INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS
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INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS AIM To provide an introduction and overview of Information Operations (Info Ops) with respect to its fundamentals, concepts and its application REFERENCES • B-GL-300-005-FP-001, Land Forces Information Operations • Doctrinal Note 002 Land Force Targeting • CF Info Ops Policy for Full Spectrum Operations – Draft v7 • Info Ops Policy for CF International Operations • B-GL-300-007/FP-001 Firepower • AJP 3-9-2 Land Targeting • B-GL-300-001/FP-001 - Land Ops • B-GL-323-004/FP-003 COIN MAIN TEACHING POINTS • Definition • The OODA Loop and Info Ops • Focus • Operating Environment • Principles • Info Ops Core Activity Area and Targets • Defensive and Offensive Info Ops • Tool box (Enablers) • Physical Plane and Psychological Plane • Integration INFO OPS MYTHS Beliefs about Info Ops: • Only about themes and messages • You can go and Info Ops this village, tribe or unit • It has a magic powder bag to mitigate an incident • Info Ops done in stove pipe: the Info Ops Plan...(Isolation) What Info Ops actually is: • A staff function that coordinates and synchronizes Influence Activities (IA), thus acting as a multiplier to support the Comd’s Plan or objective DEFINITION Land Ops defines Information Operations as: ―coordinated actions to create desired effects on the will, understanding and capability of adversaries, potential adversaries and other approved parties in support of overall objectives by affecting their information, information-based processes and systems while exploiting and protecting one’s own.‖ INFO OPS AND THE OODA LOOP OBSERVATION AKA BOYD LOOP ACTION ORIENTATION DECISION WHAT INFO OPS DOES TO THE OODA LOOP OF THE OBSERVATION ADVERSARY Synchronized Info Ops will disrupt its decision-action ACTION ORIENTATION cycle by affecting: • WILL • UNDERSTANDING (including Comprehension) • CAPABILITY DECISION INFO OPS AND THE OODA LOOP A thought... Never interrupt the enemy when he is making a mistake. Napoléon Bonaparte FOCUS OF INFORMATION OPERATIONS ADVERSARY OWN UNCOMMITTED Present and promote our Influence and adversaries Reinforce and protect the WILL of case to the uncommitted WILL WILL and undermine his allies in order to maintain friendly audience IOT influence cohesion. cohesion and FOA. their WILL in our favour. Affect understanding and Ensuring that information is UNDERSTANDING Seek their support. therefore their perception. safeguarded and assured. Protect the decision Affect the decision making Protect the decision making CAPABILITY making capability of the capability of the adversary. capability of allies. uncommitted parties. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT • Complex Environment • Inter-related Systems and Entities • PMESII: Political, Military, Economical, Social, Infrastructure, Information • Intelligence Preparation of The Battlespace (IPB) • Undesired/Unintentional Effects PRINCIPLES IN THE APPLICATION OF IA • Commander’s Direction • Centralised Planning and Decentralised Execution • Early Involvement and Timely Preparation • Close Coordination and Sequencing • Timely Counter-Info Ops PRINCIPLES IN THE APPLICATION OF IA • Accurate Intelligence and Information • Comprehensive Targeting • Establishing and Maintaining Credibility • Performance and Effects Monitoring and Assessment INFO OPS FOUNDATION: INTELLIGENCE • Info Ops MUST be founded on good Intelligence support – Timely, Accurate, Relevant • Info Ops needs Intelligence to: – Plan, Execute, Assess Effectiveness of actions • (Joint) Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield – Human Factors and Human Network Analysis • Culture, Religion, Languages, Influences – Systems Analysis • IT, Infrastructure, Processes, Network Vulnerabilities INFO OPS TARGETS INFORMATION FILTERS INFO OPS EFFECTS VERBS • Convince • Exploit • Safeguard • Degrade • Expose • Negate • Deny • Influence • Neutralize • Inform • Destroy • Shape • Mislead • Diminish • Prevent • Usurp • Disrupt • Protect • Deceive • Compel INFO OPS CORE ACTIVITY AREAS • Influence Activities - affect, Influence either directly or indirectly, Activity available information and perception of it • Information Protection Information Activity - denies information on which decisions are made Protection Activity • Counter-Command Activity - Counter-Command affect the ability to acquire, Activity process and transmit information. DOCTRINAL CONCEPT OF OFFENSIVE & DEFENSIVE INFO OPS INFORMATION OPERATIONS TOOL BOX In order to conduct Info Ops and achieve sought after effects, Info Ops will rely on an array of military disciplines to support the Commander’s plan INFLUENCE ACTIVITIES As stated before, the construct of Information Operations is divided into 3 core activities that will affect WILL, CAPABILITY and UNDERSTANDING The following Enablers will target the WILL of the adversary and are categorized as Influence Activities PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSYOPS) Planned activities designed to influence attitudes and behaviors, affecting the achievement of political and military objectives PRESENCE - POSTURE - PROFILE PRESENCE - POSTURE - PROFILE PPP is a process to assist forces in determining the attitude, deportment and level of security they should adopt in any given situation Presence The impact that the mere presence of a force may have on perceptions might be significant. Deploying even limited capability to the right place at the right time can add substantial credibility to messages being delivered through other channels and provide a major contribution to deterrence. Posture The posture of troops on the ground can demonstrate both commitment and (Body intent and must be considered and balanced with the requirement for force language of protection. At the simplest level, the decision to wear berets instead of the forces) combat helmets and body armour can make a considerable difference to the perceptions of both the enemy and local people. Profile The public profile of commanders at all levels will impact on perceptions. The (What we public role of the commander must be carefully analyzed and opportunities do) used to transmit key messages. DECEPTION • Gain Surprise • Maintain Security • Delude Enemy Friendly Freedom of Action • Mislead Enemy Unfavourable Course of Action • Cause Enemy to Waste Resources...thus – Economize on Use of Friendly Resources CIVIL-MILITARY COOPERATION (CIMIC) The military function that supports the commander's mission by establishing and maintaining coordination and cooperation between the military force and civilian actors in the commander’s Area of Operations PUBLIC INFORMATION A distinctive function within DND/CF that helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communications, understanding, acceptance, and cooperation between us and the public at large. PA is about stating the facts KEY LEADER ENGAGEMENT Source DND INFORMATION PROTECTION ACTIVITIES The following Enablers will target the UNDERSTANDING of the adversary and are categorized as Information Protection Activities OPERATIONS SECURITY (OPSEC) The process by which a military operation is given appropriate security, using passive or active means, to deny the enemy knowledge of the Dispositions, Capabilities, and Intentions of friendly forces Photos by MCpl Paul MacGregor COUNTER COMMAND ACTIVITIES The following Enablers will target the CAPABILITY of the adversary and are categorized as Counter Command Activities PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION Adversary Will Collateral Damage Adversary Public Support Will ELECTRONIC WARFARE (EW) Actions taken to exploit the Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum that encompasses the interception and identification of EM emissions, the employment of EM energy, including directed energy, to reduce or prevent hostile use of the EM spectrum and actions to ensure its effective use by own/friendly forces COMPUTER NETWORK OPERATIONS (CNO) An overarching term for offensive and defensive actions regarding computer based information systems • Defence (CND) • Attack (CNA) • Exploitation (CNE) KLE Exploit To Gather Information... Influence by affecting... Effects—an Evolving View Capability Will Temporary Provide Information Disrupt Deny Assist Persuade Preserve Change Partial Complete Behavior Behavior Degrade Destroy Dissuade Mislead Permanent Withhold Information BREAK APPLYING COMBAT POWER Military capabilities and combat power are applied as part of a campaign plan in order to reach operational objectives and to achieve a desired end state The aim of reaching enduring objectives and end states that address the root causes of a conflict Application of violence against an adversary will always be the purview of the military and other security forces, but it must be done in combination with a range of activities and other agencies to reach those enduring outcomes APPLYING COMBAT POWER Combat power and capabilities are applied in a harmonized and complementary manner across all levels of command in order to achieve operational objectives, and in turn, strategic end states The land force conducts its operations using an effect- based philosophy and process that ensures tactical level activities are linked, through the effects they produce, to operational objectives and the desired end state PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PLANES • The object of conflict is the imposition of one’s will on an opponent and to alter the opponent’s behaviour • To engage the enemy on multiple levels to affect will, comprehension and capability. It has to be on the two planes. Physical and the Psychological plane APPLYING COMBAT POWER Physical Plane PHYSICAL PLANE • Comprise physical objectives, actions and effects on the battlespace • Includes military forces, the electromagnetic spectrum, civilian populations, armed factions, logistical resources and infrastructure, as well as geography, oceanography, and meteorology PHYSICAL PLANE • Activities and theirs effects are tangible and measurable • Attributes: - Industrious, intense in commodities and each is supported by the industrial and economic power of their respective sides - It is also easily observed, understood, estimated and measured (Science of conflict) Do not itself lead to success But it will set the right conditions for success APPLYING COMBAT POWER Physical Plane Physical Activities - Fires PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES - FIRES • Tangible undertakings producing immediate first order effects on the physical plane through force • Focus on physical destruction, attrition, disruption, or denial of essentials to adversaries through lethal and non-lethal fires and manœuvres (incl EW) • Fires’ aim is to affect the target behaviour through physical means on the second order effect PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES - FIRES • Synchronized to cause second order effects to undermine Will and shatter cohesion • Contrary to belief, the second order effect will likely be decisive • Physical destruction might not lead to success. Think in counter-insurgency terms where killing a large number of insurgents may create new recruits and/or other undesired effects APPLYING COMBAT POWER Physical Plane Psychological Plane Physical Activities ? Fires PSYCHOLOGICAL PLANE • Constitutes the perception, understanding, motivation, conviction, emotions, commitment, and ultimately the will of individuals and groups • Represents the will, the cohesion, belief in a cause, indoctrination, judgement • Emotive responses such as patriotism, ethnicity, religious zeal, esprit de corps and issues of self- interest PSYCHOLOGICAL PLANE • Attributes: – The target or target audience includes adversaries, commanders, leaders in a population, systems, and groups of people within the environment – Same targeting process as Physical plane – Requires more training and intuition – Effects are not only on one plane PSYCHOLOGICAL PLANE • First order of effect is difficult to grasp and quantify • Referred to as the Campaign Winning capability APPLYING COMBAT POWER Physical Plane Psychological Plane Physical Activities Influences Fires Activities INFLUENCE ACTIVITIES • Seek to predispose, persuade, convince, deter, compel, coerce a target audience to adopt a particular CoA • Assist, encourage and reassure those that are following a desired CoA To be effective, they must be synchronized and coordinated INFLUENCE ACTIVITIES • Influence activities may be physical based psychological activities • Example: – Feint or demonstration to deceive an enemy commander – Firepower demonstration to dissuade a former belligerent from violating a cease-fire – Construction of infrastructure to engender support and stability amongst a local population INFLUENCE ACTIVITIES Influence Activities across the spectrum: • A demonstration by forces supported by false radio traffic will affect the enemy commander’s perception, influence him to incorrectly identify the main effort, and move his forces away from the true intended area of attack, thus affecting his behaviour, and secondly, his capabilities • PSYOPS may be used in the form of a public radio station to bring accurate news to a local populace and to encourage their support for a COIN campaign • CIMIC activities may assist in civil reconstruction to engender moral support from a government and its populace, and to enhance the perception of the campaign and its legitimacy amongst a local populace • PA messages may be issued to counter enemy propaganda, and to ensure local and international understanding and support for the campaign and its operations INFLUENCE ACTIVITIES • Can also create second order effects on the physical plane • The key is to decide on the effect to be created: − Deception - PSYOPS - CIMIC - PPP - PA - KLE INFORMATION OPERATIONS INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Physical Plane Psychological Plane Physical Activities Influence Activities PLANNERS INFO OPS PLANNER WHERE IS INFO OPS IN ALL THIS? Physical plane Psychological plane Physical Activities Influence Activities IOCB TIE-IN INFO OPS Questions?