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									Title: Writing a How-To Paragraph

Subject: English/Language Arts

Grade Level: 2

Overview:

Students will write a How-To paragraph giving simple directions on how to perform a
simple task.

Approximate Duration: 5 days- 25 minutes a day

Content Standards:

      Standard 2
           Students write competently for a variety of purposes and audiences.
      Standard 3
           Students communicate using standard English grammar, usage, sentence
       structure, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and handwriting.


Benchmarks:

      ELA-2-E1
        dictating or writing a composition that clearly states or implies a central idea
       with supporting details in a logical, sequential order;
      ELA-2-E2
          focusing on language, concepts, and ideas that show an awareness of the
       intended audience and/or purpose (e.g., classroom, real-life, workplace) in
       developing compositions;
      ELA-2-E3
          creating written texts using the writing process;
      ELA-2-E4
          using narration, description, exposition, and persuasion to develop
       compositions (e.g., notes, stories, letters, poems, logs);
      ELA-3-E1
          writing legibly;
      ELA-3-E2
          demonstrating use of punctuation (e.g., comma, apostrophe, period, question
       mark, exclamation mark), capitalization, and abbreviations in final drafts of
       writing assignments;
      ELA-3-E3
          demonstrating standard English structure and usage;


Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs):
      Writing

       Grade 2
        Develop compositions of one or more paragraphs using writing processes
           such as the following:
       (ELA-2-E3)

      Writing/Proofreading

        Write legible short paragraphs using proper indentation
       (ELA-3-E1)
        Capitalize grade-appropriate proper nouns, initials of a person’s name, and
           the salutation and closing of a friendly letter
       (ELA-3-E2)
        Write using standard English structure and usage, including:
       (ELA-3-E3)

Interdisciplinary Connections:

      Mathematics : Number and Number Relations
          In problem-solving investigations, students demonstrate an understanding of
       the real number system and communicate the relationships within that system
       using a variety of techniques and tools.
      Family and Consumer Sciences : Nutrition and Foods 5.15
          Demonstrate preparing all categories of menu items utilizing commercial
       materials to produce a variety of food products.


Educational Technology Standards:

      Identify, explain, and effectively use input, output and storage devices of
       computers and other technologies (e.g., keyboard, mouse, scanner, adaptive
       devices, monitor, printer floppy disk, hard drive).
      Use technology tools (e.g., publishing, multimedia tools, and word processing
       software) for individual and for simple collaborative writing, communication,
       and publishing activities for a variety of audiences.


Objectives:
1. TLW use correct capitalization and punctuation in their writing.
2. TLW utilize a graphic organizer for planning their How-To paragraph.
3. TLW compose a how-to paragraph consisting of at least 3 supporting sentences, a
main idea sentence and a concluding sentence.
Lesson Materials and Resources:
1. writing prompt (T)
2. paper to print on (S)
3. paper to write rough drafts (S)
4. pencil (S)
5. graphic organizer (S)
6. rubric/checklist for paragraph (S)
7. pre test (S)
8. post test (S)
9. laminated oversized sheet of loose leaf paper to model writing format and spacing
(T)
10. wet erase markers for loose leaf poster (T)
11. bottle of water (T)
12. lemonade mix (T)

Technology Tools and Materials:
Hardware:
Computer
Printer
Software:
Microsoft Word or other word processing software
Kidspiration
Other:
NA

Background Information:
Students will have had previous experience writing basic paragraphs and using graphic
organizers to organize those paragraphs before writing their rough drafts.

Lesson Procedures:
Pre Test is given prior to first day of unit.

Day 1
1. Review rules for classroom conduct.
2. Ask students to give you directions on how to perform a task such as exiting for a
fire drill. Make note of the order things must be done in. Point out sequencing words
used when giving directions such as "first", "then", "next" and "last" or "finally".
3. Read language book pages 338 and 339 about using exact words and giving
directions.

Day 2
1. Review rules for classroom conduct.
2. Demonstrate making an individual bottle of lemonade.
3. Using Kidspiration, complete a How To web for how to make the bottle of
lemonade. If Kidspiration is not available you can use an overhead of the graphic
organizer for the how-to paragraph have the students complete the sections together
aloud. Discuss the materials square and what to do when you don't need materials to
perform a specific task you are writing about (x out the square). What do you need to
make a bottle of lemonade? (water, lemonade mix) When students name water as a
material ask if you can use any water? Probe students to get them to list a bottle of
water.
4. Have students assist in naming the individual steps for making the lemonade. Try to
get them to be as specific as they can. HOTS: Why is it important to be specific when
giving directions on how to do something? Give examples of specific and non-specific
instructions and have them tell why the non-specific examples are not as helpful.
While completing the graphic organizer review the sequencing words talked about on
Day 1.

Day 3
1. Review rules for classroom conduct.
2. Review graphic organizer.
3. With help from students complete the graphic organizer for how to plant a seed.
(Students have done this themselves previously in Science class). Give students a copy
of the graphic organizer so they can fill in the parts whole group.
4. Using wipe off poster of a piece of notebook paper, demonstrate to students how to
indent the first line of the paragraph.
5. Give students their own loose leaf paper and have them write the paragraph on their
paper as you write it on the board. Emphasize the indention of the first line, but not the
lines following and the way that sentences follow each other and they don't all start on
their own individual lines.
6. Demonstrate how to transfer the information from the graphic organizer into a
paragraph.
4. Demonstrate methods of proofreading your paragraph- going over each sentence
individually, starting with the last one first; read through for fluency and coherency;
check for capital letters, punctuation, and indention.

Day 4
1. Review rules for classroom conduct.
2. With a student, model a game of Tic Tac Toe on the board.
3. Using student's input, complete the graphic organizer whole group on either
Kidspiration or on the overhead.
4. After checking students' graphic organizer, have them transfer the information
independently into a paragraph on paper.
5. Have students trade papers with a partner and proofread their partner's paper as
demonstrated in Day 3.
6. Have students check off their writing checklist.
7. Have students attempt to follow the directions on their partner’s paper to check for
accuracy.
Day 5
1. Review rules for classroom conduct.
2. Model how to add a two-digit math problem (without trading). Discuss the steps for
completing the problem. What do you do first? What next? What kinds of things do
you need to do the math problem?
3. Have students individually complete the graphic organizer while checking and
guiding.
4. After checking students’ graphic organizer, have them transfer the information into a
paragraph on paper.
5. Have students trade papers with a partner and proofread their partner's paper as
demonstrated in Day 3.
6. Have students check off their writing checklist.
7. Have students write a two-digit addition problem at the bottom of their paper and
trade papers with a partner. Students should attempt to follow the directions on their
partners’ paper to check for accuracy.
8. During students' free time they should type their compositions on the computer.
Students should use spell check to check for incorrect spellings and grammatical
errors. Compositions should be printed and handed in.

Post Test is given after last lesson.

Assessment Procedures:
Informal Assessment- Teacher observation of students' completion of graphic
organizers and paragraph rough drafts

Formal Assessment- Completed final paragraph

Accommodations/Modifications:
Visual Learners- overhead graphic organizer, individual graphic organizers

Aural Learners- discussion of how to topics, reading instructions aloud after they are
written

Interactive Learners- proofreading papers with partners, following directions to check
for fluency and accuracy

Print Learners- graphic organizer utilizing guiding words to help students organize for
transferring into paragraph form.
       ----- written by Lova Moreno


Reproducible Materials:

       Graphic Organizer
       Graphic Organizer With Materials Box
      Pre Test
      Post Test
      Paragraph Rubric


Explorations and Extensions:
Explorations: Students having difficulty completing the graphic organizers can work
with higher level students or one on one with the teacher to complete the graphic
organizer. Students unable to transfer the information from the graphic organizer into
paragraph form can work with the teacher practicing transferring various tasks from
the organizer to a paragraph form.

Extensions: Students finishing early can read books available in the class library that
concentrate on how to do certain things and can practice condensing this information
into a short how to paragraph.

Lesson Development Resources:
Writing with Primary Students by Terri W. Moore


Reflections:
1. What parts of this lesson could be refined to help students write their How-To
paragraphs more easily?
2. What part of this lesson proved most difficult to teach?
3. What would you change before you taught this lesson again?

Contact Information:
Lova Moreno
lovamoreno@suddenlink.net
McNeese State University

Additional Contacts:

MarcoPolo Lesson: No

								
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