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					Achieving Racial Equity in Child Welfare:
       Examining What We Know


      Race Matters
   Teleconference Series
    October 21, 2008

     Race Matters Consortium
        Rockville Institute
Alliance for Racial Equity in Child
               Welfare
    Racemattersconsortium.org
 dennettederezotes@westat.com
                 Some Historical Issues of
               Race Equity and Child Welfare



Unusual treatment of children of different races have been noted
historically in this country’s child welfare system for many years



This includes both over- and under- representation and disparities in
treatment

        examples: orphan trains
            exclusion of African Americans
            overrepresentation of African Americans
                   Some Historical Issues of
                 Race Equity and Child Welfare



Child welfare professionals have been actively raising
        concerns for the unique needs of children with different
       racial and ethnic backgrounds for 30 years

 In the last 10 years more efforts have been examining the
        related data to better understand the phenomenon

 Some recent publications:

         GAO Report
         Bob Hill’s paper, Synthesis of Research on
                                    Disproportionality: an update
         NASW Call to Action

For more history visit:: http://www.racemattersconsortium.org/whyracematters.asp
                              Definitions

Disproportionality
   The over-or-under-representation of children of color under age 18
   experiencing a particular child welfare event compared to their
   representation in the general population or another child welfare
   event. (Bob Hill)
          comparing a group’s representation to itself


Disparity
   Proportion of children within a race/ethnicity who experience an event
   when compared to other racial groups experiencing the same event.
   This “event” can be related to treatment, services and/or resources.
                         across group comparison
                                    Definitions

Racial Equity
  Racial equity refers to “a social outcomes picture in which the
  distribution of society’s resources, opportunities, and burdens are not
  predictable by race and race is not consistently associated with the
  incidence of privilege and disadvantage

Structural Racism
   Structural racism refers to “the many factors that work to produce and
   maintain racial inequities in America today. It identifies aspects of our
   history and culture that have allowed the privileges associated with
   “whiteness” and the disadvantages associated with “color’ to endure
   and adapt within the political economy over time. It also points out the
   ways in which public policies, institutional practices and cultural
   representations reproduce racially inequitable outcomes.” 1

   1 Aspen Institute, Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives Project on
   Racial Equity and Community Building, 2003, Operationalizing a Structural Racism
   Analysis: The Structural Racism Theory of Change Process.
            The Race Matters Consortium




                           Mission
The Race Matters Consortium is a national multi-system
     initiative to prevent and reduce racial and ethnic
 disproportionality and disparities and create racial equity
                  in the child welfare system
    The Alliance for Racial Equity in Child Welfare
                       Partners



Partners:     Annie E. Casey Foundation
                     Casey Family Services

              Casey Family Programs

              Center for the Study of Social Policy

              Marguerite Casey Foundation

               Jim Casey Youth Opportunities

               Black Administrators in Child Welfare

               Race Matters Consortium
                                                       7
                  Alliance for Racial Equity in Child Welfare
                               Theory of Change


                                         Mission
       The mission of the Alliance is to create a child welfare system that
        is free of structural racism and that benefits all children, families
                                  and communities.



                                 Theory of Change1
     Make interventions in the following 6 dimensions to create long term
                              sustainable, change


[1] Aspen Institute, Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives Project on Racial Equity
       and Community Building, 2003, Operationalizing a Structural Racism Analysis: The
       Structural Racism Theory of Change Process.

                                                                                           8
        The Alliance for Racial Equity in Child Welfare
                   6 Dimensions of Change


1.   Legislation, Policy Change and Finance Reform

2.   Youth, Parent and Community Partnership and Development

3.   Public Will and Communication

4.   Human Service Workforce Development

5.   Practice Change (site-based implementation)

6.   Research, Evaluation and Data-Based Decision-making

                                                               9
       Alliance for Racial Equity in Child Welfare
                   Promising Practices



   Scan of practices across the country

   9 Sites chosen for examination based on efforts to date

   4 sites chosen to become partners based on current
    work and alignment with the Alliance’s Theory of Change


Available at: http://www.cssp.org/major_initiatives/racialEquity.html
                Alliance Partner Sites
     Demographics, History, Systems & Partnerships
Guilford County, North Carolina                  Ramsey County, Minnesota
   -overrepresentation of African Americans         -representation of African Americans
   -African Americans and Whites have lived             Asians (Hmong), Hispanic/Latinos, and
       in Guilford since slavery                        and Native Americans
    -Walgreens sit-in county run system              -acknowledgement of continually
   -county led with state input potentially             changing demographics
       county run system                              -county driven effort
                                                      -part of a larger Health and Human
                                                         Services effort
                                                      -state and county efforts simultaneously



King County, Washington                          Woodbury County, Iowa
   -overrepresentation of African Americans         -overrepresentation of Native Americans
        and American Indians                        -influx since public law 282 in the 1950’s
   -state run system                                    state run system
   -child welfare, courts, and                      -community driven effort, with strong child
        Casey Family Programs driven                     welfare partnership (state and local)
   -county led with state support at this time       -strong partnerships with many agencies
                                                     -state led effort
      Dimension 1: Legislation, Policy Change and
                      Finance Reform



   Several states have taken on efforts to amend policy and
    finances through legislation



   Policies and financing can also be changed through
    agency administration




                                                           12
       Dimension 1: Legislation, Policy Change and
                                           Finance Reform
                                         Alliance Partner Site Efforts
          Guilford County, North Carolina                            Ramsey County, Minnesota
      - county led effort                                             - state and county efforts
                                                                  I963 Creation of the Minnesota Indian Affairs Council
                                                                  1978 Creation of the Chicano Latino Affairs Council
                                                                  1980 Creation of the Council on Black Minnesotans
                                                                  1985 The Council on Asian-Pacific Minnesotans
                                                                  1991 Office of Ombudsman for Families
                                                                  2001, African American Disparities Advisory Committee
                                                                      of the Minnesota Department of Human Services
                                                                  2005 Authorization to test tribal delivery of
                                                                           child welfare services




    King County, Washington                                         Woodbury County, Iowa
    - county effort led to state effort                         - community effort, county effort

2006 Washington Law Authorizes the department to                   2003 Passage of the 2003 Iowa Indian Child Welfare Act
   enter agreements with Indian tribes within the state.           2003 Passage of the Child Welfare Redesign
2007 Directs the secretary of the department of                    2008 Iowa State Indian Commission created as part of
  social and health services to convene an advisory                         Iowa’s Human Rights Division
  committee to analyze and make recommendations
  on the disproportionate representation of children of color
  in Washington's child welfare system
                                                                                                                          13
      Dimension 2: Youth, Parent and Community
            Partnership and Development



Community partners include

      - not only local private agencies

      - but stakeholders and community leaders in communities
        where there is great child welfare system involvement

      - and recipients of service (parents, alumni, foster parents)

The most effective efforts have community as true partners


                                                                      14
   Dimension 2: Youth, Parent and Community
         Partnership and Development

                   Alliance Partner Site Efforts

 Guilford County, North Carolina      Ramsey County, Minnesota
  youth focused study                    community parent’s group
  community meetings                     liaisons to the cultural
  fatherhood initiative                             communities




  King County, Washington                Woodbury County, Iowa

limited community involvement           community driven efforts
  plans for greater involvement



                                                                 15
   Dimension 3: Public Will and Communication



It is critical to develop a clear message both internally and
    externally regarding your intentions

               examples: reducing disproportionality

                              reducing disparities
                              (in what)

                              achieving race equity

    Whatever message you choose, make it clear and be
             sure it is connected to your goals
 (if you don’t know where you are going, you may end up somewhere else)
                                                                          16
  Dimension 3: Public Will and Communication


               Alliance Partner Site Efforts
  Guilford County, North Carolina           Ramsey County, Minnesota
   Message:                            Message: Communications Plan
   Vehicle:                          Vehicle: Internal Communications Efforts
                                       Role of Cultural Consultants

 King County, Washington                    Woodbury County, Iowa
Message: Reduce Disproportionality Message:
Vehicle: State level Plan          Vehicle: Internal Communications Efforts
           King County Coalition            ROC March & Press Conference
                                            CINCF Meetings
                                            Visits to the Iowa Capitol




                                                                        17
Dimension 4: Human Service Workforce Development




Not only does staff need to be informed of change – but provided
  with training to help them move toward providing more racially
  equitable services.


This includes not only line staff, but managers and administrative
staff.



                                                             18
     Dimension 4: Human Service Workforce
                               Development

                   Alliance Partner Site Efforts

  Guilford County, North Carolina      Ramsey County, Minnesota
         Undoing Racism
                                               CPS Efforts
                                               Data Efforts
                                        Race, the Power of Illusion
                                            Undoing Racism
                                            Skill Development


King County, Washington                 Woodbury County, Iowa
 Breakthrough Series Efforts                 Race, the Power of Illusion
                                              CINCF Meetings
                                              Undoing Racism




                                                                           19
          Dimension 5: Practice change
               (site-based implementation)




How are site programs designed to meet the needs of
  children and families of your demographic populations?



What can you do to better meet their needs?




                                                           20
           Dimension 5: Practice change
                  (site-based implementation)



Alliance Partner Site Efforts
Guilford County, North Carolina       Ramsey County, Minnesota
     Breakthrough Series                  Breakthrough Series
                                               Native Unit
                                         Culturally Unique Efforts


  King County, Washington                Woodbury County, Iowa
         OASIS                              Native Unit Efforts
     Breakthrough Series                      CPS Changes




                                                                 21
       Dimension 6: Research, Evaluation and
           Data-based Decision-making


                 Some Potential Data Sources

   AFCARS

   Racial Equity Scorecard

   Quality Service Reviews

   Compliance Reviews
        Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA)

                                               22
     Dimension 6: Research, Evaluation and
         Data-based Decision-making


Alliance Partner Site Efforts
Guilford County, North Carolina    Ramsey County, Minnesota
 Racial Equity Scorecard              Racial Equity Scorecard
 with Cohort Data over time        with Longitudinal Data over Time

King County, Washington              Woodbury County, Iowa
 Racial Equity Scorecard                Racial Equity Scorecard
with Longitudinal Data over time   with Longitudinal Data over Time




                                                              23
    Start with the Basics: The Basic Racial Equity Scorecard

          Disproportionality Rate, Rate per Thousand and Disparity Ratio Indices by Race
                                        for Children in Care

Race/Ethnicity     Estimated      Number in       Disproportionality     Rate Per      Disparity
                   Population    Out of Home            Rate            Thousand         Ratio
                     (0-17yrs)       Care                                             (compared to
                                                                                         white)

American Indian/
 Native Alaskan
    Asian/PI

     Black

     White



  All Children



   Hispanic
                                                                                               24
Start with the Basics: The Basic Racial Equity Scorecard
           Data Definitions – Disproportionality Rate




                                  Black _ in _ ChildWelfare 
                                 
                                  Total _ in _ ChildWelfare 
                                                             
         IONALITY
DISPROPORT                                                 
                                     Black _ population 
                 black

                                     Total _ population 
                                                         
                                                         
Start with the Basics: The Basic Racial Equity Scorecard
            Data Definitions – Rate per Thousand




      The number of children of a particular group
               in the child welfare system
       for every 1000 children of the same group
                in the general population
Start with the Basics: The Basic Racial Equity Scorecard
                 Data Definitions – Disparity Ratio




                                 Rates _ per _ thousandblack
DISPARITY black _ to _ white   
                                 Rates _ per _ thousandwhite
                   Example of a Populated Scorecard:
              Woodbury County Basic Racial Equity Scorecard
                   FY 06 (July 1, 2005 – June 30, 2006)
Disproportionality Rate, Rate per Thousand and Disparity Ratio Indices by Race for Children in
                                            Care
                                    (unduplicated counts)
Race/Ethnicity     Estimated        Number in    Disproportionality    Rate Per    Disparity
                   Population      Out of Home         Rate           Thousand       Ratio
                     (0-17yrs)         Care                                        (compared to
                                                                                      white)

   American        752 (2.8%)      111 (15.4%)          5.5              148            7
 Indian/ Native
    Alaskan
   Asian/PI        792 (2.9%)       11 (1.5%)           0.5              14            <1

     Black         1219 (4.5%)      64 (8.9%)            2               53             2

     White        19,696 (72.8%)   440 (60.9%)          0.8              22             1



  All Children    27,090 (100%)    723 (100%)



   Hispanic       4,631 (17.1%)     13 (1.8%)           0.1               3            <1
                                                                                            28
                           Tracking Data over Time

                        Initial Out of Home Placements
Rate per thousand children in the general population of the same race/ ethnicity
                    Woodbury County, Iowa FY05 - FY07

                  Woodbury County Data provided by Iowa Department of Human Services




                                           12 0 .0

                                           10 0 .0

                                            8 0 .0

                                            6 0 .0

                                            4 0 .0

                                            2 0 .0

                                             0 .0
                                                                     2004     2005     2006

                               Black                                   20       42      24
                               White                                   11       17      6
                               Am erican Indian                        87      106      51
                               Asian                                   10       13      3
                               Hispanic                               1.0       3       1
                                     Tracking Data over Time

                                  Initial Out of Home Placements
Rate per thousand children in the general population of the same race/ ethnicity
                    King County, Washington FY02 - FY06

   King County Data was obtained from the Washington Department of Social & Health Service Children’s Administration CAMIS




        30


        25

        20


        15


        10

           5


           0
                  2002             2003             2004             2005             2006

   Black            9                9                9                6                8
   White            3                2                2                2                2
   AI/AN            26               17              17               19               12
   As ian/PI        1                1                1                1                1
   His panic        5                4               4.0               4                3
Examining Approaches to Achieving Racial Equity
                in Child Welfare



        Thank you for your time

				
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