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					    Education and Social Inclusion/Equity

                        JRC/OECD Workshop
              Measuring Well-being and Societal Progress

Discussion for “Well-being at school and school as a way to increase well-
                         being” by Marc Demeuse

                             June 21, Milan

                        Koji Miyamoto
      OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation


                                                                      1
                         Outline

1.   Introduction

2.   Learning and social inclusion/equity

3.   Learning policies and social inclusion/equity

4.   Key messages for indicator development



                                                     2
                               1. Introduction
   OECD and CERI

                                        Directorate for
                                        Financial and
                                        Fiscal Affairs    Trade Directorate
      Directorate for Employment
      Labour & Social Affairs                                      Directorate for Public Management
                                                                   & territorial Development

Directorate for Education                  COUNCIL                    Economics Department

                                         SECRETARIAT                  Directorate for Food
          Statistics Directorate                                      Agriculture and Fisheries

                                         COMMITTEES
                                                                  Development Co-operation
           Directorate for Science                                Directorate
           Technology & Industry

                                     Environment Directorate                             3
                         1. Introduction
   OECD and CERI

Education and Training                    Indicators and Analysis Division
Policy Division



                     Directorate for Education
                       Directorate for Education




Centre for Educational Research
                                                   IMHE/PEB
and Innovation (CERI)


                                                                    4
                     1. Introduction
   The objective of this workshop –a reminder

    To produce recommendations for an indicator
    framework that can guide policy for the pursuit of well-
    being.

   My aim in this session:

    To identify a strategy for indicator development that would
    best describe the contribution of “learning” to the well-
    being (social inclusion and equality/equity dimensions).
                                                          5
    2. Learning and social inclusion/equity
    “Why do we care about the role of learning on social
    inclusion and inequality/equity?”

   Policy objectives and distributional reality.
   Multi-dimensionality of well-being indicators:

    - Index of Economic Well-being (Osberg, 2001)
    - European System of Social Indicators
    - Canadian Index of Wellbeing


     Comprehensive well-being indicators to date include
    social inclusion and inequality/equity dimensions.
                                                           6
    2. Learning and social inclusion/equity
    “Why do we care about the role of learning on social
    inclusion and inequality/equity?” (continued)

   Learning is an important determinant of economic and
    social outcomes:
    - Economic outcome
          Evidence from the human capital literature

    - Social outcome
          Education and civic/social engagement (e.g., voter turnout)
          Education and health outcomes (e.g., health behaviour,
         mortality)


                                                                  7
3. Learning policies and social inclusion/equity
    “Do we know which learning policies help to improve
    economic and social outcomes?”

   Economic outcome:
    - Theory and empirical evidence from the human capital literature
    - StatCan and OECD (2005): measured skills and economic outcome
    - OECD (2004): CVT and labour market performance

   Social outcome:
    - Limited theory and empirical evidence
    - CERI project on Social Outcome of Learning (SOL) for health and
    social/civic engagement

                                                                 8
3. Learning policies and social inclusion/equity
    “Do we know which learning policies help to improve
    economic and social outcomes?” (continued)
   Evidence from CERI project on Social Outcome of Learning (SOL)
    - Campbell (2006) on „learning & social/civic engagement‟
     limited empirical evidence show: “openness of classroom
    climate" and "degree to which students are able to discuss political and social
    issues in class" show positive impact on civic engagement.
     The mechanisms and the relative size of each of the possible effects
    remain unclear.
    - Feinstein et. al. (2006) on „learning & health outcomes‟

     Most empirical evidence does not link type/form of learning to outcomes
     The mechanisms and the relative size of each of the possible effects
    remain unclear.
                                                                           9
4. Key messages for indicator development

    “Are we ready to develop indicators that would describe the
    role of learning on social inclusion and equity?”

   Key issues to be addressed for indicator development:
    1) Common policy questions/objectives  resulting indicators should
       shed light on
    2) Common theoretical/conceptual framework  clarifies possible
       mechanisms and interactions
    3) Measurement property  reliability and validity
    4) Source data  availability, quality and cross-country coverage of
       existing/prospective data


                                                                  10
    4. Key messages for indicator development

     “Are we ready to develop indicators that would describe the
     role of learning on social inclusion and equity?” (continued)

    Indicators that describe the role of learning on economic
     outcomes:

     1)   Common policy questions/objectives  clearly defined
     2)   Common theoretical/conceptual framework  Yes
     3)   Measurement property  Yes (though not all)
     4)   Source data  Yes



                                                                 11
    4. Key messages for indicator development
     “Are we ready to develop indicators that would describe the
     role of learning on social inclusion and equity?” (continued)
    Indicators that describe the role of learning on social
     outcomes:
     1)   Common policy questions/objectives  Not clearly defined yet
     2)   Common theoretical/conceptual framework  Limited
     3)   Measurement property  Limited
     4)   Source data  Limited

    … however, indicator development on learning and social
     outcomes is still worthwhile to pursue since:
     – it provides a “signal” of how learning might be related to social
       outcomes
     – it facilitates discussion                                       12
    4. Key messages for indicator development

     “Are we ready to develop indicators that would describe the
     role of learning on social inclusion and equity?” (continued)

    Demeuse et.al. (2006):

     1) Common policy questions
     -   What are the extent of wellbeing at schools in EU?
     -   What are the extent to which schools increase the wellbeing in terms
         of economic, social and political effects?




                                                                     13
    4. Key messages for indicator development
     “Are we ready to develop indicators that would describe the
     role of learning on social inclusion and equity?” (continued)
    Demeuse et.al. (2006): -continued

     2) Common theoretical/conceptual framework

      Includes a well defined conceptual framework on equity, but…

     -   Limit to inequality indicators that are relevant (principle 2)
     -   Limit to social categories that are those that individuals cannot escape
         –social origin, rural/urban (principle 3)?
     -   Include judgement of citizens about the equity of the current
         educational system and the criteria underlying that judgement
         (principle 8).

      Conceptual framework of the impact of school equity on outcome?
                                                                       14
    4. Key messages for indicator development
     “Are we ready to develop indicators that would describe the
     role of learning on social inclusion and equity?” (continued)

    Demeuse et.al. (2006): -continued
     4) Measurement property

      reliability?
       - e.g. “ratio of costs of tertiary edu & primary edu” as an indicator
       describing the “quantity of education received for facilities available”.

      validity?
       - e.g., use of subjective indicators

     5) Source data

      Rich source, but cross-country comparability limited
                                                                        15
4. Key messages for indicator development
    “How might we develop indicators that would describe the role of
    learning on social inclusion and equity?”

   Clarify common policy questions.
      Questionnaires of policy objectives?

   To develop a robust theoretical/conceptual framework, so as to better
    understand:

     – how learning affects outcome (including mechanism and impact)
     – which type/form of learning affects outcome
     – Impact on a range of measurable outcomes –economic & social

      To include full account of possible linkages between inequalities in
       context, process and outcome, and map supporting evidence
      To include range of „social outcomes‟ (e.g. health, crime, active
       citizenship, etc.)
                                                                          16
4. Key messages for indicator development
    “How might we develop indicators that would describe the
    role of learning on social inclusion and equity?” (continued)
   Revise existing indicators:
     limit to indicators that are relevant, interpretable, valid/accurate and
    reliable/consistent
     carefully assess indicators that are subjective

   Data collection strategies that would suit indicator
    development:
    - adjust existing data collection strategy
    - new data collection strategy
     The OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult
    Competencies (PIAAC) as one important vehicle.
                                                                        17
                    Koji Miyamoto
               Koji.miyamoto@oecd.org

   OECD CERI project on “Social Outcome of Learning”
    (SOL)

   OECD “Programme for the International Assessment
    of Adult Competencies” (PIAAC)
                                                   18

				
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