Correction Strategies for Reading Difficulties

Document Sample
Correction Strategies for Reading Difficulties Powered By Docstoc
					                     Correction Strategies for Reading Difficulties
             Notes from Locating and Correcting Reading Difficulties (Eldon Ekwall)
    Reading Difficulty              Correction Strategy
1   Word-by-word reading                use material less difficult, or so familiar that vocabulary
    may be caused by                       presents no difficulty
    overdependence on phonics,          write own stories and read them aloud
    failure to recognize sight          read with tape of another student so is comfortable for
    words, failure to comprehend,          student to follow
    or bad habit (check student         practice choral reading; mechanical devise to maintain
    with much lower level to see if        reading speed
    reading improves to rule out        pace the reading with their hands
    bad habit)                          series of timed silent reading exercises
                                        student-chosen story to read aloud; read and dramatize
                                        re-read poetry until comfortable
                                        children’s talk recorded as dialogue to read aloud
                                        Plays for Echo Reading or other commercial materials
                                           designed to develop expressive fluent oral reading

2   Incorrect phrasing                      increase sight vocabulary if that is the problem
    often ignores punctuation,              practice reading prepositional phrases
    especially commas; fails to             listen to recording of properly phrased material while
    pause or take a breath in the            following same written material
    proper place; may be                    use material presenting no vocabulary problem to practice
    insufficient word recognition            phrasing without experiencing difficulty in word attack
    or comprehension, or poor               teacher model proper phrasing during Read-Aloud
    reading habits;                         review meaning of punctuation marks and how they affect
                                            reproduce passages with large spaces where pauses should
                                            mechanical device set to comfortable speed with whole
                                             phrases shown on screen at once
                                            read and dramatize conversation
                                            choral reading with students who phrase properly
                                            write sentences using crayons or colored pencils, making
                                             each phrase a different color
                                            read song lyrics without the music
                                            graduate students from reading orally one phrase per line,
                                             then one that carries over to another line, but with large
                                             space between words, then to normal print
3   Poor pronunciation                     teach phonics skills if this is the weakness indicated by
    may be weak on knowledge of             phonics survey
    phonics, or may possess                make lists of certain letter combinations that sound the
    knowledge, and not use it; may          same (ex: tion, ance) and students keep their own lists
    have a hearing deficit; may not        lists of affixes to pronounce
    understand diacritical                 individual word cards for frequently mispronounces words
    markings; may be a careless            create real and nonsense words using vowel or consonant
    reader; may have a speech               blends after an example is given (ex: ash...crash, slash,
    deficit; may have an accent;            scash, scrash
                                           use of diacritical marks found in the dictionary
                                           correct mispronunciation with little fuss; ignoring it
                                            reinforces incorrect pronunciation
                                           set up pairs of words with only one sound difference (ex:
                                            hit…heat), work on recognizing the differences. and use in
                                           read aloud difficult material before a student reads it aloud
                                           hold throats to feel the difference in vibrations between
                                            different letters or words
                                           play guessing games that deal with sounds

4   Omissions                              call attention to omissions when they occur to make
    may omit letters, words, or             immediate correction
    phrases; insufficient word             use a paper guide to help younger readers, and discarded as
    recognition or word analysis            soon as possible
    skills (deliberate), or habit of       if whole words or phrases are consistently skipped, try
    omitting certain words                  picking up finger and bringing it down on each word as it
    (nondeliberate); omissions are          is read (to keep from pointing ahead)
    2nd most common miscue; see            choral reading or reading with a tape recorder
    if student can pronounce               ask detailed questions that require thorough reading, asking
    omitted word to check for               about only one sentence or paragraph at a time; students
    carelessness; test to see if            often omit adjectives, so ask questions that can be
    student lacks skills in phonics,        answered by using the adjectives in the passage
    structural analysis, context           help with word middles or word endings if this is where
    clues, or comprehension in              omissions occur
    order to use strategies to help        make lists of common letter combinations
    with these specific difficulties;
                                           record student reading orally, play back as he follows
    accompanying strategies
                                            along, circling all the omitted words; discuss possibilities
    should help with nondeliberate
                                            for omissions and the importance of reading all the words
5   Repetitions                             call student’s attention to the repetition
    poor word recognition, word             read with tape recording
    analysis, or bad habit; test to         choral reading
    see if student lacks skills in          mechanical device designed to project certain words per
    phonics, structural analysis,            minute; prevent reader from regressing (emphasis is not on
    context clues, or                        speed itself, and should not move too quickly)
    comprehension in order to use           set a pace with the hand, and eyes keep up with the hand
    strategies to help with these            (do not let the eyes pace the hand)
    specific difficulties;                  record student reading orally, play back as he follows
    accompanying strategies                  along, circling all the repeated words; discuss possibilities
    should help with students with           for repetitions
    bad habits to give them                 provide easier or more familiar material where vocabulary
    confidence to help break the
                                             presents no problem
                                            read material silently before attempting to read orally
6   Inversions or reversals                 call attention to context so student can self-correct
    partial reversals within words          use window marker and covering words to encourage left-
    (ant/tan); whole word reversals          to-right reading pattern
    (nat/ant); letter reversals (b/d);      underline word as they are being read
    words within sentences (rat             pace with hand, practicing left-to-right eye movement
    chased cat, not cat chased rat);        draw arrows pointing right under troublesome words
    may have failed to develop              troublesome word cards to trace with two fingers
    left-to-right eye movement or           troublesome word flashcards
    reading pattern; might be
                                            type troublesome words to see left-to-right pattern forming
    neurological impairment; may
                                            pair troublesome letter pairs to “two-finger trace” as they
    not understand importance of
                                             are being sounded out
    order may be immaturity
    (more prevalent in younger              whole-word reversal: trace word and write it from memory
    students)                               3-dimensional letters to form words commonly reversed
                                            point to was or saw as it is used in a sentence
                                            use colored letter at beginning of words that are confused
                                            close eyes, trace 3-dimensional letter with finger while you
                                             trace it on his back (be sure to coordinate!)
                                            discuss importance of sequence of letters and words
                                            assign numbers to letters and use them side-by-side with
                                             words commonly reversed
7   Insertions                              call attention to insertions
    3rd most common miscue; oral            ask questions that require an exact answer to focus on
    language may surpass reading             descriptions as material is being read
    level, or might anticipate what         read with tape recorder or choral reading
    is coming rather than reading           pick up finger and bring it down on each word as it is read
    what’s written; strategies may          tape record student oral reading to play back as student
    help with these; if insertions           follows along, writing insertion as they are made; use
    don’t make sense, assume                 student-corrected passages as a basis for discussion of the
    comprehension problems                   problem
    might be present and look to
    those strategies
8    Substitutions                          troublesome word flashcards
     most common type of miscue             work on beginning syllables or sounds that cause difficulty
     in oral reading; if minor, may         use troublesome words in multiple choice questions
     be best to ignore; if consistent,      use words in sentences where student completes word to
     steps should be taken; if               make it sensible (ex: Tell me wh__ they will be home.)
     substitution is not in proper          assure students they have ample time for word attack, so
     context, may be word                    they will be less likely to finish the word with whatever
     recognition difficulty; check to        comes to mind
     see if it is carelessness              call attention to error and correct it when it occurs
                                            choral reading to reading with tape recorder
                                            ask questions reflecting errors so corrections can be made
                                            have student follow written copy as he listens to tape
                                             recording of his reading, circling substitutions
                                            if student feels pressure to read rapidly, encourage him to
                                             slow down

9    Basic sight words not known            troublesome word flashcards; use cards to form sentences
                                             and “fill in the blank” exercises
                                            underline troublesome words in sentences
                                            create picture dictionaries using troublesome words
                                            act out troublesome words when using flashcards
                                            use commonly confuses words in multiple choice questions
                                            read entire sentence, looking at beginning and ending of
                                             word to pronounce using context and configuration
                                            form words with letters cut from sandpaper or velvet
                                            trace words as student says them
                                            games such as Concentration reinforce sight words

10   Sight vocabulary not up to             read widely on many subjects on independent level
     grade level                            keep card file for new words; review them often
                                            read stories aloud while student follows along prior to
                                             reading independently, discussing new vocabulary
                                            build on student’s background of experience using films,
                                             pictures, etc., to build on listening-speaking vocabulary
                                            use picture-words cards; use word in sentence as well as by
                                            pantomime words as they are shown on cards
                                            teach student to rely on a consistent method for learning
                                             new words
11   guesses at words                     call attention to errors and give help in systematic analysis
     may lack knowledge of                 of the word
     phonics or structural analysis;      as student reads, underlines or circles guessed words;
     may not be using context              replace with blank spaces for student to fill in with correct
     clues; ask why student is             words
     guessing; test using a phonics       practice reading up to unknown word, sound out beginning
     survey                                and read a few words after it to try to figure out the word
                                          practice analyzing clue words to find synonyms and
                                           antonyms when reading to help use context rather than
12   Consonant sounds not known           flashcards with picture of word using that consonant
                                          small cards with consonants are laid out; student picks up
                                           card as corresponding sound is made; graduate to
                                           beginning and then ending sounds heard in words spoken
                                          have students write letter that stands for beginning, ending,
                                           or both beginning and ending sounds as words are said
                                          make lists of words given a beginning or ending sound
13   Vowel sounds not known               flashcards with pictures using that vowel sound along with
                                           the word marked long or short
                                          circle or underline words in the line with the same vowel
                                           sound as the first word
                                          small cards with vowels (use breve or macron to indicate
                                           short or long vowel sound) are laid out; student picks up
                                           card as corresponding vowel sound is made in a word
14   Vowel pairs and/or                   flashcards with vowel pair, blend, digraph, or diphthong
     consonant clusters not                shown along with a picture illustrating a word using that
     known (digraphs,                      letter combination
     diphthongs, blends)                  small cards with letter combinations are laid out; student
                                           picks up card as corresponding sound is made in a word
15   Lacks desirable structural           make lists of common word endings and have students
     analysis (morphology)                 underline the endings and pronounce their sounds
                                          use multiple choice questions requiring students to choose
                                           the word with the correct ending
                                          flashcards with common affixes; use to form new words
                                          flashcards to make compound words
                                          make lists of words that can be made from certain roots
                                          identify words with different prefixes that mean the same
                                           thing; ask students to underline them and add to the list
                                          make a list of words to which students add suffixes to give
                                           a certain meaning to the words (ex: one who dies or one
                                           which does work…working)
                                          fill in the blanks with correct word form (give root form)
                                          practice dividing words into syllables
16   Unable to use context clues       use unknown words in sentences to show how meaning can
                                        be derived by the context (other “clue” words)
                                       construct sentences with missing words with only the first
                                        letter present; graduate to whole words missing
                                       “fill in the blank” exercises with multiple choice answers
                                       make tape recordings with key words omitted; students fill
                                        in blank spaces on script as tape is played (start by using
                                        multiple choice, then graduate to blank spaces)
                                       practice reading up to unknown word, sound out beginning
                                        and read a few words after it to try to figure out the word
                                       sentences that can be completed using multiple choice
                                       sentences in which only part of a word missing from
                                        context is spelled
                                       pictures to illustrate certain words omitted from tape
                                       sentences using words that are spelled alike but have
                                        different meanings or pronunciations such as lead or read
17   Contractions not known            write two words next to contracted form; students make up
                                        sentences using both forms
                                       matching exercises
                                       Concentration game using both forms to match
                                       students underline words to be contracted, rewriting
                                        paragraphs using the appropriate contractions
                                       contracting races between two student: who can call out
                                        contractions first when two words are given
                                       use newspapers to find contractions or words that could be
                                       “transcribe” conversations using contractions and the
                                        words used to form them
18   Comprehension inadequate       

19   Vocabulary inadequate          

20   Unaided recall scanty          

21   Response poorly organized      

22   Unable to locate information   

23   Inability to skim              

24   Inability to adjust rate to    
     difficulty of material
25   Low rate of speed                 

26   High rate at expense of           

27   Voicing-lip movement                 hum a familiar tune while reading
     “pronounces” each word as it         pace reading with hands, faster than they normally speak
     is read; not likely to gain any       (not effective with younger students)
     speed; may be “voicing” words        mechanical device set too fast for reading orally (not
     while reading silently                effective with younger students)
                                          hold tongue at roof of mouth with teeth and lips closed
                                           during reading
28   Lacks knowledge of the               learning the alphabet song
     alphabet                             present a few letters each day, discussing their
                                           characteristics, height, etc.
                                          practice looking at, saying, pointing to, and writing a letter
                                          trace letters cut from sandpaper or velvet while saying the
                                          trace letters in sand or salt
                                          teach one-fourth or one-third of the alphabet rather than the
                                           entire alphabet at once
29   Written recall limited by         
     spelling ability

30   Undeveloped dictionary            

Shared By: