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Correction Strategies for Reading Difficulties

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					                     Correction Strategies for Reading Difficulties
             Notes from Locating and Correcting Reading Difficulties (Eldon Ekwall)
    Reading Difficulty              Correction Strategy
1   Word-by-word reading                use material less difficult, or so familiar that vocabulary
    may be caused by                       presents no difficulty
    overdependence on phonics,          write own stories and read them aloud
    failure to recognize sight          read with tape of another student so is comfortable for
    words, failure to comprehend,          student to follow
    or bad habit (check student         practice choral reading; mechanical devise to maintain
    with much lower level to see if        reading speed
    reading improves to rule out        pace the reading with their hands
    bad habit)                          series of timed silent reading exercises
                                        student-chosen story to read aloud; read and dramatize
                                           conversation
                                        re-read poetry until comfortable
                                        children’s talk recorded as dialogue to read aloud
                                        Plays for Echo Reading or other commercial materials
                                           designed to develop expressive fluent oral reading


2   Incorrect phrasing                      increase sight vocabulary if that is the problem
    often ignores punctuation,              practice reading prepositional phrases
    especially commas; fails to             listen to recording of properly phrased material while
    pause or take a breath in the            following same written material
    proper place; may be                    use material presenting no vocabulary problem to practice
    insufficient word recognition            phrasing without experiencing difficulty in word attack
    or comprehension, or poor               teacher model proper phrasing during Read-Aloud
    reading habits;                         review meaning of punctuation marks and how they affect
                                             phrasing
                                            reproduce passages with large spaces where pauses should
                                             be
                                            mechanical device set to comfortable speed with whole
                                             phrases shown on screen at once
                                            read and dramatize conversation
                                            choral reading with students who phrase properly
                                            write sentences using crayons or colored pencils, making
                                             each phrase a different color
                                            read song lyrics without the music
                                            graduate students from reading orally one phrase per line,
                                             then one that carries over to another line, but with large
                                             space between words, then to normal print
3   Poor pronunciation                     teach phonics skills if this is the weakness indicated by
    may be weak on knowledge of             phonics survey
    phonics, or may possess                make lists of certain letter combinations that sound the
    knowledge, and not use it; may          same (ex: tion, ance) and students keep their own lists
    have a hearing deficit; may not        lists of affixes to pronounce
    understand diacritical                 individual word cards for frequently mispronounces words
    markings; may be a careless            create real and nonsense words using vowel or consonant
    reader; may have a speech               blends after an example is given (ex: ash...crash, slash,
    deficit; may have an accent;            scash, scrash
                                           use of diacritical marks found in the dictionary
                                           correct mispronunciation with little fuss; ignoring it
                                            reinforces incorrect pronunciation
                                           set up pairs of words with only one sound difference (ex:
                                            hit…heat), work on recognizing the differences. and use in
                                            sentences
                                           read aloud difficult material before a student reads it aloud
                                           hold throats to feel the difference in vibrations between
                                            different letters or words
                                           play guessing games that deal with sounds




4   Omissions                              call attention to omissions when they occur to make
    may omit letters, words, or             immediate correction
    phrases; insufficient word             use a paper guide to help younger readers, and discarded as
    recognition or word analysis            soon as possible
    skills (deliberate), or habit of       if whole words or phrases are consistently skipped, try
    omitting certain words                  picking up finger and bringing it down on each word as it
    (nondeliberate); omissions are          is read (to keep from pointing ahead)
    2nd most common miscue; see            choral reading or reading with a tape recorder
    if student can pronounce               ask detailed questions that require thorough reading, asking
    omitted word to check for               about only one sentence or paragraph at a time; students
    carelessness; test to see if            often omit adjectives, so ask questions that can be
    student lacks skills in phonics,        answered by using the adjectives in the passage
    structural analysis, context           help with word middles or word endings if this is where
    clues, or comprehension in              omissions occur
    order to use strategies to help        make lists of common letter combinations
    with these specific difficulties;
                                           record student reading orally, play back as he follows
    accompanying strategies
                                            along, circling all the omitted words; discuss possibilities
    should help with nondeliberate
                                            for omissions and the importance of reading all the words
    omissions
5   Repetitions                             call student’s attention to the repetition
    poor word recognition, word             read with tape recording
    analysis, or bad habit; test to         choral reading
    see if student lacks skills in          mechanical device designed to project certain words per
    phonics, structural analysis,            minute; prevent reader from regressing (emphasis is not on
    context clues, or                        speed itself, and should not move too quickly)
    comprehension in order to use           set a pace with the hand, and eyes keep up with the hand
    strategies to help with these            (do not let the eyes pace the hand)
    specific difficulties;                  record student reading orally, play back as he follows
    accompanying strategies                  along, circling all the repeated words; discuss possibilities
    should help with students with           for repetitions
    bad habits to give them                 provide easier or more familiar material where vocabulary
    confidence to help break the
                                             presents no problem
    habit
                                            read material silently before attempting to read orally
6   Inversions or reversals                 call attention to context so student can self-correct
    partial reversals within words          use window marker and covering words to encourage left-
    (ant/tan); whole word reversals          to-right reading pattern
    (nat/ant); letter reversals (b/d);      underline word as they are being read
    words within sentences (rat             pace with hand, practicing left-to-right eye movement
    chased cat, not cat chased rat);        draw arrows pointing right under troublesome words
    may have failed to develop              troublesome word cards to trace with two fingers
    left-to-right eye movement or           troublesome word flashcards
    reading pattern; might be
                                            type troublesome words to see left-to-right pattern forming
    neurological impairment; may
                                            pair troublesome letter pairs to “two-finger trace” as they
    not understand importance of
                                             are being sounded out
    order may be immaturity
    (more prevalent in younger              whole-word reversal: trace word and write it from memory
    students)                               3-dimensional letters to form words commonly reversed
                                            point to was or saw as it is used in a sentence
                                            use colored letter at beginning of words that are confused
                                            close eyes, trace 3-dimensional letter with finger while you
                                             trace it on his back (be sure to coordinate!)
                                            discuss importance of sequence of letters and words
                                            assign numbers to letters and use them side-by-side with
                                             words commonly reversed
7   Insertions                              call attention to insertions
    3rd most common miscue; oral            ask questions that require an exact answer to focus on
    language may surpass reading             descriptions as material is being read
    level, or might anticipate what         read with tape recorder or choral reading
    is coming rather than reading           pick up finger and bring it down on each word as it is read
    what’s written; strategies may          tape record student oral reading to play back as student
    help with these; if insertions           follows along, writing insertion as they are made; use
    don’t make sense, assume                 student-corrected passages as a basis for discussion of the
    comprehension problems                   problem
    might be present and look to
    those strategies
8    Substitutions                          troublesome word flashcards
     most common type of miscue             work on beginning syllables or sounds that cause difficulty
     in oral reading; if minor, may         use troublesome words in multiple choice questions
     be best to ignore; if consistent,      use words in sentences where student completes word to
     steps should be taken; if               make it sensible (ex: Tell me wh__ they will be home.)
     substitution is not in proper          assure students they have ample time for word attack, so
     context, may be word                    they will be less likely to finish the word with whatever
     recognition difficulty; check to        comes to mind
     see if it is carelessness              call attention to error and correct it when it occurs
                                            choral reading to reading with tape recorder
                                            ask questions reflecting errors so corrections can be made
                                            have student follow written copy as he listens to tape
                                             recording of his reading, circling substitutions
                                            if student feels pressure to read rapidly, encourage him to
                                             slow down


9    Basic sight words not known            troublesome word flashcards; use cards to form sentences
                                             and “fill in the blank” exercises
                                            underline troublesome words in sentences
                                            create picture dictionaries using troublesome words
                                            act out troublesome words when using flashcards
                                            use commonly confuses words in multiple choice questions
                                            read entire sentence, looking at beginning and ending of
                                             word to pronounce using context and configuration
                                            form words with letters cut from sandpaper or velvet
                                            trace words as student says them
                                            games such as Concentration reinforce sight words



10   Sight vocabulary not up to             read widely on many subjects on independent level
     grade level                            keep card file for new words; review them often
                                            read stories aloud while student follows along prior to
                                             reading independently, discussing new vocabulary
                                            build on student’s background of experience using films,
                                             pictures, etc., to build on listening-speaking vocabulary
                                            use picture-words cards; use word in sentence as well as by
                                             itself
                                            pantomime words as they are shown on cards
                                            teach student to rely on a consistent method for learning
                                             new words
11   guesses at words                     call attention to errors and give help in systematic analysis
     may lack knowledge of                 of the word
     phonics or structural analysis;      as student reads, underlines or circles guessed words;
     may not be using context              replace with blank spaces for student to fill in with correct
     clues; ask why student is             words
     guessing; test using a phonics       practice reading up to unknown word, sound out beginning
     survey                                and read a few words after it to try to figure out the word
                                          practice analyzing clue words to find synonyms and
                                           antonyms when reading to help use context rather than
                                           guessing
12   Consonant sounds not known           flashcards with picture of word using that consonant
                                          small cards with consonants are laid out; student picks up
                                           card as corresponding sound is made; graduate to
                                           beginning and then ending sounds heard in words spoken
                                          have students write letter that stands for beginning, ending,
                                           or both beginning and ending sounds as words are said
                                           aloud
                                          make lists of words given a beginning or ending sound
                                       
13   Vowel sounds not known               flashcards with pictures using that vowel sound along with
                                           the word marked long or short
                                          circle or underline words in the line with the same vowel
                                           sound as the first word
                                          small cards with vowels (use breve or macron to indicate
                                           short or long vowel sound) are laid out; student picks up
                                           card as corresponding vowel sound is made in a word
14   Vowel pairs and/or                   flashcards with vowel pair, blend, digraph, or diphthong
     consonant clusters not                shown along with a picture illustrating a word using that
     known (digraphs,                      letter combination
     diphthongs, blends)                  small cards with letter combinations are laid out; student
                                           picks up card as corresponding sound is made in a word
15   Lacks desirable structural           make lists of common word endings and have students
     analysis (morphology)                 underline the endings and pronounce their sounds
                                          use multiple choice questions requiring students to choose
                                           the word with the correct ending
                                          flashcards with common affixes; use to form new words
                                          flashcards to make compound words
                                          make lists of words that can be made from certain roots
                                          identify words with different prefixes that mean the same
                                           thing; ask students to underline them and add to the list
                                          make a list of words to which students add suffixes to give
                                           a certain meaning to the words (ex: one who dies or one
                                           which does work…working)
                                          fill in the blanks with correct word form (give root form)
                                          practice dividing words into syllables
16   Unable to use context clues       use unknown words in sentences to show how meaning can
                                        be derived by the context (other “clue” words)
                                       construct sentences with missing words with only the first
                                        letter present; graduate to whole words missing
                                       “fill in the blank” exercises with multiple choice answers
                                       make tape recordings with key words omitted; students fill
                                        in blank spaces on script as tape is played (start by using
                                        multiple choice, then graduate to blank spaces)
                                       practice reading up to unknown word, sound out beginning
                                        and read a few words after it to try to figure out the word
                                       sentences that can be completed using multiple choice
                                        pictures
                                       sentences in which only part of a word missing from
                                        context is spelled
                                       pictures to illustrate certain words omitted from tape
                                        recording
                                       sentences using words that are spelled alike but have
                                        different meanings or pronunciations such as lead or read
17   Contractions not known            write two words next to contracted form; students make up
                                        sentences using both forms
                                       matching exercises
                                       Concentration game using both forms to match
                                       students underline words to be contracted, rewriting
                                        paragraphs using the appropriate contractions
                                       contracting races between two student: who can call out
                                        contractions first when two words are given
                                       use newspapers to find contractions or words that could be
                                        contracted
                                       “transcribe” conversations using contractions and the
                                        words used to form them
18   Comprehension inadequate       

19   Vocabulary inadequate          

20   Unaided recall scanty          

21   Response poorly organized      

22   Unable to locate information   

23   Inability to skim              

24   Inability to adjust rate to    
     difficulty of material
25   Low rate of speed                 

26   High rate at expense of           
     accuracy

27   Voicing-lip movement                 hum a familiar tune while reading
     “pronounces” each word as it         pace reading with hands, faster than they normally speak
     is read; not likely to gain any       (not effective with younger students)
     speed; may be “voicing” words        mechanical device set too fast for reading orally (not
     while reading silently                effective with younger students)
                                          hold tongue at roof of mouth with teeth and lips closed
                                           during reading
28   Lacks knowledge of the               learning the alphabet song
     alphabet                             present a few letters each day, discussing their
                                           characteristics, height, etc.
                                          practice looking at, saying, pointing to, and writing a letter
                                          trace letters cut from sandpaper or velvet while saying the
                                           letter
                                          trace letters in sand or salt
                                          teach one-fourth or one-third of the alphabet rather than the
                                           entire alphabet at once
29   Written recall limited by         
     spelling ability

30   Undeveloped dictionary            
     skills

				
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