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                                  Nahakpam Aruna Devi
                                  Manipuri Department
                                  Manipur University


        In the history of Manipuri literature it is a fact that poetry precedes the prose. The
line of a poem is named as khongpham. It is a trend in the old poetry that each line is
generally consisted of a constant syllabic construction. Generally lines are of penta
syllabic or sexta or hepta or (nipan). Of these, penta and hepta syllabic structures are
very common. Another is that stanzas are made of three khongphams (lines) and two
lines are made of hepta (seven) syllabic and the third line is the verb with a decorative
suffixes se/te which is the fourth syllable.

        In the medieval Indo-Aryan loan words are gradually step in since the last part of
the seventeen century. In the last part of the eighteen century exposed to the Indo-Aryan
is very distinct. Used of Indo-Aryan loan words becomes unavoidable. New techniques
are borrowed along with the theme: varied themes are taken up, for instance, from the
Ramayana, the Mahabharata and from other literary languages, like, Bengali, Hindi and
Sanskrit. Transcreation is also a product of this century. Regarding the technique, the
various forms of stanza is very particular; rhyme and diction are considered a must,
words are very selective. More and above, semantic reduplication is common and Indo-
Aryan loan words are normally used.

        Modern period in Manipuri literature starts with the coming of the Britisher in
1891 (the Anglo-Manipuri War of Independence). Then the formal education had started
with the opening of schools. But the problem is of the non-availability of Manipuri text
books. Inspite of it Sanskrit or Bengali is taken as a language paper in school. The then
Manipuri scholars kept an eye on for the development of Manipuri literature: the themes
in those are of „love of mother tongue‟ and „love of literature‟; at the same time Bengali
and Sanskrit loan words are used significantly; even the title of poem are given in
Bengali. Poets, namely, Kamal, Anganghal, Drendrajit etc. are found using Bengali loan
words very appropriately. On the contrary poets, Minaketan, Chaoba, even Anganghal
etc. used old and modern words together. In addition to this, they take words from the
stock of oral literature. For instance, Anganghal wrote an epic called Khamba-Thoibui
Seireng, his magnum opus, in 37,000 lines. It is an out and out an epic couched in mixed
diction (archaic and modern).

       Before the World War-II various stanza formats are designed in poems. In the
middle of the 20th century the influence of Sanskrit and Bengali is becoming weaker; on
the contrary in 1960s the Western influence is gradually growing up in the theme as well
as in style. Near the end of 1970s and in the beginning of „80s insurgency movement is
becoming stronger; at the same time some poets very consciously take up local myth and
legend aptly.

        This paper makes an attempt to picturise the distinctive features of the three
period only in Manipuri poetry. In the old poetry, more than eighty percent lexicons are
archaic, no punctuation except the double danda is used. In the Medieval Indo-Aryan
loan words as well as varied themes are coming in. In the 70s and 80s of the modern
period the western influence in poetry is grave, abstract and varied themes are borrowed
and became aware of themes one vast and forms are less.

Reference :
              Ibotombi, Thokchom.1997. Anganba Matamgi Manipuri Sahityada Imegery
                                         Kalpana Publication, Imphal.
              Nilakanta, Elangbam (ed). 1995. Manipuri Seireng, Sahitya Akademi, New
              Singh, Ch. Manihar. 1996. Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi.

              Singh, Ningthoujam, Khelchandra.1969. History Of Old Manipuri,
                                         Literature. Divine Book Mark. Imphal
              Singh, R.K. Jhalajit Singh. 1976. A History of Manipuri Literature.
                                          Manipur University. Canchipur, Imphal.
                       ONE WORD SENTENCE IN MANIPURI

                                 Ch. Yashawanta Singh
                                 Department Of Linguistics
                                 Manipur University


       All languages can form different functional types of sentences – statements,
negation, command, question, request, reply, informing sentences etc. These different
forms of sentences are generally more than one word. But in Manipuri these different
forms of sentence can be constructed by only one word.

         This paper wants to highlight several facets of one word sentence – formation of
one sentence in various types of functional sentences. In this language one word sentence
can be formed in command and request, seeking permissive sentences caa-ja-ra-ge (eat-
HON-PROS-INTEN) „Let me allow to eat this‟, negation, question (both the enquiry and
Yes/No questions), in replying to a question, informing statement (reporting one) cat-le
(go-PERF) „I am going” (informing a friend I am leaving and in “let‟ imperative also
(cat-si „Let‟s go). Further it can be used in demonstrative statement with pointing to the
particular person, say „it is you‟) One word sentence may be by a nominal (a verb less) or
by a verb.

        One word sentence is used in spoken as well as in literature also: it is used in
conversation, in drama, in short story. It is normally found that contract forms are much
used in spoken form which (the spoken form) is again reflected in written form, say, in
news paper, for instance caa-ni > caa-gani „eat + unrealized‟, this is also used in
addressing term, say, i-cem-ma > i-ce-bem-ma „my elder sister‟ etc. Here comes the
question of subject in Manipuri: subject is not grammatical, it can be deleted; Manipuri is
highly agglutinating. Again the language is lack of agreement between the subject and
verb, modifier and noun. The one word sentence of this language substantiates that there
is not water-tight compartment between morphology and syntax. In addition to this, verb
is the final in a sentence. In short, it can be said that one word sentence can be taken as a
linguistic feature of Manipuri language.

             Chelliah, Sobhana. 1997. Manipuri Grammar. Mouton.

          D.N.S. Bhat And M.S. Ningomba.1997. Manipuri grammar, Lincoln Publica-
                                       Cation, New Delhi.
          Maoji.FU.1997. A Descriptive Grammar Of Lolo. In LTBA. Vol.20.1. Spring.

             O‟Grady, William. 2001. Syntax : The Analysis Of Sentence Structure.ln Co-
                                          Ntemporary Linguistics. An Introduction.
                                          William O‟Grady, Mark Aronoff, John Arc-
                                          Hibald, Janie Rees-Miller. Bedford / St. Ma-

          Singh, Chunkham Yashawanta.2000. Manipuri Grammar. Rajesh Publication,
                                     New Delhi.

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