Nelson Gender Equity by shimeiyan

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									                                                         New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering


  Research Universities in a Time of Change –
 Can We Continue Progress in Gender Equity in
      Materials Science and Engineering
                  Disciplines

                       May 18-20, 2008

                        Dr. Priscilla P. Nelson
             Provost and Sr. Vice President for Academic Affairs
                     New Jersey Institute of Technology
                             Newark, NJ 07102
                              pnelson@njit.edu
                         New Jersey Institute of Technology
Setting the Stage




     Where are we now?




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                                      New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering


  Europe and Asia outpace the U.S. in production
  of Science and Engineering (S&E) PhDs




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                                                              New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

        We are losing market share

  Europe and
  Asia are
  overtaking the
  US in scientific
  publications




                                                                                                   4
                     National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators: 2002.
                                                                     New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

  
    What’s happening in our faculty?
        –  Impact of new cohort influx
        –  Male faculty just don’t retire
        –  Impact of exodus from S&E and academe




                    From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral
                    Scientists and Engineers (2001) NAP                                                   5
                                                          New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering




 S&E PhDs are
 moving into
 nonacademic
 occupations:
 women and
 minorities




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                National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators: 2002.
                                                                           New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering


  
    From 1973 to 1995,
       converging % of
       women and men in
       academe
  
    The percent of the full
       time doctoral labor
       force:
        –  Has decreased in
           academia
        –  Has increased in the
           industrial sector


                         From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral
                         Scientists and Engineers (2001) NAP                                                    7
                                                              New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

         Future for our System of Tenure?

                               Faculty            1975          1995
                   Gender
                               Status              (%)           (%)
 We increasingly            T/TT                    46            33
 deliver our                Non-tenure
 curriculum        Female                           16            19
                            track
 using contract             Part-time               38            49
 instructors
                            T/TT                    59            48
                            Non-tenure
                    Male                            12            15
                            track
                            Part-time               29            36

                            Source: American Association of University Professors, 1998
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                                            New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

         Academic Workforce Trends
         
    Fewer US PhDs
         
    Demographics are driving changes
         
    Not enough US-born students choose STEM
              fields (including Engineering)
         
    Not enough graduates in Engineering make
              their careers in Engineering
         
    Not enough US-born (including women and
              minorities) choose academic careers
         
    More of our instruction is by contract and
              part-time faculty

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                                                   New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

  Budget Pressures on Higher Education
          
    Decreasing state appropriations
          
    Boards want to hold down tuition/fees
          
    Information systems (including library) costs
               increasing
          
    Students demand new technologies
          
    Salaries growing (unions)
          
    Not enough reinvestment in facilities, M&O
          
    Competition for international students is increasing
          
    Economic downturn?
          
    Public and politics – higher education is a private
               good (not a public good)

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                                                       New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

                  University Budgets

    Revenue                        
    Expenditure
     –  Net tuition/fee revenue          –  Curriculum delivery
     –  Appropriation                    –  Campus operations/services
     –  Giving (annual, earnings)        –  Major capitol investments

     –  Sponsored research               –  Sponsored research

                 Need to increase revenues and decrease
                 expenditures while increasing efficiency
                       and maintaining or enhancing quality.
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                                                          New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

          Sponsored Research Actions
          (Note: rarely is there net profit on sponsored research )
  
    Avoid grant programs that do     
    Specialize – expand influence
       not have full overhead                from local to regional to
  
    Increase federal and state            national to international in
       overhead rates                        chosen areas
  
    Earmarks                         
    Industry and university
                                             partnerships – “corporate”
  
    Increase income from                  university model
       equipment, space, facilities           –  Share equipment and staff to
  
    Share, borrow or hire-out                 reduce maintenance costs
       expensive staff                        –  Research and innovation
                                                 collaboration



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                                                       New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

             Potential Impact of all this
    
    Diversity goals may be more difficult to achieve – culture
         changes needed extend beyond ADVANCE projects.
    
    Successful faculty (including women and minorities) and
         students in the future will need to gain skills, expertise and
         resources in
          –  Entrepreneurialism, business
          –  Collaboration, deal making
          –  Networking
          –  Use of new technology
          –  Technology development and successful transfer

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                                    New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering




     Where could/should we be going?




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                                                               New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

  Colleges of Science and Engineering in the Future
      –  Universities will be/are looking to Science and Engineering
         colleges to find new ways of engaging industry – for profit
         and for national competitveness
                <1960’s             Professional CoEs
                1960’s to 2000’s    Academic CoEs
                >2010               ?
      –  Professional CoEs can better engage our domestic students
         •  Relevance for societal issues
         •  Ability to attract entrepreneurial students
      –  For Professional colleges, we need
         •  Revised P&T and rewards system
         •  Training for existing faculty to become more skilled at entrepreneurial
            activities
         •  Real investments to support faculty connecting with industry, developing
            sustained relationships
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                                             New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering


     
    Academe and Industry partnerships
           –  Partnerships are 2-way (not 1-way)
           –  For partnerships between academe and industry
              – we must build relationships:
               •  To be sustainable, must be win-win and
                  mission-consistent
               •  Establish buffering interfaces between
                  nonprofit and for-profit entities
               •  Must aim to engage both research and
                  education
               •  Must clearly resolve IP issues

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                                     New Jersey Institute of Technology




Flexible IP University    Strong University
       Position               IP Control




  Private Research       Potential Licensing
      Funding                 Income




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                                                                        New Jersey Institute of Technology




Corporate globalization
   –  Foreign universities offer attractive terms and are seen as more “sponsor-
      friendly.” Tsinghua University in Beijing, China nearly rivals the leading
      U.S. university, MIT, in its industry-sponsored research: $70.7M at
      Tsinghua vs. $81.5M at MIT in 2001.

Recent Survey of Industrial Research Institute (IRI) members finds:
   –  100% of respondents agree that IP issues are an impediment to working
      with U.S. universities
   –  50% of respondents agree that getting better IP terms is one of the
      reasons for choosing to work with a foreign university over a U.S.
      university

                “US-based corporations have become so disheartened and disgusted with the
                situation [i.e., negotiating intellectual property rights with US universities] they
                are now working with foreign universities, especially the elite institutions in
                France, Russia and China, which are more than willing to offer extremely
                favorable intellectual property terms.” Stan Williams (in recent testimony to
                Congress), Sr. Scientist, Hewlett-Packard Corporation
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                                                              New Jersey Institute of Technology




Percentage




             SOURCE: National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators-2004
                                                                                                   19
                                                 New Jersey Institute of Technology




                                                    >$180
                                                    Billion




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SOURCE: National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators-2004
                                                   New Jersey Institute of Technology




                                                                        <<2% of
                                                                        total
                                                                        industry
                                                                        R&D




Source: GUIRR http://www7.nationalacademies.org/guirr/CURRENT_IP.html
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 University-Industry Joint Efforts
                                               New Jersey Institute of Technology





    GUIRR (National Academies)
       –  Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable
          http://www7.nationalacademies.org/guirr/index.html

    UIDP - University-Industry Demonstration Partnership
     (UIDP) is crafting new approaches to sponsored research,
     licensing arrangements, and the broader strategic elements
     of a healthy, long-term university-industry relationship
     http://uidp.org/

    The University-Industry Research Collaboration Initiative,
     ACE Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF, was with
     ACE), “Working Together, Creating Knowledge”
     http://www.acenet.edu/bookstore/pdf/working-together.pdf



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                                                      New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

  Holistic Engagement with Industry and Other Universities




               http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/ur/images/continuum.gif                      23
                                                                     New Jersey Institute of Technology

Guiding Principles for University-Industry Endeavors
     
    Guiding Principles
           # 1: A successful university-industry collaboration should
             support the mission of each partner. Any effort in conflict
             with the mission of either partner will ultimately fail.
           # 2: Institutional practices and national resources should focus
              on fostering appropriate long-term partnerships between
              universities and industry.
           #3: Universities and industry should streamline negotiations to
             ensure timely conduct of the R&D and reduce barriers to
             implementation.
     
    And – partnerships should be holistic – involving research,
          innovation and education
                    “Guiding Principles for University-Industry Endeavors,” Joint Project of the
                    National Council of University Research Administrators and the Industrial
                    Research Institute, April 2006
                    http://www7.nationalacademies.org/guirr/Guiding_Principles.pdf                        24
                    Summary
                                          New Jersey Institute of Technology





    The world of higher education is being forced to
     change.

    Higher education is seen as a private good rather
     than public good.

    In the US – we are not replenishing the
     engineering workforce inside or outside of
     academia.

    In the future – universities need to figure out how
     to profit from research, a new kind of industry
     engagement.

    Universities will look to colleges of Science and
     Engineering to lead in this – need colleges to
     become more like professional schools.
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                    Summary
                                        New Jersey Institute of Technology





    Education must be agile and prepared for the
     future – and this means new kinds of leadership
     and academic partnerships

    Universities need to build sustainable and
     holistic relationships with industry (not just
     research projects).

    We need people trained to be entrepreneurial in
     the professoriate – true for new and existing
     faculty.

    We need to make opportunities for the people of
     industry and universities to act across sectors
     (including boards, residencies, informal and
     formal education).
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                 Summary
                                       New Jersey Institute of Technology





    Outstanding issues for cross-sector
     partnerships:
     –  Information infrastructure investment
         (cyberinfrastructure)
     –  Academic (and industry) rewards and
         awards systems
     –  Intellectual property
     –  Academic freedom and publishing
     –  Different cultures, languages, priorities, time
         frames

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                                                 New Jersey Institute of Technology
Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

      
    The public needs to believe that higher education
           is an important part of the nation’s economic
           engine.
      
    Industries need to believe that partnerships with
           academe are an important investment in their
           future.
      
    Faculty need to believe that engagement of
           industry is an important part of their responsibility.
      
    Students need to believe that a degree in Science
           and Engineering is the path to a career that
           addresses the important and relevant issues of
           their times.
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