Chapter 3 Ethical Treatment of Research Participants by ljj12159

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									                            Chapter 3: Ethical Treatment
                             of Research Participants


•   Responsibility for ethical research
     – Researcher, IRB
•   Ethical considerations in planning research
     – Risks, voluntary participation, informed consent, deception
•   Ethical considerations in data collection
     – Avoid harm, withdrawal of consent
•   Ethical considerations following data collection
     – Alleviating adverse effects, debriefing, compensation of control groups,
       confidentiality of data
•   Summary




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                                  Chap 3: Ethics
                          Responsibility for Ethical Research


•   Primary issues
     – Both researcher and those supervised
     – Harm cf to benefits
•   IRB (Institutional Review Board)
•   How many, who is represented? Who, how many?
     – Scientist
     – Non-scientist
     – Non-affiliated with institutions


•   Criteria and Review Procedures
     – How many criteria? Box 3-1
     – Elements of a research protocol (6) (Review procedures)




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         4 Ethical Considerations: Planning

• Risk of harm or deprivation

• Voluntary participation

• Informed consent

• Deception




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                        #1Risk of harm

• Categories of risk
   –   Physical,
   –   psychological stress
   –   inconvenience, boredom?
   –   Economic?
• What are some potential risks in your study?
• Evaluating risks
   –   Likelihood (Jacob et al., ’91; Zimbardo, ’73)
   –   severity
   –   duration
   –   reversibility (Milgram, ’74)
   –   early detection (Viox?)

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                  Risks of Harm con’t

• Deprivation
   – Framingham study…asprin,
   – with-holding drugs from college students?
   – Withdrawing treatment (single subject: e.g. Anorexia)
• Benefits of research
   – Psychological: (Milgram, ’74; Zimbardo, ’73)
• Risk-Benefit analysis
   – Subjective judgment




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              #2 Voluntary Participation

• Covert v. Subtle Coercion….
   – What’s the difference?
   – Have you experienced it?


• Excessive inducements
   – What it take ($$$) for you to donate a kidney?




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                 #3 Informed Consent

• Elements
   – Behavioral consent (Sieber, ’92)
      • Is this sufficient?
      • Have you given, rejected an offer?
• Public behavior
   – Have you been observed? (Middlemist et al., ’76)
   – Would you have known?
   – Would you have cared?
• Competence to consent
   – When would it not be necessary?
• Readability of consent form

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                          #4 Deception

•   Active v. passive – does it matter?
•   Why is it necessary?
    1.   Internal validity: reactivity, control demand characteristics
    2.   Overcome reluctance to give information (e.g. bogus pipeline)
    3.   Allow for manipulation of IV (e.g. confederate agrees)
    4.   To study rare events (e.g. emergencies)
    5.   Minimize risks (e.g. Milgram, Buss)


•   Ethical objections
    – It’s lying and can have adverse effects
    – Are you suspicious? Are non-psych students suspicious?

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                     Deception con’t

• Alternatives
   – Natural settings (often lack control)
   – Simulation research (e.g. Deutsch & Krauss, ’60)
   – Passive role playing
      • Janis & Mann, smoking cessation;
      • To test response to mugging?
• Consent to deception
   – Would you agree to it?
• Minimizing harm
   – Use the checklist p 76
• How harmful is it…really? (Christensen, ’88)


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                  Ethical Considerations:
                      data collection

• Avoidance of harm
   – Screening for risk factors (how is your ticker?)
   – Unanticipated adverse effects (Milgram & Zimbardo’s work)
   – Discovering psychological problems
      • Depression studies;
      • I-O testing applicants’ personality & cognitive ability
• Withdrawal of consent
   – Reluctance to withdraw
      • Would you have refused to shock Ss? (Milgram, ’72))
   – Right to withdraw & internal validity
      • What to do with “perception of control” (Singer & Glass, ‘75)


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                Ethical Considerations:
                 After data collection
• Alleviating adverse effects
• Debriefing (post experimental interview)
   – Components
      • Education; disclose deception; asking for P’s insight
   – Effective debriefing
   – Can debriefing be harmful?
• Compensation of control groups
• Confidentiality of data
   – Protecting confidentiality (cf with anonymity)
   – Data confidentiality and the law (discoverable through subpoena
      • DHHS certificate & complete anonymity

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                    Ethical Treatment:
                        Summary
• Responsibility for ethical research
   – Researcher, IRB
• Ethical considerations in planning research
   – Risks, voluntary participation, informed consent, deception
• Ethical considerations in data collection
   – Avoid harm, withdrawal of consent
• Ethical considerations following data collection
   – Alleviating adverse effects, debriefing, compensation of control
     groups, confidentiality of data




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