coordination team participates in
the preparation of material for the board meetings.
Email, phone, and the eMeeting system have
been the main means of communication for the
team. A password-protected document manage-
ment system and web-based eMeeting platform
have been established to enhance NoE
researcher communication. A financial support
structure has been established to catalyse
researcher exchange and mobility and joint
application initiatives. Several research
exchange visits have been organised, and JER
projects were started in 2005.




                                                                                                                                                       79
NETBIOCOF

            Co-ordination Platform to Promote European
            Co-operation in Biomass Cofiring

 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          The promotion of renewable energy has an                expertise and suitability. The Expert Groups (EGs)
NETBIOCOF will promote European           important part to play in redefining the                are an advisory and active body composed of
cooperation between research              European strategy in the energy sector. Since           specialists in each biomass co-firing field who,
                                          1997, the EU has been working towards the               besides accomplishing the scientific and technical
organisations devoted to the research,
                                          ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable            counselling and monitoring tasks, will discuss hot
development and application of
                                          energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In          topics and deliver publishable reports. The diverse
biomass co-firing in new and existing     1997 the share of renewable energy was 5.4%             activities and tasks are divided into 7 WPs, each
power plants. It will aim for the         and by 2001 it had reached 6%. Bio-energy               associated with a key objective.
integration and unification of efforts    already provides 64% of all renewable energy
                                                                                                  WP 1 ‘Evaluation of current
and the exchange of knowledge and         sources (RES) of the European Union, thus leading
                                                                                                  State-of-the-Art and identification
                                          the way for a sustainable pattern of energy gen-
expertise between West and East                                                                   of best practices’
                                          eration. Despite the advances already gained in
Europe to promote the development
                                          the bio-energy sector, the overall development          WP 1 starts at the beginning of the project and
and uptake of innovative methods and      lags far behind the goals fixed in the White            aims to collect relevant information about current
technologies and expand the use of        Paper of the European Commission. According             state-of-the-art, successful experiences and
biomass co-firing.                        to this document, the contribution of bio-energy        applications of biomass co-firing in the various
                                          should increase from 45 Mtoe in 1995 to 135             relevant areas (biomass production, pre-treatment
                                          Mtoe in 2010. However, it will not be possible for      and supply, thermal conversion and energy use).
A biomass co-firing expert platform
                                          the EU-15 to achieve such targets alone, due to         This work package will also allow the identification
and a coordination platform will be
                                          the scarce national biomass resources existing in       of best practices throughout the region, focusing
established in order to coordinate and    some countries (e.g. the Netherlands). Today, the       on the potential of Central and Eastern European
assess ongoing research and to            inclusion of ten new Member States gives the            countries for the extended implementation of
develop suitable assessment activities,   opportunity for reaching the European goals,            this renewable source.
with the aim of identifying best          since the new Member States bring to the EU
                                                                                                  WP 2 ‘Assessment of on-going research
                                          a significant bio-energy potential.
practices, gaps in knowledge and                                                                  and identification of gaps in knowledge’
barriers to further execution,            The new Member States provide additional
                                                                                                  WP 2 identifies the research and development
as well as proposing strategies           potential for the development of biomass energy
                                                                                                  institutions and organisations throughout the
                                          such as huge and unexploited biomass resources,
of implementation and directions                                                                  region, in order to map current activities, in
                                          surplus of agricultural production, opportunities
for future research.                                                                              particular in the Central and Eastern European
                                          for energy crops, adoption of EU Directives and
                                                                                                  countries. Additionally the work performed
                                          a strong agricultural lobby. However the prevailing
                                                                                                  within task 32 of the IEA Bioenergy Action will
                                          energy system is characterised by a presence of
                                                                                                  be taken into account.
                                          large quantities of fossil fuels available for energy
                                          purposes, which has resulted in a more or less          WP 3 ‘Identification of barriers
                                          fully fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure. Due to   of implementation’
                                          this situation, the implementation of stand-alone
                                                                                         WP 3 will process the information gathered in
                                          biomass-based power technologies in this region
                                                                                         previous steps in order to evaluate the current
                                          will not be enough to provide the bio-energy
                                                                                         status of biomass co-firing at a laboratory and
                                          demand. Consequently, biomass co-firing in
                                                                                         practical level, and to identify technical and
                                          already existing coal-fired power plants is one of
                                                                                         non-technical barriers to its extended application
                                          the most feasible bio-energy options.
                                                                                         at the European level, in particular in the Central
                                                                                         and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). A list
                                          Project Structure                              of requirements for the co-firing technology for
                                                                                         further application in Europe, especially in the
                                          The coordination activities are implemented
                                                                                         CEECs, will be compiled.
                                          through two different processes, classified as
                                          work packages and expert groups. The work WP 4 ‘Coordination of research
                                          packages (WPs) will be accomplished by all and development - R&D’
                                          members of the consortium who will work
                                                                                         WP 4 will coordinate research efforts on biomass
                                          together on specific tasks in line with their
                                                                                         co-firing throughout the region, in particular
80          PRE-NORMATIVE RESEARCH AND CO-ORDINATION ACTIVITIES
                                                                                                              Project Information
                                                                                                              Contract number
                                                                                                              020007

                                                                                                              Project duration
                                                                                                              24 months

                                                                                                              Contact person
                                                                                                              Dr.-Ing. Gerhard Schories
                                                                                                              Technologie Transfer Zentrum Bremerhaven
                                                                                                              gschories@ttz-bremerhaven.de

                                                                                                              List of partners
                                                                                                              Bioazul – ES
                                                        Expected Results                                      Biomasse Projekt GmbH – DE
                                                                                                              Centre Wallon de Recherches
with applications related to its extended use in        The overall objective of NETBIOCOF is to establish
                                                                                                              Agronomiques – BE
the CEECs. Among the most important activities          a biomass co-firing expert and coordination
                                                                                                              CIEMAT – ES
covered by this work package will be the task of        platform at an integrated European level, as well     Elsam Engineering A/S – DK
identifying and shaping European research clusters      as a network of expertise that will encourage         Estonian Agricultural University – EE
in biomass co-firing, making recommendations for        unification of efforts to develop biomass co-         ETA Renewable Energies – IT
future research and development, creating and           firing, by highlighting the future research and       EUBIA – BE
managing a database platform, and organising            the required synergies needed to make the tech-       EUREC – BE
staff secondments.                                      nology a reliable, safe, available and durable        Institute for Chemical Processing
                                                        source of energy.                                     of Coal – PL
WP 5 ‘Proposal of strategies                                                                                  Institut ‘Jozef Stefan’ – SI
for implementation’                                     The principal outputs expected from NETBIOCOF are:    Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear
                                                                                                              Research ‘Sosny’ – BY
The development of this working package will be         • A better co-ordinated European research and
                                                                                                              Kema Nederland BV – NL
a key process in completing NETBIOCOF goals,              development integrated activity in biomass
                                                                                                              Landeskammer für Land-
since it will be the format by which discussion           co-firing                                           und Forstwirtschaft Steiermark – AT
and evaluation of biomass co-firing perform-                                                                  Lithuanian Forest Research Institute – LT
                                                        • The establishment of defined European
ance and suitability in targeted countries is                                                                 MB Finishing Engineering – DE
                                                          expert groups in the biomass co-firing field
undertaken. The outcome of this work package will                                                             Scientific Engineering Center ‘Biomass’ – UA
be a list of scientific, technological, legal, socio-   • A network website and database platform             Sofia University of Technology – BG
economic and cooperation strategies to promote                                                                Swedish Agricultural University – SE
                                                        • Clear action guidelines for future research         Technologie Transfer Zentrum
the use of biomass co-firing.
                                                          and development in biomass co-firing                Bremerhaven – DE
WP 6 ‘Dissemination and Exploitation’                                                                         Timisoara University of Technology – RO
                                                   • A set of strategies for the extended use of
                                                                                                              TNO – NL
WP 6 will bring to the general public and relevant    biomass co-firing to overcome the current
                                                                                                              TUBITAK – TR
stakeholders the knowledge gathered through the       barriers.
                                                                                                              University of West Hungary – HU
coordination of efforts, by developing a website,                                                             VTT – FI
                                                   These clear outputs from the establishment of
presentations, workshops, publications and the
                                                   the NETBIOCOF network aim to have specific
final conference.                                                                                             Website
                                                   impact in the European Union, as well as in
                                                                                                              www.netbiocof.net
WP 7 ‘Project management’                          other Central and Eastern European countries.
                                                                                                              Project Scientific Officer
WP 7 is involved with the management of the
                                                                                                              Erich Naegele
project and is responsible for all of the other work    Progress to Date
packages.                                                                                                     Status
                                                        The NETBIOCOF project is approximately at the
                                                                                                              ongoing
Each expert group is led by two members (one            halfway stage. The tasks related to the preliminary
from West Europe, the other from the CEECs) with        state-of-the-art review and mapping of current
vast experience in the field, who will guarantee        research activities have been completed: the
the complementation and fluent exchange of              identification of best practices and technical and
knowledge between the participants.                     non-technical barriers is now being carried out.
                                                        The consortium has produced informative project
The expert groups have been defined in line with
                                                        leaflets and distributed them among its network
the process chain of biomass co-firing in the
                                                        of contacts. The webpage has been running since
following way:
                                                        the first month of the project, hosting a powerful
EG 1: Biomass resources (Leaders SLU and EAU)           online database which contains information on
                                                        biomass co-firing provided by the partners, as
EG 2: Biomass supply and pre-treatment
                                                        well as the public project deliverables.
      (Leaders: VTT and NYME)
EG 3: Biomass co-firing technologies (CIEMAT
      and SEC)
EG 4: Energy use (Lk-Stmk and TUS)



                                                                                                                                                       81
Other Renewable Energy Sources
and Connection to the Grid

Wind.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................           84
NIGHT WIND .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                      84
POW WOW ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                    86
UPWIND ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................             88


Geothermal ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................                              90
EGS PILOT PLANT ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................                             90
ENGINE .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................          92
HITI................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    ...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 94
I-GET ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................    96


Ocean .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................             98
CA-OE...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................        98
SEEWEC......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................            100
WAVEDRAGON .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                            102
WAVESSG ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                104


Concentrated Solar Thermal .............................................................................................................................................................                                                                                106
DISTOR ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................         106
ECOSTAR ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................             108
HYDROSOL II .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                     110
SOLHYCARB..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................                     112
SOLHYCO ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................              114
SOLREF ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................         116


Connection of Renewable Energy Sources to the Grid ......................................................                                                                                                                                                               118
DERLAB ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................           118
EU-DEEP....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................             120
FENIX.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................      124
IRED ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................   126
MORE MICROGRIDS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................                                      128
SOS-PVI......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................           130




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              83
NIGHT WIND

             Storage of Wind Energy in Cold Stores



 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          The integration of wind power into the national or  the balance between wind energy production and
Night Wind addresses the following        EU energy supply systems is becoming relatively     actual electricity demand. This is the case for
strategic objectives: integrating         more problematic with increasing installed          ‘island operation’, with delivery of surplus energy
                                          capacity and production, especially due to a        to the grid, and also for Distributed Energy
renewable energy resources into the
                                          mismatch of supply and demand of energy. The        Resources (DER) where windmills are physically
European energy service network by
                                          wind energy is produced at rather random times,     located elsewhere than (existing) cold stores, but
providing new facilities for energy       whereas the energy use pattern shows distinct       controlled in an interdependent way to support
storage, increasing the economic value    demand peaks during day time and office hours       the European energy service network. Design of
of wind energy by providing means to      and low levels during the night.                    control strategies, with the help of powerful
deliver the energy at peak demand                                                             simulation tools, will be the main task of the
                                          The random production of wind energy cannot
                                                                                              Night Wind project.
hours, and increasing the                 easily be accommodated on the grid by switching
competitiveness of SME Cold Storage       on and off conventional energy suppliers, like
facilities by providing adding ‘energy    coal fired power plants. This would lead to an Project Structure
                                          increase of CO2 emissions, rather than the
storage’ as an additional service to be                                                       The research stage of the project includes the
                                          reduction of CO2 emissions which is desired.
provided for the European energy                                                              following topics:
service network. The overall impact is    In order to accommodate the random production
                                                                                              • Potential, economic & trade aspects of Wind
                                          of wind energy in the grid, it is desirable that
that the project will offer a solution                                                            Power DER + Cold Store DSM
                                          alternative (renewable and conventional) elec-
to integrate wind energy with energy
                                          tricity producers balance out the difference • Design and modelling of infrastructures for
storage in the European electrical        between production of wind energy and electric-         island operation of Wind Energy + Cold Store
grid, giving space to a further growth    ity demand. The Night Wind project aims to store        DSM
in the use of wind energy worldwide       wind energy produced at night in refrigerated
                                                                                              • Control concepts and algorithms for Wind
and a contribution to the Kyoto           warehouses, and to release this energy during
                                                                                                  Energy + Cold Store DSM grid integration
                                          daytime peak hours.
targets at the same time.
                                                                                              • Quality preservation of frozen products during
                                          The concept underlying Night Wind makes use of
                                                                                                  minor temperature fluctuations
                                          existing technology, extended with novel control
                                          strategies. These are needed to set the temperature • Legal issues
                                          in refrigerated warehouses to a level that reflects
                                                                                              • Demonstration and introduction outline plan.




                                          Optimum storage / release of wind energy in line with consumption pattern

84           WIND
                                                                                                              Project Information
                                                                                                              Contract number
                                                                                                              020045

                                                                                                              Duration
                                                                                                              24 months

                                                                                                              Contact person
                                                                                                              S.M. van der Sluis, M.Sc
                                                                                                              TNO
                                                                                                              Sietze.vandersluis@tno.nl

                                                                                                              List of Partners
                                                                                                              Essent Energy Trading – NL
                                                                                                              Dutch Association
                                                                                                              of Refrigerated Warehouses – NL
                                                        The demonstration phase of the project should
                                                                                                              Partner Logistics Europe BV – NL
                                                        mark the start of a larger-scale implementation.
                                                                                                              TNO – NL
                                                        Therefore, the project will include the preparation   Risoe National Laboratory – DK
                                                        of an implementation outline plan, which will be      Sofia University of Technology – BG
                                                        based on the preliminary experiences gained in        Spanish National Renewable
                                                        the demonstration, and will include input from        Energies Centre – ES
                                                        representatives in the sectors that are directly
                                                        involved in the implementation: the refrigerated      Website
                                                        warehouse sector and the energy distribution          www.tno.nl/rci
                                                        sector.                                               Project Officer
                                                                                                              Stefano Puppin
                                                        Progress to date                                      Status
                                                        Project kick-off meeting planned for September        ongoing
                                                        2006.




Expected Results
The Night Wind project intends to bring a concept
to the demonstration stage. It starts with a kick-off
meeting, followed by a phase in which literature
will be surveyed and a technical specification
established. The benefits of the concept need to
be detailed, both the benefits on a macroscopic
scale from the European viewpoint of integrating
RES with the energy network, and the benefits on
a smaller scale for energy distributors, warehouse
owners and end-users. It is furthermore necessary
to address a number of basic research topics –
such as the effect of temperature fluctuations on
the quality of stored refrigerated and frozen
products – before the idea can be demonstrated
with minimal risk.




                                                                                                                                                    85
POW’WOW

          Coordinating the Prediction of Renewable
          Offshore Energy Production

OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                          Climate change is related to the way we generate     behind turbines and wind farms), it shall also be
POW’WOW is a new project trying to        electricity. As part of the Kyoto effort to reduce   seen how to better integrate the long-term and
harmonise approaches to wave and          the emissions of greenhouse gases, the European      short-term prediction of offshore energy
                                          Union has an overall target of 12% of energy         resources from a modelling standpoint.
wind modelling offshore, helping the
                                          (22% electricity) from renewables by 2010.
short-term forecasting and wake
research communities by establishing      Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable         Project Structure
                                          energy source in the European Union. By 2003
virtual laboratories, offering                                                                 The project is largely structured around three
                                          more than 28,000 MW of wind energy capacity
specialised workshops, and setting up                                                          topical work packages, for wave energy (both
                                          had been installed in Europe (600 MW offshore).
expert groups with large outreach in                                                           long-term and short-term), short-term prediction
                                          The wave resource in European waters is even
                                                                                               of wind power (both onshore and offshore:
the mentioned fields.                     larger: 120-190 TWh/year (offshore) and 34-46
                                                                                               long-term prediction of wind resources is only a
                                          TWh/year (nearshore). Yet, despite many research
                                                                                               problem in complex terrain, which is too dissimilar
Two Virtual Laboratories, one for         efforts from the 1970s onwards, relatively little
                                                                                               to the other activities to be included here), and
                                          installed capacity exists, although prototypes
offshore wake modelling, the other                                                             wakes behind offshore turbines and wind farms.
                                          have been developed in many countries. The
one for short-term forecasting,                                                                Two additional work packages deal with man-
                                          proposed project seeks to integrate further the
will be set up. Two guides on best                                                             agement and dissemination activities and future
                                          wind and wave energy communities to maximise
                                                                                               work. The dissemination in the field of short-term
practices will be written, one on         the research effort on resource assessment and
                                                                                               forecasting also includes connections to colleagues
short-term forecasting (bringing the      to utilise expertise from wind energy short-term
                                                                                               outside Europe.
experiences of high wind penetration      forecasting and wave energy resource assessment
                                          for optimal planning and operation of offshore
countries to those with little wind
                                          energy technology.                                   Expected Results
power) and one for wake modelling.
In the end, this Coordination Action      While some of the project resources go into          A number of workshops are envisaged in quite
                                          specialised activities supporting research in the    specialised areas, usually leading to a document
will also support preparation of
                                          three fields individually (wave power, short-term    detailing out the progress in the field. One is a
further initiatives such as a Network
                                          prediction of wind power, and offshore wakes         cross-cutting workshop with the aim of cross-
of Excellence or an Integrated Project.                                                        fertilising the separate approaches in the offshore
                                                                                               meteorology community, integrating wind and
                                                                                               wave resource modelling. Another workshop is
                                                                                               planned on integrating and implementing wake
                                                                                               models in short-term forecasts of wind power.
                                                                                               A third workshop is already in preparation for
                                                                                               October 25, 2006, on the best practice in short-term
                                                                                               prediction of wind power, where high-penetration
                                                                                               utilities can present their experiences with the
                                                                                               day-to-day use of short-term forecasting tools
                                                                                               to utilities quite new to the game. The results of
                                                                                               this workshop should go into a document
                                                                                               detailing the best utility practice in short-term
                                                                                               forecasting.
                                                                                               In the fields of wave modelling and short-term
                                                                                               forecasting, two expert groups are being set up,
                                                                                               for support of politics, but also for dissemination
                                                                                               activities outside Europe. The expert groups will
                                                                                               also identify potential new research topics for
                                                                                               funding agencies.
                                                                                               One problem hindering progress, especially in
                                                                                               the economically sensitive field of offshore wind
                                                                                               power but also in wind power in general, is the
86         WIND
                                                                                                             Project Information
                                                                                                             Contract number
                                                                                                             019898

                                                                                                             Duration
                                                                                                             36 months

                                                                                                             Contact person
                                                                                                             Dr. Gregor Giebel
                                                                                                             Risoe National Laboratory
                                                                                                             Gregor.Giebel@risoe.dk

                                                                                                             List of partners
                                                                                                             Armines – FR
                                                                                                             Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg – DE
                                                                                                             Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – IT
                                                                                                             EC Baltic Renewable Energy Centre – PL
                                                                                                             Energy & meteo systems – DE
                                                                                                             INETI – PT
                                                                                                             Institute of Accelerating Systems
                                                                                                             and Applications – GR
                                                                                                             Institut für Solare
                                                                                                             Energieversorgungstechnik – DE
                                                                                                             Risoe National Laboratory – DK
                                                                                                             Spanish Nacional Renewable
                                                                                                             Energies Centre – ES
                                                                                                             Technical University of Denmark – DK
                                                                                                             University ‘Carlos III’ Madrid – ES

                                                                                                             Website
                                                                                                             http://powwow.risoe.dk/

                                                                                                             Project officer
                                                                                                             Thierry Langlois d’Estaintot

                                                                                                             Status
                                                                                                             ongoing
lack of good accessible data. This will be taken       access to data, the potential worries of the data
care of by the establishment of two Virtual            owners (wind turbine data and NWP) about
Laboratories, one for short-term forecasting, the      making their data public, and the exact demands
other one for wakes. The idea is, in part, to take     for publication from ViLab participants will have
some of the cumbersome work of data acquisition        to be decided on during setting-up of the ViLab.
out of the research projects themselves and put
it here, and in part to have common evaluation
                                                       Progress to Date
criteria and common evaluations of the work,
and being able to compare one’s own research           Currently, the expert groups are established, and
with the best (and worst) in the field. This idea is   work goes on towards establishing the Virtual
somewhat modelled on two very successful               Laboratories. Also, the first workshop has been
efforts, one being www.winddata.com and the            announced on the website (powwow.risoe.dk/
other one the Anemos case studies and bench-           BestPracticeWorkshop.htm). It will be held in
marking process. In winddata.com, quality-             conjunction with the 6th Workshop on Large-Scale
checked measurement campaigns (of usually              Integration of Wind Power and Transmission
short duration) have been put into a central           Networks for Offshore Wind Farms in Delft (see off-
repository in a common data format, so that            shoreworkshop.org). The date is October 25, 2006.
institutes that have signed up to it can download      Please see the website for registration details.
the data and use it. The data spans 165,000
hours from 57 sites and is used for many different
purposes, ranging from resource assessment to
structural high-resolution measurements on
actual wind turbines for load cases. The other
case to model on is the Anemos benchmarking
exercise, where in all 11 different models were
fed with the same NWP data for six wind farms
in Europe. One institute (CENER) did the common
evaluation and presented the results in London
at the EWEC conference in November 2004. One
important aspect of this was the development of
a common evaluation procedure and common
evaluation criteria, led by IMM. The details of
                                                                                                                                                      87
UPWIND

         Finding Solutions to Design Limitations
         of Large Wind Turbines

OBJECTIVES                                   Challenges                                                                                            Project Structure
                                             In order to realise a significant contribution of                                                     As the project includes many scientific disciplines
The objectives of the UpWind project         wind energy to the global electricity supply                                                          which need to be integrated in order to arrive at
are to achieve a state-of-the-art            (e.g. 20%) in the future, very large wind turbines                                                    specific design methods, new materials, compo-
                                             with an installed power of over 10 MW each,                                                           nents and concepts, the project’s organisation
design methodology for very large
                                             operating as wind ‘power plants’ (often called                                                        structure is based on work packages (WPs)
wind turbines and to establish the
                                             wind farms) of several hundreds of megawatts                                                          which variously deal with: scientific research
largest turbine dimensions that can be       capacity will become necessary. Such machines                                                         (eight WPs); the integration of scientific results
designed reliably. This will be a critical   are not available yet and their design requires the                                                   (three WPs); and their integration into technical
analysis of advances in the following        highest possible standards, encompassing complete                                                     solutions (four WPs). External communication
scientific disciplines, with a view to       understanding of external design conditions,                                                          and the dissemination of project findings are
                                             availability of materials with extreme strength-                                                      considered essential and therefore have been
the design of large wind turbines of
                                             to-mass ratios, advanced integrated control and                                                       organised in a separate additional work package
>10 MW installed power.
                                             measuring systems, all geared towards the highest                                                     (see the figure below).
                                             degree of reliability.
                                                                                                                                                   The working methods and organisation structure
A review will be made of rotor
                                                                                                                                                   ensure that scientific research meets industry
aerodynamics, aero-elastics, rotor
                                                                                                                                                   needs. This will be achieved by letting the inte-
structure and materials, foundations                                                                                                               gration work packages guide the scientific work
and support structures, control                                                                                                                    packages to a certain extent.
technology, remote sensing, condition
monitoring, flow around wind turbine
                                                                                                                                              ds
                                                                                                                                      n   da r
clusters, and the wind power                                                                                                and
                                                                                                                                  sta
                                                                                                                                                                    ion              lad
                                                                                                                                                                                         es            ers
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ion
                                                                                                                      ign                                        cat              orb               onv           lad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     es
                                                                                                                 es                                           edu              rot               n/c           orb
plant/grid interface, followed by the                                                                      ate
                                                                                                              dd
                                                                                                                                     l   ogy               g&
                                                                                                                                                                      ova
                                                                                                                                                                          tive              issi
                                                                                                                                                                                                o
                                                                                                                                                                                                            rot              ling
                                                          er ckag
                                                                 e                                  eg r                         tro                  inin                             nsm              art              sca
                                                       mb    a                                   Int                        Me                     Tra            Inn              Tra               Sm               Up
conception of innovative components:                 Nu ork P
                                                  WP   W

rotor blades structure, smart rotor              2   Aerodynamics & aero-elastics

blades incorporating advanced                    3   Rotor structure and materials

distributed aerodynamic control                  4   Foundations & support structures
elements over the blade length,
                                                 5   Control systems
and transmission and electric
                                                 6   Remote sensing
conversion systems.
                                                 7   Conditioning monitoring


                                                 8   Flow

                                                 9   Electrical grid

                                                10   Management


                                                                                                1A.1             1A.2                          1A.3            1B.1             1B.2             1B.3             1B.4

                                                                       Scientific integration                                                                                                                             Technology integration




88         WIND
                                                                                                             Project Information
                                                                                                             Contract number
                                                                                                             019945

                                                                                                             Duration
                                                                                                             60 months

                                                                                                             Contact person
                                                                                                             Peter Hjuler Jensen,
                                                                                                             Risoe National Laboratory
                                                                                                             Peter.hjuler@risoe.dk

                                                                                                             List of Partners
                                                                                                             CIEMAT – ES
Expected Results                                                                                             Council for the Central Laboratory
                                                                                                             of the Research Councils – GB
UpWind will not develop a specific very large
                                                                                                             CRES – GR
wind turbine demonstration unit as such, nor
                                                                                                             Delft University of Technology – NL
will it produce a specific design. UpWind will,                                                              Det Norske Veritas, Danmark A/S – DK
however, develop the accurate, verified tools and                                                            ECN – NL
some essential component concepts the indus-                                                                 Elsam Kraft AS – DK
try needs to design and manufacture this new                                                                 GE Global Research – DE
breed of turbine types. The following examples                                                               Ecotecnia, SCL – ES
illustrate not all but some of the most important                                                            EWEA – BE
issues relating to new design tools.                                                                         Fiberblade Eolica, S.A.U. – ES
                                                                                                             Free University of Brussels (VUB) – BE
UpWind will address the aerodynamic, aero-                                                                   Fundaction Robotiker – ES
elastic, structural and material design aspects of                                                           Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd. – GB
rotors. Future wind turbine rotors may have a                                                                Germanischer Lloyd Windenergie GmbH – DE
diameter of over 150 meters. These dimensions                                                                Institut fuer Solare
are such that the flow in the rotor plane is non-     A similar argument applies to the response of          Energieversorgungstechnik – DE
uniform, as a result of which the inflow may          the structure to external excitations. In order to     Instytut Podstawowych problemow Techniki
vary considerable over the rotor blade. Full blade    make significant progress in this field more           Polskiej Akademii Nauk – PL
                                                                                                             LM Glasfiber A/S – DK
pitch control will no longer be sufficient. That is   accurate, linearly responding measuring sensors
                                                                                                             Lohmann + Stolterfoht GmbH – DE
why UpWind will investigate local flow control        and associated software are needed. Preferably
                                                                                                             Lulea University of Technology – SE
along the blades, for instance by varying the local   the sensors should remain stable and accurate          National Technical University of Athens – GR
profile shape. Without associated new control         during a considerable part of the operational          Qinetiq Limited – GB
strategies (software), the new control elements –     lifetime of a wind turbine. UpWind will explore        Ramboll Danmark A/S – DK
the hardware side of the issue – will be useless.     measuring methods and will look more in detail         Repower Systems AG – DE
Control strategies will be developed in a separate    into new remote sensing techniques for measuring       Risoe National Laboratory – DK
work package. Also critical analysis of drive train   wind velocities.                                       RWTH Aachen – DE
components will be carried out in the search for                                                             Samtech SA – BE
                                                      Two integrating work packages are of particular        Shell Winderenergy B.V. – NL
breakthrough solutions.
                                                      importance: ‘Integrated Design & Standards’ and        Smart Fibres LTD – GB
Wind turbines are highly non-linear, reactive         ‘Up-scaling’. All results from various work packages   Stichting Kenniscentrum Windturbine
machines operating under stochastic external          will serve as an input to assemble an integrated       Materialen en Constructies – NL
conditions. Extreme conditions may have an            design methodology and to provide inputs to            Technical University of Denmark – DK
impact a thousand times more demanding on, for        redraft design standards, which in their turn will     University of Aalborg – DK
instance, the mechanical loading than average         have a positive impact on certification processes.     University of Edinburgh – GB
conditions require. Understanding profoundly          The work package ‘Up-scaling’ will explore the         University of Patras – GR
                                                                                                             University of Salford – GB
these external conditions is of the utmost            maximum dimensions (up to an installed power
                                                                                                             University of Stuttgart – DE
importance in the design of a wind turbine            of 20 MW); the new design methodology allows
                                                                                                             Ustav termomechaniky Akademie
structure with safety margins as small as possible    the designers to conceive new wind turbine             Ved Ceske Republiky – CZ
in order to realise maximum cost reductions.          structures reliably.                                   Vestas Asia Pacific A/S – DK
                                                      The work package ‘Training & Education’ will,          VTT – FI
                                                      among others, include the new findings of var-         Website
                                                      ious work packages into training and education         www.upwind.eu
                                                      curricula.
                                                                                                             Project officer
                                                                                                             Thierry Langlois d’Estaintot

                                                                                                             Status
                                                                                                             ongoing




                                                                                                                                                      89
EGS-POWERPLANT


                 Enhanced Geothermal Systems: EGS Pilot
                 Plant at Soultz-sous-Forets, France

  OBJECTIVES                            Challenges
                                        From the tests performed in 2005, it appears that               today on the market of conventional geothermal
The Soultz project is a long-term       the distribution of natural permeabilities in the               practise (oil-lubricated line-shaft pumps and
research project aiming at developing   deep fractured system of Soultz-type geothermal                 hydraulic drive systems) have rather severe limi-
                                        reservoirs is the leading factor in these wells’                tations. For this reason, the EEIG ‘Heat Mining’
a new kind of geothermal energy.
                                        productivity/injectivity potential. Consequently,               project developed a programme for submersible
The Enhanced Geothermal System
                                        the quality of the connections developed between                pumps and line-shaft pump testing.
(EGS) principle aims to extract the     the wells and the far-field network of natural
                                                                                                        For down-hole pumps the main problem will be
heat contained in deep-seated rock      permeable fractures is of major interest. The main
                                                                                                        to adapt their equipment to temperatures of the
(between 3000 and 6000 m)               challenge being both to produce maximum flow
                                                                                                        pumped fluid that are higher than present limits
by circulating water through            rates with minimum pumping power and to get
                                                                                                        (175ºC), while for line-shaft pumps the main
                                        the most possible stable production temperatures,
a large-capacity natural geothermal                                                                     problem will be to increase the maximum setting
                                        it will be necessary to consider carefully the
reservoir/heat exchanger.                                                                               depth of the pumps and to check their tolerances
                                        future role of the inter-wells heat exchanger for
                                                                                                        with regard to the linearity of the pumping
                                        EGS operations in the context of Soultz- type
                                                                                                        chamber.
This can be created by hydraulic        systems.
and/or chemical stimulation of the                                                          The most challenging questions today are related
                                        Then, interactively with the results of the ongoing
permeability of natural fractures in                                                        to corrosion and scaling risks, due to the geo-
                                        investigations and tests, we address the question
                                                                                            thermal fluid chemical composition.
hydrothermally active regions where     of the optimisation of the energetic performances
deep rocks are permeable enough         of the system (and neutralisation of the associated
for the temperature to increase with    risk of micro-seismic nuisances) with an appro- Project structure
                                        priate strategy.
depth more quickly than normal,                                                             The EEIG ‘Heat Mining’ project is in charge of
due to regional deep water convective   From a preliminary general review of the existing general on-site management, operations and
loops (200ºC at about 5000 m depth      technologies that could be used to pump geo- partner coordination. Its Supervisory Board controls
                                        thermal brine at temperatures higher than a management team that includes one represen-
at Soultz).
                                        175ºC, it appears that the two techniques available tative of each funding member of the EEIG.
                                                                                            Management is supported by a scientific coor-
                                                                                            dination team and by an operations management
                                                                                            team. The scientific partners and the EEIG are
                                                                                            associated within a Consortium Agreement, and
                                                                                            most of the scientific partners are also associated
                                            25MWth           GPK3           25MWth
                                                        GPK2      GPK4
                                                                                            within the framework of EHDRA (European Hot
                                                                                            Dry Rock Association).

                                                                          Sediments

                                                                                          1500m         Expected results
                                                                          Granite                       At termination of the present phase it is expected
                                                                                                        to have on-site at Soultz an operational pilot
                                                                                                        plant functioning on the basis of 70 to 100 l/s of
                                                35 to 50 Kg/s        35 to 50 Kg/s                      permanent brine production at a temperature close
                                                                                                        to 185ºC. It will be able to produce up to 5 MWe,
                                                                70 to
                                                                100Kg/s               #4250m
                                                                                                        a part of which will be used for pumping and
                                                                                                        servicing the peripherals (lighting, surface
                                                                                         5000m >200°C   pumping, cooling, etc.).
                                                                   #600m
                                                                                                        It is expected that the synthesis of operational/
                                        Diagram of the Soultz geothermal pilot plant                    technical and scientific results obtained will
                                        (the values expressed in MWth indicate the maximum              contribute to:
                                        recoverable thermal power. The electric power generation
                                        resulting from this could reach up to 5 to 6 MW, from           • The final selection of parameters, equipment,
                                        which the                                                         techniques (such as flow intensities and dis-
                                                                                                          tribution, pumping requirements, reinjection
90               GEOTHERMAL
                                                                                                   Project Information
                                                                                                   Contract number
                                                                                                   SES6-CT-2003-502 706

                                                                                                   Duration
                                                                                                   36 months

                                                                                                   Contact person
                                                                                                   André Gerard
                                                                                                   G.E.I.E. ‘Exploitation Minière de la Chaleur’
                                                                                                   Gerard@soultz.net

                                                                                                   List of partners
                                                                                                   Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften
                                                                                                   und Rohstoffe – DE
                                                                                                   Bureau de Recherches géologiques
   strategy, heat exchanges at surface, monitoring
                                                                                                   et Minières – FR
   and maintenance techniques) essential to the
                                                                                                   CNRS – FR
   future scientific/technical/operational pro-                                                    Deep Heat Mining Association – CH
   gramme that will use this pilot plant as a tool                                                 G.E.I.E. Exploitation Minière
   for the full design of industrial plants.                                                       de la Chaleur – FR
                                                                                                   GTC Kappelmeyer GmbH – DE
• The full technical and economical design of
                                                                                                   Institut für Geowissenschaftliche
  a prototype based on a multi-well array. This
                                                                                                   Gemeinschaftsaufgaben – DE
  design will include (for each step of the con-                                                   Institute for Energy Technology – NO
  struction of the prototype) a list of the relevant                                               MeSy Geo-Mess-Systeme GmbH – DE
  strategic techniques, accompanied by a critical
  review of the state of the art in these                                                          Website
  domains. It will be based mostly on the results                                                  www.soultz.net
  of the upscaling elements of the project, butAs a consequence of these tests, an interactive
                                                                                                   Project officer
  a substantial effort will also be made to take
                                               programme aiming to improve the wells’              Jeroen Schuppers
  into consideration external views coming fromhydraulic performances has already provided
  other geothermal operators in the world.     the first positive results. Two production pumps    Status
                                               are expected to be delivered end-2006 for more      ongoing
                                               powerful tests of the geothermal reservoir and
Progress to date
                                               for a first evaluation of their performance. Most
The platform, equipped with the deep wells and of the surface equipment (heat exchangers cooling
all the peripheral equipment for follow-up of devices, first heat/electricity conversion cycle)
the impact(s) of the tests, is operational.    has now been specified and for a large part
                                               already ordered.




Work on the connections of the wells on the
surrounding mountain range, together with the
development of the inter-well exchange zone, had
progressed enough for a medium-term circulation
test programme (5 months) in 2005. This provided
a first evaluation of the inter-wells exchanger(s) and
of the surrounding natural reservoir’s behaviour,
particularly with regard to the evaluation of the
future improvements required for efficient
pumping, resistance to scaling/corrosion and
wells maintenance.




                                                                                                                                               91
ENGINE

         Enhanced Geothermal Innovative
         Network for Europe
                                                                                             • A scientific challenge to understand the dis-
                                                                                               tribution of heat and permeability at depth in
                                                                                               the uppermost crust. High amplitude and
OBJECTIVES                              Challenges                                             small wavelength anomalies, related to local
                                                                                               high conductivity layers or highly radioactive
                                        Large wavelength thermal anomalies are charac-
                                                                                               sources, may develop on the large wavelength
The main objective of the ENhanced      terised at the scale of Europe and within ultra-
                                                                                               thermal anomalies and present great interest for
Geothermal Innovative Network for       peripheric regions (Caribbean Island, Canaries)
                                                                                               the assessment of reservoirs for hot dry-rock
                                        and constitute a source of energy potentially
Europe (ENGINE) is the coordination                                                            energy systems.
                                        available throughout Europe. However, the use
of the present research and
                                        of geothermal energy is limited by the fact that • A technological and economic challenge to
development initiatives for             it relies on the relatively uncommon geological       improve and render cost-efficient investiga-
unconventional geothermal resources     concurrence of rocks being simultaneously             tion and development technology in order to
and enhanced geothermal systems,        water-bearing, hot and permeable, and lying at        make these geothermal systems viable.
from resource investigation and         economically accessible depths. Different ways have
                                                                                            • A communication challenge to rally the support
                                        been tested or are imagined for enhancing and
assessment through to exploitation                                                            of policy makers and investors and, in certain
                                        broadening geothermal energy reserves which can
monitoring.                                                                                   cases, increase the social acceptance of a
                                        be classified into unconventional geothermal
                                                                                              broader community.
                                        resources, i.e. mainly enhanced geothermal systems
The coordination action will provide    (EGS) and supercritical reservoirs:                 • A challenge to integrate the different, yet
an updated framework of activities                                                            parallel, research paths that currently exist,
                                        • Stimulating reservoirs in hot dry rock systems.
concerning geothermal energy                                                                  namely one for investigation and resource
                                        • Enlarging the extent of productive geothermal       assessment and another for sustainable
in Europe and the definition
                                            fields by enhancing/stimulating permeability      exploitation schemes, one for hot dry rocks
of innovative concepts for the
                                            in the vicinity of naturally permeable rocks.     and another for high energy systems.
investigation and use of
                                        • Enhancing the viability of current and potential
unconventional geothermal resources
                                          hydrothermal areas by stimulation technology       Project structure
and enhanced geothermal systems.
                                          and improving thermodynamic cycle.
Groups of experts will present a Best                                                        The structure of the project is based on nine
                                        • Defining new targets and new tools for reaching workpackages. The project management activities
Practice Handbook. A scientific and
                                           supercritical fluid systems, especially high- are gathered in WP 1. The Information and
technical European Reference Manual,
                                           temperature down-hole tools and instruments. dissemination system of the co-ordination
including the information and                                                                action (WP 2) objectives are:
                                        • Improving drilling and reservoir assessment
dissemination systems developed
                                           technology.                                       • A working platform for exchanging general
during these coordination activities,
                                                                                                or specialised information.
will be prepared.                       • Improving exploration methods for deep
                                           geothermal resources.                             • On-line exchange and dissemination of scientific
                                                                                                and technical know-how and practices.
                                        Geothermal production levels must also be
                                        designed to comply with resource sustainability • Access to a metadata base, specified data-
                                        constraints. Major cost reduction must be               base, open-source software and models.
                                        accomplished to achieve the objectives of the EU for
                                                                                             • An interface with non-member institutes and
                                        the use of renewable energies. The development of
                                                                                                the international geothermal community.
                                        unconventional geothermal resources may also
                                        be linked in an ‘unconventional’ way to other • Development and maintenance of a regular
                                        industrial activities such as CO2 storage or            contact with the media.
                                        hydrogen production. In parallel, the environ-
                                                                                             Two main strategies will be applied in the frame-
                                        mental and social aspects of the development of
                                                                                             work of the co-ordination action:
                                        geothermal energy are of great importance as
                                        the image of this renewable and sustainable • A bottom-up and federative strategy to motivate
                                        energy must be improved, not only in terms of           the scientific community to face up to the
                                        awareness of decision-makers, but also of               scientific and technical challenges.
                                        acceptance by the general public.                       Workshops and conferences will be regularly
                                                                                                organised to ensure a smooth and stream-
                                        To summarise, by exploring unconventional geo-
                                                                                                lined flow of exchanges and coordination.
                                        thermal resources, research and development
                                                                                                Publications available on journals and on the
                                        institutes face:
                                                                                                website are the expected deliverables of
92        GEOTHERMAL                                                                            these work packages.
                                                                                                               Project Information
                                                                                                               Contract number
                                                                                                               019760

                                                                                                               Duration
                                                                                                               30 months
• The creation of expert groups/panels in                and models collected and compiled during the
  charge of defining priorities in the field of          integration phase of the co-ordination action.        Contact person
  research investment and strengthening the                                                                    Patrick Ledru
  links with the financial and political institutions.                                                         Bureau de Recherches Géologiques
                                                         Expected results                                      et Minières
  A Best Practice Handbook and the definition of
  innovative concepts for the investigation,             The main potential impact expected from the           p.ledru@brgm.fr
  reservoir assessment and exploitation of geo-          coordination action is to reestablish the institu-    List of partners
  thermal energy will constitute the deliverables        tional and political support essential to ensure      Bureau de Recherches Géologiques
  of this work. It will include a technical and          that geothermal energy reaches its full efficiency    et Minières – FR
  socio-economic risk evaluation for the                 and profitability thresholds on a European scale.     CERTH – GR
  development of geothermal energy in Europe.            It is necessary to sensitise the geothermal-energy    CFG Services – FR
                                                         community to the task of defining innovative          CNRS – FR
                                                         research projects. The emergence of such projects     CRES – GR
Phase 1 – Integration                                                                                          Deep Heat Mining Association – CH
                                                         requires a capitalisation of the knowledge of the
                                                                                                               Eotvos University – HU
This integration of scientific and technical             different actors currently playing in the geo-
                                                                                                               Free University of Amsterdam – NL
know-how and practices will provide an updated           thermal field; this implies sharing experience,
                                                                                                               G.E.I.E. Exploitation Minière
framework of activities concerning geothermal            exchanging best practices and clearly identifying     de la Chaleur – FR
energy in Europe. It will cover all initiatives and      the gaps and barriers. The expected impact of         GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam – DE
bottlenecks encountered during the investigation         this coordination action is that a large scientific   Geological Survey of Denmark
of EGS and unconventional geothermal resources,          research community will be mobilised that is          and Greenland – DK
drilling, stimulation and reservoir assessment           able to promote such spin-off projects with           Geologijos Ir Geografijos Institutas – LT
and exploitation, economic, environmental and            industrial partners.                                  Geoproduction Consultants – FR
social impacts. For each of these work packages, the                                                           Geowatt AG – CH
                                                       The coordination action also intends to play            Institute for Geothermal Research – RU
coordination work will be aimed at:
                                                       a transmission role and constitute an information       Institute for High Temperatures Russian
• presenting the state-of-the-art                      exchange platform. It will provide an opportunity       Academy of Science – RU
                                                       to integrate and synthesise all information about       Institut für Energetik und Umwelt – DE
• defining the most appropriate scientific and
                                                       know-how, practices, innovations and barriers at        Instituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse – IT
    technological approaches                                                                                   Instituto Geológico y Minero de España – ES
                                                       the level of the steering committee and expert
• identifying the main gaps, barriers and groups. This knowledge will be disseminated and                      Institutt for Energiteknikk – NO
    unsolved questions                                 made available through the information and              Islenskar Orkurannsoknir – IS
                                                                                                               Joint Stock Company ‘Intergeotherm’ – RU
                                                       publication systems, and should increase the
• analysing how such know-how and procedures                                                                   Leibniz Institute
                                                       interest of other potential scientific and industrial
    can be transferred and bottlenecks overcome.                                                               for Applied Geosciences – DE
                                                       partners. The dissemination will also contribute to     MeSy GeoMessSysteme GmbH – DE
The economic factor and the cost-effectiveness of the transfer of knowledge towards those requiring            National Centre for Scientific Research
each scientific and technological approach will be more information about the technical and                    ‘Demokritos’ – GR
systematically considered. The deliverables will main- socio-economic know-how for developing the              ORME Jeotermal A.S. – TR
ly consist of publications providing access to the geothermal industry, especially in Central and              Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny – PL
conclusions of these integration activities and, in Eastern Europe. This could speed up the exploitation       Physical Institute Russian Academy
particular, to the state-of-the-art.                   of both conventional and unconventional geo-            of Science – RU
                                                       thermal resources in these countries and thus           Shell International Exploration
                                                       contribute considerably to the short- and long-         and Production B.V. – NL
Phase 2 – Synthesis                                                                                            TNO – NL
                                                       term goals of the EU of reducing carbon dioxide
                                                                                                               University of Oradea – RO
Four groups of experts will perform an evaluation emissions by increasing the share of renewable
of the best practices and innovative concepts to energy.                                                       Website
be adopted on the different types of activities.                                                               http://engine.brgm.fr
Risk evaluation for the development of geothermal
                                                       Progress to date                                        Pproject officer
energy is aimed at synthesising the main scientific
                                                                                                               Jeroen Schuppers
and technical aspects, as well as economic and The kick-off meetings of the steering committee
environmental constraints, resulting from the and executive group were held in Potsdam on                      Status
different expert groups. Deliverables will include 10-11 November 2006. Further information on                 ongoing
a Best Practice Handbook and the definition of progress to date can be obtained on the website
innovative concepts for geothermal investigation, http://engine.brgm.fr, where access is provided to
reservoir stimulation and assessment and the contents of the launching conference that
exploitation.                                          was held in Orléans on 12-15 February 2006.
                                                       A provisional schedule of workshop and conferences
A scientific and technical European Reference
                                                       is presented where partners can register and
Manual for the development of unconventional
                                                       contribute on-line.
geothermal resources will finally present this
Best Practice Handbook and will include all pub-
lications, information, metadatabases, databases
                                                                                                                                                       93
HITI

         High Temperature Instruments
         for Supercritical Geothermal Reservoir
         Characterisation and Exploitation
OBJECTIVES                                 Challenges
                                           Over the last few decades, increasing concerns          The key parameters to be measured for thermo-
The HITI project is aimed at solving       have been directed towards the world’s hydro-           dynamic modelling of a reservoir and production
the technological problems associated      carbon energy usage with eventual supply                evaluation are well-bore fluid parameters: tem-
                                           shortfalls and harmful environmental impact.            perature (T), pressure (p) and nature (i.e. ionic
with the characterisation and
                                           Geothermal renewable energy has been considered         charge). First of all comes temperature and, for
production of supercritical geothermal
                                           one of the major alternatives in the near and           this, three main types of down-hole instruments
reservoirs. This implies developing        distant future. Efficient use of existing geothermal    are being considered by HITI:
down-hole instruments capable of           fields and higher energy yields from new
                                                                                                   • Wireline instruments, where a cable with
tolerating temperatures over 300°C,        sources are seen as priority issues. Recently,
                                                                                                     electrical wires is constantly connecting the
and preferably up to 500°C,                ideas to radically improve power extraction from
                                                                                                     down-hole gauge to a surface computer.
                                           geothermal boreholes have been put forward.
with the following functions:
                                           A ten-fold increase in power production has             • ‘Sick line’ instruments where a metallic wire
temperature, pressure, fluid and rock
                                           been predicted theoretically when drilled from            is used to lower the instrument and the data
electrical resistivity, natural gamma      the conventional 3 km to unconventional 5 km              is gathered on a memory chip inside the
radiation, televiewer acoustic images,     depth in Icelandic geothermal regions. An ongoing         instrument, without real-time readout at
casing collar location,                    project, code-named IDDP (Iceland Deep Drilling           surface.
casing monitoring, fluid flow,             Project), is being funded by major local power
                                                                                                   • Monitoring instruments where distributed
                                           companies with cooperation from European and
chemical temperature sensing and                                                                     temperature sensors along a fibre optic cable
                                           international societies.
organic tracers. The main objective                                                                  are installed inside the borehole and quasi-
of this project, and its greatest          For the first time, the scientific community will         continuous temperature profiles are obtained
                                           also be able to study a hydrothermal reservoir at         during all phases of production. In situ reservoir
challenge, is to develop sensors and
                                           supercritical temperatures. Supercritical fluids have     temperatures might also be obtained from
methods to accurately determine
                                           higher enthalpy than steam produced from two-             Na-Li geothermometers.
the existing conditions of the reservoir   phase systems. Large changes in physical pro-
                                                                                                   These approaches are complementary and should
and fluids in situ at the base of          perties near the critical point can lead to extremely
                                                                                                   provide a needed cross-calibration. The most
a deep geothermal system.                  high flow rates, resulting in the projected ten-fold
                                                                                                   appropriate overall approach will be determined
                                           increase in turbine power production relative to
                                                                                                   as part of the HITI project.
                                           conventional production.
                                           The main objective of this project, and its greatest
                                                                                                   Project Structure
                                           challenge, is to develop sensors and methods to
                                           accurately determine the existing conditions of the     The consortium consists of the following eight
                                           reservoir and fluids in situ at the base of a deep      participants: ISOR, CNRS Montpellier, BRGM,
                                           geothermal system. As well as investigating super-      Calidus Engineering, ALT, Oxford Applied
                                           critical phenomena, drilling in this environment        Technology, GFZ Potsdam and CRES. Two dedicated
                                           can address a wide range of scientific questions        tool designers and manufacturers are included
                                           related to, for example, the origin of black smokers    (CalEng and ALT), all SMEs working on different
                                           along mid-ocean ridges and the deposit of               instrument types. Two research institutes will
                                           hydrothermal ores. Deep drilling has been               manage additional instrument design and
                                           achieved previously with a world-record depth           implementation (BRGM and GFZ), while the
                                           of 13 km in Kola, Russia. Drilling in geothermal        third research institute models high-pressure
                                           areas up to supercritical temperatures has also         geophysical environment in a dedicated
                                           been demonstrated in Kakkonda, Japan, reaching          research laboratory (CNRS Montpellier). In situ
                                           500°C at a depth of 3.7 km. Other reports of            instrument testing is achieved by one of the
                                           near-supercritical temperatures include a well          applicants (ISOR), in cooperation with the relevant
                                           site in Larderello, Italy, at 400°C and Nesjavellir,    tool builders and technical observers mentioned
                                           Iceland, exceeding 380°C. These wells were not          above. Technical dissemination and market
                                           designed to utilise the extreme temperatures            research is provided by two applicants (Oxatec and
                                           and pressures for electricity production.               CRES), each specialising in different dissemination
                                                                                                   areas (one state-of-the-art electronic technology,
                                                                                                   the other geothermal market assessment).
94         GEOTHERMAL
                                                                                                        Project Information
                                                                                                        Contract number
                                                                                                        019913

                                                                                                        Duration
                                                                                                        36 months

                                                                                                        Contact person
                                                                                                        Ragnar Asmundsson
                                                                                                        Islenskar Okurannsoknir
                                                                                                        rka@isor.is

                                                                                                        List of partners
                                                                                                        ALT – LU
                                                                                                        Bureau de Recherche Géologiques
                                                                                                        et Minières – FR
It is believed that this consortium comprises a    If harnessing supercritical geothermal systems
                                                                                                        Calidus Engineering Ltd – GB
consistent and complimentary group of leading      proves successful, the demand for down-hole
                                                                                                        CNRS Montpellier – FR
contributors in their independent fields. High     instruments at temperatures envisaged by HITI        CRES – GR
relevance is put on tool development, where        will go up dramatically. On such occasions,          Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam – DE
most of the budget and man-months are allocated.   European companies will be able to provide both      Islenskar Okurannsoknir – IS
                                                   instruments and the experience of using high-        Oxford Applied Technology Ltd – GB
                                                   temperature down-hole equipment.
Expected Results                                                                                        Website
                                                     In summary the overall industrial, societal and    http://hiti.isor.is, to be opened
Over the past decades, a large number of advanced
                                                     scientific impact of the project can be:
down-hole instruments have been developed to                                                            Project officer
meet the demands of the oil industry. Geothermal • Increased knowledge on the utilisation of            Jeroen Schuppers
exploration has greatly benefited from techniques       unconventional geothermal wells and reservoir
used by the much bigger oil industry and their          for electricity production.                     Status
correspondingly larger research and innovation                                                          ongoing
                                                     • Actual evaluation of economic factors.
spending. However, the oil industry rarely
encounters temperatures above 150°C and • Opening new ways to utilise environmentally
hardly ever approaching 250°C. The goal of HITI         friendly geothermal energy.
is to develop and build instruments and methods
                                                     • Reinforcement of European leadership in the
capable of operating in a reliable manner at
                                                        design and worldwide sale of high-temperature
300°C and potentially above that limit. Marginal
                                                        down-hole instruments.
demand for such instruments exists from the oil
industry, while the geothermal industry is not • Better understanding of the structure and
large enough to pay for such developments.              dynamics of hot to supercritical geothermal
Mechanical tools to measure high temperatures           reservoirs from unprecedented in situ mea-
have been used successfully, but are of less            surements and laboratory experiments.
quality in the sense that the temperature resolution
is low and the measurements are relatively time-
consuming.




                                                                                                                                             95
I-GET

        Integrated Geophysical Exploration
        Technologies for Deep Fractured Geothermal
        Systems
OBJECTIVES                               Challenges                                               Project structure
                                         The exploration of geothermal resources aims at          The work is subdivided into seven work packages.
The I-GET project aims at developing     the detection and delineation of thermal anomalies       Four main topics are identified:
an innovative strategy of geophysical    and the macroscopic geological structures, such
                                                                                                  • Construction of a petrophysical and geo-
                                         as large-scale permeability or intensely fractured
exploration. This strategy integrates                                                               mechanical database obtained from laboratory
                                         zones, which determine the productivity conditions
all the available knowledge, from rock                                                              experiments on geothermal reservoir rock
                                         of the geothermal reservoir. Indeed, many geo-
physics to seismic and magnetotelluric                                                              samples belonging to the various geothermal
                                         thermal reservoirs are associated with fractures
                                                                                                    systems under study. The elastic and electric
(MT) data processing and modelling,      characterised by high permeability, which are
                                                                                                    rock properties at the reservoir condition up
and exploits the full potential of       quite often heterogeneously distributed.
                                                                                                    to the steam/liquid transition of the pore fill-
seismic and electromagnetic              Nowadays the identification of subsurface zones
                                                                                                    ings are determined.
                                         characterised by high temperatures and high
exploration methods to detect
                                         temperature gradients is not a major concern,            • Field acquisition and data processing of seismic
permeable zones and fluid-bearing
                                         since many methods and tools are available to              and MT field experiments at several test sites.
fractures prior to drilling.             estimate the temperatures at depth. The major
                                                                                           • Geothermal reservoir numerical modelling.
The ultimate goal is to minimise the     issue, not yet satisfactorily solved, is the detection
                                                                                             Results from (1) and (2) are integrated with
mining risk by developing a method       of fractures and high-permeability zones. More
                                                                                             the elastic and anisotropic models and with
tailor-made for geothermal reservoirs.   than 30% of exploitation wells worldwide have
                                                                                             the reservoir engineering well-testing data, in
                                         been drilled into promising targets, in terms of
                                                                                             order to verify the presence of fluid-bearing
                                         rock formations at high temperature, but lacking
The proposed geothermal exploration                                                          zones inferred from seismic and magnetotelluric
                                         sufficient permeability to sustain commercial pro-
approach is applied in European                                                              experiments. Local 3D models will be built on
                                         duction. This percentage of failures significantly
                                                                                             the basis of field data and laboratory meas-
geothermal systems with different        increases for exploration wells.
                                                                                             urements, in order to produce the static image
geological and thermodynamic
                                         The search for high-permeability zones is not       of geological structures and identify the fluid-
reservoir characteristics: in Italy      limited to geothermal exploration, but is equally   dynamic behaviour of the fracture system
(high enthalpy, metamorphic rocks),      important for hydrocarbon exploration and the       from available well tests.
in Iceland (high enthalpy, volcanic      detection of deep aquifers. However, a unique
                                                                                           • Validation of the methodology applied.
rocks) and in Germany and Poland         challenge to geothermal exploration is posed by
                                         the rock environment of geothermal reservoirs.
(low-to-middle enthalpy,
                                         The salinity of geothermal fluids is usually high
sedimentary rocks)
                                         and temperatures are close to the liquid/steam
                                         transition point. High temperature and fluid
                                         salinity potentially change rock transport
                                         properties even during production. The behaviour
                                         of rocks with increasing pressure and temperature
                                         has been studied by many laboratory measure-
                                         ments and seismic and magnetotelluric (MT)
                                         field tests. However, these peculiar features of
                                         geothermal areas have never been studied in
                                         detail until now.




96        GEOTHERMAL
                                                                                                                 Project Information
                                                                                                                 Contract number
                                                                                                                 518378

                                                                                                                 Duration
                                                                                                                 36 months

                                                                                                                 Contact persons
                                                                                                                 Dr. Ernst Huenges
                                                                                                                 Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam
                                                                                                                 huenges@gfz-potsdam.de

                                                                                                                 List of partners
                                                                                                                 CRES – GR
Case studies                                          Expected results                                           ENEL Produzione – IT
                                                                                                                 Free University of Berlin – DE
In order to study the physical signature of fluid-    The newly developed methodology will be a mile-
                                                                                                                 GeoforschungsZentrum Potsdam – DE
bearing zones in geothermal systems, it is            stone for the future development of geothermal
                                                                                                                 Geothermie Neubrandenburg – DE
important to investigate various geothermal           energy. It will represent a fully integrated exploration   Geowatt AG – CH
systems showing different characteristics. The        methodology able to detect favourable prospects,           Íslenskar Orkurannsóknir – IS
case studies that are analysed in this project are:   highlight the spatial distribution of petrophysical        Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse – IT
                                                      and geomechanical properties and predict the               Polish Academy of Science – PL
• The Travale (Italy) geothermal system, where
                                                      fluid-dynamic behaviour within a potential                 Scientific and Technical Centre – FR
  the exploration targets are mainly located in
                                                      reservoir. The result can be applied in reservoir          University of Pisa – IT
  metamorphic and magmatic rocks up to
                                                      exploration of natural and/or enhanced geo-
  4000 m depth, characterised by a high degree                                                                   Website
                                                      thermal systems, and in exploration of deep
  of heterogeneity and anisotropy and by high                                                                    www.i-get.it
                                                      aquifers.
  temperatures.
                                                                                                                 Project officer
• The Hengill (Iceland) geothermal system,                                                                       Jeroen Schuppers
  where the exploration targets are mainly
  located in volcanic centres (up to 2000 m                                                                      Status
                                                                                                                 ongoing
  depth), within a rift zone characterised by
  both porous and fissure-oriented anisotropic
  permeability. At present, geothermal fluids
  are mainly mined at a depth of about 2 km,
  but the ongoing Iceland Deep Drilling Project
  (IDDP) aims at extracting supercritical fluids
  from a depth of about 4 km.
• Groß Schönebeck (Germany) deep sedimentary
  reservoir, representative of large sedimentary
  basins all over Europe with a borehole currently
  used as an in situ geothermal laboratory.
• Skierniewice (Poland), a prospective geothermal
  reservoir especially representative of low-
  enthalpy applications in Eastern and Central
  Europe.
The different case studies require adaptation of
existing techniques and methodologies.
Advanced petrophysical and geophysical aspects
will be applied in the projects, and all data will
be integrated. The results will be used as input
for static and dynamic numerical models, which
will be verified by well data, where available, and
compared to existing reservoir models.




                                                                                                                                                            97
CA-OE

         Ocean Energy, Wave and Tidal Power



OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                         Ocean energy can in the future replace a significantThe workshops provide a forum for the different
The main objectives of the                                                                   research organisations and the fledgling ocean
                                         part of the fossil fuel used today if the principles for
Co-ordinated Action on Ocean Energy      conversion can be successfully demonstrated         energy industry to interact and co-ordinate
                                         and put into mass production. Presently only a      ongoing R&D efforts in the field of wave and
are to enable cooperation between
                                         few systems are being tested on a pre-commercial    tidal energy on a European and international
developers and interested parties
                                         scale and providing initial practical experience.   level. New academic knowledge can be shared
in the sector of ocean energy,                                                               and disseminated between all interested parties,
                                         Within the Co-ordinated Action on Ocean
to promote and disseminate                                                                   and promising methodologies and technologies
                                         Energy, this new knowledge and the research
knowledge on ocean energy                                                                    can be transferred to the market.
                                         results emerging on wave and tidal technologies are
technologies, to develop a common        disseminated, promoted and shared. The partners
knowledge base for coherent              must agree on definitions, standards in design,
development R&D policies, to bring       costing, and be ready to present the performance
a coordinated approach within key        results of the systems involved. This approach is
                                         expected to provide comparable presentations
areas of ocean energy R&D,
                                         of different methodologies and accelerate the
and to provide a forum for the
                                         development of ocean energy systems.
longer-term marketing of promising
research deliverables.
                                         Project Structure
The project also addresses issues like   The Co-ordinated Action on Ocean Energy
                                         includes 41 partners from 15 countries. The
revising and implementing guidelines
                                         partners of this co-ordination action are the
and standards for monitoring and
                                         leading force in the field of ocean energy, while
presenting the performance of ocean      the SME organisations are pioneers on the road to Expected Results
energy systems, and guidelines and       commercialisation of these systems. An additional
                                                                                           The Co-ordinated Action is expected to promote
standards related to safety of           20 partners have registered as associates during
                                                                                           and disseminate promising methodologies and
structure, personnel and electrical      the first year.
                                                                                           technologies for the conversion of ocean energy
systems.                                 The project is organising five interactive work- into electricity and further generate awareness
                                         shops over a three-year project period. The among a wider public.
                                         themes for the five workshops are:
                                                                                           Frequent workshops attended by the partners
                                         • Numerical modelling and tank testing            involved, combined with exchange of personnel,
                                                                                           are expected to generate clusters of research
                                         • Components and power take-off
                                                                                           groups that will focus on research activities of
                                         • Structural design                               common interest:
                                         • Performance assessment                                   • Dissemination and promotion of ocean energy
                                         • Environmental impact.                                    • Roadmap for ocean energy development
                                                                                                    • Terminology definitions
                                                                                                    • Folder on ocean energy technologies
                                                                                                    • Establishment of an European Ocean Energy
                                                                                                      Association.
                                                                                                    The initiative to form a European Ocean Energy
                                                                                                    Association has been taken to help promote
                                                                                                    development toward implementation and com-
                                                                                                    mercial exploitation.



98         OCEAN
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            502701

                                                                                                            Duration
                                                                                                            39 months

                                                                                                            Contact person
                                                                                                            Kim Nielsen
                                                                                                            kin@ramboll.dk

                                                                                                            List of partners
                                                                                                            Aqua Energy Ltd – GB
                                                                                                            Bulgarian Ship Hydrodynamics Centre – BG
Progress to Date                                                                                            Chalmers University of Technology – SE
                                                                                                            C.J. Day Associates – GB
The main objective of bringing all the partners
                                                                                                            CRES – GR
together has been successfully met. The project
                                                                                                            Delft University of Technology – NL
kick-off meeting was held one month after the                                                               DHI Water & Environment – DK
project started in November 2004 in Copenhagen,                                                             Ecole Centrale de Nantes – FR
Denmark. All partners attended the objectives                                                               Ecofys – NL
workshop planning sessions. As an additional                                                                Electricité de France – FR
chance to get to know each other, the partners were                                                         Groupe ESIM – FR
invited to attend a workshop on grid connection                                                             Ingenioerfirma Eric Rossen – DK
arranged by IEA-OES, as well as a technical tour of                                                         IHE Institute for Water Education – NL
the Wave Dragon experiment in Nissum Bredning.                                                              INETI – PT
                                                                                                            Institut français de recherche
                                                                                                            pour l’exploitation de la mer – FR
WP 1: Numerical and experimental                                                                            Instituto Superior Tecnico – PT
modelling, 4-5 April 2005                             WP 2: Component Technologies and                      IT Power – GB
                                                      Power Take-off, 1-2 November 2005                     Munich University of Technology – DE
The first workshop was held at Aalborg                                                                      National Technical University of Athens – GR
University, Denmark. The topic of the workshop        The second workshop was held in Upsala,               Ocean Energy Ltd – IE
was covered by a number of presentations on new       Sweden. The topic of this workshop was covered        Ocean Power Delivery Ltd – GB
modelling techniques and examples of testing          by a number of presentations on different power       Ponte di Archimedes SpA – IT
ocean energy systems on different scales. The         take–off systems, such as linear generators           Powertech Labs Inc – CA
workshop provided the opportunity for ocean           transforming the oscillating forces and movements     Queens University Belfast – GB
energy developers to share expertise and help in      directly into electricity, oil hydraulic systems as   Ramboll – DK
device modelling and testing with the university      used in the Pelamis project, water turbines as        Robert Gordon University – GB
                                                                                                            Spok Aps – DK
partners of the project.                              used in the Wave Dragon project, and air turbines
                                                                                                            Swedish Seabased Energy AB – SE
                                                      as used in OWCs such as the Picoplant and the
                                                                                                            Teamwork Technology BV – NL
                                                      Limpet system. Presentations on other components      University of Aalborg – DK
                                                      such as moorings ware also given and discussed.       University of Cork – IE
                                                                                                            University of Edinburgh – GB
                                                                                                            University of Gent – BE
                                                      WP 3: System design, Construction,
                                                                                                            University of Hannover – DE
                                                      Reliability& Safety, 29-30 March 2006                 University of Lancaster – GB
                                                  The third workshop was arranged by Ecofys in              University of Patras – GR
                                                  Amsterdam. The topic of this workshop was, in             University of Southampton – GB
                                                  contrast to the previous workshops, covered in a          University of Strathclyde – GB
                                                                                                            University of Uppsala – SE
                                                  more interactive way. Key speakers from DNV
                                                                                                            Wave Dragon ApS – DK
                                                  and Germanischer Lloyd were invited to the
                                                                                                            Wave Energy Centre – PT
                                                  workshop to give presentations on the new                 Wave Plane Production A/S – DK
                                                  standards drafted for ocean energy, followed by
Pre-conference workshop to the 6th
                                                  a few presentations illustrating the issues.              Website
European Wave Energy Conference,                                                                            www.CA-OE.org
                                                  Group work then followed, and the partners
30 August 2005
                                                  exchanged their experiences in relation to the
                                                                                                            Project officer
The partners in the CA-OE project arranged a pre- topic and provided focused input on priorities
                                                                                                            Anna Gigantino
conference workshop before the 6th European for further R&D.
Wave Energy Conference in order7 for them to                                                                Status
meet and promote the co-ordinated action with a                                                             ongoing
wider audience.
The initiative of forming a European Ocean
Energy Association was taken following this
pre-conference workshop to help promote
development aimed at implementation and
commercial exploitation. The association has the
web-address: www.eu-oea.com.
                                                                                                                                                     99
SEEWEC

         Sustainable Economically Efficient
         Wave Energy Converter

 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          To arrive at an economically efficient wave energy
The general objective of SEEWEC           converter design, and more specifically at an
is to assist in the development of        optimised prototype, is a complicated task. Several
                                          issues have to be investigated, as there is:
a second-generation FO3 wave energy
converter through extensive use           • A technological risk: although the technology
of the experience from monitoring           is proven in scale tests, it still has to be
                                            proven in full scale in real-sea conditions.
a 1:3 laboratory rig (Buldra),
the single system test station (SSTS)     • A commercial risk: the commercialisation will
and a first-generation 1:1 prototype.       be dependent on cost-effective production
                                            and operation. In order to overcome this,
                                            each optimisation found within this project 1:20 model in the wave tank with 21 point absorbers/eggs
The project will focus on robust
                                            will be tested for its financial viability as part installed on a floating platform.
cost-effective solutions and design         of the whole outcome of this project.
for large-scale (mass) manufacturing.
                                          • A political risk: a commercial development is       A project group was established and key patents
The long-term objective is to be able
                                            dependent on political support to introduce         were filed in 2003. Following conceptual design
to produce electricity at a cost            new technologies to the market. In the case         and theoretical modelling, the general design
competitive to electricity from other       of renewable energy systems, there is a             was developed. A 1:20 scale model of the FO3
renewable sources. The first step is to     strongly positive attitude at a European level      was tested in the wave tank of the Ocean Basin
become competitive to offshore wind.        on promoting renewable energy systems.              Laboratory of Sintef in Trondheim in early-2004.
                                                                                                The scale model was tested both in operational
                                                                                                conditions and for survival/extreme sea conditions.
                                          Project structure
                                                                                                The tests confirmed the production concept.
                                          The initial work on the FO3 wave energy converter
                                          started in 2001, with the objective of developing
                                          a cost-effective and environmentally friendly
                                          technology for wave energy conversion. Initial
                                          research was conducted at the Department of
                                          Mathematics (University of Oslo) and at the
                                          Norwegian University of Science and Technology
                                          (NTNU) in Trondheim.




                                                                                                1:3 laboratory rig ‘Buldra’


                                                                                                The 1:3 laboratory rig (Buldra) started sea trials
                                                                                                in February 2005. A single system test station
                                                                                                (SSTS) will be monitored from spring 2006
                                                                                                onward. The prototype full-scale first-generation
                                                                                                device is planned to be launched by autumn 2007.




100        OCEAN
                                                                                                        Project Information
                                                                                                        Contract number
                                                                                                        019969

                                                                                                        Duration
                                                                                                        36 months

                                                                                                        Contact person
                                                                                                        Prof. Dr. ir. Julien De Rouck
                                                                                                        University of Gent
                                                                                                        julien.derouck@ugent.be

                                                                                                        List of partners
                                                                                                        ABB – SE
                                                                                                        Brevik Engineering A.S. – NO
                                                                                                        Chalmers University of Technology – SE
                                                                                                        Fred Olsen Ltd – GB
                                                                                                        Instituto Superior Técnico – PT
                                                                                                        Marintek – NO
                                                                                                        Natural Power Consultants Ltd – GB
                                                                                                        Norwegian University of Science and
                                                                                                        Technology – NO
                                                                                                        Spiromatic NV – BE
                                                                                                        Standfast Yachts – NL
                                                                                                        University of Gent – BE

                                                                                                        Website
                                                                                                        www.SEEWEC.org

                                                                                                        Project officer
                                                                                                        Anna Gigantino

                                                                                                        Status
                                                                                                        ongoing




Prospective farm of FO3’s


                                                       Expected results
All three devices are expected to be used for exten-   The SEEWEC project aims at gaining extensive
sive monitoring and testing during the SEEWEC          knowledge to provide optimal input for the
project. The results of these tests will provide the   manufacture of a second generation of the wave
project team with valuable input for the design of     energy converter, to prepare for large-scale
the second generation of the converter.                production and commercial exploitation.
The SEEWEC project has been structured around
11 work packages. Some work packages are initial
tasks (preparing and supporting), others are syn-
thesising and concluding, the final work package
exploiting and disseminating. The core work pack-
ages are what can be called scientifically and tech-
nologically productive.
The SEEWEC consortium involves 11 partners
from five EU members (Belgium, the
Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and the UK) and
one associated country (Norway). As a group,
the partners have relevant experience of field
testing, local sea conditions, material design and
development, wave impacts on structures,
behaviour and interference of structures in open
seas, power conversion systems, manufacturing
of materials and marine construction.




                                                                                                                                                 101
WAVEDRAGON

             Pioneering Technology
             for Bulk Generation of Wave Power

 OBJECTIVES                                                Challenges
                                                           The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy
This project will realise the Wave                         converter of the overtopping type. The development
Dragon technology and develop it                           work is, to a large extent, built on proven techno-
                                                           logies and Wave Dragon is by far the largest




                                                                                                                                                                                      © EarthVision.
from the tested all-steel-built 20 kW
                                                           wave energy converter known today. Each unit
prototype to a full-size
                                                           will have a rated power of 4-11 MW or more,
composite-built 4-7 MW unit and,                           depending on how energetic the wave climate is                 The Wave Dragon technology absorbs wave energy by
by comprehensive testing, validate its                     at the deployment site. In addition to this, Wave              overtopping water. Power is generated when water from
                                                                                                                          the above mean water level storage reservoir is drained
technical and economic feasibility.                        Dragon - due to its large size - can act as a
                                                                                                                          back to sea through traditional hydro propeller turbines.
                                                           floating foundation for MW wind turbines, thus
                                                           adding a very significant contribution to annual
The RTD part of the project will
                                                           power production at a marginal cost.                           systems to make wave power plants a viable
develop Wave Dragon’s
                                                                                                                          solution. Wave energy converters have to com-
energy-absorbing structure, the low                        By using the overtopping principle for energy
                                                                                                                          pete with other renewable energy technologies.
                                                           absorption, there is no upper limit on device size
head turbine power take-off system                                                                                        It has become obvious that wave power can be
                                                           and rated power for Wave Dragon, as opposed
and the control systems; develop                                                                                          much cheaper than, for instance, photovoltaic
                                                           to technologies that rely on moving bodies etc.
cost-effective construction methods                                                                                       power and there are good reasons to believe
                                                           (like buoys, hinged bodies and oscillating water
                                                                                                                          that in a few years it will be a serious competitor
and establish the optimal combination                      columns) for energy absorption.
                                                                                                                          to offshore wind power.
of in situ cast concrete, post-stressed
                                                           Wave Dragon’s competitive advantage lies in its
reinforcement and pre-stressed                             scale and hence capital cost: only nine units are
concrete elements; develop                                                                                                Project structure
                                                           required to make a 100 MW power station,
a cost-effective 250-440 kW hydro                          compared to 100-1000 units required by most                    This project is organised in seven operative work
turbine system; demonstrate reliable                       technologies, and the few moving parts improve                 packages, each with clearly defined deliverables:
                                                           reliability and reduce maintenance costs. The
and cost-effective installation                                                                                           • Scaling-up/design – Development and design
                                                           design simply reapplies a well-proven existing
procedures and O&M schemes;                                                                                                 of full-size power producing unit and sub-
                                                           technology that has been around for 80 years.
and establish the necessary basis                                                                                           systems
                                                           Wave Dragon is essentially a floating hydro-
for design codes/recommendations                           electric dam.                                                  • Construction, manufacturing and deployment
for offshore multi-MW devices.
                                                           Developers of wave energy converters face a • Establishment of monitoring system, operation
                                                           series of major challenges: first we have to     and maintenance
                                                           develop machinery that can operate and survive
                                                                                                          • Design parameter analysis
                                                           in this very tough environment and, secondly,
                                                           we have to optimise operation and maintenance • Power production and control strategy
                                                                                                                          • Life cycle / Environmental Impact Assessment
                                                                                                                            and socio-economic aspects
                                                                                                                          • Dissemination and exploitation
                                                                                                                          All the R&D-related work packages are covered
                                                                                                                          by this project. Work package 2 – construction
                                                                                                                          and deployment – is funded from other sources.
                                                                                                                     This project will realise the Wave Dragon technolo-
                                          © EarthVision.




                                                                                                                     gy, developing it from the tested all-steel-built
                                                                                                                     scale 1:4.5 prototype to a full-size composite-built
                                                           The Wave Dragon is a floating device consisting of two 4-7 MW unit and, by comprehensive testing,
                                                           parabolic arms that reflects and enlarges waves towards a validate its technical and economic feasibility.
                                                           ramp. Wave energy is absorbed passively by overtopping
                                                           water that is collected and short-term stored in a reservoir
                                                           behind the ramp.


102          OCEAN
                                                                                                              Project Information
                                                                                                              Contract number
                                                                                                              019983

                                                                                                              Duration
                                                                                                              36 months

                                                                                                              Contact person
                                                                                                              Dr. H.C. Sorensen
                                                                                                              Wavedragon
                                                                                                              info@wavedragon.net

                                                                                                              List of partners
                                                                                                              Balslev AS – DK
                                                                                                              Dr. techn. Olav Olsen A/S – NO
                                                                                                              ESB International Ltd – IE
The R&D activities will:                               costly (in both time and money) problems from
                                                                                                              Kössler Ges.m.b.H – AT
                                                       occurring in the future. The work done up to now
• Develop the optimal way to construct the                                                                    Munich University of Technology – DE
                                                       has confirmed that the performance predicted on        NIRAS AS – DK
    Wave Dragon, taking into account the large
                                                       the basis of wave-tank testing and turbine model       University of Aalborg – DK
    physical size, the facilities and skills available
                                                       tests will be achieved in a full-scale prototype.      University of Wales Swansea – GB
    and also the techniques required to combine
                                                                                                              Warsaw University of Technology – PL
    steel and reinforced concrete to make up the This project will develop the technological basis
                                                                                                              Wave Dragon ApS – DK
    structural form we require.                        for a commercially viable solution to the bulk
                                                                                                              Wave Dragon Wales Ltd – GB
                                                       generation of renewable power and thus add to
• Finalise the development of the power takeoff
                                                       Europe’s ability to tackle the problems of security    Website
    system consisting of simplified hydro turbines,
                                                       of supply and greenhouse gas emissions.                www.wavedragon.net/wavedragon_mw
    advanced inverter technology and permanent
    magnet synchronous generator technology, in                                                               Project officer
    combination with an advanced control system Expected results                                              Anna Gigantino
    never tested in full scale before.
                                                       The quantitative objectives refer to a 24 kW/m         Status
• Demonstrate that the Wave Dragon hull and wave climate:                                                     ongoing
    reflectors can be constructed with a combi-
                                                       • Higher energy production of each unit to a
    nation of reinforced concrete and steel.
                                                          total of 10 GWh/y, resulting in a total
• Demonstrate the deployment of the full-                 improvement of 12%; where 5% is from
    scale device and document its basic hydraulic         improvement by a better control system and
    behaviour in relatively calm water before the         7% is from the new power take-off system.
    final deployment.
                                                       • A reduction in the overall installation capacity
• Develop an operation and maintenance                    cost of 5% compared with the state-of-the-art.
    scheme and operate a wave energy device in
                                                       • A reduction in operation and maintenance
    MW-size using an advanced control system
                                                          costs of 5%.
    and a new innovative power take-off system.
                                                       The test programme will demonstrate the
• Run an advanced test programme on the
                                                       availability, power production predictability,
    device in order to gain information not only
                                                       power production capability and medium-to long-
    for the documentation of its behaviour but
                                                       term electricity generation costs at € 0.052/kWh
    also to establish scientific knowledge far
                                                       in a wave climate of 24kW/m, which can be
    beyond the state-of-the-art today.
                                                       found relatively close to the coast in the major
• Establish the socio-economic impact of Wave part of the EC Atlantic coast. In a 36kW/m wave
    Dragon such as job creation, life cycle assess- climate, the corresponding cost of energy will be
    ment and environmental impact related to a € 0.04/kWh
    MW-size wave energy device.
                                                       Wave Dragon marks a significant breakthrough
All R&D activities in this project will be carried towards commercial exploitation of the abundant
out in relation to a 7 MW Wave Dragon device energy concentrated in ocean waves. Seagoing
that will be constructed and deployed off the trials of the Wave Dragon prototype have
South-West Welsh coast.                                proven its offshore survivability since March
                                                       2003 and more than verified the potential for
During long-term testing in a real-sea environ-
                                                       commercial feasibility of large-scale power
ment, the Wave Dragon prototype has progressed
                                                       generation below the costs of offshore wind
to the point where it is now producing electricity
                                                       power. Wave Dragon is unique among wave
80% of the time. This real-sea testing has also
                                                       energy converters as it harnesses the energy of
proven its seaworthiness, floating stability and
                                                       waves directly via water turbines in a one-step
power production potential. Operation of the
                                                       conversion system and not via moving bodies or air
device in a harsh offshore environment has led
                                                       chambers. It is housed in a very simple construction
to a number of smaller component failures: all
                                                       in which, importantly, the turbines are the only
of these have been investigated and technical
                                                       moving parts.
solutions have been found, thus preventing
                                                                                                                                                     103
WAVESSG

          Full-scale Demonstration of Robust
          and High-efficiency Wave Energy Converter

 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          The main challenge is the development of the
The main objective of the present         innovative and patented multi-stage turbine in
project is to operate at full-scale one   order to obtain a high efficiency with the lower-
                                          stage 1,5 meter head and to design a seal with
module of the SSG converter,
                                          low leakage rate and minimum friction. There is
including turbine, generator and
                                          also a certain project risk involved in the design
control system, in 19kW/m wave            and production of prototype components for
climate. The full-scale technical         the multi-stage turbine: these components
prototype of the SSG includes three       often need to be changed subsequent to the first
reservoirs for capturing the ocean        series of tests. Therefore workshop testing is
                                          planned and a contingency is also allowed for WP 4 Production and testing of generator
energy and is constructed as a robust
                                          any re-design, re-production and re-testing that        equipment.
shoreline device.
                                          may be necessary before the final prototype
                                                                                             WP 5 Installation and commissioning: NTNU
                                          components are installed in the pilot plant.
                                                                                                  will be in charge of the WP and will be
The patented multi-reservoir concept
                                                                                                  assisted by IKM for local installation of
ensures that a variety of waves are
                                          Project structure                                       the turbine and generator equipment,
utilised for energy production,                                                                   and ultimate grid connection.
                                          In order to carry out the project in a structured
resulting in a high degree of
                                          manner the following ten work packages are WP 6 Long-term testing: WEAS will be in
efficiency. The Kvitsoy municipality
                                          identified:                                             charge of the day-to-day follow-up and
has 520 inhabitants and is one of                                                                 supervision of the pilot plant.
                                          WP 1 Development of surveillance, control
10,000 islands in Europe where wave
                                                   and data acquisition system: this WP will WP 7 Performance evaluation: AAU will head this
energy can quickly be developed into
                                                   be headed by AAU, which has substantial        activity based on its detailed experience
a cost-effective energy production                 experience in measuring performance            from performance evaluation and follow-
alternative to existing diesel                     data from the Wave Dragon project.             up of the Danish Wave Dragon prototype.
generators. The pilot project features
                                          WP 2 Design, manufacturing and testing of the WP 8        Innovation-related activities.
a 10m-wide civil structure module of           turbine: this WP is considered a technical
                                                                                          WP 9      Assessment of progress and project results:
the SSG which will be completed in             development activity and will be headed
                                                                                                    during the work with the individual WPs,
2006.                                          by TUM, which has substantial experience
                                                                                                    progress reports will be submitted every
                                               in design, testing and verification of
                                                                                                    three months. The proposed steering com-
                                               turbines.
                                                                                                    mittee will assess the progress and results
                                          WP 3 Design of generator equipment and SW                 every six months and, after 12 months, a
                                               development: the generator equipment                 design review with decision milestone will
                                               and SW development will need to be tailor-           be held.
                                               made for the project. Design and SW
                                                                                          WP 10 Consortium management.
                                               development work will be technical
                                               development activities. GANZ will head the
                                               WP and be assisted by IKM with regard to
                                               local conditions.




104        OCEAN
                                                                                                         Project Information
                                                                                                         Contract number
                                                                                                         019831

                                                                                                         Duration
                                                                                                         32 months

                                                                                                         Contact person
                                                                                                         Lars Raunholt
                                                                                                         Wave Energy AS
                                                                                                         lraunholt@yahoo.no

                                                                                                         List of partners
                                                                                                         Ganz Transelektro - HU
Expected results                                                                                         IKM Gjerseth Elektro - NO
                                                                                                         Munich University of Technology - DE
The expected results of the project are to complete • Measurement of performance data for the
                                                                                                         Municipality of Kvitsoy - NO
design of the multi-stage turbine, generator and      SSG wave energy converter, including the
                                                                                                         Norwegian University of Science
the control system; prepare operation procedure       structure, in a period of up to six months for     and Technology - NO
for the SSG wave energy converter including           reliability and life time assessment (by end of    University of Aalborg - DK
emergency procedure, data handling and data           project).                                          Wave Energy AS - NO
processing; perform workshop testing of the
                                                    • Manufacture, testing and installation of a full-   Website
multi-stage turbine/generator and control system;
                                                      scale generator and control system for grid        www.wavessg.com
and install the equipment in the SSG pilot plant.
                                                      connection and annual production of
After the equipment has been installed and tested,                                                       Project Officer
                                                      200,000 kWh of renewable and pollution-free
the SSG plant will be connected to the local grid.                                                       Anna Gigantino
                                                      electricity, corresponding to 20,000 kWh/m
Detailed expected results of the project are:         (by end of project).
                                                                                                         Status
• Design of a full-scale 150 kW technical proto- • Achievement of hydraulic efficiency of at least       ongoing
  type of the innovative MST turbine technology       39% for the shoreline application (by end of
  (by month 12, subject to design review and          project).
  a decision milestone).
                                                   • A wave-to-wire efficiency of more than 25%
• Manufacture, testing and installation of a full-    during the test period (by end of project).
  scale 150 kW technical prototype of the
                                                   • 96% availability of plant (with regard to
  innovative MST turbine technology in the
                                                      operational hours).
  SSG structure (by month 22).
                                                   • 85% availability of production (with regard
• Design of a full-scale 150 kW generator and
                                                      to wave climate).
  control system (by month 12, subject to
  design review and a decision milestone).         The success of the project will be measured
                                                   against these last five specific objectives at the
                                                   end of the project.




                                                                                                                                                105
DISTOR

         Energy Storage for Direct
         Steam Solar Power Plants

 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          Processes using steam as a working medium                                       resulting from the integration of the storage
Energy storage is a key issue for         require isothermal energy storage to reach high                                 system into a solar-thermal unit are also identified.
successful market implementation of       thermal efficiency. While the application of                                    Based on these results, lab-scale storage units
                                          latent heat concepts is an obvious solution, no                                 are designed, manufactured and tested in the
concentrated solar power (CSP)
                                          commercial storage system is available today for                                second phase. Characteristic of the DISTOR project
technology. Advanced thermal storage
                                          the temperature range between 200°C and                                         is the parallel research on various storage concepts
technology based on phase change          300°C which is relevant for solar steam genera-                                 to promote the identification of the most cost-
materials (PCM) has been identified to    tion. Even experience from lab-scale latent heat                                effective one. This approach results from the
meet the requirements of solar steam      storage units is limited and not sufficient for the                             limited knowledge at the beginning of the project,
generating plants. Energy storage         design of energy storage systems integrated in the                              which was insufficient to select a single storage
                                          next generation of solar-thermal power plants                                   concept as the most promising.
systems using latent heat have often
                                          based on Direct Solar Steam Generation. The
been proposed, but never carried out                                                                                      Different fundamental concepts will be investi-
                                          dominant problem is the limitation of power
on a large scale, due to low thermal                                                                                      gated to increase the heat transfer rate. The
                                          resulting from the transport properties of candi-
                                                                                                                          effective thermal conductivity of the storage
conductivity and non-efficient            date materials for latent heat storage systems.
                                                                                                                          material is improved by adding highly conductive
internal heat exchange of salt systems    The values for the heat conductivity of these
                                                                                                                          expanded graphite (EG) to the PCM. Various
to be used as PCM.                        materials are similar to values characteristic of
                                                                                                                          manufacturing routes for the composite material
                                          thermal insulators. Essential for the successful
                                                                                                                          will also be investigated. A second approach
                                          implementation of latent heat storage systems
The DISTOR approach to solving the                                                                                        uses an extended heat transfer area between
                                          is the development of cost-effective materials
heat transfer limitations includes                                                                                        storage material and working fluid. Here, the
                                          and storage design that are able to meet the
                                                                                                                          macro-encapsulation of the PCM in containers
several innovative aspects: advanced      power requirements.
                                                                                                                          is one option to limit the average distance for
storage materials, reflux heat transfer
                                                                                                                          heat transfer within the storage material.
and new design concepts.                  Project Structure                                                               Another alternative for increasing the heat
The technical targets of DISTOR to be                                                                                     transfer area is the integration of fins made of
                                          The DISTOR project is organised in three conse-
achieved within this project are the                                                                                      expanded graphite into the PCM. In the so-called
                                          cutive phases. The initial phase provides the
development of innovative composite                                                                                       ‘sandwich’ concept, parallel layers of expanded
                                          essential knowledge concerning material
                                                                                                                          graphite are arranged vertical to the steam
phase change materials,                   research and first physical models describing the
                                                                                                                          pipes. Reflux Heat Transfer Storage represents
the identification of the most            storage systems. The boundary conditions
                                                                                                                          the third fundamental storage concept.
effective storage design for high
efficient heat transfer, and proof
                                                                                                                  Thermal Energy Systems
of the storage material and storage                                                                         using Phase Change Material (PCM)

design by on-sun testing of a 100 kW
storage module.
                                                                                                                  composite material                 intermediate
                                                                            extended
                                                                      heat transfer surface                          with increased              heat transfer medium
                                                                                                                  thermal conductivity




                                                              fins,                   capsules
                                                           sandwich                                            Infiltration    Compound




                                                                              stiff              flexibel




                                          Overview: Latent heat storage material and design concepts investigated in DISTOR
106        CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            503526

                                                                                                            Duration
                                                                                                            45 months

                                                                                                            Contact person
                                                                                                            Dr. Rainer Tamme
                                                                                                            Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt eV
                                                                                                            rainer.tamme@dlr.de

                                                                                                            List of partners
                                                                                                            Central Laboratory of Solar Energy
                                                                                                            and New Energy Sources,
                                                                                                            Bulgarian Academy of Science – BG
                                                                                                            CIEMAT – ES
                                                                                                            CNRS – FR
                                                                                                            Defi Systèmes – FR
                                                                                                            DLR – DE
                                                                                                            Epsilon Ingénierie S.A.S. – FR
                                                                                                            Flagsol GmbH – DE
                                                                                                            Fundacion INASMET – ES
                                                                                                            Iberdrola Ingeniería & Consultatoria – ES
                                                                                                            SGL Technologies GmbH – DE
                                                                                                            Sistemas de Calor S.L. – ES
                                                                                                            Solucar Energ›a S.A. – ES
Storage segment made of PCM/graphite composite      Sandwich design test module before integration of PCM
                                                                                                            Weizmann Institute of Science – IL

                                                                                                            Website
                                                                                                            www.dlr.de/tt/institut/abteilungen/
Altogether four storage units will be tested in • Providing the missing storage component for               thermischept/DISTOR
laboratory scale to provide the basis for the           DSG solar power plants and helping to
evaluation of the fundamental concepts and              exploit the full potential of the advanced DSG      Project officer
                                                                                                            Domenico Rossetti di Valdalbero
variants described above. The different concepts        technology.
show a varying demand for development effort:                                                               Status
                                                    • Contributing to create European technical
the most mature concept will be selected for the                                                            ongoing
                                                        leadership and expand its strong position in
next storage module with increased storage
                                                        solar thermal power systems.
capacity and power, to be installed at the DISS
test facility to gain solar operation experience.
The results of the experiments will enable the Progress to Date
comparison of the different storage concepts.
                                                    In the initial phase the fundamentals needed for
                                                    the design and manufacture of the lab-scale
Expected Results                                    storage modules have been elaborated. Various
                                                    manufacturing routes for PCM/graphite composite
Expected achievements are the development of
                                                    materials have been examined and the influence
a new cost-effective storage subsystem to be
                                                    of production parameters has been characterised.
integrated in DSG solar power plants, ensuring
                                                    Models describing the heat transfer for the dif-
solar electricity cost reduction, to reach the
                                                    ferent storage concepts have been developed.
long-term target of € 0.05/kWh. The advantages,
                                                    Based on these models four different lab-scale
resulting from the availability of a storage system
                                                    storage units have been designed. The manufacture
for DSG parabolic trough power plants, can be
                                                    of the lab-scale storage units, based on the
grouped in several categories:
                                                    external design (PCM/graphite composite), the
• Ability to contribute significantly to further macro-encapsulation concept and the ‘sandwich’
   cost reduction of electricity production.        concept, has been completed. The feasibility of
                                                    the ‘sandwich’ concept and the macro-encapsu-
• Increased solar electricity production, thus
                                                    lation has been demonstrated in the lab-scale
   reducing greenhouse gases and pollutant
                                                    experiments. Regarding the current results, the
   emissions.
                                                    ‘sandwich’ concept is considered to provide the
• Solving grid stability problems of grid-connected basis for cost-effective storage systems integrated
   solar power plants.                              into solar-thermal power plants. The ‘sandwich’
                                                    concept was selected for the design of the storage
• Enabling realisation of stand-alone solar thermal
                                                    unit intended for solar operation at Almeria.
   plants in remote or island power parks.




                                                                                                                                                        107
ECOSTAR

          European Concentrated
          Solar Thermal Road-mapping

 OBJECTIVES                              Challenges
                                         Recognising both the environmental and climatic       • CRS using saturated steam as the heat transfer
The main goal of the project was         hazards to be faced in the coming decades and           fluid.
the identification of the R&D            the continued depletion of the world‘s most
                                                                                               • CRS using atmospheric air as the heat transfer
                                         valuable fossil energy resources, Concentrating
activities necessary to achieve                                                                  fluid.
                                         Solar Thermal Power (CSP) can provide critical
cost-competitiveness with fossil power
                                         solutions to global energy problems within a          • CRS using pressurised air in combination
generation. The study was conducted      relatively short timeframe and is capable of con-       with a solar hybrid gas turbine.
by leading concentrated solar power      tributing substantially to carbon dioxide reduction
                                                                                               • Dish-engine systems using Stirling or Brayton
research institutes in Europe.           efforts. Among all the renewable technologies
                                                                                                 cycles.
                                         available for large-scale power production today
                                         and for the next few decades, CSP is the one          The methodology is based on common assump-
                                         with the potential to make major contributions to     tions on the site, meteorological data and load
                                         clean energy because of its relatively conventional   curve. It includes the calculation of the annual
                                         technology and ease of scale-up.                      electricity production hour-by-hour, taking into
                                                                                               account the instant solar radiation, load curve,
                                         Today’s technology of CSP systems results in the
                                                                                               part load performance of all components, and
                                         production cost range of 15-20 eurocents/kWh. In
                                                                                               operation of thermal energy storage as well as
                                         the conventional power market, it competes with
                                                                                               parasitic energy requirements. The reference size of
                                         mid-load power in the range of 3-4 eurocents/kWh.
                                                                                               all systems is assumed to be approximately 50 MWe
                                         Sustainable market integration as predicted in
                                                                                               net. The operation mode considered for the
                                         different scenarios can only be achieved if the
                                                                                               evaluation of the impact of innovations is full-load
                                         cost is reduced to a competitive level in the next
                                                                                               operation in solar-only mode from 9 a.m. to
                                         10-15 years. Competitiveness is not only impacted
                                                                                               11 p.m. This means that the plants may deliver
                                         by the cost of the technology itself but also by a
                                                                                               electricity to the grid during this time period,
                                         potential rise of the price of fossil energy and by
                                                                                               from zero up to their design net output, depending
                                         the internalisation of associated social costs
                                                                                               on the available solar resource and/or the storage
                                         such as carbon emissions. Therefore it is assumed
                                                                                               content.
                                         that in the medium to long-term competitiveness
                                         will be achieved at a level of 5-7 eurocents/kWh The essential technical innovations which con-
                                         for dispatchable mid-load power without carbon tribute significantly to the R&D-driven cost
                                         dioxide emissions.                                  reduction potential were collected. These data,
                                                                                             as well as the associated cost information, were
                                                                                             taken from several sources: from industrial
                                         Project Structure
                                                                                             quotes as well as from recent studies on some of
                                         The ECOSTAR roadmap for Concentrating Solar the technologies. The cost information about the
                                         Power Technologies was designed to give an technical improvements was evaluated within
                                         overview of the existing technology concepts the methodology. Finally the sensitivity of the
                                         and their options for technical improvement in electricity cost to innovations, mass-production
                                         further R&D activities, with the focus on cost and environmental factors was determined by
                                         reduction to achieve cost competitiveness with levelled electricity costs (LEC).
                                         fossil power generation.
                                         In this context seven reference CSP systems           Results
                                         have been considered:
                                                                                      The most promising options for each system
                                         • Parabolic trough technology using thermal were combined to evaluate the overall cost
                                           oil as the heat transfer fluid.            reduction potential. Figure 1 shows the cost
                                                                                      reduction potential of all seven CSP technologies
                                         • Parabolic trough technology using water/
                                                                                      through technical innovations and development,
                                           steam as the heat transfer fluid.
                                                                                      as calculated using the above-mentioned
                                         • Central receiver system (CRS) using molten methodology. Since all cost assumptions as well
                                           salt as the heat transfer system.          as the impact of future technical improvements

108       CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL
                                                                                                                                                                                        Project Information
                                                                                                                                                                                        Contract number
                                                                                                                                                                                        502578

                                                                                                                                                                                        Duration
                                                                                                                                                                                        15 months

                                                                                                                                                                                        Contact person
                                                                                                                                                                                        Prof. Dr. Robert Pitz-Paal
                                                                                                                                                                                        Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Robert.Pitz-Paal@dlr.de

                                                                                                                                                                                        List of partners
                                                                                                                                                                                        CIEMAT – ES
                                                                                                                                                                                        CNRS (IMP) – FR
                                                                                                                                                                                        DLR – DE
                                  50%                                                                                                                                                   Institute for High Temperatures, Russian
                                                                     optimistic cost reduction estimation
                                                                     pessimistic cost reduction estimation
                                                                                                                                                                                        Academy of Science – RU
                                  40%                                                                                                                                                   Swiss Federal Institute of Technology – CH
                                                                                                                                                                                        VGB PowerTech e.V. – DE
                                                                                                                                                                                        Weizmann Institute of Science – IL
        relative cost reduction




                                  30%

                                                                                                                                                                                        Website
                                  20%                                                                                                                                                   Download final report at
                                                                                                                                                                                        ftp://ftp.dlr.de/ecostar
                                  10%                                                                                                                                                   Project officer
                                                                                                                                                                                        Philippe Schild
                                   0%
                                                      TF                                                                                    air                      lar           ne
                                                                                                                                                                                        Status
                                                   hH               DSG                s   alt                 ste
                                                                                                                  am                  ric                        / so           ngi
                                              hw
                                                 it           ugh                 lten                 ate
                                                                                                           d                        he                      ir                he        terminated
                                            ug             Tro                  mo                  tur                         osp                ize
                                                                                                                                                         da                Dis
                                        Tro                                 S                                                 tm
                                                                          CR                  Ss
                                                                                                a                        Sa                     sur
                                                                                            CR                         CR                    res
                                                                                                                                           Sp
                                                                                                                                         CR


Figure 1: Bandwidth of the innovation-driven cost reduction potential for the 7 CSP systems investigated in this study,
based on the LEC for the individual 50 MWe reference system and assuming a combination of selected measures for
each system


are based on estimations, the uncertainty is                                                                   in order to reach the cost target. Concentration
addressed by providing optimistic and pessimistic                                                              of research or demonstration plant funding on
bounds on the input data for the performance                                                                   certain technologies should be avoided because
and cost model, resulting in appropriate limits for                                                            this would lower the cost pressure caused by
the LEC values and cost reduction percentages                                                                  competition between the different technologies.
presented.
                                                   The complete ECOSTAR roadmap is available
Based on the limited number of approaches sug- from ftp://ftp.dlr.de/ecostar
gested in the scope of this study, cost reductions
of 25-35% due to technical innovations and
scaling up to 50 MWe are feasible for most of
the technologies. These figures do not include                     0.61
                                                                               Technical
effects of volume production or scaling up of the 0.7
                                                                               innovation
power size of the plants beyond 50 MW unit size,    0.6
which would result in further cost reductions.      0.5        0.30            Scaling of unit
                                                                                                 size beyond 50  0.4
These accumulated cost reductions can bring
                                                     0.3                                         MW
down costs of electricity from today’s 12-18                          0.17
                                                                                                 Volume
eurocents/kWh to 5-7 eurocents/kWh, depending 0.2                                                production
on the radiation resource. This is regarded as a     0.1              0.14

competitive cost level for dispatchable mid-load        0
                                                                  Relative cost
power without carbon dioxide emissions. About 10-
                                                                    reduction
15 years will be necessary for such a development,
in parallel to continuous market implementation.   Figure 2: Potential relative reduction of LEC by innovations,
                                                                                                               scaling and series production through 2020 for the para-
A general recommendation is that short and bolic trough/HTF system, compared to today’s LEC
mid-term research should focus on modular
components like concentrators or modular
receivers. Medium and long-term development
is needed mainly in the areas of thermal storage
and the integration of larger and more efficient
power cycles. Both pathways must be followed

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  109
HYDROSOL II

              Solar Hydrogen via Water Splitting in
              Advanced Monolithic Reactors for Future
              Solar Power Plants
 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                           The harnessing of the huge energy potential of solar   • The development and construction of a com-
Hydrosol II aims at further scaling-up     radiation and its effective conversion to chemical       plete pilot dual absorber/receiver/reactor unit on
the advanced innovative solar thermal      fuels such as hydrogen via the dissociation of           the 100 kWth scale for solar thermochemical
                                           water (water splitting) is a subject of primary          splitting of water.
reactor technology already developed:
                                           technological interest. The integration of solar
this consists of monolithic ceramic                                                               • The effective coupling of this reactor to a solar
                                           energy concentration systems with systems
honeycombs coated with active redox                                                                 heliostat field and a solar tower platform for
                                           capable of splitting water is of immense value and
                                                                                                    continuous solar hydrogen production within
pair materials, an enhancement and         impact for energetics and economics worldwide;
                                                                                                    an optimised pilot plant (100 kWth).
optimisation of the metal                  some consider it the most important long-term
oxide-ceramic support system with          goal in solar fuels production to cut hydrogen
respect to long-time stability under       costs and ensure virtually zero CO2 emissions.         Project Structure
                                           Through the FP5 project HYDROSOL, the partici-
multi-cycle operation (> 100 cycles),                                                             The successful realisation of the project requires
                                           pating research team has developed an innovative
and the development and construction                                                              a combined effort by research centres and
                                           solar reactor for the production of hydrogen
                                                                                                  industrial bodies to integrate knowledge and
of a complete pilot dual                   from the splitting of steam using solar energy,
                                                                                                  expertise in reactor design, materials synthesis
absorber/receiver/reactor unit in          constructed from special refractory ceramic thin-
                                                                                                  and advanced ceramics manufacture with
the 100 kWth scale for solar               wall, multi-channelled (honeycomb) monoliths
                                                                                                  exploitation of solar technologies. HYDROSOL-II
                                           optimised to absorb solar radiation, coated with
thermo-chemical splitting of water.                                                               is planned as a four-year project with its main
                                           highly active oxygen ‘trapping’/water-splitting
                                                                                                  activities spanning the optimisation of metal
                                           materials (based on doped oxides exhibiting
Effective coupling of this reactor to                                                             oxide/ceramic support assembly, the manufacture
                                           redox behaviour).
                                                                                                  and test operation of an integrated pilot plant
a solar heliostat field and a solar
                                           The ‘proof-of-concept’ of the technology has           for continuous hydrogen production, and the
tower platform for continuous solar
                                           been demonstrated beyond any doubt in a pilot          evaluation of the technical and economic
hydrogen production within an              scale solar reactor designed, built and operating at   potential of the process. An overview of the
optimised pilot plant (100 kWth) will      the DLR solar furnace facility in Cologne              scheduled activities per partner comprises:
be tested, and the technology and          (Germany), which is continuously producing ‘solar
                                                                                                • APTL, JM: enhancement and optimisation of
design of a solar hydrogen production      hydrogen’. The aim of HYDROSOL-II is to develop
                                                                                                  the metal oxide-ceramic support system with
                                           and build an optimised pilot plant (100 kWth) for
plant for mass production of solar                                                                respect to long-time stability under multi-
                                           solar hydrogen production based on this novel
hydrogen on a commercial scale                                                                    cycle operation.
                                           reactor concept. The project involves further scale-
(1 MW) with costs competitive to           up of this technology and its effective coupling • DLR: operation of a solar mini-plant (15 kW
that of other hydrogen production          with solar platform concentration systems, in          scale) for continuous production of hydrogen
methods and potential for                  order to exploit and demonstrate all potential         (assess performance characteristics, establish
hybridisation with combined plants,        advantages. Specific challenging problems to be        process parameters and control procedures).
                                           solved include:
including solar power generation,                                                               • APTL, DLR, STC: design of the 100 kWth solar
hydrogen storage and use, will be          • The enhancement and optimisation of the              pilot plant (geometry and size of pilot plant
assessed. A reduction of production           metal oxide-ceramic support system with             ‘modular’ absorber/reactor; adaptation of the
                                              respect to long-time stability under multi-         2.7 MWth central receiver and of the heliostat
costs for renewable hydrogen in the
                                              cycle operation (more than 100 cycles).             field of Plataforma Solar de Almería to the
mid- to long-term (reduction to less
                                                                                                  specific thermo-chemical process and alter-
than 12 cents/kWh(H2) in 2006 and                                                                 nating heat flux requirements).
to less than 6 cents/kWh in 2020)
                                                                                                  • STC: manufacture of the integrated pilot-scale
is expected.
                                                                                                    absorber/receiver/reactor system.
                                                                                                  • CIEMAT, DLR: effective coupling of this reactor
                                                                                                    to a solar heliostat field and a solar tower plat-
                                                                                                    form for continuous solar hydrogen production
                                                                                                    within an optimised pilot plant (100 kWth)
                                                                                                    and test operation (3 kg H2/h, to start at the
                                                                                                    end of 2007).
110           CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            020030

                                                                                                            Contact person
                                                                                                            D. Athanasios Konstandopoulos
                                                                                                            Centre for Research and Technology Hellas
                                                                                                            agk@cperi.certh.gr

                                                                                                            List of partners
                                                                                                            CERTH – GR
                                                                                                            CIEMAT – ES
                                                                                                            DLR – DE
                                                                                                            Johnson Matthey – GB
                                                                                                            Stobbe Tech Ceramics – DK
                                                    the economic potential of the process and
                                                                                                            Website
                                                    detailed cost analyses indicate that technical
                                                                                                            www.hydrosol-project.org
                                                    improvements provide the potential to reduce
                                                    the hydrogen production costs from 20 euro-             Project officer
                                                    cent/kWh (HHV) to less than 10 eurocent/kWh in          Domenico Rossetti di Valdalbero
                                                    the long-term.
                                                                                                            Status
                                                                                                            ongoing
                                                    Progress to Date
                                                    During the first six months of the Project, new
                                                    iron-oxide-based material families, expected to
                                                    feature improved water splitting performance and
                                                    better long-term stability, have been synthesised
• ALL: assessment of the technology and design
                                                    in large quantities. Coating techniques are currently
  of a solar hydrogen production plant for mass
                                                    employed for the preparation of multi-layer,
  production of solar hydrogen on a commercial
                                                    multi-functional coatings on large-scale porous
  scale (1 MW) with costs competitive to those
                                                    ceramic honeycomb supports (Ø 25mm, 90 cpsi,
  of other hydrogen production methods.
                                                    length 15-50 mm), meeting the thermo-
                                                    mechanical operation demands of solar reactors.
Expected Results                                    The first solar campaign on a two-chamber
                                                    continuous solar hydrogen production reactor
The overall expected result from the project is a
                                                    with the new batches of materials is expected to
successful and efficient scale-up of a carbon-
                                                    take place during the summer of 2006.
dioxide-emissions-free solar hydrogen production
process that will establish the basis for mass
production of solar hydrogen with the long-term
target of a sustainable hydrogen economy.
Results to be obtained through the course of the
project include:
• Long-term stable redox materials suitable for
  water splitting and regeneration in multi-
  cycle operation (> 100 cycles).
• A complete pilot dual absorber/receiver/reactor
  unit in the 100 kWth scale for solar thermo-
  chemical splitting of water.
• Operation/control strategy for continuous
  solar hydrogen production.
• Installation and test operation of the pilot
  reactor and all necessary peripheral compo-
  nents at a solar platform.
• A detailed technical and economic evaluation
  of the entire process and its integration in
  future solar power plants.
Such sustainable, zero-emission, solar hydrogen
production will promote economic development
and people’s quality of life, especially in many
economically depressed regions of southern
Europe with sufficient insolation. Evaluation of

                                                                                                                                                   111
SOLHYCARB

            Hydrogen from Solar Thermal Energy
            High Temperature Solar Chemical Reactor for Co-production
            of Hydrogen and Carbon Black from Natural Gas Cracking

 OBJECTIVES                              Challenges                                            Solar reactor testing and qualification
                                         The main scientific and technical challenges are:     Solar reactor testing will be achieved using the
The SOLHYCARB project addresses the      design and operation of high-temperature solar        partners’ solar facilities. First, various designs of
development of a non-conventional        chemical reactors (10 kWth and 50 kWth) con-          receiver/reactor will be tested in small scale
                                         taining nano-size particulates, production of         (<10 kWth). Two different prototype-scale (5 kWth
route for potentially cost-effective
                                         two valuable products (hydrogen and carbon            and 10 kWth) reactors based on the direct and
hydrogen production by concentrated
                                         black) in the same reactor, and proposal for a        indirect heating concepts will be developed.
solar energy. The novel process          methodology for solar reactor scaling-up based on     These reactors (in operation in month 10) will be
thermally decomposes natural gas in      modelling and experimental validation. The reactor    tested, and the experimental results will be critically
a high-temperature solar chemical        will operate in the 1500K-2300K temperature           analysed in order to define, in month 24, the
reactor. Two products are obtained:      range, which also poses severe material issues. The   solar reactor concept that leads to the highest
                                         production of both hydrogen-rich gas and carbon       performances with respect to reactor thermal
a H2-rich gas and a high-value
                                         black with desirable end-use properties is also a     efficiency and maximal conversion of CH4 to H2.
nano-material, carbon black (CB).
                                         big challenge because the operating conditions        This analysis will be strongly linked with the heat
                                         satisfying both specifications are likely to be       transfer modelling and the fluid dynamic analysis
The project aims at designing,           narrow.                                               related to the carbon deposition problem. Based
constructing, and testing innovative                                                           on the solar reactor concept retained in month
solar reactors at different scales                                                             24, the second step of the project will consist of
                                         Project Structure
                                                                                               designing, constructing and testing a 50 kWth
(5 to 10 kWth and 50 kWth) for
                                         The project includes five main tasks.                 pilot reactor (SR50). The two key milestones of
operating conditions at 1500-2300K
                                                                                               the project are:
and 1 bar. 3 sm3/h H2 and 1 kg/h CB
are expected at the 50 kWth scale.       Solar reactor design and modelling                    • Month 24: choice of the concept for SR50.
Three main scientific and technical      Solar heating of natural gas cannot be achieved       • Month 30: SR50 ready for operation and RTD
problems are concerned: design and       directly because hydrocarbons absorb radiation          activities focusing on SR50.
                                         in the visible spectrum poorly. Thus, solar reactor
operation of high temperature solar                                                            Performance evaluation will include:
                                         concepts must involve either opaque heat-transfer
chemical reactors containing
                                         walls that absorb solar radiation and then heat       • Heat and mass balance (resulting in reactor
nano-size particulates, production of    up the gas by gas-solid convection (indirect            thermal efficiency) in the 1500-2300K operating
two valuable products (hydrogen and      heating) or a transparent window that permits           temperature range
carbon black) in the same reactor,       direct heating of particulate material by solar
                                                                                               • Determination of conversion (80% CH4 con-
proposition of a methodology for solar   radiation (particulate material can be CB). The
                                                                                                 version is targeted)
                                         indirect heating concept avoids particle deposition
reactor scaling-up based on modelling
                                         on the window, but it requires high-temperature       • Measurement of produced gas composition
and experimental validation.
                                         material specifications. Both concepts will be          (H2 and CxHy); CB characteristics vs. operating
                                         studied, in particular with respect to thermal          temperature
                                         resistance of materials (up to 2300K) and to
                                                                                               • Comparison with model predictions.
                                         particle deposition on the optical window. The
                                         solar reactor design to be modelled will be
                                         selected in month 24.




112         CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL
                                                                                                                Project Information
                                                                                                                Contract number
                                                                                                                019770

                                                                                                                Duration
                                                                                                                48 months

                                                                                                                Contact person
                                                                                                                Gilles Flamant
                                                                                                                CNRS-Promes
                                                                                                                flamant@promes.cnrs.fr

                                                                                                                List of Partners
                                                                                                                CERTH – GR
Product separation and process safety                    Expected Results                                       CNRS-PROMES – FR
                                                                                                                DLR – DE
The separation of both the carbon nano-particles         The targeted results are: methane conversion
                                                                                                                N-GHY – FR
from the gas-solid flow and of hydrogen from             over 80%, H2 yield in the off-gas of over 75%,
                                                                                                                Paul Scherrer Institute – CH
the hydrogen-rich gas is a major issue that              and CB properties equivalent to industrial products.   Solucar R&D – BE
determines the uses of the gas produced (fuel            Quantitatively, 3 sm3/h H2 and 1 kg/h CB are           TIMCAL – BE
cells, low emission combustion or injection in the       expected at the 50 kWth scale. Potential impacts       Veolia Environnement CREED – FR
NG network) and the associated safety problems.          on CO2 emission reduction and energy saving are        Weizmann Institute of Science – IL
Adapted filtering media will be defined and              respectively: 14 kg CO2 eliminated and 277 MJ          Zürich University of Technology – CH
installed at the test facilities. Gas separation         per kg H2 produced, with respect to conventional
routes will be studied as an associated unit             NG steam reforming and CB processing by standard       Website
                                                                                                                To be created, http://www.promes.cnrs.fr
operation. The device for filtering the gas-CB           processes. The expected cost of H2 for large scale
mixture and for separating H2 will be proposed           solar plants depends on the price of CB; € 14/GJ       Project Officer
in month 18.                                             for the lowest CB grade sold at € 0.66/kg and          Domenico Rossetti di Valdalbero
                                                         decreasing to € 10/GJ for CB at € 0.8/kg.
                                                                                                                Status
Characteristics and properties                                                                                  ongoing
of carbon black
A key point of the cracking process economics is
the added value of the resultant CB. The selling
price depends on the product nano-structure
and may vary from € 0,6/kg for standard CB
(used in tires) to € 2/kg and even up to € 30/kg for
high grade conductive CB. Thus, the determination
of CB properties is a very important issue of the
project. This will include standard tests (specific
surface area, particle size, chemical analysis, etc.),
and application tests in the fields of polymer
composites (rubber, plastics) and primary and
secondary batteries.
Industrial solar plant design and prospects.
An industrial-scale solar plant will be designed
on the basis of the reactor prototypes and the
results of product testing, reactor modelling,
separation unit operation, in addition to the
existing tools for the design of solar concentrating
systems. Typical industrial solar plant sizes of
50 kWth (decentralised units) and 10/30 MWth
are targeted. The solar process economics will be
assessed as a function of the uses of both products:
hydrogen-rich gas and CB.




                                                                                                                                                           113
SOLHYCO

             Solar-hybrid Power
             and Cogeneration Plants

 OBJECTIVES                                                 Challenges
                                                            Dispatchable renewable power generation is             Preliminary calculations for a solar receiver
The main objective of SOLHYCO is the                        usually associated with expensive storages or          showed that the temperature gradient in the
development of a highly efficient                           additional back-up systems. Solar-hybrid sys-          tube wall could be significantly reduced, as well
                                                            tems combine solar energy and fossil fuel and          as the maximum temperature of the tube. Fig. 3
solar-hybrid microturbine (SHM)
                                                            thus provide power that is reliable and, if bio-       shows the temperature distribution in standard
system for power and heat generation
                                                            fuels are used, also 100%-sustainable at zero          (left) and multi-layer absorber tubes (right).
with dual solar power and fuel input.                       net emissions. Systems based on gas turbines
                                                                                                                 Such tubes will have particular advantages in
Amongst the specific technical                              are suited for cogeneration or combined cycles,
                                                                                                                 high-temperature operating conditions with
objectives are for example the design                       making them very efficient and cost-effective.
                                                                                                                 high non-uniform heat loads and make it possible
and manufacture of a prototype                              The SOLHYCO project focuses on the development to increase the air outlet temperature range to
solar-hybrid cogeneration unit by                           of a prototype solar-hybrid microturbine conver- more than 800°C.
modification of a commercial 100 kWe                        sion system for cogeneration. The unit power level
                                                                                                                 To further reduce net CO2 emissions, a new fuel
microturbine and integration with an                        will be 100 kWe. The innovations in the project are:
                                                                                                                 combustion system will be developed to permit
innovative tube receiver; development                       • Development of a solar-hybrid microturbine combustion of bio-diesel. The innovation is to
of an innovative ‘profiled multilayer                           prototype unit based on a commercial micro- allow operation with bio-fuel combustion in a wide
tube’ receiver; a solar-hybrid                                  turbine (see scheme in fig. 1).                  range of fuel-to-air ratios at varying high air inlet
                                                                                                                 temperatures, especially down to very low fuel-to-
combustion system for bio-diesel for                        • Development of a new receiver based on a
                                                                                                                 air ratios typical for a solar-hybrid combustor.
100% renewable operation of the test                            new high-performance tube technology.
system; evaluation of performance                           • Development of bio-fuel combustion system
and economic data for optimised                                                                                    Project Structure
                                                              capable for operation with bio-diesel.
solar-hybrid cogeneration systems                                                                                  The development of the pre-commercial solar-
                                                            Integrating a commercial microturbine cogene-
and large solar hybrid combined-cycle                                                                              hybrid microturbine unit follows on the successful
                                                            ration unit with a solar receiver system provides
                                                                                                                   development of solar receiver components
power plants; and verification of the                       a solar-hybrid cogeneration system that offers
                                                                                                                   (REFOS) and the combination of a solarised
long-term cost reduction goal of                            a very high total efficiency of about 45% for solar-
                                                                                                                   helicopter gas turbine with solar receivers in a
€ 0.05/kWh.                                                 to-total power conversion, at full dispatchability.
                                                                                                                   solar-hybrid system test (SOLGATE). SOLHYCO is
                                                            In fossil mode, the overall efficiency will be up to
                                                                                                                   the link between these projects and the future
                                                            80%. Solar-to-electric efficiency is expected to
                                                                                                                   exploitation of the technology, with the aim of
                                                            reach 16%, which is also an excellent value for
                                                                                                                   developing a solar-hybrid system that can be mar-
                                                            such a small system. Solar-hybrid cogeneration
                                                                                                                   keted later in cogeneration applications without
                                                            systems of this capacity are suitable, for example,
                                                                                                                   major changes. Implementing such small systems
                                                            for facilities in the tourism sector (polygeneration
                                                                                                                   in commercial applications will allow step-by-step
                                                            with power, water heating and air conditioning)
                                                                                                                   upscaling of power levels. For solar-hybrid cogen-
                                                            and for small business parks.
                                                                                                                   eration systems the marketable power level is
                                                            To reduce the temperature gradients a ‘profiled        100 kWe-5 MWe, for highly efficient solar-hybrid
                                                            multilayer (PML)’ tube, consisting of three            combined-cycle plants the expected power level
                             receiver                       metallic tube layers has been developed: this          will go up to more than 50 MW. The SOLHYCO
             900°C
             900 °C

                                          solar             comprises a high-temperature alloy outside,            system will therefore be the linking element
combustor
                                          energy            copper as an intermediate layer and another            between system development and market intro-
                          550°C
                          550 °C                            high-temperature alloy layer on the inside. The        duction.
                                               exchanger
                                        heat exchanger
   air in
        in                                                  function of the copper, with its much higher
                                        for cogeneration
                                             cogeneration                                                          The project is the work of a consortium of nine
                                                            heat conductivity, is to distribute the heat by
                                                                                                                   industrial and research partners from seven coun-
  Pa=100kW                                                  conduction from the irradiated side to the entire
                                                                                                                   tries. The work is structured in eight work packages.
                                                            inner surface. The outer layer provides the struc-
                      recuperator       300°C
                                        300 °C              tural strength, the inner layer protects the copper    In WP 1, the solar receiver components are
                                                            from corrosion at high temperatures. A European        developed. After the first milestone, the manu-
Figure 1: Schematic of the solar-hybrid microturbine        patent application was filed in 2004, covering         facturing method of PML tube samples will be
cogeneration system                                         a manufacturing technology for multilayer tubes        approved, confirming the technique of combining
                                                            and applications like solar air receivers.             different material layers to decrease the tempe-
114            CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            019830

                                                                                                            Duration
                                                                                                            42 months

                                                                                                            Contact Person
                                                                                                            Dr. Peter Heller
                                                                                                            Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.
                                                                                                            peter.heller@dlr.de

                                                                                                            List of partners
                                                                                                            CIEMAT – ES
                                                                                                            Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
                                                                                                            DLR – DE
rature gradient over the tubes. At the second         obtain design point and annual energy yields.
                                                                                                            FTF GmbH – DE
milestone, the tube samples will be successfully      Cost data will be developed to enable determi-
                                                                                                            GEA Technika Cieplna Sp z o.o. – PL
tested and receiver design initiated. The milestone   nation of specific system and O&M costs. For          NEAL New Energy Algeria – AL
will not be considered as accomplished if the         combined-cycle power plant, the previous studies      ORMAT Systems Ltd. – IL
receiver tube sample test fails to guarantee a        will be extended to power levels of 50-100 MWe.       Solucar R&D – ES
gas delivery temperature of at least 800°C in the                                                           Turbec R&D AB – SE
                                                      In WP 7, a market assessment will be conducted,
completed receiver.
                                                      identifying appropriate market niches for initial     Website
WP 2 will terminate with a milestone completing       commercialisation of the solar hybrid cogeneration    www.solhyco.com
development of the bio-fuel system. When this         unit and future market potential for solar hybrid
is accomplished, all components such as the           power plants (>20 MWe). This will be focused on       Project Officer
injector, instrumentation and modified control        the Mediterranean markets. A standardised             Domenico Rossetti di Valdalbero
system will be in place and preparations for the      accounting scheme for solar-hybrid power gen-         Status
hybrid bio-fuel tests will have been initiiated.      eration will be developed and a variety of            ongoing
                                                      measures taken to improve public awareness of
WP 3 provides for successful completion of
                                                      the technology.
development of the bio-fuel system with the
delivery of a functional prototype system that        Project coordination is covered in WP 8. The
can be transferred to future pre-commercial           coordinator, together with the eight partners,
systems. A test campaign under real conditions        will ensure the proper dedication of project funds
will demonstrate the correct functioning of the       and efficient management of the programme.
bio-fuel system and the turbine control.
In WP 4, a commercial 100 kWe microturbine            Expected Results
(TURBEC T100) will be modified and integrated
                                                      The expected result of the SOLHYCO project is the
with a solar receiver to obtain a pre-commercial
                                                      successful development and test of a complete
solar-hybrid cogeneration system. The microturbine
                                                      hybrid prototype cogeneration unit, with its new
control, combustion system and mechanical inter-
                                                      components, for a 100% renewable operation.
faces will be modified, and an appropriate emer-
                                                      Based on the results of the market assessment,
gency system added. A 350 kWt receiver for this
                                                      an exploitation plan will be developed by the
system will be designed and manufactured,
                                                      consortium for a first demonstration plant.
based on the innovative PML tube technology
developed in WP 1.                                    The SOLHYCO technology is well suited as a first
                                                      step towards the replacement of fossil fuels by
WP 5 will provide test and evaluation results of
                                                      renewable ‘fuels’. The combination of solar and
the solar-hybrid microturbine unit. The system
                                                      biofuel sources increases the flexibility and
will be installed on the tower facility at
                                                      dispatchability at zero emissions. This technology
Plataforma Solar and intensively tested in solar,
                                                      offers high conversion efficiencies and promises
fuel and hybrid mode over a 6-month period.
                                                      reduced generation costs, due to the high tem-
The completion of this work package will be
                                                      perature level. Concepts are provided for the
marked by the last milestone of the project,
                                                      introduction of small cogeneration units into
providing a proven system ready for pre-
                                                      initial niche markets, and a perspective is offered
commercial applications such as technology
                                                      for large combined-cycle plants based on hybrid
demonstration plants.
                                                      power generation.
In WP 6, the commercial system layout and cost
analysis will be realised. The analysis will use
                                                      Progress to Date
previously developed tools and enhance them
for the evaluation of industrial cooling processes,   The project started recently. In the opening
driven by the hot turbine exhaust gas (cogene-        months, a project website (www.solhyco.com)
ration). Then, optimised system configuration         has been designed and provided for public and
for several applications will be established.         internal access.
A detailed performance analysis will be made to

                                                                                                                                                      115
SOLREF

         Development of a Solar Reformer
         for Hydrogen Production

 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          Profitability determines whether a new techno-          For the advanced catalytically active absorber,
The project aims at developing an         logy has a chance to reach the market. Therefore,       various catalyst systems will be investigated in
advanced 400 kWth solar reformer          several modifications and improvements to the           respect of:
                                          state-of-the-art solar reformer technology (see
that will be more cost-effective than                                                             • High catalytic activity with high resistance to
                                          schematic and picture) will be introduced before
a state-of-the-art receiver for several                                                             coking
                                          large-scale and commercial systems are developed.
applications, such as hydrogen            These changes will primarily apply to the catalytic     • Good absorption for thermal radiation
production or electricity generation.     system, the reactor optimisation and operation
                                                                                                  • Acceptable mechanical strength and thermal
Depending on the feed source for the      procedures, and the associated optics for con-
                                                                                                    shock resistance
reforming process, CO2 emissions can      centrating the solar radiation.
                                                                                                  • High gas permeability and mixing of gases, as
be reduced significantly (up to 40%
                                                                                                    well as low pressure drop
using NG), because the required           Project Structure
process heat for this highly                                                                      • Low costs.
                                          The work proposed with SOLREF is based on the
endothermic reaction is provided by       activities undertaken in the previous SOLASYS           The ceramic absorber will be prepared using
concentrated solar energy.                project, where the technical feasibility of solar       various technologies. The best catalytically active
                                          reforming has been proven. Since the main partners      absorber will be determined by competition.
                                          (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.         In parallel with fabrication, a model will be
A further aim is to modify the
                                          and The Weizmann Institute of Science) involved         developed to simulate transport and reaction
catalytic system without decreasing
                                          in the SOLASYS project will also participate in         processes in the porous absorber, thereby
the absorptivity of the ceramic           SOLREF, the experience and know-how acquired            determining the steam reforming kinetics. The
absorber so as to operate at high         in SOLASYS will be applied efficiently in SOLREF,       simulation will help to maximise the effective use
temperatures (up to 1050°C) and with      thus ensuring a significant step towards the            of the catalytic coatings in the absorber system.
various feedstocks, and to improve the    integration of this new technology. With the
                                                                                                  A new and more compact solar reformer will be
                                          catalysis group (JM, APTL, DLR, WIS) headed by
operation of the plant.                                                                           designed and manufactured with a new flange
                                          the industrial partner Johnson Matthey FC Ltd, it
                                                                                                  containing less material, an advanced insulation
                                          is feasible to investigate the wide spectrum of
Other objectives are to modify the                                                                configuration with steam protection, and an
                                          catalysis and coating technologies, leading to
                                                                                                  improved ceramic absorber. The nitrogen purge,
test set-up used by the SOLASYS           the development of the best catalytically active
                                                                                                  which was used in the SOLASYS project, will be
reactor for faster start-up with          absorber capable of solar reforming with various
                                                                                                  replaced. A thermodynamic and thermochemical
simulation of various feedstocks,         feedstocks. DLR and HyGear will develop an
                                                                                                  analysis will be performed to support the system
                                          advanced solar reformer. ETH will lead the thermo-
to provide a sufficiently long period                                                             design phase – headed by ETH. The SME HyGear B.V.
                                          chemical analysis and system modelling group.
of testing, to develop a pre-design                                                               will provide the detailed design based on the layout
                                          The involvement of the Italian SME SHAP and the
of a 1 MWth prototype plant, and to                                                               from DLR and will manufacture the solar reformer.
                                          opportunities offered byn the south of Italy for
conduct a market study including cost     renewable energy provide an excellent opportunity       The existing solar test facility will be modified to
and system analysis of a large-scale      to realise the first solar reforming prototype plant,   include a new purge gas preparation system and
application in the Mediterranean area     which will be pre-designed in this project, after       a gas mixing system that permits operation of the
                                          completion of the SOLREF project.                       solar reformer with gas mixtures representative
in solar-only mode.
                                                                                                  of a variety of possible feedstocks. The new
                                                                                                  operation strategies will be evaluated. The
                                          Expected Results
                                                                                                  results of the test campaign will provide input to
                                          The SOLREF project is aimed at developing the           the pre-design of the prototype plant. The test data
                                          second generation of the SOLASYS reformer. This         will be evaluated and compared with simulation
                                          second generation reformer will attempt to              tools in order to verify calculations and identify
                                          solve the problems encountered in the previous          potential problems.
                                          project, SOLASYS, and will provide the necessary
                                                                                           In the pre-design phase, the technical specifi-
                                          modifications to advance the solar reformer to
                                                                                           cations of a 1 MWth prototype reforming plant
                                          the pre-commercial phase.
                                                                                           will be determined for a Mediterranean site. The
                                                                                           major components of a solar reforming plant

116        CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL
                                                                                                              Project Information
                                                                                                              Contract number
                                                                                                              502829

                                                                                                              Duration
                                                                                                              44 months

                                                                                                              Contact person
                                                                                                              Dr. sc. tech. Stephan Möller
                                                                                                              Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.
                                                                                                              Stephan.Moeller@dlr.de

                                                                                                              List of partners
                                                                                                              CERTH – GR
                                                                                                              DLR – DE
                                                                                                              HyGear B.V. – NL
will be analysed to assess their impact on the
                                                                     insulation    distributor                Johnson Matthey Fuel Cell Ltd – GB
conceptual layout of the plant. For the upstream                 vessel                                       SHAP Solar Heat and Power – IT
part of the reforming loop, the operation with           window                                               Swiss Federal Institute of Technology – CH
different gaseous feedstocks (natural gas, weak                                                               Weizmann Institute of Science – IL
gas, bio-gas, landfill gas), as well as concepts for                                   gas collector outlet
gas cleaning and gas treatment will be assessed.                                 gas channel inlet            Website
                                                       front flange             main absorber outley          www.solref.dlr.de
The solar reformer can be located either on the
                                                                extension absorber intley
top of a tower or on the ground using a beam-
                                                                                                              Project officer
down installation. These two concepts will be                                                                 Domenico Rossetti di Valdalbero
                                                     3D drawing of the advanced SOLREF reformer
compared with a view to identifying the optimal
solar optical configuration.                                                                                  Status
                                                     during solar operation, and is a tool for imple-
                                                                                                              ongoing
For the dissemination of solar reforming menting reactor controls, optimising start-up and
technology, the regions targeted first are in shut-down routines and assessing the influence
southern Europe and North Africa. The potential of design changes on reactor dynamics
markets will be assessed. The environmental,
                                                     Based on the boundary conditions at WIS, the layout
socio-economic and institutional impacts of solar
                                                     of the solar reformer has been drawn up (see 3D
reforming technology exploitation will be assessed
                                                     drawing). Absorbed power is approx. 400 kWth, gas
with respect to sustainable development. Based
                                                     temperatures are approx. 450°C/900°C for inlet/
on a market analysis, a preliminary model for the
                                                     outlet, and the optimal operating pressure is 10 bars.
cost evaluation of the main plant components
will be provided. This model will be used in further The construction of the solar reformer was
system evaluation. Detailed cost estimates for investigated in three main respects:
a 50 MWth commercial plant will be determined.
                                                     • Advanced holding structure of the absorber
                                                         dome: based on different concepts and
Progress to Date                                         material tests, a light structure was selected.
A comprehensive range of precious and base • Vessel/front flange interaction: new concepts
metal-containing steam reforming catalysts has         were assessed for reduction of mass com-
been prepared by several conventional and more         pared with the SOLASYS reformer. The ves-
advanced methods. Their thermal durability has         sel/front flange has to have sufficient
been assessed. The absorptivity of the catalyst        strength to resist plastic deformation while,
system for solar radiation has also been assessed.     for the window, the front flange has to be suf-
A testing protocol has been defined and used by        ficiently even and planar.
the collaborating partners to collect activity
                                                    • Inside insulation of the vessel with steam
data (using several methane-rich fuels), and this
                                                       condensation protection: different methods
has been used to determine the final catalyst
                                                       have been evaluated and special construction
choice for SOLREF. Activity testing is continuing
                                                       solutions selected which minimise steam dif-
on the SOLREF catalyst as part of a kinetics study.
                                                       fusion into the HT-insulation material.
The SOLREF catalyst has been scaled up and the
                                                       Furthermore, a purge gas flow through
final reactor foam sections coated and supplied.
                                                       defined sites on the insulation can stop the
In parallel, a thermochemical analysis and a system    diffusion of the steam-containing process gas.
model of the existing test plant at WIS have been
                                                    A purge gas is needed for the start-up and shut-
realised. A steady-state system model for the
                                                    down procedures and to avoid steam condensation.
WIS test plant has been implemented and tested.
                                                    CO2 could be the choice for a new design of
The model can be used to predict the results of
                                                    solar reforming plant. Due to the specific
changes in the system layout. A dynamic model
                                                    boundary conditions at WIS, hydrogen was
of the existing test plant has been developed to
                                                    selected: a small hydrogen purification line using
investigate the transient behaviour of the solar
                                                    the product gas was designed for this purpose.
reforming plant: this model focuses on the tran-
sient behaviour of the solar chemical receiver Manufacturing commenced in June 2006.
                                                                                                                                                        117
DERLAB

         A Network of Excellence of DER Laboratories
         and Pre-standardisation

 OBJECTIVES                              Challenges
                                         Sustainable development requires the use of             Integration across Europe of research and testing
DERlab is a Network of Excellence        cleaner energy resources. The connection of new         activities on DER, including its integration into the
(NoE) of independent laboratories,       decentralised and clean energy resources to the         electricity grid, is needed particularly because of:
                                         grid can help reduce the environmental impact of
working in the area of the integration                                                           • The large number of uncoordinated research
                                         power production (CO2 reduction in particular).
of distributed energy resources (DER)                                                              and associated testing activities on this topic,
                                         Furthermore the introduction of new technologies
and the preparation of standards for                                                               resulting from national research programmes
                                         can improve the performance of the network,
                                                                                                   and standardisation activities.
DER. The main goal of the NoE DERlab     improve the reliability and quality of the supply,
is to support the sustainable            and offer a more flexible and efficient service.        • The clear need for Europe-wide solutions
integration of renewable energy          However the integration of these new energy               through promotion of common standards for
                                         resources and technologies requires an important          integration of distributed energy resources (DER).
resources (RES) and DER in the power
                                         research, development and testing effort in order to:
supply system. Key activities focus                                                           • The integration of the experience and facilities of
on the development of common             • Make the most effective use of the new energy          a number of excellent laboratories with impres-
                                           concepts, including generation from renewables,        sive activity profiles, and the opportunities this
requirements across the EU with
                                           ‘active’ distribution networks and where               offers for building a network that can claim
respect to grid connection, safety,
                                           appropriate use of energy storage.                     world leadership in testing certification and pre-
operation and communication of DER                                                                standardisation activities in the area of DER
                                         • Guarantee the highest level of reliability and
and RES, and development of quality                                                               technologies and their integration into networks.
                                            quality of supply, essential in a critical infra-
criteria, as well as activities
                                            structure such as the power system.               The DERlab Network of Excellence (NoE) will
concerning preparation of standards.                                                          provide critical support for the development of a
                                         As these new elements are integrated into the
                                                                                              common European research and development
                                         distribution network, it will be necessary to use
                                                                                              platform focused on DER integration in the
                                         laboratory tests to validate the new concepts for
                                                                                              power system, taking into account the needs
                                         analysis, planning, control and supervision of
                                                                                              and concerns of EU utilities and manufacturers.
                                         electricity supply and distribution, in order to
                                                                                              It will also strongly support the consistent develop-
                                         take these new components into account in the
                                                                                              ment of DER technologies and contribute to the
                                         performance optimisation of the whole system.
                                                                                              creation of a European competence through highly
                                                                                              skilled human resources working at the leading
                                                                                              edge of DER technology.


                                                                                                 Project Structure
                                                                                                 The DERlab Joint Programme of Activities (JPA) is
                                                                                                 divided into the following four parts, which are
                                                                                                 required to perform the network successfully:


                                                                                                 JPA 1: Integration activities
                                                                                                 This concerns all activities aiming at integration of
                                                                                                 the partners. In particular the following activities
                                                                                                 have started:
                                                                                                 • Integration of management including legal
                                                                                                   aspects for durable integration
                                                                                                 • Staff exchange and joint use of infrastructure
                                                                                                 • Framework for network internal training pro-
                                                                                                   grammes and guidelines for laboratory work
                                                                                                 • Establishment of joint electronic communi-
                                                                                                   cation infrastructure.
118       CONNECTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES TO THE GRID
                                                                                                                 Project Information
                                                                                                                 Contract number
                                                                                                                 518299

                                                                                                                 Duration
                                                                                                                 72 months

                                                                                                                 Contact person
                                                                                                                 Dr. Thomas Degner
                                                                                                                 Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik
                                                                                                                 tdegner@iset.uni-kassel.de

                                                                                                                 List of partners
                                                                                                                 Arsenal – AT
                                                                                                                 Centro Elettrotechnico
                                                                                                                 Sperimentale Italiano – IT
JPA 2: Joint research programme                       laboratories, and by developing a common test
                                                                                                                 Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
                                                      portfolio. The test capabilities, together with the
The objectives of the joint research programme are                                                               Institut für Solare
                                                      test facilities, will establish a test environment for     Energieversorgungstechnik – DE
to contribute to the development of standards for
                                                      DER. This will enable DERlab to provide European           Kema – NL
DER, to develop common testing, certification and
                                                      testing services for industry, utilities etc.              Fundacion Labein – ES
qualification procedures, and to develop a pan-
                                                                                                                 Lodz University of Technology – PL
European laboratory infrastructure for the test-
                                                                                                                 National Technical University of Athens – GR
ing and qualification of DER components and Support for the development
                                                                                                                 Risoe National Laboratory – DK
systems. In order to achieve these objectives the of European and international standards                        Sofia University of Technology – BG
following research activities are foreseen:                                                                      UK DG Centre – GB
                                                      This will be achieved by exemplarily executing
• Pre-standardisation activities for DER              research activities in specific fields and by initiating
                                                                                                                 Website
                                                      new research activities to provide required technical      http://der-lab.net
• Support for the development of DER testing
                                                      information and input to the standards.
    procedures
                                                                                                                 Project officer
                                                      The technical areas covered by DERlab are:                 Manuel Sánchez Jiménez
• Defining requirements and procedures for
    the certification of DER products                 • Requirements concerning connection, safety,
                                                                                                                 Status
                                                         operation and communication of DER com-
• Constitution of a database of laboratory                                                                       ongoing
                                                         ponents.
    facilities and test capabilities
                                                      • Requirements for the effective and economic
• Elaboration of requirements for laboratory
                                                         operation of sustainable power systems.
    development
                                                      • Quality criteria for DER components.
• Exemplary realisation of joint DER test facilities.

                                                        Durable networking between
JPA 3: Spreading of excellence
                                                        European laboratories
Activities to spread excellence beyond the project
                                                        DERlab aims at the long-lasting creation of
consortium include interaction with standardisation
                                                        European competence through the establishment
bodies, organisation of workshops, training and
                                                        of a pan-European expert group in the area of
education activities, organisation of national
                                                        ‘new DER technologies and their integration into
and international information exchanges, as
                                                        the future distribution network’ consisting of
well as regular reporting.
                                                        highly skilled researchers working at the leading
                                                        edge of DER technology.
JPA 4: Management activities
This activity includes all activities concerning the Progress to Date
management of the consortium, including opera-
                                                     One of the first common activities was the
tions of NoE executive management, the NoE
                                                     elaboration of a proposal concerning the extension
network coordination committee, NoE governing
                                                     of the currently existing laboratory facilities. The
board and NoE advisory board.
                                                     proposed research infrastructure for DER inte-
                                                     gration into the European grids will enable tests
Expected Results                                     at a component as well as a system level, and
                                                     will be accessible for the European research
                                                     community, industry and grid operators.
A distributed world-class DER laboratory
for Europe                               Secondly DERlab internal working groups have
                                                        been set up, working on the topic of intercon-
The objective is to develop a pan-European
                                                        nection requirements for DER.
laboratory which will be recognised as a leading
laboratory in the field of integration of DER.          Finally a legal framework for DERlab was drafted
This will be achieved by mutual specialisation          and is currently undergoing modification in line
and systematic completion of the partners’              with the different partners’ needs.
                                                                                                                                                          119
EU-DEEP

          The Birth of a European Distributed Energy Partne
          that will help the large-scale implementation of distributed ene


 OBJECTIVES                             Challenges                                           Project structure
                                        The widespread development of innovative EU-DEEP is based on a set of eight intertwined
Co-ordinated by Gas de France,          Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in Europe is technical development work packages. They
EU-DEEP develops methodologies          facing three major barriers:                      interact iteratively to produce, for five promising
                                                                                          market segments, adequate portfolios of DER
to study and remove barriers to the     • Technology barriers, interactions between the
                                                                                          technologies and business models:
implementation of DER in Europe,           distribution network and small-sized renewable
validates DER technologies that            and classical electricity generation solutions • A set of simulation tools (market size and
                                           must be proven efficient and reliable enough.     energy demand typical of client behaviours) is
address the needs of market segments
                                                                                             developed and used to increase the knowledge
in the commercial, residential          • Market barriers, where new business models
                                                                                             of the market (segmentation of the European
and industrial sectors, and combines       must be designed and validated to show that
                                                                                             market, ranking of segments, etc.) and select the
                                           DER solutions can be profitable within
market, technology and regulatory                                                            five promising segments that will be studied in
                                           acceptable payback times, in a win-win-win
issues into winning business models                                                          the project (for commercial, residential and
                                           situation for different market actors.
for DER in Europe                                                                            industrial applications) with a methodology that
                                        • Regulatory barriers, where new market frame-       can be replicated to study other promising
                                           works must be created to allow for the massive    segments in the future (WP 1).
                                           deployment of DER units, bringing significant
                                                                                          • A systemic analysis of the impacts of massive
                                           benefits to society in a sustainable way.
                                                                                             DER deployment on grid operation is conducted
                                        The EU-DEEP project adopts a demand-driven,          (WP 2), using another set of simulation tools.
                                        market-oriented approach to validate the rele-       Positive and negative grid impacts are detailed
                                        vance, by 2010, of a portfolio of DER technology     and quantified, together with proposals for
                                        and business models in identified promising          innovative ‘use of system’ charge allocation
                                        segments across Europe, thus promoting the           schemes.
                                        deployment of DER solutions.
                                                                                          • Local dynamic energy management schemes
                                                                                             are studied (WP 3) to measure the benefits of
                                                                                             local electricity trading mechanisms, and to
                                                                                             use novel DER control technologies facilitating
                                                                Markets
                                                                                             market and grid operations. Trading rules are
                                                                                             defined, involving most probably some inter-
                                                                                             mediary structures such as aggregators, to
                                                                                             make intrinsically costly DER solutions more
                                                                                             affordable for end-users.
                                                                                             • Five full-scale experiments are designed,
                                                                                               implemented and run for one year (WP 4 & 5).
                                                                                               They aim at removing technical barriers that
                                         Technology                             Regulation     cannot be addressed by simulation, validating
                                                                                               the different results achieved by other WPs,
                                                                                               and pinpointing the remaining uncertainties
                                                                                               that could slow down the massive deployment
                                                                                               of DER solutions by 2010. These experiments
                                                                                               are ‘technology-neutral’ and will involve both
                                                                                               renewable and classical solutions.




120        CONNECTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES TO THE GRID
rship
rgy resources in Europe


                                                      Expected results
    • A portfolio of innovative business models for   There are four classes of exploitable results
      each of the five segments is assembled within   attached to the EU-DEEP project:
      the concluding optimisation work package
                                                      • Increased knowledge about the European market
      (WP 8). These business models will show the
                                                        based on sharing data amongst utilities and
      benefit of implementing DER/LTS systems for
                                                        other partners.
      different stakeholders (end-users, ESCOs,
      etc.). This work package integrates all the     • A portfolio of technologies and business models
      findings and new knowledge produced by the        based on extensive experimental evidence in five
      project.                                          promising market segments (two commercial,
                                                        two residential, one industrial).
    • In parallel, training and dissemination tasks
      (WP 6 & 7) are implemented to deliver usable • A set of methodologies that can be replicated
      knowledge to players in the energy sector that      to study other promising segments in the
      will face DER investment options in the very near   same three areas of activity.
      future. Both tasks aim at reducing the hetero-
                                                        • Training materials that will be delivered
      geneity of opinions about DER, most often
                                                          commercially much before the end of the
      based on a lack of a systemic approach to
                                                          research project, in order to support the
      DER deployment.
                                                          deployment of fast-track options and to
                                                          obtain early feedback on the portfolio of
                                                          business models by market end-users of the
                                                          resultant knowledge.




                                                                                                           121
EU-DEEP

          The Birth of a European Distributed Energy Partne
          that will help the large-scale implementation of distributed ene


                                        Progress to date
                                        The following barriers defined at the start of the • Initial reluctance of grid operators to allow
                                        project have been nearly removed:                     for massive DER deployment has been shown
                                                                                              to be too pessimistic under standard grid
                                        • The lack of European wide knowledge about
                                                                                              architecture configurations: simulation tools
                                           the market was tackled by:
                                                                                              have been used under the lead of Tractebel
                                           • sharing commercial data between utility          Engineering – Suez to determine the DER
                                              companies and other partners of EU-DEEP;        penetration ratio up to which grid mana-
                                                                                              gement can be performed safely without any
                                           • studying market segments both in terms of
                                                                                              major loss of system reliability.
                                              market potential and energy demand features.
                                                                                            • A systemic understanding of massive DER
                                           A new descriptive language of market features
                                                                                              deployment has been implemented to grasp the
                                           that favour or hamper DER deployment has
                                                                                              impact of DER on overall system costs. Present
                                           been agreed.
                                                                                              distribution systems can support significant
                                           Simulation tools for energy demand, generation     levels of DER penetration with few changes.
                                           and end-use have been developed. They use          Cost reduction could even be expected in the
                                           detailed physical descriptions of energy           long run, but old-fashioned management
                                           exchanges for residential and commercial           techniques must be abandoned and new control
                                           end-users. They allow understanding where          practices must be adopted. ‘Anti-islanding’
                                           flexibility in the demand occurs. The intro-       protection must fully integrate interconnected
                                           duction of storage functionalities and             system requirements.
                                           heat/electricity trading strategies is simulated
                                                                                            • DER-based solutions are put into a systemic
                                           to pinpoint where and when DER solutions
                                                                                              perspective that will help stakeholders build
                                           can be made profitable. Aggregating such
                                                                                              meaningful comparison between competing
                                           results allows one to draw leopard-like market
                                                                                              energy solutions. Change management
                                           maps for DER solutions in Europe.
                                                                                              approaches have been implemented in the
                                           So far, four out of five market segments have      prototype training curricula. Combined mar-
                                           been chosen in the residential and commercial      ket description techniques and simulation
                                           sector.                                            techniques will provide trainees with the
                                                                                              rules to make fair economic comparisons
                                                                                              between several energy options in a given
                                                                                              end-use segment. The simulation tools used
                                                                                              are outcomes of two critical work packages
                                                                                              (WP 1 and WP 2), while packaged to meet
                                                                                              training time and cost constraints.
                                                                                           The following barriers have been addressed, but
                                                                                           still remain to be removed demonstrably by mid-
                                                                                           2007:
                                                                                           • The role of regulations, and the design of
                                                                                             innovative market rules, that will facilitate a
                                                                                             more efficient deployment of DER. Work is in
                                                                                             progress to suggest new market rules to use DER
                                                                                             favourably within local approaches throughout
                                                                                             Europe and develop a EU framework where util-
                                                                                             ities, end-users, manufacturers and investors
                                                                                             address the energy market issues of DER in a
                                                                                             coherent way.




122        CONNECTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES TO THE GRID
                                                                                                              Project Information
                                                                                                              Contract number
                                                                                                              503516
rship                                                                                                         Duration
                                                                                                              66 months
rgy resources in Europe                                                                                       Contact person
                                                                                                              Etienne Gehain
                                                                                                              Gaz de France
                                                                                                              etienne.gehain@gazdefrance.com

                                                                                                              List of partners
                                                                                                              ANCO – GR
                                                                                                              AUTh – GR
                                                                                                              Bowman Power Systems – GB
    • The development of innovative business • Common and coherent valuation rules for
                                                                                                              Capitalia – IT
      approaches that make DER solutions valued      DER investments and their related business
                                                                                                              Catholic University of Leuven – BE
      for their positive and dynamic contributions   models remain to be developed. They involve              Centro de Nuevas Tecnologias
      to end-user demand, local energy markets       optimisation techniques via:                             Energeticas – ES
      and grid management. Three routes are                                                                   CRES – GR
                                                     • the maximisation of the Net Present Value
      explored in parallel:                                                                                   Gaz de France – FR
                                                       for any project, taking into account the extra
                                                                                                              Electricity Authority of Cyprus – CY
      • the use of the new market rules as suggested   added-value linked to the management
                                                                                                              EnergoProjekt – PL
        above;                                         flexibility of the investments;                        EPA Attiki – GR
      • the valuation of electricity (both electrical       • the accounting of extra impacts for grid        Fagrel – IT
         energy generated and flexible loads) sell-back       operators, intermediaries and the public in     FIT – CY
                                                                                                              Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei – IT
         to local intermediaries (aggregators) or             general, involving market and grid con-
                                                                                                              Fundacion Labein – ES
         retailers. This may lead to larger DER units         straints developed in WP 1/WP 2 and WP 3.
                                                                                                              Heletel – GR
         to take advantage of sell-back opportunities                                                         Iberdrola – ES
                                                        In the first two years of research and development,
         within pre-specified conditions;                                                                     Institute for Electric Power Research – HU
                                                        the EU-DEEP players have also underestimated the
      • the interactions between DER use and grid communication and cultural barriers:                        KAPE – PL
                                                                                                              Latvenergo – LV
         management techniques, where DER can
                                                        • There is still an excess number of opinions         Laborelec – BE
         be favourably valued by grid operators.
                                                            about the role and impacts of Distributed         Lodz Region Power – PL
    • The meaningful validation of concepts, tools          Energy Resources, while, at the same time,        MTU – DE
      and technologies must be prepared with care:          there is a shortage of evidence about their       National Technical University of Athens – GR
      the five experiments foreseen in EU-DEEP are          future benefits to the European economy.          Regulatory Authority for Energy – GR
                                                                                                              Riga University of Technology – LV
      in the design phase. Experiment locations and
                                                        • There is a need for concise, clear-cut and          RWE Energy – DE
      technology choices (generator and enabling
                                                            practical communication about DER, in order       SAFT – FR
      connection and control equipment) have been                                                             Siemens PTD – DE
                                                            to fight the heterogeneity of opinions, while
      made for the commercial and residential sectors.                                                        Siemens PSE – AT
                                                            stepping up the offering of evidence.
      Further work is still needed to design each of                                                          STRI – SE
      the one-year experiments that will generate new This is why increased dissemination actions will        Technofi – FR
      knowledge needed to validate the portfolio of be launched in the next three years of the project        Tedom – CZ
      technologies and business models. Inter- to help stakeholders grasp better the complexity               Tractebel – BE
      connection between testing sites is considered of technology and business portfolios delivered          Transénergie – FR
      in order to investigate the aggregation concepts by EU-DEEP.                                            TUBITAK – TR
      and technologies.                                                                                       University of Lund – SE
                                                                                                              University of Valencia – ES
                                                                                                              VTT – FI

                                                                                                              Website
                                                                                                              www.eu-deep.com

                                                                                                              Project Officer
                                                                                                              Stefano Puppin

                                                                                                              Status
                                                                                                              ongoing




                                                                                                                                                      123
FENIX

         Flexible Electricity Networks to Integrate
         the Expected ‘Energy Evolution’

 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                           In the last decade, the EU has been deploying          We are now entering an era where this approach
FENIX aims at enabling Distributed         significant amounts of Distributed Energy              is beginning to:
Energy Resources (DER) to make             Resources (DER) of various technologies in
                                                                                                  • Adversely impact the deployment rates of DER
                                           response to the climate change challenge and
the EU electricity supply system
                                           the need to enhance fuel diversity. However,           • Increase the costs of investment and operation
cost-efficient, secure and sustainable
                                           conventional large-scale power plants remain
through aggregation into Large Scale                                                              • Undermine integrity and security of the system.
                                           the primary source of control of the electricity
Virtual Power Plants (LSVPP).              system, assuring integrity and security of its         In order to address this problem, DERs must take
The development of intelligent             operation.                                             over the responsibilities from large conventional
interfaces for commercial and grid                                                                power plants and provide the flexibility and
                                           Levels of DER penetration in some parts of the EU
                                                                                                  controllability necessary to support secure system
integration of DER into LSVPP,             are such that this is beginning to cause operational
                                                                                                  operation. Although Transmission System
the development of novel network           problems (Denmark, Germany, Spain). This is
                                                                                                  Operators (TSOs) have historically been responsible
services and new DMS and EMS               because, thus far, the emphasis has been on con-
                                                                                                  for system security, integration of DER will
                                           necting DER to the network rather than integrating
applications to include LSVPP                                                                     require Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to
                                           it into overall system operation. Indeed, previous
in system operation, and the                                                                      develop active network management in order to
                                           and current research projects have been focusing
development of new commercial and                                                                 participate in the provision of system security.
                                           on developing techniques to accelerate the
                                                                                                  This represents a shift from traditional central
regulatory solutions to support LSVPP      deployment of DER, and rightly so as this has
                                                                                                  control philosophy, presently used to control
are other objectives. Validation will be   been a necessary phase in the evolution towards
                                                                                                  typically hundreds of generators, to a new distri-
through two large field tests in Spain     a sustainable electricity supply system.
                                                                                                  buted control paradigm applicable for operation
and the UK. FENIX interacts with           In practice, current policy of connecting DER is       of hundreds of thousands of generators and
stakeholders through an advisory           generally based on a ‘fit and forget’ approach.        controllable loads.
group.                                     This policy is consistent with historic passive
                                                                                                  Motivated by the wide range of challenges asso-
                                           distribution network operation and is known to
                                                                                                  ciated with operating the electricity system of
                                           lead to inefficient and costly investment in
                                                                                                  the future, leading TSOs and DSOs, manufacturers
                                           distribution infrastructure. Moreover under pas-
                                                                                                  and research establishments in the EU have
                                           sive network operation DER can only displace
                                                                                                  formed a consortium of 19 partners to undertake
                                           the energy produced by central generation but
                                                                                                  a four-year project, codenamed FENIX, whose over-
                                           cannot displace the capacity, as lack of control-
                                                                                                  all aim is: to conceptualise, design and demonstrate
                                           lability of DER implies that system control and
                                                                                                  a technical architecture and commercial framework
                                           security must continue to be provided by central
                                                                                                  that will enable DER- based systems to become
                                           generation.
                                                                                                  the solution for a future cost-efficient, secure
                                                                                                  and sustainable EU electricity supply system.




124        CONNECTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES TO THE GRID
                                                                                                          Project Information
                                                                                                          Contract number
                                                                                                          518272

                                                                                                          Duration
                                                                                                          48 months

                                                                                                          Contact person
                                                                                                          Jose Corera
                                                                                                          Iberdrola
                                                                                                          j.corera@iberdrola.es

                                                                                                          List of partners
                                                                                                          Areva T&D Energy Management Europe – FR
Project structure                                                                                         ECN – NL
                                                                                                          ECRO SRL – RO
The FENIX Project is organised into six work WP 5: Stakeholders Advisory Group,
                                                                                                          EDF Energy Networks Ltd – GB
packages:                                    Dissemination and Training                                   Electricité de France – FR
                                                     In WP 5 future wide impact will be managed and       Free University of Amsterdam – NL
WP 1: System Solutions for DER                       the project will be exploited through the cre-       Fundación Labein – ES
Integration and Demand Response                      ation, on the one hand, of an effective              Groupment pour inventer la distribution
                                                                                                          électrique de l’avenir – FR
through LSVPP                                        Stakeholder Advisory Group and, on the other,
                                                                                                          Iberdrola SA – ES
                                                     through the organisation of various workshops,
In WP 1 the local functions and control capabilities                                                      ILEX Energy Consulting Ltd – GB
                                                     conferences and training sessions.                   Imperial College – GB
of DER will be defined and characterised in order to
design and prototype a local intelligent FENIX unit                                                       Institut für Solare
(FENIX box), and also a FENIX LSVPP controller WP 6: Project Management                                   Energieversorgungstechnik – DE
                                                                                                          Korona Inzeniring DD – SI
based on DEMS technology.
                                                     In WP 6 the coordination and strategic management    National Grid Transco – GB
                                                     of the project takes place.                          Red Eléctrica de España SA – ES
WP 2: Electrical and information system                                                                   ScalAgent Distributed Technologies – FR
architecture adapted to the presence                                                                      SIEMENS AG Österreich – AT
of LSVPP
                                        Expected results                                                  University of Manchester – GB
                                                                                                          Wind to Market – ES
                                                    The following main outputs of the project will have
In WP 2 the TSO and DSO control and information                                                           ZIV PmasC SL – ES
                                                    immediate and direct impact on all stakeholders,
interfaces and their associated protocols will be
                                                    including network operators, manufacturers,           Website
designed, and later on prototypes of the new
                                                    suppliers and aggregators as well as regulators:      www.fenix-project.org
EMS and DMS applications incorporating the
concept of LSVPP will be developed.                 • Two concrete scenarios that characterise            Project officer
                                                      electricity markets in the EU in the long term      Manuel Sánchez Jiménez
                                                      to quantify the costs and benefits of status
WP 3: Commercial framework for oper-                                                                      Status
                                                      quo and FENIX futures.
ation and control of power systems                                                                        ongoing
with LSVPPs                                   • Design and implementation of LSVPP archi-
                                                tecture with enhanced DER capabilities to
In WP 3 the commercial framework for fully
                                                provide system support and control.
decentralised network architecture will be
designed, taking into account business models • Design of commercial arrangements to support
based on the FENIX LSVPP architecture and the   system operation under the new highly decen-
assessment of the economic impact of this       tralised network architecture.
architecture.
                                              • Enhancement of current TSO/DSO control and
                                                information for active network management
WP 4: Demonstration of LSVPP                    compatible with the above.
concept feasibility
                                                     • Demonstration of prototype LSVPP with
In WP 4 the LSVPP FENIX architecture will be           Distributed Energy Management Systems
tested through simulations and field trials. The       capabilities, Energy Management Systems
hardware and software prototyped in WP 1 and           and Distributed Management Systems via
WP 2 will be implemented in real facilities and real   simulation and real field tests.
networks in the UK and Spain to test behaviour in
                                                     • Creation of a European Stakeholder Group to
two different potential markets, the first charac-
                                                       ensure full exploitation of the project results
terised by a large integration of small CHP domestic
                                                       beyond the life of the project.
units, and the second dominated by a combination
of medium-size industrial CHP and large wind
farms.




                                                                                                                                              125
IRED

        How Can we Face the Changes
        in the Operation and the Management
        of the Electricity Grids for the Future?
 OBJECTIVES                             Challenges
                                        The increasing number of renewable energy              In contrast to the creation of a Network of
The objectives of IRed are making       sources and distributed generators requires new        Excellence (NoE), this CA will be more feasible
stakeholders aware of the increasing    strategies for the operation and management of         since research on the integration of RES and DG
                                        the electricity grid, in order to maintain or even     will not be fragmented but structured from the
importance of RES and DG compared
                                        to improve power supply reliability and quality        very beginning. The most important elements of
to conventional centralised systems,
                                        in future. Furthermore, the liberalisation of the      the CA will be the following:
contributing to remove technical,       grids leads to new management structures in
                                                                                               • The systematic exchange of information and
economical and regulatory barriers      which the trading of energy and power is
                                                                                                 good practice by improving links to relevant
to grid connection of RES and DG,       becoming increasingly important. This trend is
                                                                                                 research, regulatory bodies and policies and
and creating a favourable environment   accompanied by new structures for communication
                                                                                                 schemes on a European, national, regional
                                        and trading, leading finally to digitally controlled
for socio-economic acceptance                                                                    and international level.
                                        interactive electricity grids.
of intermittent RES and DG grid
                                                                                               • The setting-up of strategic actions such as
solutions without risks to quality                                                               transnational cooperation, the organisation
or safety.                                                                                       and coordination of common initiatives on
                                                                                                 standards and testing procedures, and the
                                                                                                 establishment of common education and
                                                                                                 training.
                                                                                               • Identification of the highest priority research
                                                                                                 topics in the field of integration and the
                                                                                                 formation of appropriate realisation schemes.


                                        The preparation for the transition from conven-
                                        tional to future grid management requires an
                                        interdisciplinary approach involving research,
                                        industry, utilities and consumers, and taking into
                                        account technical as well as socio-economic and
                                        regulatory issues.
                                        There are four running and seven completed
                                        projects supported by the European Commission
                                        and dealing with the integration of Renewable
                                        Energy Sources (RES) and Distributed Generation
                                        (DG). In order to concentrate efforts and maximise
                                        critical mass, these projects were bundled into
                                        a research cluster in January 2002. This cluster
                                        represents more than 100 participating insti-
                                        tutions from research, industry and utility sectors,
                                        all contributing to this common activity.
                                        The object of the IRED coordinated action (CA) is
                                        to extend existing cluster activities in such a way
                                        as to achieve real added-value by mobilising
                                        research which will be a major contribution to
                                        the ERA. This extension will be realised by the
                                        inclusion of forthcoming projects supported by
                                        FP7, national and regional activities.




126       CONNECTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES TO THE GRID
                                                                                                               Project Information
                                                                                                               Contract number
                                                                                                               503770

                                                                                                               Duration
                                                                                                               48 months

                                                                                                               Contact person
                                                                                                               Prof. Dr. Juergen Schmid
                                                                                                               Institut für Solare
                                                                                                               Energieversorgungstechnik
                                                                                                               IRED@iset.uni-kassel.de

                                                                                                               List of partners
Project Structure                                                                                              CIDAE – ES
                                                                                                               Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
The coordination will be implemented in the
                                                                                                               ECN – NL
following manner:
                                                                                                               EnerSearch AB – SE
• Establishment of an expert group covering                                                                    Fundacion Labein – ES
  important cross-cutting areas such as power                                                                  Iberdrola SA – ES
  quality, etc.                                                                                                Institut für Solare
                                                                                                               Energieversorgungstechnik – DE
• Formation of a group of contact persons for                                                                  MVV Energie AG – DE
  national, regional and international policy                                                                  National Technical University of Athens – GR
  and programme makers and for programme                                                                       Tekes National Technology Agency – FI
  managers.
                                                                                                               Website
• Establishment of a comprehensive data and                                                                    www.IRED-cluster.org
  information exchange system, including the     of an internet-based communication platform
                                                                                                               Project officer
  realisation of links to relevant national,     is realised in WP 8.
                                                                                                               Manuel Sánchez Jiménez
  regional and international electronic infor-
                                               • Lastly, the overall CA project coordination is
  mation systems.                                                                                              Status
                                                 performed in WP 9 and conferences, work-
                                                                                                               ongoing
• Organisation of conferences and workshops      shops and exchange with experts will be
  on an international and European level.        organised in WP 10.
• Exchange of personnel and joint supervision All work packages are active during the full
  of theses and PhD work by the participating running period of the project.
  institutions.
• Production, exchange and dissemination of Expected Results
   education material and good practice for
                                                      By increasing dynamic in research and the
   higher education.
                                                      transformation of the current electricity grid
• Organisation of regular cluster coordination into an interactive one, multiple benefits can be
   meetings.                                          expected such as the creation of innovative
                                                      products by European industry which in turn will
• Identification and integration of forthcoming
                                                      lead to increased exports. Also, the realisation of
   relevant projects and activities into the cluster.
                                                      an (electronic) e-energy market will ensure very
The work has been divided into work packages much higher flexibility in matching supply and
which ensure that the most important elements demand, and will thus allow a higher integration
of the CA are covered, namely:                        rate of RES and DG into the electricity grid.
• Power quality and security of supply are the        With regard to the substantial increase of
  scientific and technological issues dealt with in   renewable energy supply stated in the White Book
  the cluster projects in WP 1, together with the     of the European Commission, the coordinated
  bridging to the IST/ICT world which is regarded     action provides the infrastructure necessary for
  to be most important for the successful             the realisation of the targets stated in this White
  development of RES and DG in WP 2.                  Book.
• The internal communication inside the cluster       Finally, increased economies in the production,
  projects is organised in WP 3 laboratory            transmission and distribution of electricity will lead
  experiments and WP 4 pilot installations,           to more attractive energy prices for the benefit of
  whereas communication with actors outside           all, from industry to the private consumer.
  Europe is managed by WP 6. WP 5 highlights
  the socio-economic and environmental issues.
  First steps for the future harmonisation of
  national and regional policies and programmes
  are coordinated by WP 7, and the setting-up


                                                                                                                                                       127
MORE MICROGRIDS


                  Advanced Architectures and Control Concepts
                  for More Microgrids

  OBJECTIVES                                   Challenges                                            Project Structure
                                               Research within the FP5 Project MICROGRIDS            The work is organized in eight work packages:
 The operation of microgrids offers            (ENK5-CT-2002-00610), which focused on the
 distinct advantages to customers              operation of a single microgrid, has successfully
                                                                                                     WP A Design of micro source
                                               investigated appropriate control techniques and
 and utilities, i.e. improved energy                                                                 and load controllers
                                               demonstrated the feasibility of microgrid operation
 efficiency, minimisation of overall                                                                 for efficient integration
                                               through laboratory experiments. The proposed
 energy consumption, reduced                   project extends this work significantly, aiming to    The main objective of this WP is to develop
 environmental impact, improvement             face the following challenges:                        microcontrollers for micro sources and loads
 of reliability and resilience,                                                                      capable of providing more efficient voltage and
                                               • Investigation of new microgenerators, energy
 network operational benefits,                                                                       frequency control in the event of islanded ope-
                                                 storage and load controllers to provide effective
                                                                                                     ration. These controllers will deal efficiently with
 and more cost-efficient electricity             and efficient operation of microgrids.
                                                                                                     frequency variations during transitions from
 infrastructure replacement.
                                               • Development of alternative control strategies       interconnected to islanded operation. Moreover,
                                                 (centralised versus decentralised control,          the microcontroller software will be enhanced
 This project aims at the increase               application of next generation ICT).                with local agents, able to handle participation of
 of penetration of microgeneration                                                                   the ‘microplayers’ in energy markets in a highly
                                               • Alternative network designs (application of
 in electrical networks through                                                                      decentralised approach.
                                                 modern protection means, modern solid-state
 the exploitation and extension                  interfaces, operation at variable frequencies).
 of the microgrids concept,                                                                          WP B and WP C Development
                                               • Technical and commercial integration of
 involving the investigation of                                                                      of Alternative Control Strategies
                                                 multi-microgrids (interface of several micro-
 alternative microgenerator control                                                                  (hierarchical vs. distributed)
                                                 grids with upstream distribution management
 strategies and alternative network              systems, operation of decentralised markets         The objective of this WP is to develop control
 designs, development of new tools               for energy and ancillary services).                 strategies based on centralised and fully distributed
                                                                                                     technologies and compare them with each other.
 for multi-microgrids management               • Extensive field trials of alternative control
                                                                                                     The large opportunities provided by the wide appli-
 operation (involving Distribution               strategies (experimental validation of various
                                                                                                     cation of next-generation ICT technologies, espe-
 Management System architectures                 microgrid architectures in interconnected and
                                                                                                     cially communications infrastructure, will be
                                                 islanded mode and during transition, testing
 and new software adaptation),                                                                       investigated.
                                                 of power electronics components and inter-
 and standardisation of technical
                                                 faces and of alternative control strategies on
 and commercial protocols.                       actual sites).                                 WP D Technical and Commercial
                                                                                                     Integration of Multi-Microgrids
                                               • Standardisation of technical and commercial
                                                 protocols and hardware (standards that will The integration of several microgrids in MV
                                                 allow easy installation of micro source gen- operation then needs to be carefully investigated
                                                 erators with plug and play capabilities).         in terms of electrical interactions, considering
                                                                                                   the operational and physical restrictions of these
                                               • Impact on power system operation (quanti-
                                                                                                   active cells, either in terms of normal steady-
                                                 fication of the benefits of microgrids regarding
                                                                                                   state operation or for emergency conditions.
                                                 increase of reliability, reduction of network
                                                 losses, environmental benefits, etc. at regional,
                                                 national and EU level).                           WP E Standardisation of Technical and
                                                                                                     Commercial Protocols and Hardware
                                               • Impact on the development of electricity
                                                 network infrastructures (quantification of          The main objective of this WP is to propose
                                                 the benefits of microgrids for the overall net-     standards that will allow easy installation of micro
                                                 work reinforcement and replacement strategy         sources with ‘plug and play’ capabilities. Research
                                                 of the aging EU electricity infrastructure).        will deal with standardisation of interfaces between
                                                                                                     the microgenerator and the distribution network.
                                                                                                     Moreover, research will consider protocols for



128               CONNECTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES TO THE GRID
                                                                                                         Project Information
                                                                                                         Contract number
                                                                                                         019864

                                                                                                         Duration
                                                                                                         48 months

                                                                                                         Contact person
                                                                                                         Prof. Nikos Hatziargyriou,
                                                                                                         School of Electrical & Computer Engineering,
                                                                                                         National Technical University of Athens
                                                                                                         nh@power.ece.ntua.gr

                                                                                                         List of partners
                                                                                                         Anco S.A. – GR
                                                                                                         ABB Schweiz AG – CH
negotiating sales and purchase of electrical energy • Develop a microgrids evolution roadmap,
                                                                                                         ARMINES – FR
and ancillary services, access to networks, com-      including electricity infrastructure replacement
                                                                                                         Centro Elettrotechnico Sperimentale
municating status and control data between            scenarios.                                         Italiano – IT
components of the system, and dealing with                                                               CRES – GR
                                                    • Quantify the overall benefits of microgrids in
faults and abnormal conditions, etc.                                                                     Eltra amba – DK
                                                      typical EU electricity systems, and develop
                                                                                                         Emforce B.V – NL
                                                      overall business models for microgrids.
                                                                                                         Energias de Portgual S.A. – PT
WP F Field trials on actual Microgrids                                                                   Germanos S.A. – GR
The main objective of this WP is the experimental Expected Results                                       Fundacion Labein – ES
validation of various actual microgrids in different                                                     Institute de Engenharia
                                                     • Experimental validation of microgrid architec-    de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto – PT
operating modes. In particular, operation in inter-
                                                       tures in interconnected and islanded mode, as     Institut für Solare
connected and islanded mode and the transition
                                                       well as during transition.                        Energieversorgungstechnik – DE
from interconnected to islanded mode and vice
                                                                                                         Intelligent Power Systems a division
versa will be experimented. The centralised and • Development and experimental validation of             of Turbo Genset Co Ltd – GB
decentralised control strategies developed within      alternative control concepts and algorithms       Lodz-Region Power
WP B will be evaluated on a number (three) of          in actual microgrids.                             Distribution Company – PL
actual microgrids. The candidate microgrids                                                              MVV Energie AG – DE
                                                     • Development and testing of distributed
represent rural LV networks and industrial or                                                            National Technical University of Athens – GR
                                                       generation and load-intelligent controllers
commercial networks.                                                                                     N.V. Continuon Netbeheer – NL
                                                       (power electronic interfaces).                    Siemens AG – DE
                                                       • Development and testing of storage technology   SMA Technologie AG – DE
WP G Evaluation of the System                                                                            University of Lodz – PL
                                                         systems able to support microgrid operation
Performance on Power System Operation                                                                    University of Manchester – GB
                                                         during transition to islanded mode.
                                                                                                         ZIV Pmas C S.L. – ES
The main objective of this WP is to quantify the
                                                    • Development of advanced protection hardware
microgrids’ benefits regarding power quality and                                                         Website
                                                      and algorithms, as well as solid-state network
security of supply, reduction of losses, economics                                                       http://microgrids.power.ece.ntua.gr
                                                      components of microgrids.
of operation and environmental benefits at the
regional, national, and European levels. To achieve • Development of control and management algo-        Project officer
                                                                                                         Manuel Sanchez Jimenez
this, participating utilities will provide data on    rithms for their effective operation and for
representative residential, commercial and            interfacing them with the upstream distribution    Status
industrial feeders, like economics and reliability    management system.                                 ongoing
of supply. The advantages of wide deployment of
                                                    • Quantified evaluation of the microgrids’ effects
microgrids will be quantified using established
                                                      on power system operation at regional, national
and new software tools. Results will be projected
                                                      and projected EU levels.
at the regional, national and if possible
European levels, providing quantified data for
policy making decisions.


WP H Impact on the Development
of Electricity Infrastructures
(Expansion Planning)
The overall aim of this WP is to quantify the impact
of a widespread deployment of microgrids on the
future replacement and investment strategies of
the EU transmission and distribution infra-
structures. Specific objectives of this task are to:
• Develop representative models of transmission
  and distribution networks and evaluation tools
  to quantify the ability of microgrids to displace Typical microgrid
  transmission and distribution network assets.
                                                                                                                                                 129
SOS-PVI

          Security of Supply PhotoVoltaic Inverter
          Combined UPS, Power Quality and Grid Support Function
          in a Photovoltaic Inverter for Weak Low Voltage Grids

 OBJECTIVES                              Challenges
                                         The liberalisation of the electricity market, combined                                                                     WP 5, the integration and validation of the global
The purpose of this project is to        with the international pressure to reduce CO2                                                                              PV inverter will be undertaken. WP 6 is the place
prevent power quality events and         emissions, has led to new architectures for future                                                                         for field validation of the SoS-PV inverter. In WP 7,
                                         electricity networks with a large penetration of                                                                           the life cycle analysis is performed and the life cycle
networks weakening, by decreasing
                                         distributed energy resources, in particular from                                                                           cost calculated. In WP 8, further functionalities of
the impact of PV generation on
                                         renewable sources. But the integration of                                                                                  the SoS-PV inverter are defined, while WP 9
the grid, by providing grid support      distributed energy resources for the time being                                                                            deals with the day-to-day management of the
on demand via special demand side        is performed in such a way that their intermit-                                                                            consortium.
management or via injection on the       tency impacts strongly on the grids, and this
grid, using the energy provided by       leads to increasing concerns in terms of power
                                                                                                                                                                    Expected Results
                                         quality and of security of supply for end-users.
a storage unit included in the SoS-PV
                                         Reciprocally, poor power quality from the grid                                                                             The results of the project will be:
inverter.
                                         impacts on the PV systems and leads to losses of
                                                                                                                                                                    • To validate the SoS-PV inverter on five proto-
                                         production: moreover this impacts on the end-
                                                                                                                                                                      types, which will then be available for
With its unique functionalities,         user, his production, services and comfort.
                                                                                                                                                                      demonstration systems.
the SoS-PV inverter will allow PV
integration by moving away from the                                                                                                                                 • To prove that the SoS-PV inverter is less than
                                         Project Structure
                                                                                                                                                                      30% more expensive than conventional PV
present ‘connect and forget’ situation
                                         In order to reach the objective, the work to be                                                                              inverters (excepting storage components)
where DER resources are connected to
                                         performed within SoS-PVI has been divided into                                                                               and has a low environmental impact and high
the grid without taking care of their    nine work packages. In WP 1, the precise technical                                                                           energy efficiency, maximising PV production
impact on it.                            and non-technical characteristics are defined. In                                                                            in comparision to conventional PV inverters.
                                         WP 2, the design of the inverter will be completed
                                                                                            • To study the feasibility of additional func-
The second major purpose of the          and all functions will be developed. In WP 3, the
                                                                                              tionalities e.g. for integration in virtual power
                                         storage systems will be integrated, using the best
SoS-PV inverter project will be                                                               plants.
                                         existing technologies. Within WP 4, a demand
to protect the end-user from short
                                         side management function will be developed. In • To identify barriers to the exploitation of the
and long duration faults by virtue                                                            full benefits of the SoS-PV inverter.
of its voltage regulation and UPS
function. The UPS function is based
on lithium-ion technology or on
hybrid systems combining the                                                                                                                       WP1: Requirements and functional specifications
lead-acid technology with supercaps.
                                                                                  WP 7: Life cycle cost and life cycle analysis




                                                                                                                                  WP2: Design of multi - functional PV inverter
                                                WP 9: Management of the project




                                                                                                                                                     WP3: Integration of innovative storage systems


                                                                                                                                                                           WP 4: Demand si de management


                                                                                                                                   WP 5: Implementation and validation of the SoS - PV inverter


                                                                                                                                             WP 6: Field tests and efficiency optimisation



                                                                                                                                      WP 8: Further functionalities and integration in a virtual power plant




130       CONNECTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES TO THE GRID
                                                                                                                                                             Project Information
                                                                                                                                                             Contract number
                                                                                                                                                             019883

                                                                                                                                                             Duration
                                                                                                                                                             36 months

                                                                                                                                                             Contact person
                                                                                                                                                             Marion PERRIN
                                                                                                                                                             Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique
                                                                                                                                                             marion.perrin@cea.fr

                                                                                                                                                             List of partners
                                                                                                                                                             Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique – FR
Progress to Date                                                                                                                                             Enersys – PL
                                                                                                                                                             Maxwell – CH
The first deliverable was produced: this includes                               Three types of scenarios were taken into
                                                                                                                                                             SAFT – FR
a market study with collection of data on weak                                  account:
                                                                                                                                                             Skytron-Energy – DE
grids in Europe (load profiles, grid quality) and an                                                                                                         Tramatechnoambiental – ES
                                                                                • Short-term market with immediate need of
estimation of market potential for small-scale
                                                                                  security of supply for the installation
distributed generation and grid stabilisation sys-                                                                                                           Website
tems in Europe, especially considering power                                    • Medium- to long-term market with flexible                                  none
and storage capacity provided. This report also                                   pricing and variable feed-in tariffs
                                                                                                                                                             Project officer
includes identification of possible impact and
                                                                                • Medium- to long-term market with grid support                              Dana Dutianu
barriers for implementation of an SoS-PV inverter,
                                                                                  and injection from the PV system as soon as
in particular regulation issues.                                                                                                                             Status
                                                                                  load is 20% above daily average.
                                                                                                                                                             ongoing
From the study of the national load profiles on
                                                                                For these three markets, the PV array, inverter
the electricity network and of the irradiation
                                                                                and storage sizes are presented below:
curves, it is clear that, to reach a high penetration
of PV energy, it will be necessary to delay the
injection to peak-load periods. The next figure
                                                                                Scenario                      Short term      Long term:        Long term:
shows the profile of real consumption (data                                                                                  grid support        real-time
                                                                                                                                                  pricing
presented as % of simultaneity of the MV-LV
transformer), as well as simulation of the con-                                 PV array size (kWp)               3                4-6           4-6
sumption with 10, 20 and 30% PV penetration and
                                                                                Inverter size (kW)                3                1.5           2-6
the average value of the daily consumption in the
three scenarios. The load profile is representative                             Storage size (kWh)                9                15             8.5
of a mixed urban area with households and small
businesses, during a winter day, in Spain.




      900
                            Real consumption                             Average real
                            10% PV penetration                           Average 10% penetration
      800                   20% PV penetration                           Average 20% PV penetration
                            30% PV penetration                           Average 30% PV penetration

      700



      600



      500



      400



      300



      200



      100



         0
            00:00   02:00          04:00         06:00   08:00   10:00        12:00        14:00      16:00   18:00        20:00        22:00      00:00

                                                                          Day hours




Load curve in an urban area in Spain: real, with 10 to 30% PV penetration and average on the day (NB: diagram ‘Real’, no accent)

                                                                                                                                                                                                      131
Socio-economic Tools and
Concepts for Energy Strategy


Economic and Environmental Assessment
of Energy Production and Consumption..............................................................................................................                                                                                                                      134
CASES ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................       134
MAXIMA ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................             136
NEEDS ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................        138


Social Acceptability, Behavioural Changes
and International Dimension related to Sustainable Energy RTD .............                                                                                                                                                                                             140
CEERES........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................          140
CREATE ACCEPTANCE ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................                                        144
FET-EEU......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................           142
LETIT ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................   146
RECIPES .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................           148
REMAP ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................          150
RTD4EDC ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................              152




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              133
CASES

        Cost Assessment for Sustainable
        Energy Systems

 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          This project intends to develop a consistent and      the energy security costs of different types of
The CASES project aims at compiling       comprehensive picture of the full cost of energy,     energy remain somewhat elusive. A common
coherent and detailed estimates of        and to make this crucial knowledge available to       methodology has not been applied to derive
                                          all stakeholders. A complete and consistent           estimates for a range of countries. Yet this is a
both external and internal costs of
                                          assessment of the full cost of energy sources,        major area of policy debate, and key decisions
energy production for different energy
                                          which includes the external cost plus the private     are being taken to increase energy security and
sources at the national level for the     cost, is of paramount importance for energy and       reduce dependence on foreign sources. Therefore,
EU25 Countries and for some non-EU        environmental policy-making. Energy policy-           without undertaking primary research in terms
Countries under energy scenarios to       making is concerned with both the supply side         of data collection, the project devotes significant
2030. Hence, private and external         and the demand side of energy provision. On the       resources to applying existing models across a
                                          energy supply side, deciding on alternative           range of countries and arriving at a common set
costs are integrated within one
                                          investment options requires the knowledge of          of estimates of the costs of energy insecurity,
dynamic framework, to arrive at
                                          the full cost of each energy option under scrutiny.   as defined by a common set of parameters.
agreed ranges of estimates for            On the demand side, social welfare maximisation
different countries of the full cost      should lead to the formulation of energy policies
                                                                                                Project structure
of each energy source, including          that steer consumers’ behaviour in a way that
the external cost and the private         will result in the minimisation of costs imposed      This project builds on the formidable amount of
                                          on society as a whole. Demand side policies can       research that has been done on measuring the
cost. Policy options for improving
                                          benefit significantly from the incorporation of       full costs of the use of different energy sources
the efficiency of energy use will be
                                          full energy costs in the corresponding policy         such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable
evaluated, taking account of full cost    formulation process.                                  energy sources. The internal costs, the private
data. Moreover, the social and fiscal                                                           costs and the full cost are calculated and
                                          The geographical dimension is also important
implications of a given policy measure,                                                         analysed in seven inter-linked work packages
                                          since environmental damage from energy
especially on poor and vulnerable                                                               that evaluate, compare and harmonise the
                                          production crosses national borders. Moreover
                                                                                                system costs associated with alternative energy
groups, will be assessed. Research        the EU enlargement process and the liberalisation
                                                                                                technologies, covering exhaustively the whole
findings will be disseminated to          of energy markets have highlighted the impor-
                                                                                                range of relevant production, social and environ-
energy-sector producers and users         tance of a systematic harmonisation process, in
                                                                                                mental costs involved.
                                          which cost formation mechanisms and price-
and to the policy-making community.
                                          setting must become transparent and reflect the       The project focuses on cost-benefit and multi-
                                          total, real costs of energy provision across the      criteria decision analysis, and makes a set of
                                          continent and beyond. In turn, this requires the      projections of energy demand by energy source
                                          adoption of a common set of methods and               and country. To this end, it uses existing models
                                          values. Hence a consistent set of energy costs        for estimating such demand and adapts them so
                                          allows a better understanding of the inter-           that they are responsive to different projections
                                          national dimensions of policy decisions in these      about the prices that suppliers receive and the
                                          areas. Naturally, differences in estimates exist      prices that users pay. These are critical to the
                                          between countries, sources of energy, and             policy analysis, which is investigated in four
                                          technology used in the generation of the energy.      work packages that evaluate the effectiveness of
                                          But the present state of knowledge is disparate       alternative policy instruments in internalising
                                          and some gains can be made by clarifying when         social and environmental external costs, and the
                                          and where particular estimates can be applied.        degree of integration of these costs into policy
                                                                                                and investment decision-making. For this activity
                                          Moreover, costs are dynamic. The private costs
                                                                                                to be of practical benefit, the assessment is
                                          and the external costs are changing with time,
                                                                                                carried out with energy suppliers as part of the
                                          as technologies develop, knowledge about the
                                                                                                team, so that real-world problems of applying
                                          impact of energy use on the environment
                                                                                                the different instruments are reflected in the
                                          increases, and individual preferences for certain
                                                                                                evaluation. This means that the hidden costs of
                                          environmental and other values change. Perhaps,
                                                                                                implementation of policy – the adoption of new
                                          the least well and least systematically covered
                                                                                                rules and regulations by the different actors –
                                          area of external cost is that related to energy
                                                                                                are reflected in the analysis.
                                          security. Even within one country, estimates of
134       ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
                                                                                                             Project Information
                                                                                                             Contract number
                                                                                                             518294

                                                                                                             Duration
                                                                                                             30 months

                                                                                                             Contact person
                                                                                                             Roberto Porchia
                                                                                                             Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei
                                                                                                             roberto.porchia@feem.it

                                                                                                             List of partners
                                                                                                             Centre for European Policy Studies - BE
                                                                                                             Charles University of Prague - CZ
                                                                                                             CIEMAT - ES
More in detail, the policy assessment will go         outputs. These activities range from publication
                                                                                                             ECN - NL
through the following steps. The comparative          of articles in the peer-reviewed literature, project
                                                                                                             ECON Analysis AS - NO
cost data is used to address a set of clearly         workshops and conferences involving key stake-         Energy Agency of Plovdiv - BG
defined goals for policy analysis. The political      holders and policy makers, seminars and the            Energy Research Institute - CA
analysis investigates the comparative assessment      presentation of key results at additional meetings,    Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei - IT
of investment and operational costs of different      presentations and open discussions with energy         Free University of Amsterdam - NL
energy options, taking account of private costs       producers and user organisations, and the              Fundação COPPETEC - BR
only and of private plus external costs. This         setting up of a dedicated web site for CASES.          Indian Institute of Management
assessment is dynamic and will provide the            (See Diagram annexed)                                  Ahmedabad - IN
implications of different levels of internalisation                                                          Istituto di Studi per l’Integrazione
on investment decisions and on key social                                                                    dei Sistemi - IT
                                                      Expected results                                       Lithuanian Energy Institute - LT
indicators. Moreover the political analysis
                                                                                                             National Technical University of Athens - GR
includes the impact of the use of different        The expected results will feature best predictions
                                                                                                             Observatoire Méditerranéen de l'Energie - FR
methods of decision-making on the selection of     about the evolution of private and external costs –       Paul Scherrer Institute - CH
projects, the implications of different policies onincluding energy security cost – of major techno-         Risoe National Laboratory - DK
reducing energy insecurity, now and over time,     logies for generating energy, from different sources,     Stockholm Environment Institute - SE
and the implications of different taxes/charges    in different countries, over the next 25 years.           SWECO Grøner as - NO
on energy and/or emissions on the degree           CASES puts particular effort into the integration         TUBITAK - TR
of internalisation and the comparative cost        of private and external costs within one dynam-           University of Bath - GB
comparisons, now and in the future. Different      ic framework, as well as into an estimation of            University of Flensburg - DE
instruments to promote renewable energy            the state of knowledge and the gaps that remain           University of Stuttgart - DE
sources are then compared in terms of the          in cost estimation, through a full assessment             University of Wageningen - NL
                                                                                                             University of Warsaw - PL
degree to which they internalise the positive      across EU and non-EU countries. The project
                                                                                                             VITO – BE
externalities associated with renewable energy     intends to ensure that the adoption of externality
use, and the use of externality-based taxes for    valuation methods is systematically extended to           Website
internalising externalities is compared to the     newly associated and EU candidate countries as            not available yet
effectiveness of emissions trading instruments.    well as to other countries beyond the current
                                                   EU, and that the availability and quality of              Project officer
The third part of the project is devoted to                                                                  Anna Gigantino
                                                   datasets are brought as close to par as possible.
dissemination. Once they have been evaluated
                                                   This approach therefore ensures that different            Status of the project
and brought into a coherent framework, the
                                                   local conditions are accounted for.                       ongoing
results of the different components of the
project are of great interest to the energy sector A comparative cost analysis, which includes
producers and users, as well as the policy-making social and environmental factors, is developed
community. Dissemination consists of a set of for present and future energy generation alter-
activities to validate and disseminate the project natives. In this perspective, a set of clearly
                                                   defined policy objectives is addressed using the
                                                   cost data. Policy issues are explored in a dynamic
                                                   context to provide a comparative assessment
                                                   of the policy analysis across different countries.
                                                   In addition the project intends to look at how
                                                   much of the external costs each policy option
                                                   internalises, using a broad set of variables of
                                                   interest. The project also underlines the greatest
                                                   uncertainties and indicates where future
                                                   research effort should be concentrated. Finally
                                                   the success of the project is assessed in terms of
                                                   the acceptability of the estimated energy costs
                                                   by the scientific and policy communities and by
                                                   the use made of these costs in a policy context.


                                                                                                                                                     135
MAXIMA

         Making Electricity External Costs Known
         to Policy-makers

 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                           The overall objectives of the MAXIMA project         and NGOs, predominantly from Western
Quantification of externalities            were to translate and present the ExternE            Europe. The third workshop, held in Brussels,
from electricity production has            (Externalities of Energy) quantification approach    14 September 2005, was oriented to participants
                                           and ExternE estimates for power-sector externa-      who had attended one of the previous work-
made considerable progress; however,
                                           lities outside the scientific community, and to      shops, in order to build on previous discussions.
internalisation of external costs has
                                           improve the applicability and acceptance of the      A final symposium summarising results for
not been implemented broadly, due to       ExternE methodology and results.                     policy-makers as well as other stakeholders
a lack of information on the concept                                                            was held on 9 December 2005 in Brussels, and
and its application as an aid to policy.                                                        was attended by more than 130 people from
                                           Project Structure
Even though the impact pathway                                                                  all relevant stakeholder groups.
                                           In the first step a concept for internalisation of
approach (IPA) developed in ExternE
                                           external costs of electricity production was
(Externalities of Energy) is accepted                                                           Results
                                           developed, identifying optimal internalisation
as the best way to calculate energy        strategies. External cost values as required by      Questions, concerns and comments received at
external costs, results show               the internalisation instruments were calculated      the workshops and associated exchanges with
considerable uncertainties and             with the impact pathway approach, based on           stakeholders were compiled, summarised and
variations with different basic            the latest scientific knowledge. This included       analysed, together with responses from the
                                           the synthesis and comparison of existing             ExternE team. The overall impression was that
assumptions in certain areas.
                                           results on the external costs of energy in the       those who attended the workshops valued the
                                           European Union, both in the EU15 and new             ExternE method, and had already found it or
The scientific task of reducing            member states.                                       its results useful or, especially for participants
uncertainties is currently addressed                                                            from new member states, were very interested
                                           A principal means for disseminating and
in several projects; identifying the                                                            in using ExternE or its results. The concerns
                                           discussing the ExternE methodology and
assumptions to be used for decisions,                                                           and reservations expressed were less about
                                           results was the hosting of a number of workshops
                                                                                                shortcomings of the method or disputes about
however, requires consensus with           at which representatives of the energy industry,
                                                                                                assumptions made, although there were some
stakeholders. The main objective           NGOs and the policy-making community
                                                                                                of these. Rather, questions were raised about
of this project was to translate and       could meet with the ExternE team to express
                                                                                                the practical applicability of the method and
                                           reservations and make suggestions regarding
present the concept of externalities,                                                           results in policy-making, the representativeness
                                           methodology, values and potential internali-
the quantification approach                                                                     of results, as well as reservations about
                                           sation instruments. The discussions centred
and results outside the scientific                                                              uncertainty, monetisation and completeness
                                           on three stakeholder workshops arranged
                                                                                                relative to what information was considered
community. Furthermore, it was             progressively. Workshop discussions were
                                                                                                important to the environmental policy-
the aim to initiate a discussion of        documented, with efforts to identify areas of
                                                                                                making process.
the pros and cons among representatives    consensus as well as those where agreement
                                           could not be reached or where issues were            Many of the comments and questions
of the energy industry, policy-makers
                                           open-ended. The first workshop took place in         expressed by stakeholders during the work-
and NGOs in order to reach a consensus
                                           Krakow, 28 February – 1 March 2005, with             shops related to the use and interpretation of
on methodology and values.                 participants predominantly from the new              ExternE results in a real-world policy context,
                                           member states of the European Union. The second      as opposed to the more technical aspects of
                                           workshop, held in Paris 10-11 May 2005,              the ExternE method and results. The translation
                                           brought together participants from industry          between the ExternE method and results ‘in




136        ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
                                                                                                   Project Information
                                                                                                   Contract number
                                                                                                   502480

                                                                                                   Duration
                                                                                                   20 months

                                                                                                   Contact person
                                                                                                   Dr. Peter Bickel
                                                                                                   University of Stuttgart
                                                                                                   peter.bickel@ier.uni-stuttgart.de


                                                                                                   List of partners
                                                                                                   Association pour la Recherche
                                                                                                   et le Dévelopement des Méthodes
the laboratory’ and policy implementation is,      It can be concluded that MAXIMA provided
                                                                                                   et Processus Industriels – FR
not surprisingly, an area of intense interest to   a better accepted scientific methodology for
                                                                                                   Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano
stakeholders. Applied policy interpretation,       implementing electricity external costs in      Giacinto Motta SpA – IT
and policy analysis in general, is outside the     European policy, as well as a set of external   Electricité de France – FR
classic methodology purview of the ExternE         cost estimates which is broadly accepted.       Energy for Sustainable Development Ltd – GB
team, but clearly important to the project’s       The results of the project are documented on    Global Legislators Organisation
ultimate goals.                                    the website of the ExternE project series       for a Balanced Environment – BE
                                                   (www.externe.info).                             HELIO International – FR
The discussions helped reveal a few areas                                                          University of Bath – GB
where ExternE’s role could be clarified, high-                                                     University of Hamburg – DE
lighted some points on which the ExternE Progress to Date                                          University of Stuttgart – DE
method or results drew controversy or discomfort,
                                                  The project is terminated.                       Website
and identified some topics in which participants
thought more research or effort would be useful.                                                   http://maxima.ier.uni-stuttgart.de

                                                                                                   Project officer
                                                                                                   Domenico Rossetti di Valdalbero

                                                                                                   Status
                                                                                                   terminated




                                                                                                                                          137
NEEDS

         New Energy Externalities Developments
         for Sustainability

 OBJECTIVES                              Challenges                                               Project Structure
                                         NEEDS entails major advancements in the current The NEEDS Integrated Project is structured as
The ultimate objective of the NEEDS      state of knowledge in the areas of:             a series of Research Streams (RS), each addressing
Integrated Project is to evaluate                                                        a specific area of research. Besides RS integration,
                                         • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of energy techno-
                                                                                         the Streams can be grouped in three main ‘blocks’:
the full costs and benefits                 logies.
(i.e. direct + external) of energy and
                                         • Monetary valuation of environmental (and
environmental policies and of future                                                   Enhancements in energy externalities
                                           other) externalities associated with energy
energy systems, both at the level          production, transport, conversion and use.  RS 1a LCA of new energy technologies
of individual countries and for
                                         • Integration of LCA and externalities information RS 1b      New and improved methods to estimate
the enlarged EU as a whole.                into energy and environment policy formulation              the external costs of energy conversion
                                           and scenario building.
                                                                                            RS 1c      Externalities associated with the
In this context NEEDS refines and
                                         • Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), to                 extraction and transport of energy
develops the externalities valuation       examine the robustness of the proposed
                                                                                            RS 1d      Extension of the geographical coverage
methodology already set up in the          technological solutions in view of stakeholder
                                                                                                       of the current knowledge of energy
ExternE project through an ambitious       preferences.
                                                                                                       externalities
attempt to develop, implement and        Based on the current state-of-the-art, achieving
test an original framework of analysis   such advancements calls for a sizeable innovation
                                                                                           Development of long term strategies
with the aim of assessing the            effort in a number of research fields, including:
long-term sustainability of energy                                                         RS 2a Modelling internalisation strategies,
                                         • The analysis of new energy technology
                                                                                                 including scenario building
technology options and policies.            options and, in general, of renewable energy
                                            technologies for which the current LCA RS 2b Energy Technology Roadmap and Stake-
                                            knowledge is insufficient.                           holder Perspectives
                                         • The development of new and improved tools
                                           for the monetary valuation of externalities of Input to policy making and dissemination
                                           energy, targeting major innovation at several
                                                                                          RS 3a Transferability and generalisation
                                           stages of the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA).
                                                                                          RS 3b Dissemination/communication.
                                         • The development of a consistent and robust
                                           analytical platform allowing one to integrate
                                           the full range of information and data on
                                           LCA and external costs into a pan-European
                                           modelling framework, and to build scenarios
                                           for future European energy system.
                                         The full benefits of the Integrated Project will be
                                         achieved only through a dedicated effort aimed
                                         at integrating the activities taking place within each
                                         research field, in line with the following scheme:




138        ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
                                                                                                         Project Information
                                                                                                         Contract number
                                                                                                         502687
                                                                                                         Duration
                                                                                                         48 months
                                                                                                         Contact Person
                                                                                                         Mr Andrea Ricci
                                                                                                         Institut of Studies for the Integration of Systems
                                                                                                         aricci@isis-it.com
                                                                                                         List of partners
                                                                                                         Ambiente Italia srl - IT
                                                                                                         Aristotle University of Thessaloniki - GR
Expected Results                                                                                         Armines - FR
                                                                                                         Atomic Energy Research Institute - HU
The main result of the NEEDS project will be                                                             Autonomous University of Barcelona - ES
                                                                                                         Catholic University of Leuven (KUL) - BE
the provision of accurate quantitative measure-
                                                                                                         Centre for Promotion of Clean and Efficient Energy
ments of the absolute values of external costs                                                           in Romania - RO
associated with the energy cycle: these can                                                              Centre de Documentation de Recherche
                                                                                                         et d’experimentation sur les pollutions
then be used to determine the appropriate
                                                                                                         accidentelles des Eaux (CEDRE) - FR
level of regulation, performance standards,                                                              Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables - MA
taxation, etc. in the policy-making process.                                                             Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano - IT
                                                                                                         Chalmers University of Technology - SE
Moreover NEEDS devotes a significant amount
                                                                                                         Charles University Prague - CZ
of resources to ensuring that the adoption of                                                            CIEMAT - ES
externality valuation methods is systematically     Progress to Date                                     CNRS - FR
                                                                                                         Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - IT
extended to the new EU Member States and to
                                                    Overall, the IP workplan has so far proceeded        CRES - GR
the Mediterranean countries, and that the                                                                DLR - DE
                                                    according to plan, resulting in a large number of
availability and quality of datasets are brought                                                         Ecole Polytechnique de Tunisie - TN
                                                    Deliverables and Technical Papers already issued,    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - CH
up to par. Also, modelling, internalisation
                                                    notably including:                                   E-CO Tech - NO
strategies and long-term scenarios will cover                                                            Econcept AG Forschung Beratung Projektmanagement - CH
at least ten individual countries outside the       • A series of reports on the technical specifica-    Electricité de France - FR
                                                                                                         Elsam A/S - DK
borders of the EU15.                                  tions of future energy technologies, paving
                                                                                                         ESU-services Rolf Frischknecht - CH
                                                      the way for a full LCA of these technologies.      Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei - IT
Complementary but no less important research
                                                                                                         Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FHG-ISI) - DE
streams will provide a mapping of the sensitivity   • A report on innovative methodologies for the       Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced
of sustainability performance of the energy           valuation of externalities associated with the     Environment - BE
                                                                                                         HELIO - FR
technology options, explore the stakeholder           loss of biodiversity.
                                                                                                         Icelandic New Energy Ltd - IS
perspectives on assessed external costs, and                                                             Institute of Occupational Medicine - GB
                                                    • The specification of energy models for all
assess the transferability of results as well as                                                         Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems (ISIS) - IT
                                                      countries covered by the NEEDS project.            Institut fur Energie und Umweltforschung - DE
generalisation issues. Finally, the dissemination
                                                                                                         Institut fur Umweltinformatik - DE
activities, and in particular a series of Policy    • The identification of social criteria to be used   International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis - AT
Workshops and Fora staged in different countries      for the assessment of stakeholder acceptance.      Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia - IT
                                                                                                         István University - HU
and regions, will highlight how externalities
                                                    • Reports and technical papers on a variety of       Jozef Stefan Institute - SI
could deepen the discussion of energy policy                                                             JRC - ES
                                                      innovative issues such as:
issues by interacting with a wider audience                                                              Kanlo Consultants - FR
                                                                                                         Lithuanian Energy Institute - LT
beyond the expert level.                               • Air pollution from indoor sources
                                                                                                         Meteorologisk Institutt - NO
                                                                                                         New and Renewable Energy Authority - EG
                                                       • Advancements in the monetary valuation
                                                                                                         National Technical University of Athens - GR
                                                         of mortality                                    Observatoire Méditerranéen de l'Energie - FR
                                                                                                         Paul Scherrer Institut - CH
                                                       • Hydrogen as an energy carrier, and many         PROFING, s.r.o - SK
                                                         others.                                         Risoe National Laboratory - DK
                                                                                                         Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Center - EE
                                                                                                         Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich - CH
                                                                                                         Tallin University of Technology - EE
                                                                                                         Torino University of Technology - IT
                                                                                                         University of Antwerp - BE
                                                                                                         University of Bath - GB
                                                                                                         University of Hamburg - DE
                                                                                                         University of National and World Economy - BG
                                                                                                         University of Neuchâtel - CH
                                                                                                         University of Newcastle upon Tyne - GB
                                                                                                         University of Paris - FR
                                                                                                         University of Stuttgart - DE
                                                                                                         VITO - BE
                                                                                                         VTT - FI

                                                                                                         Website
                                                                                                         www.needs-project.org
                                                                                                         Project Officer
                                                                                                         Anna Gigantino
                                                                                                         Status
                                                                                                         ongoing
                                                                                                                                                              139
CEERES

         Potential of and Barriers to Large-scale Integration
         of Renewable Electricity and Co-generation into Energy
         Supplies in the Central European New Member States

 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          The Accession Treaty, on the basis of Directive       also caused by the lack of well-established
The objectives are to enhance             2001/77/EC and 2004/8/EC, obliges the NMS             policies optimised to local conditions.
large-scale integration of renewable      governments to increase their renewable electricity   Discussing and defining major NMS problems
                                          share from 12.5% in 1997 to 18.13% in 2010 on         in the field of large-scale renewable energy
electricity and co-generation with
                                          average and to actively promote co-generation.        integration with energy systems, and trans-
energy supplies in Central European
                                          To reach this ambitious goal, these countries will    lating this into potential research themes, will
new member states (NMS) by                have to focus on higher utilisation of renewable      be a valuable asset to elaborating a strategy
identifying particular difficulties       energy sources potential, large-scale integration     for overcoming area-specific barriers.
and drawbacks of the large-scale          of renewable electricity sources (RES-E), and
                                                                                              • Problem 2: Inadequate participation of the
integration of renewable energies and     co-generation from renewable energy sources
                                                                                                CE-NMS energy stakeholders in the EU
                                          (RES) in energy supplies. During realisation of
defining areas for further research.                                                            Framework Programmes
                                          this target, the NMS may encounter difficulties of
                                          a technical, financial, policy and socio-economic     Stakeholders from Central European NMS
Another objective is to increase          nature, characteristic of economies in transition.    research centres are not adequately repre-
participation of the Central European                                                           sented in the international research commu-
                                          A number of problems are common to all Central
new member states’ energy market                                                                nity. In this way, problems occurring in these
                                          European NMS:
participants in the European                                                                    countriesI in the field of large-scale integra-
                                          • Problem 1: Insufficient development of large-       tion of RES-E and co-generation in national
Framework Programmes, by building
                                             scale integration of renewable energy sources      systems are not properly addressed.
consortia for further projects in these
                                             and co-generation in energy supplies
programmes and providing feedback
                                             Such problems may arise not only from Project Structure
to the EU on potential partners
                                             different economic and technical circumstances
for future consortia and interesting                                                        The project activities and its aims are presented
                                             in the countries of the CEE region, in compa-
research questions.                                                                         in the figure below:
                                             rison to the EU15 Member States, but can be



                                                                        Task                                      Aim

                                                                   Elaborating joint
                                                                     methodology

                                                               Report on regional energy          Description of the state-of the art in
                                                                        policies                 energy markets in Central European NMS


                                                                 Seminars un Central               Definition of barriers for large-scale
                                                                 European Countries              RES-E and RES co-generation development


                                                                 Report on problerms                Definition of potential research
                                                                     and barriers                         areas and questions

                                                                                                    Discussion on the most important
                                                                  General conference
                                                                                                  research problems and building consilia




                                                                 Enhancement of large-scale RES-E and co-generation
                                                                       integration into energy supplies in NMS


                                                                Increase of participation of energy market participants
                                                                    from NMS in research framework programmes



140        SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY, BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES AND INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION RELATED TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY RTD
                                                                                                               Project Information
                                                                                                               Contract number
                                                                                                               510325

                                                                                                               Duration
                                                                                                               15 months

                                                                                                               Contact person
                                                                                                               Maria Szweykowska-Muradin
                                                                                                               Ecofys Polska
                                                                                                               m.szweykowska-muradin@ecofys.pl

                                                                                                               List of Partners
                                                                                                               Ecofys - NL
Expected Results                                                                                               Ecofys Polska - PL
                                                                                                               Ekodoma - LV
• Identifying problems related to large-scale • Creating a database of potential researchers,
                                                                                                               Energy Centre Bratislava - SK
  implementation of RES-E and renewable         partners and stakeholders in future EU
                                                                                                               Enviros - CZ
  co-generation in the Central European NMS.    Framework Programmes; including research                       Stockholm Environmental Institute,
                                                questions which have to be addressed in                        Tallin Centre - EE
• Defining areas of further research under EU
                                                future research.                                               Lithuanian Energy Institute - LT
  Framework Programmes.
                                                                                                               Regional Environmental Centre for Central
                                              • Providing feedback to the European Commission
• Activating energy sector’s stakeholders to                                                                   and Eastern Europe - HU
                                                about the needs for further research.
  participate in research projects.                                                                            University of Ljubljana - SI

• Creating networks for developing future                                                                      Website
  common projects for EU programmes.                                                                           www.ceeres.org

                                                                                                               Project officer
Progress to Date                                                                                               Barry Robertson

                                                                                                               Status
  Goal                                State of progress                   Results                              ongoing
  Elaborating joint methodology       Finished                            Joint methodology

  Reporting on regional policies      Finished                            • 8 overview reports
  regarding renewable electricity                                         • 1 summary report
  and co-generation

  Overview report on EU tools and     Finished                            1 report
  policies and a list of CE-NMS
  relevant projects

  8 meetings of experts in            Finished                            Expert meeting took place from
  the area of renewable energy                                            September 2005 to November 2005
  and co-generation

  8 Seminars in Central European      Finished                            Seminars took place October 2005 -
  NMS                                                                     February 2006

  Website                             The website is being periodically   www.ceeres.org
                                      updated

  Database of researchers             Database is created, inclusion of   Database on project website
  and research areas                  entries is ongoing

  Reporting on problems               In preparation
  and barriers

  International conference            In preparation                      More information at
  (19-20 June 2006, Warsaw, Poland)                                       www.ceeres.org




                                                                                                                                                      141
 CREATE ACCEPTANCE



                     Assessing and Promoting the Societal
                     Acceptance of Energy Innovations:
                     Towards a New Multi-stakeholder Tool
 OBJECTIVES                                       Challenges                                             Project structure
                                                  The current understanding of social processes          The project is divided in five work packages:
The project aims at assessing                     affecting the (non-)acceptance of renewable
a previously developed tool (Socrobust)           energy technologies (RES) and rational use of
                                                                                                         WP 1: assessing Socrobust
                                                  energy (RUE) is limited. Project managers often
for its suitability in contributing to
                                                  assume that stakeholders will adopt and adapt          WP 1 aims at critically reviewing Socrobust and
societal acceptance of RES and RUE
                                                  to the innovation without resistance. In practice,     deciding which aspects need further improvement
technologies by mapping its potential             however, stakeholders such as users, NGOs or           and adjustment in order to assess and promote
and limitations. It will determine the            local public authorities might have different          societal acceptance of RES and RUE technologies.
key elements of societal acceptance of            (and possibly conflicting) visions of the innovation   WP 1 delivers conclusions on how to modify the
RES and RUE technologies by assessing             and of the future world where the innovation           Socrobust tool.
                                                  will apply. If these diverging views are neglected,
(recent and past) societal acceptance
                                                  project implementation may face severe societal
of such technologies in several European                                                                 WP 2: historical and recent stakeholder
                                                  resistance in the implementation phase. So there
regions.                                                                                                 attitudes
                                                  is a need for empirically based analytical
                                                  research to provide a better understanding of          WP 2 aims to do empirical research on social
The Socrobust tool platform                       the complex interactions between stakeholders.         processes shaping the (non-)application of new
will be enhanced as a multi-stakeholder                                                                  energy technologies at a local/regional level.
                                                  The project CREATE ACCEPTANCE aims to
                                                                                                         The goal is to provide a better understanding of
tool by integrating knowledge gained              improve the conditions for RES and RUE by
                                                                                                         these processes in specific European regions.
in the first two objectives, and by               developing a tool for assessing and promoting
                                                                                                         Experiences gained from past participation and
designing the necessary instruments               the societal acceptance of the related technologies.
                                                                                                         communication efforts are analysed in detail.
                                                  The project builds upon a prior EC-financed
and procedures. The multi-stakeholder                                                                    On the basis of this analysis, earlier successes
                                                  research project, Socrobust, that aimed at
tool will be validated in five selected                                                                  and failures are identified so that lessons can be
                                                  developing a tool to measure the social robustness
demonstration projects, covering                                                                         drawn from those experiences. The empirical
                                                  of innovations in general. Socrobust provides
                                                                                                         results enable (together with the results from
a wide range of RES and RUE                       technology developers with two maps in terms
                                                                                                         WP 1) the development of a regional specific
technologies as well as various regions           of users, producers, regulation, and science. One
                                                                                                         multi-stakeholder tool. WP 2 delivers a compendium
of Europe. The preliminarily selected             map visualises the present situation; the second
                                                                                                         of best practices for managing societal acceptance
                                                  map visualises the desired future world. On the
demonstration projects are a hydrogen                                                                    of RES and RUE technologies in the energy sector.
                                                  basis of discrepancies between the two maps,
project in the Nordic countries,
                                                  the technology developer can start altering the
a biomass project in Eastern Europe,              innovation to fit the future world or focus on WP 3: tool development
CCS in Western Europe, a wind project             creating a more enabling context for the innovation,
                                                                                                       WP 3 integrates the results from WP 1 and WP 2.
in Hungary and a solar thermal project            for example through changing institutions and
                                                                                                       The result will be a new multi-stakeholder tool.
in the Mediterranean region.                      regulations.
                                                                                                       Several preliminary issues have already been
                                                  Socrobust needs revision before it can be used identified as important for further adjustment:
                                                  as a tool to assess and promote societal accept-
                                                                                                       • Socrobust works well from an innovator’s
                                                  ance of RES and RUE. More specifically, the tool
                                                                                                          perspective, but lacks the multi stakeholder
                                                  needs to be enhanced from an innovator’s tool
                                                                                                          perspective necessary for the present project’s
                                                  into a multi-stakeholder tool.
                                                                                                          focus on societal acceptance.
                                                  For this purpose Socrobust is:
                                                                                                       • Socrobust does not provide instruments or
                                                  • Critically reviewed.                                  strategies that might help align the future
                                                                                                          visions of different stakeholders. One of the
                                                  • Supplemented with recent insights from relevant
                                                                                                          strategies often mentioned in literature is early
                                                     scientific fields such as large socio-technical
                                                                                                          stakeholder involvement. Another strategy is
                                                     systems, system innovations and participatory
                                                                                                          experimenting in early niche markets.
                                                     methods.
                                                  • Applied to five demonstration projects covering
                                                    several (renewable) energy technologies in
                                                    various European regions.
142                  SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY, BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES AND INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION RELATED TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY RTD
                                                                                                           Project Information
                                                                                                           Contract number
                                                                                                           518351

                                                                                                           Duration
                                                                                                           34 months

                                                                                                           Contact person
                                                                                                           Ruth Mourik
                                                                                                           Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands
                                                                                                           coordinator@createacceptance.net

                                                                                                           List of partners
                                                                                                           Ecoinstitut - ES
                                                                                                           ECN - NL
                                                                                                           Hungarian Environmental
                                                                                                           Economics Centre – HU
                                                                                                           Icelandic New Energy – IS
                                                                                                           Institute for Applied Ecology – DE
                                                                                                           Institute of Renewable Energetic Ltd – PL
                                                                                                           National Consumer Research Centre – FI
                                                                                                           National Research Council on Firms
                                                                                                           and Development – IT
                                                                                                           University of Salford – GB
                                                                                                           University of Social Science, Toulouse – FR

                                                                                                           Website
                                                                                                           www.createacceptance.net

                                                                                                           Project officer
                                                                                                           Anna Gigantino

                                                                                                           Status
                                                                                                           ongoing




                                                       Expected results
• Different technologies usually are in very           The multi-stakeholder tool will become publicly
  different development stages. In some cases          available to energy managers, policy makers,
  the technology can still be shaped, whereas          technology developers, intermediary energy
  in other cases it's more about increasing            service providers, and other possible users after
  acceptance for a pre-defined technology.             conclusion of the project. This will occur by
  These issues need to be addressed in the             providing the tool and information about the
  methodology.                                         tool, including a manual, on the project website.


WP 4: tool application                                 Progress to date
The multi-stakeholder tool developed in WP 3           The CREATE ACCEPTANCE project started
will be applied to five selected demonstration         1 February 2006 and will run for two years.
projects, taking into account the regional profiles.   For up-to-date progress and results please visit
The preliminarily selected demonstration projects      http://www.createacceptance.net
are a hydrogen project in the Nordic countries,
a biomass project in Eastern Europe, carbon
capture and sequestration (CCS) in Western
Europe, a wind project in Hungary and a solar
thermal project in the Mediterranean region.
The project partners will organise a multi-stake-
holder process for each of these projects. In the
final stage, this work package will evaluate and
refine the multi-stakeholder tool after it has
been applied to the demonstration projects.


WP 5: project management
WP5 involves project management and dissemi-
nation.
                                                                                                                                                    143
FET-EEU

          Future Energy Technologies
          for Enlarged European Union

 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                           The main challenge of the project is to facilitate     of promotion material is also essential as
The main objective of the project          the participation of the NMS and ACC in the            a support activity for the project.
 is to carry out activities which will     6th Framework Programme and encourage partic-
                                           ipation in the 7th Framework Programme. The first
contribute to the integration of the                                                              Expected Results
                                           specific challenge is to promote the European
research and technology development
                                           energy research priorities of clean energy             The strategic impact of the proposed project is
groups in the new member states            production, distribution and use, and new energy       at several levels. The first level is its contribution
(NMS) and associated candidate             technologies aimed at developing and increasing        to the European Research Area by integrating
countries (ACC) and old member             the proportion of renewable energy sources.            and structuring energy research in the enlarged
states in the area of future energy        It is also essential to make a significant contribu-   European Union. This will be achieved through
                                           tion to the international effort of ensuring           the identification of research groups working in
technologies.
                                           security of energy supply and conservation of          new and advanced energy technologies in the
                                           the environment. The project should help in            NMS and ACC, and classification of the target
One of the general integration and         solving new MS and ACC energy problems, such           groups. Secondly, there is the mobilisation of the
structuring objectives of the proposal     as restructuring of an energy sector formerly          human and material resources in the area of
is to identify the best energy-sector      based on coal, counteracting CO2 emissions and         new energy technologies in the NMS and ACC,
research centres and potential             increasing dependence on imported fossil fuels, as     and full integration of the research community
                                           well improving the efficiency of the generation,       in the field of new energy technologies in the
industry and SME partners in the
                                           distribution and use of energy.                        enlarged European Union.
NMS and ACC open to new energy
technologies, to define their profiles,    One of the specific objectives of the proposal         The second level is the scientific contribution to
                                           is to map the activities of the research groups in     energy sector transformation in the NMS and
strengths, weakness and needs,
                                           the ACC and MS working on future energy                ACC through decreasing the share of fossil fuels
and to identify research and industry
                                           technologies and to establish international            in the total balance of energy generation and
groups and experts in the old member       expert groups. Moreover, it is essential to organise   increasing the use of renewable energy, improving
states. The second objective               a series of profiled regional infodays and seminars    energy efficiency and ensuring security of energy
is to improve knowledge in the NMS         in the new MS and ACC, together with brokerage         supply. This can also be done through stimulating
and ACC of the Framework Programmes,       events for prospective newcomers to the                the interest of research groups in the NMS and
                                           Framework Programme. Finally there is the              ACC in such not yet widely disseminated energy
the participation rules and instruments,
                                           preparation and dissemination of training materials    technologies as fuel cells and hydrogen.
and to develop the skills needed for
                                           devoted to consortium building, partner searches,      Moreover, the new concepts for reducing the
project preparation and management.        proposal preparation, project management,              costs of RES production and exploitation will be
                                           financial and contractual aspect by project website.   introduced.
                                                                                                  The third level is the contribution to solving
                                           Project Structure                                      environmental problems in Europe through the
                                                                                                  reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and
                                           The project is divided into three work packages
                                                                                                  pollutants, in particular through CO2 capture
                                           comprising eight tasks. Regional infodays, linked
                                                                                                  and sequestration. Another expected result is to
                                           with brokerage events and associated with well
                                                                                                  adopt fuel sources for energy generation that
                                           established conferences, will be organised in the
                                                                                                  are neutral for the environment.
                                           countries concerned. The events will help potential
                                           participants get off to a good start on FP7.        The fourth level is the contribution to the societal
                                                                                               and economic needs of the new members of the
                                           One of the support activities of the proposed
                                                                                               EU through the indication of new forms and
                                           project, as defined in WP 1 and WP 2, is to map
                                                                                               fields of employment in the new energy techno-
                                           research groups in the NMS and ACC, and
                                                                                               logies sector. A scientific contribution to the
                                           identify groups of experts in the old member
                                                                                               analysis of societal acceptability for new energy
                                           states. Consequently, the international expert
                                                                                               technologies is also envisaged.
                                           groups will have to be established by then.
                                           Moreover, three national infodays in Poland, the Finally there is the impact on gender issues,
                                           Slovak Republic and Romania will be organised foreseen in the participation of 15 women in the
                                           and a project website designed. The publication main project team.
144        SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY, BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES AND INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION RELATED TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY RTD
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            510417

                                                                                                            Duration
                                                                                                            34 months

                                                                                                            Contact Person
                                                                                                            Andrzej Sławinski
                                                                                                            Institute of Fundamental Technological
                                                                                                            Research Polish Academy of Sciences
                                                                                                            andrzej.slawinski@kpk.gov.pl

                                                                                                            List of partners
Progress to Date                                                                                            ADEME - FR
                                                                                                            Agenzia per la Promozione della Ricerca
A database of research and industry institutions,     field of new and advanced energy technologies.
                                                                                                            Europea - IT
organisations, small groups and persons acting        Moreover NCP Poland as a member of Network
                                                                                                            Austrian Research Promotion Agency - AT
in the area of new and advanced energy techno-        ‘Energy Future’ organised the scientific conference   Enviros Consulting Ltd - GB
logies in the NMS and ACC has been established.       ‘Sustainable Energy Systems – New directions in       Hungarian Science and Technology
The main thematic sub-areas of the database           production and use of energy’ in Zakopane,            Foundation - HU
are: hydrogen, fuel cells, photovoltaics, RES and     Poland (12-14 October 2005) which was a good          Institute of Fundamental Technological
other innovative ideas for energy generation,         tool for disseminating new data on technologies       Research Polish Academy of Sciences - PL
distribution, saving and storage. A second data-      among the research community and a platform           Institute of Power Engineering - PL
base features project experts – representatives       for the exchange of ideas. The conference was a       Institute of Power Studies and Design - RO
of the Integrated Project and Network of              successful contribution to the development of         Lithuanian Energy Institute - LT
Excellence in the area of Priority 6.1, or projects   new energy systems.                                   Ministry of Higher Education, Science
                                                                                                            and Technology - SI
realised in the framework of FP5 and FP6 in the
                                                                                                            RTD Talos Ltd - CY
                                                                                                            Zvolen University of Technology - SK

                                                                                                            Website
                                                                                                            www.kpk.gov.pl/fet-eeu/

                                                                                                            Project officer
                                                                                                            Barry Robertson

                                                                                                            Status
                                                                                                            ongoing




                                                                                                                                                     145
LETIT

         Local Clean Energy
         Technology Implementation

 OBJECTIVES                                 Challenges
                                            Sustainable energy uptake in Europe is not                a sustainable energy standpoint by those promoting
The main objective of LETIT has been        achieving the targets set either at a Community           sustainable energy at a Community or national
to provide local authorities across         level or at a level targeted by most member states        level. Moreover, financial and human resources
                                            (MS) or the candidate accession states (CAS). Ten         to deal with their priorities are limited. Promoting
Europe with a framework within
                                            years after Rio (promoting local participation in         sustainable energy in its own right, without
which they can identify and assess
                                            sustainable development), with policy frameworks          demonstrating how sustainable energy addresses
the sustainable energy potential            setting targets for renewable energy, combined            key local priorities, seems to local authorities as
of the many assets that they are            heat and power, the rational use of energy with           yet more burden for no understandable benefits.
responsible for.                            a major focus on reducing greenhouse gas emis-
                                                                                                      While energy is important in each of these areas –
                                            sions, and with hundreds of millions in investment
                                                                                                      health, education, other social services, transport,
                                            at a Community, MS and CAS level, Europe is
Local authorities own, manage                                                                         waste management, etc. – few local authorities
                                            not meeting its targets.
and control a wealth of resources that                                                                and their experts see the link between these services
are not usually viewed in terms             While macroeconomic and Community, MS and                 and the supply and management of energy in
                                            CAS policies are necessary to promote investment          a unified framework or approach. The tools, models,
of sustainable energy, such as buildings,
                                            in sustainable energy technologies and projects,          frameworks and information to make such
transport, land and waste.
                                            they are not sufficient if local authorities, local       a link, and act upon it, hardly exist. This applies
Such assets could potentially be            communities, citizens, investors, developers and          even more to sustainable energy, as it is even
developed to generate or provide            financiers are unable, for whatever reasons,              more removed, more alien, to local authorities
a demand for clean energy and,              to invest in and develop these projects. While research   and actors than conventional energy.
by viewing them in this way,                and development and pilot projects are necessary
                                                                                                      Indeed, until local authorities and local actors fully
                                            to set the path and the framework for investment,
local authorities are well positioned                                                                 engage in the process of valuing their sustainable
                                            they are not sufficient to guarantee that key
to initiate projects that could bring                                                                 energy assets and integrating them into their
                                            actors will adopt them and disseminate and
social, economic and environmental                                                                    plans, and finally promote them in order to reduce
                                            commercialise them on a large scale. Developing
                                                                                                      their own and investors’ risks in developing them,
benefits to themselves and their            a number of models and tools in the field of
                                                                                                      there is no chance Europe will meet its targets.
communities.                                sustainable energy does not ensure their adoption
                                            by local authorities and local actors; such tools
                                            must be developed specifically for local level use,       Project Structure
                                            and must be replicable for a wide variety of different
                                                                                                      ESD was the project coordinator for a network
                                            local communities throughout Europe, and not
                                                                                                      of national project teams in four EU member
                                            developed simply as one-off projects.
                                                                                                      states (UK, Portugal, Italy and Germany) and two
                                            One of the reasons for this is a basic lack of            candidate accession states (Poland and the
                                            understanding of, and familiarity with, these             Czech Republic). Each of those six country teams
                                            technologies and tools at a local level. This is          comprised one technical partner, at least one
                                            largely due to the fact that local authorities have       local authority, and at least one industry, investor
                                            not been engaged at nearly the level that                 or project developer partner with a strong energy-
                                            Community and national leaders have in the                technology focus. The six country teams were led
                                            discussions, the debates and demonstrations of            by technical partners, each of which is a company
                                            these technologies and approaches. Secondly,              or institute with considerable experience with
                                            specialists have dominated the scene, speaking in
                                            terms and using tools that are alien and unfamiliar
                                            to local authorities, local planners, local politicians
                                            and key local actors/stakeholders. This means
                                            that these approaches and technologies are often
                                            not understood or even known at a local level.
                                            Finally, and most importantly, local authorities have
                                            numerous priorities, particularly social priorities,
                                            from education to health, from public housing
                                            to public transport, from water provision to waste
                                            disposal that have not been addressed from
146        SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY, BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES AND INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION RELATED TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY RTD
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            502787

                                                                                                            Duration
                                                                                                            25 months

                                                                                                            Contact person
                                                                                                            Hannah Isaac
                                                                                                            ESD Ltd
                                                                                                            Hannah@esd.co.uk

                                                                                                            List of partners
                                                                                                            ASM Terni S.p.A - IT
                                                                                                            Badenova - DE
                                                                                                            Cityplan - CZ
local government, sustainable technologies and • Wide dissemination of the results and
                                                                                                            EC Baltic Renewable Energy Centre - PL
technology investment.                                   the methodologies, frameworks and model
                                                                                                            ESD Ltd - GB
                                                         developed during the project to as wide an         Ecoazioni - IT
The six country teams represented a range
                                                         audience in Europe as possible.                    Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG-ISE) - DE
of geographic areas in Europe (including two
candidate countries), differing sizes of local                                                              Innova - IT
                                                                                                            Institute of Mechanical Engineering - PT
authority, and different levels of sustainable Progress to Date
                                                                                                            Labelec - PT
energy development. Each has been keen to
                                                      Since the start of the project, the LETIT team has    Pomeranian Centre of Technology - PL
work on the project to enable them to identify                                                              Regional Development Agency of South
                                                      carried out six work packages, the outputs of
and categorise their local energy assets, examine                                                           Bohemia - CZ
                                                      which have been consolidated to form a single
the options for developing each, identify leading                                                           Utilicom Ltd - GB
                                                      planning framework and toolkit. Each work
or future technologies for exploiting those energy
                                                      package combined primary research, stakeholder        Website
assets, and define in a systematic manner the
                                                      review and the production of practical tools that     http://letit.energyprojects.net
externalities (benefits and costs) of developing each
                                                      can be used by local authorities across Europe.
asset and technology, and the risks associated                                                              Project officer
                                                      The work packages covered the following areas:
with such development. Each has been keen to                                                                Komninos Diamantaras
                                                      Stakeholder identification and engagement,
undertake this assessment and then analyse
                                                      asset profiling and prioritisation, technology
future technology investments in light of local                                                             Status
                                                      identification, socio-economic review, risk assess-   terminated
needs and priorities.
                                                      ment and strategic planning.
                                                     LETIT reached its technical completion in June
Expected Results
                                                     2006, following a successful dissemination event
LETIT will provide valuable support for local        held at the representation of the government of
governments in the assessment of new energy          Greater London in Brussels. The event was held
technologies in terms of their costs, benefits and   to describe the practical outputs of the project,
risks. The tools will enable any local government    namely the LETIT web-based toolkit and to
to make informed decisions about the impacts of      illustrate its use by presenting:
a technology in the local community in terms of
                                                        • The experiences of local authority partners in
a number of wide-ranging externalities, from
                                                           identifying assets they would like to use to
local emissions and greenhouse gases to
                                                           develop sustainable energy locally, and the
employment generation and local revenues. The
                                                           benefits of using the LETIT framework
frameworks that will be designed through the
LETIT project will be highly replicable and will • Practical insights into how local authorities
help local governments across Europe evaluate              can build working relationships with project
local sustainable energy development and policy.           developers to implement sustainable energy
                                                           projects, and the policy tools that can be
Its practical results are:
                                                           used to support this activity.
• A methodology, usable at a local authority level,
                                                        The event was used to launch a consultation
    that identifies all possible assets (housing, land,
                                                        amongst local authority representatives based in
    transport, water, waste, electricity and heat
                                                        Brussels in order to obtain feedback on the
    generation, etc.) that can be used to plan
                                                        functionality and usefulness of the toolkit for
    medium- to long-term technology investments.
                                                        local authorities in their respective countries.
• A matrix that identifies all technologies that This consultation led to improvements that have
    could be developed to develop local sustainable now been incorporated into the final product,
    energy assets.                                      which is available through the project website.
• A tool to assist the assessment of the benefits In addition to the toolkit and the resulting activities
  and costs (externalities) of each technology in the local authorities participating in LETIT,
  option.                                         the team have also compiled implementation
                                                  plans outlining how those partner authorities
• An electronic self-help ‘toolkit’ for local
                                                  will continue this process beyond the lifetime of
  authorities to follow the LETIT methodology
                                                  the LETIT project.
  without external support.                                                                                                                            147
RECIPES

          Renewable Energy in Emerging and Developing Co
          Current Situation, Market Potential and Recommendations
          for a Win-win-win for EU industry, the Environment and Local

 OBJECTIVES                               Challenges
                                          Existing studies dealing with renewable energy in       renewable energy, it is essential that all the main
The RECIPES project is a EU-funded        emerging and developing countries (e.g. EREC, WEC,      stakeholders are involved in developing these
research project that aims to promote     IEA) aim at giving a global view of the situation and   recommendations. Stakeholders will be involved
                                          possibilities in a region of the world. The European    in the RECIPES project by means of:
the implementation of renewable
                                          Commission pointed out a lack of a comprehensive
energy in emerging and developing                                                                 • An Advisory Board (including industry, envi-
                                          and complete set of data, and therefore asked the
countries. Key starting point of                                                                    ronmental and development NGOs, policy
                                          RECIPES team to bring these data together and draw
                                                                                                    and academic experts).
the study is that renewable energy        pragmatic recommendations.
should be implemented in such                                                                 • A web forum at which the results can be dis-
                                          A crucial starting point in this process is the
a way that it is beneficial to the                                                              cussed (the project will actively stimulate
                                          'triple-win objective'. The consortium is dedicated
                                                                                                participation).
local socio-economic situation and the    to finding ways to implement RES that will
environment. Furthermore, possibilities   benefit the local socio-economic situation and • A workshop for the validation of project
of making use of European renewable       the local and global environment, and offer           results and development of recommenda-
                                          opportunities for European companies. Any             tions, held in November 2006.
energy technology are taken into
                                          recommendation that will not incorporate all
account where possible. The study
                                          three aspects will not be taken into account.
consists of three main phases: country                                                            Project structure
                                          Consequently, the project has the ambitious goal
studies, modelling and analysis, and                                                              The project team carries out studies at two
                                          of bringing together the demand and supply
conclusions and recommendations.                                                                  different levels:
                                          sides of renewable energy in emerging and
                                          developing countries. The only way that the             • Desk research on each of the 114 emerging and
                                          project can realise this ambition is by ensuring          developing countries, gathering information
                                          that the recommendations developed are broadly            regarding the current situation and technical
                                          accepted by the stakeholders involved. The parties        potential for renewable energy options.
                                          (that could possibly be) involved in the imple-
                                                                                                  • In-depth case studies in a representative selec-
                                          mentation of RES in emerging and developing
                                                                                                    tion of 15 countries to be carried out by local
                                          countries are therefore actively requested to
                                                                                                    experts and including an assessment of technical
                                          validate the chosen approach and to assist in
                                                                                                    and market potential, the environmental and
                                          the development of the recommendations made
                                                                                                    socio-economic impacts, and costs and benefits
                                          during the project. The website is one of the
                                                                                                    for EU industry of fulfilling this potential.
                                          instruments the project uses to inform and ask
                                          for feedback from stakeholders, the latter for          In a later stage, the project team will validate the
                                          instance by means of the forum pages.                   results and recommendations with relevant
                                                                                                  stakeholders.
                                          To ensure the study will result in recommendations
                                          that lead to an actual increase of implemented The project approach is depicted in the figure below:




148       SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY, BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES AND INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION RELATED TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY RTD
                                                                                                            Project Information
                                                                                                            Contract number
                                                                                                            513733
untries:                                                                                                    Duration
                                                                                                            24 months

                                                                                                            Contact person
                                                                                                            Eric Evrard
Socio-economic Development                                                                                  Partners for Innovation/Vissers&Partners
                                                                                                            e.evrard@prospect-cs.be

                                                                                                            List of partners
                                                                                                            EBM-consult bv - NL
   Expected results                                     Progress to date                                    Esenerg - PY
                                                                                                            Partners for Innovation/Emiel Hanekamp - NL
   RECIPES sheds new light on the renewable energy The project RECIPES started in January 2005 and
                                                                                                            Partners for Innovation/Peter Karsch - NL
   situation in emerging and developing countries ends in December 2006. The data gathering phase
                                                                                                            Partners for Innovation/Vissers&Partners - BE
   through two major innovative points:            is now finalised:                                        Wolfgang Lutz - NL
   • The first is the comprehensiveness and             • The project has created a database with general
                                                                                                            Website
     completeness of the information: this consists       information on 114 emerging and developing
                                                                                                            www.energyrecipes.org
     of a general set of characteristics and data on      countries.
     the current energy situation in 114 emerging                                                           Project officer
                                                        • Local experts have finalised the collection of
     and developing countries. In addition, fifteen                                                         Domenico Rossetti di Valdalbero
                                                          data in the 15 above-mentioned countries.
     countries have been studied in detail, working
                                                                                                            Status
     in this case with local experts. The fifteen       The project team is now in the process of
                                                                                                            ongoing
     country case-studies provide insight into a wide   analysing and validating the results obtained,
     range of situations and options for imple-         and 15 technical and market potential reports are
     menting renewable energy. Furthermore, a           being completed. It is also currently assessing
     broad geographical spread has been ensured         the socio-economic and environmental impacts,
     in selecting the countries. The case-studies       and the export potential for EU industry.
     were conducted in five Latin American countries    Analyses and recommendations will be made
     (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Peru and               available online by the end of 2006.
     Colombia), five African countries (South
     Africa, Niger, Ghana, Uganda and Cameroon)
     and five countries in Asia (China, India,
     Indonesia, Thailand and the Pacific Islands).
   • The second innovative point is the ‘triple-win
     objective’. The RECIPES team intends to provide
     a view of the socio-economic and environment
     impacts, and the costs and benefits for EU
     industry, of meeting the renewable energy
     potential in emerging and developing countries.
   The data collection and information-gathering
   by local experts, combined with the assessments
   and comparison of different countries, will lead
   to pragmatic recommendations facilitating
   appropriate action to further the implementation
   of renewable energy in emerging and developing
   countries.




                                                                                                                                                       149
REMAP

         Action Plan for High-priority Renewable
         Energy Initiatives in Southern and Eastern
         Mediterranean Area
 OBJECTIVES                                Challenges
                                           Despite being neighbours and grouped around a      commitments by major stakeholders in these
The objectives of the REMAP project        commonly shared sea, the Mare Nostrum, the         countries to advancing the development of such
are to work with key stakeholders          Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries       projects. The project will thus serve to encour-
                                           (SEMCs) are not equally endowed