Unit 1 Worksheets- Physical Science 1- Mrs - Download as DOC

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Unit 1 Worksheets- Physical Science 1- Mrs - Download as DOC Powered By Docstoc
					Unit 1 Worksheets- Physical Science 1- Mrs. Larson
Do not write on these worksheets. Use your own paper!! You will return these after the unit is over.

SECTION 16.1 WORKSHEET
You must answer every question using full sentences. Otherwise, it will not be graded. Make sure you read
questions carefully.
   1. What are the three basic assumptions of the kinetic theory?
   2. Describe the movement of the particles in solids, liquids, and gases.
   3. How does the movement of particles change at the melting point of a substance?
   4. How does the movement of particles change at the boiling point of a substance?
   5. Would the boiling point of water be higher or lower than normal on top of a mountain peak? Why?
       (hint: think about the pressure from the atmosphere)
   6. Why would the lid to a food container put on when the food is warm become tight as the food cools?
   7. What is occurring at the two temperatures on the heating curve from your notes where the graph is a flat
       line? Explain what is happening at the particle level in these locations.
   8. Why does a hot air balloon rise? (you need more detail than “because hot air rises”)
   9. How is plasma different from gas?
   10. Which should expand more when heated: liquid, solid, or gas? (think about particle attractions to
       answer this)
   11. Provide an example of diffusion (we are talking about diffusion of gases, not liquids). Explain what is
       happening.
SECTION 16.2: WORKSHEET
You must show ALL work, include correct units, and enclose your answers in a box for questions 1-5. You must
answer in full sentences for questions 6-10. Use this equation: F1/ A1 = F2/ A2
   1. A hydraulic lift is used to lift a heavy machine that is pushing down on a 3.0 m2 piston (A1) with a force
       (F1) of 4,000 N. What force (F2) needs to be exerted on a 0.050 m2 piston (A2) to lift the machine?
   2. A hydraulic lift is used to lift a heavy machine that is pushing down on a 5.0 m2 piston with a force of
       1,000 N. What force needs to be exerted on a 1.0 m2 piston to lift the machine?
   3. You can exert 50 N of force on a piston with an area of 1.0 m2. If you are trying to lift a machine that
       weighs 500N, what must be the area of the piston on which the machine rests?
   4. You decide to drive your vehicle, which has a weight of 100 N onto a piston that is 5.0 m2, what weight
       machine can you lift if the piston on which it rests is 20 m2?
   5. You can exert 50 N of force. You want to lift a machine that weighs 4000 N and is on a piston with an
       area of 10 m2. What size piston must you press down upon to lift the machine?
   6. What 2 forces act on any object floating in water?
   7. Use Archimedes’ principle to help you explain how heavy ships float.
   8. Use Pascal’s principle to explain how a tube of toothpaste works.
   9. Use Bernoulli’s principle to explain why roofs are sometimes lifted off buildings in tornados.
   10. Why does a balloon filled with air fall to the floor when released while a balloon filled with helium
       floats?
SECTION 16.3: WORKSHEET
SHOW YOUR WORK. INCLUDE CORRECT UNITS! Enclose you answers in a box. Remember, you must use
correct SI units for temperature(use Kelvin!). Information you will need: Standard pressure is 101.3 kPa.
Standard temperature is 273.15 K. To convert from Celsius to Kelvin: K = °C + 273

Calculate the volume. ASSUME THE TEMPERATURE IS CONSTANT P1V1 = P2V2

   1. What is the new volume when a 100.0 cm3 container at 120.0 kPa is expanded until the pressure is 60.0
   kPa?
   2. What is the new volume when a 50.0 cm3 container at standard pressure is expanded until the new
   pressure is 25.0 kPa?
   3. What is the new volume when a 50.0 cm3 container at standard pressure is compressed until the new
   pressure is 200.0 kPa?
   4. What is the new volume when a 75.0 m3 container at 230.0 kPa is compressed until the new pressure is
   100.0 kPa?

Calculate the pressure. ASSUME THE TEMPERATURE IS CONSTANT. P1V1 = P2V2

   1. What is the new pressure if a 100.0 cm3 container at standard pressure is compressed until the volume is
   50.0 cm3?
   2. What is the new pressure if a 10.0 cm3 container at 150.0 kPa is expanded until the volume is 50.0 cm3?
   3. What is the new pressure if a 20.0 cm3 container at 150.0 kPa is compressed until the volume is 3.00 cm3?

Calculate the volume. ASSUME PRESSURE IS CONSTANT.                  V1/T1 = V2/T2
Remember to use Kelvin for the temperature

   1. What is the new volume of a 10.0 cm3 container at 0.00OC when the temperature is adjusted to 273 K?
   2. A 50.0 cm3 container is at standard temperature. After the volume is adjusted to 100.0 cm3, what is the
   new temperature?
   3. A 50.0 cm3 container is at standard temperature. After the volume is adjusted to 10.0 cm3, what is the new
   temperature?
   4. What is the new volume of a 10.0 cm3 container at 500.0 K when the temperature is adjusted to standard
   temperature?
   5. What is the new volume of a 100.0 cm3 container at standard temperature when the temperature is
   adjusted to 373 K?
   6. What is the new volume of a 75.0 m3 container at standard temperature when the temperature is adjusted
   to 200.0OC?
   7. What is the new volume of a 200.0 cm3 container at -50.0OC when the temperature is adjusted to standard
   temperature?
   8. What is the new volume of a 500.0 cm3 container at standard temperature when the temperature is
   adjusted to -100.0OC?

Calculate the temperature or pressure. VOLUME IS CONSTANT. P1/T1 = P2/T2
Remember to use Kelvin for the temperature
1. What is the new pressure of a set volume of gas at 101 kPa when it is heated from 25 oC to 50 oC?
2. What is the new pressure of a set volume of gas at 200 kPa when it is heated from 0 oC to 100 oC?
3. A container of gas at 25 oC and 101 kPa increases in pressure to 200 kPa. What is the new temperature of the
gas?
4. A container of gas at 70 oC and 500 kPa decreases in pressure to 50 kPa. What is the new temperature of the
gas?
SECTION 17.1: WORKSHEET
Answer each question with full sentences only.
   1. How is a compound similar to a homogeneous mixture?
   2. How is a compound different from a homogeneous mixture?
   3. What is the difference between a substance and a mixture? Provide labeled examples of each.
   4. What is the difference between a colloid and a suspension? Provide labeled examples of each.
   5. Is a solution a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture?
   6. An orange juice container says that you should shake well before using, does this indicate that the
      orange juice is a suspension, colloid, or solution? Explain.
SECTION 17.2: WORKSHEET
Answer each question with full sentences only.
   1. Explain why boiling of water is a physical change rather than a chemical change.
   2. What are four indications that you are observing a chemical change rather than a physical change?
   3. Why is flammability considered a chemical property?
   4. Does the law of conservation of mass apply to burning a log? Explain.
   5. How could you show that the law of conservation of mass applies to melting ice? (Think of an
      experiment you could do that would demonstrate this!)
   6. Classify each of the following as physical or chemical changes:
          a. Melting ice
          b. Evaporating ethanol
          c. Burning gasoline
          d. A nail rusting
          e. Tearing paper
          f. Combining 2 clear solutions to form a colored solid
   7. BONUS: do number 7 on page 533
Unit 1 Study Guide- Physical Science- Remember to use your own paper to answer the questions!!!
Make sure that you can explain the heating curve of water in terms of energy and particle motion. (no
answer required here)
1. State of matter that has a definite shape and volume:
2. State of matter that has a definite volume and an indefinite shape:
3. State of matter that has no definite volume or shape:
4. The most common state of matter in the universe:
         a. Describe this state of matter at the molecular level:
5. What happens to most substances when they are heated, do they expand or contract?
6. How does water behave differently than other substances when it freezes?
7. Define the following:
         a. Heat of vaporization-
         b. Heat of fusion-
         c. Bernoulli’s Law-
         d. Boyle’s Law-
         e. Charles’s Law-
         f. Archimedes’ Principle-
         g. Viscosity-
8. Do particles speed up or slow down when they are heated?
9. How does increasing atmospheric pressure influence boiling point, does it make the boiling point go up
    or down?
10. What are the three assumptions of the kinetic theory of matter?
11. If the temperature of a gas increases, what happens to volume?
12. If the volume of a gas decreases, what happens to pressure?
13. What is the unit for pressure?
14. What is the unit for temperature?
15. What is the unit for volume?
16. Plasma is most similar to what state of matter?
17. What is an amorphous solid?
18. A colloid is a                          mixture.
19. When particles settle out of a mixture, the mixture is which of the following: a suspension, a colloid, a
    solution?
20. Resistance of a substance to corrosion is a                           property (choose from: chemical or
    physical).
21. A solution is also known as a                                  mixture (choose from: homogeneous or
    heterogeneous).
22. What will happen if the buoyant force of a fluid is less than the weight of the object place in the fluid?
23. How does an airplane wing work?
24. How does a hot air balloon work- be specific- you need to say more than “hot air rises”?
25. How could you separate a mixture of sand and salt?
26. Define each of the following:
         a. Element-
         b. Mixture-
         c. Substance –
         d. Compound-
         e. Matter-