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					College English Integrated Course 2

Unit Seven: Learning about English


                              Part I     Part II


                              Part III   Part IV



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Unit 7: Learning about English                           NCE-B2




                                 Part I:
                                 Pre-Reading Tasks

                                  Task One: The Questions

                                    1. 2. 3. 4




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                       NCE-B2

      Part II: Text A
         Vocabulary to Read

          p1. The story of our English…    p11. The Anglo-Saxons passed…
          P2. French, for example, has…    P12. The next big influence on…
          p3. Walkman is fascinating…      p13. Then into this relatively…
          p4. How did the language…        P14. Another flood of new…
          p5. Great speakers often use…    P15. Around 1476 William…
          p6. Virtually every one of…      P16. As settlers landed in…
          p7. When Julius Caesar…          P17. That tolerance for change…
          p8. Two centuries ago an…        P18. I like that idea. Consider…
          p9. Identifying similar words…   P19. Indeed, the English…
          p10. New words came with…




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2


          Language Points
             words & expressions         sentence explanations
             cultural notes
          Language Sense Enhancement
             Poetry      Quotations    Humorous story        Movie        Web-links

          Comprehension
            Content questions            Points for Discussion
            Text Organization
          Language Focus
             1.Vocabulary
                Dictation     Gaps Filling   Multiple Choice          Rewriting
                Completing        Synonyms        Usage


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                        NCE-B2


             2. Structure
                Sentence Completion       Rewriting
           Comprehensive Exercises
                  Cloze              Translation

           Chinese Version of Text A
         Part III:
               Words & Phrases to Learn      Comprehension Check

               Translation       Language Practice

         Part IV:
               Essay Writing     Model paper




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                 NCE-B2




                Part I: Pre-reading Task

                                              script

            1. What is the passage about?

            2. What’s your impression of the English
            language?




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                NCE-B2




                 Part I: Pre-reading Task

         3. Can you give one or two examples to
         illustrate(说明) the messiness of the English
         language?

         4. Can you guess what the texts in this unit
         are going to be about?



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                        NCE-B2

                            Script for the Recording

      English is the most widely used language in the
      history of our planet. One in every seven human
      beings can speak it. More than half of the world’s
      books and three quarters of international mail are
      in     English. Of         all   languages, English has               the
      largest vocabulary —perhaps as many as two
      million words — and one of the noblest bodies
      of literature.

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       Nonetheless, let’s face it. English is a crazy
       language. There is no egg in eggplant,
       neither pine or apple in pineapple and
       ham        in     a hamburger. English            muffins
       weren’t invented in England or French fries
       in     France.        Sweetmeats   are candy, while
       sweetbreads, which aren’t sweet, are meat.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                               NCE-B2



       Sometimes I wonder if all English speakers
       should be sent to a madhouse. In what other
       language        do people drive on a parkway and
       park in a driveway? Ship by truck and send
       cargo by ship? Have noses that run and feet that
       smell?




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Unit 7: Learning about English                            NCE-B2


      How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the
      same, while a wise guy and a wise man are
      opposites? How can overlook and oversee are
      opposites, while quite a lot and quite a few are
      alike? How can the weather be hot as hell one day
      and cold as hell the next?




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Unit 7: Learning about English                            NCE-B2




   You have to marvel at the glorious messiness of a
   language in which your house can burn up as it
   burns down, in which you fill in a form by filling it
   out and in which your alarm clock goes off by going
   on.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                              NCE-B2



  English was invented by people, not computers, and
  it reflects the creativity of the human race, which, of
  course, isn’t a race at all. That is why when stars are
  out they are visible, but when the lights are out they are
  invisible. And why, when I wind up my watch I start it,
  but when I wind up this speech I end it.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2




                           Part II:Text A
      Some languages resist the introduction of new
      words. Others, like English, seem to welcome
      them. Robert Macneil looks at the history of
      English and comes to the conclusion that its
      tolerance for change represents deeply rooted
      ideas of freedom.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                       NCE-B2



     The Glorious Messiness of English
                                          Robert Macneil
          1      The story of our English language is
          typically one of massive stealing from
          other languages. That is why English today
          has an estimated vocabulary of over one
          million        words,   while    other             major
          languages have far fewer.

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      2     French, for example, has only about 75,000
      words, and that includes English expressions like
      snack bar and hit parade. The French, however, do
      not like borrowing foreign words because they
      think it corrupts their language. The government
      tries to ban words from English and declares that
      Walkman is not desirable; so they invent a word,
      balladeur, which French kids are supposed to say
      instead — but they don’t.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2




      3       Walkman is fascinating because it isn’t even
      English. Strictly speaking, it was invented by the
      Japanese manufacturers who put two simple
      English words together to name their product.
      That doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the
      French. Such is the glorious messiness of English.



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        That      happy          tolerance,   that       willingness to
        accept words from anywhere, explains the
        richness of English and why it has become, to a
        very real extent, the first truly global language.

        4       How did the language of a small island off
        the coast of Europe become the language of the
        planet — more widely spoken and written than
        any other has ever been?

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      The history of English is present in the first words
      a child learns about identity (I, me, you);
      possession (mine, yours); the body (eye, nose,
      mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities (food,
      water). These words all come from Old English or
      Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language.
      Usually short and direct, these are words we still
      use today for the things that really matter to us.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                    NCE-B2


      5       Great speakers often use Old English to
      arouse our emotions. For example, during World
      War II, Winston Churchill made this speech,
      stirring the courage of his people against Hitler’s
      armies positioned to cross the English
      Channel:―We shall fight on the beaches, we shall
      fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the
      fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills.
      We shall never surrender.‖


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2


      6     Virtually every one of those words came from
      Old English, except the last — surrender, which
      came from Norman French. Churchill could have
      said, ―We shall never give in,‖ but it is one of the
      lovely — and powerful — opportunities of
      English that a writer can mix, for effect, different
      words from different grounds.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                     NCE-B2


        Yet there is something direct to the heart that
         speaks to us from the earliest words in                            our
         language.

    7 When Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 B.C.,
         English did not exist. The Celts, who inhabited the
         land, spoke languages that survive today mainly
         as Welsh. Where those languages came from is still
         a mystery, but there is a theory.


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     8       Two centuries ago an English judge in India
     noticed that several words in Sanskrit closely
     resembled some words in Greek and Latin. A
     systematic study revealed that many modern
     languages descended from a common parent
     language, lost to us because nothing was written
     down.




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      9       Identifying similar words, linguists have come
      up with what they call an Indo-European parent
      language, spoken until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These
      people had common words for snow, bee, and wolf
      but no word for sea. So some scholars assume they

      lived somewhere in north-central Europe, where it
      was cold.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2




      Traveling east,            some established the languages
      of India and Pakistan, and others drifted west
      toward the gentler climates of Europe. Some who
      made the earliest move                westward                 became
      known as the Celts, whom Caesar’s armies found
      in Britain.




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 10      New words came with the Germanic tribes —
      the Angles, the Saxons, etc. — that slipped
      across the North Sea to settle in Britain in the 5th
      century. Together they formed what we call
      Anglo-Saxon society.
 11     The Anglo-Saxons passed on to us their farming
      vocabulary, including sheep, ox, earth, wood, field
      and work. They must have also enjoyed
      themselves because they gave us the word
      laughter.


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     12 The next big influence on English was Christi-
     anity. It enriched the Anglo-Saxon vocabulary with
     some 400 to 500 words from Greek and Latin,
     including angel, disciple and martyr.
     13 Then into this relatively peaceful land came the
     Vikings from Scandinavia. They also brought to
     English many words that begin with sk, like sky and
     skirt. But Old Norse and English both survived,
     and so you can rear a child (English) or raise a
     child (Norse).


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2


      Other such pairs survive: wish and want, craft
      and skill, hide and skin. Each such addition gave
      English more richness, more variety.

      14        Another flood of new vocabulary occurred
      in 1066, when the Normans conquered England.
      The country now had three languages:




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       French for the nobles, Latin for the churches and
       English for the common people. With three
       languages competing, there were sometimes
       different terms for the same thing. For example,
       Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the
       Normans, royal and sovereign entered the
       language as alternatives. The extraordinary thing
       was that French did not replace English.




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        Over three centuries English gradually
        swallowed French, and by the end of the 15th
        century what had developed was a modified,
        greatly enriched language — Middle English —
        with about 10,000 ―borrowed‖ French words.
        15 Around 1476 William Caxton set up a
        printing press in England and started a
        communications revolution.



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       Printing brought into English the wealth of
       new      thinking that     sprang from the
       European Renaissance. Translations of Greek
       and Roman classics were poured onto the
       printed page, and with them thousands of Latin
       words like capsule and habitual, and Greek
       words like catastrophe and thermometer. Today
       we still borrow from Latin and Greek to name
       new inventions, like video, television and
       cyberspace.



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         16     As settlers landed in North America and
         established the United States, English found
         itself with two sources — American and British.
         Scholars in Britain worried that the language
         was out of control, and some wanted to set up an
         academy to decide which words were proper and
         which were not. Fortunately their idea has never
         been put into practice.



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      17     That tolerance for change also represents
      deeply rooted ideas of freedom. Danish scholar
      Otto Jespersen wrote in 1905, ―The English
      language would not have been what it is if the
      English had not been for centuries great
      respecters of the liberties of each individual and if
      everybody had not been free to strike out new
      paths for himself.‖




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         18     I like that idea. Consider that the same
         cultural soil producing the English language also
         nourished the great principles of freedom and
         rights of man in the modern world. The first
         shoots sprang up in England, and they grew
         stronger in America. The English-speaking
         peoples have defeated all efforts to build fences
         around their language.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2



      19         Indeed, the English language is not the
      special preserve of grammarians, language police,
      teachers, writers or the intellectual elite. English
      is, and always has been, the tongue of the
      common man.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                    NCE-B2




                                 a. large in scale, amount, or
               massive           degree 大量的,大规模的

         e.g. The ancient temple’s massive stone
         pillars had begun to crumble.

   Translate:
          她喝了大量的烈性酒。
          She drank a massive amount of alcohol.
         近年来学生的数量有了巨大的增长。
         In recent years there has been a massive
         increase in the number of students.
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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2




                                 n. a small meal
                      snack
                                 快餐,点心

           e.g. I usually have a snack of a hamburger
           and a glass of coke at lunchtime.

     Translate:
         这些儿童在早餐与午餐之间有牛奶与饼干作点心。
          The children have a mid-morning snack of
          milk and biscuits.
          snack bar 快餐柜,小吃店
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Unit 7: Learning about English                                     NCE-B2



                                 vt. 1. cause errors to appear in
               corrupt
                                 讹用,使(语言)变得不标准

       e.g. Has Japanese been corrupted by the
       introduction of foreign words?
     Translate:
         学会裁定这样的表达法是不能接受的,因为
         它们损害了语言的纯洁性。
          The Academy ruled that such expressions
          were not acceptable, as they corrupted the
          language.
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Unit 7: Learning about English                                     NCE-B2


                                 vt. 2. cause to act dishonestly in
                  corrupt         return for personal gains
                                     腐蚀,贿赂,使堕落

       e.g. The former mayor turned out to have been
       corrupted by the desire for money and power.
     Translate:
         他因企图向税务官员行贿而被判入狱。
         He was sent to prison for trying to corrupt a tax
         official with money.
         我相信宣扬暴力的电影会使年轻人堕落。
         I believe films of violence would corrupt young
         people.
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                                 a. immoral; dishonest;
                  corrupt
                                    containing errors or changes


             corrupt morals           腐败风气
             corrupt officials         贪官污吏
             a corrupt manuscript      有错误的文稿
             corrupt practices         舞弊行为
             corrupt air               污浊空气




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                        NCE-B2


                                 vt. forbid (sth.) officially(used in
                ban              the pattern: ban sth.; ban sb. from
                                 sth./doing sth.) 禁止,取缔

         e.g. Tom was banned from driving for six months
         after being caught speeding again.
      Translate:
         科学家们呼吁国际社会尽快创立国际准则来
         禁止克隆人类。
         Scientists called on the international community to
         create an international convention to ban human
         cloning as soon as possible.

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                       ban        n. (followed by on)

         e.g. The government is considering a total
         ban on cigarette advertising.
    Translate:
         禁止地下核实验是走向裁军的关键一步。
         The ban on underground nuclear tests is a vital step
         toward disarmament.
         这个剧院里禁止吸烟。
         There is a ban on smoking in this theatre.
           lay/put (a) ban on 禁止(某事)
          remove/lift the ban (on) (对…)解禁
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Unit 7: Learning about English                                     NCE-B2


                                 v. 1) make or design 发明
                   invent           2) give (sth. that doesn’t
                                 exist or is not true) 虚构
         If somebody invents something, they are the first
       person to think of it or make it.
         If somebody discovers something, they find out
       about something which exists but which was not
       previously known.
       e.g. James Watt invented the steam engine.
     Translate:
           这部小说里所有的人物都是虚构的。
           All the characters in the novel are invented.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2


                                     if one uses words, applies
              strictly speaking      rules, etc. in their exact
                                     sense 严格地讲

            e.g. He’s not strictly speaking an artist; he
            is more of a performer.

    Translate:
             严格说来她并不胜任这项工作。
            Strictly speaking she was not qualified
            for the job.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                    NCE-B2



                                  n. followed by of/for
                    tolerance        1) 容忍,宽容
                                     2) 忍耐
       e.g. School teachers have to have a great deal of
       tolerance in order to deal with difficult children.
            The patient had no tolerance for pain.

     Translate:
         全世界各种族间的互谅互让是必不可少的。
         Tolerance between the races of the world is a must.
          我对噪音的忍耐力是有限的。
          My tolerance of noise is limited.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                NCE-B2



              to a (very real,        to the degree specified
            certain, etc.) extent     在(极大,某种)程度上
      e.g. l agree with him to some extent but there are still
      some areas of sharp disagreement between us.

    Translate:
         水污染在很大程度上影响了当地居民。
         To a very real extent the water pollution has
         affected local residents.
         从某种程度上讲这家餐馆的失败在于管理不善。
         To a certain extent the failure of the
         restaurant was due to bad management.
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                                 n. 1) sth. you must have in order
              necessity
                                 to live properly or do sth. 必需品
          e.g. A lot of people would consider a TV as
          more of a necessity than a luxury item.
    Translate:
         工人们的工资太低了,以至于他们几乎没有
         足够的钱买最起码的生活必需品。
         The workers’ wages were so low that they
         hardly had enough money to buy the bare
         necessities of life.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                NCE-B2




                                 n. 2) 必要 (性)
                   necessity
                                      followed by of/for

      e.g. There is absolutely no necessity for you
      to be involved in the project.
    Translate:
         他们就教育改革的必要性达成了一致意见。
         They reached an agreement on the necessity
         of educational reforms.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                      NCE-B2




                                 vt. provoke (a particular feeling
               arouse            or attitude) 唤起,激起

          e.g. These educational toys give children a
          feeling of self-worth by arousing their
          interest in challenging tasks.

    Translate:
         他们的反常行为引起了警察的怀疑。
         Their strange behavior aroused the policeman’s
         suspicions.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                 NCE-B2



                                 give in (followed by to)
                  surrender
                                 投降
         e.g. After several weeks of severe
         attacks, Afghanistan’s Taliban forces
         surrendered to the North Alliance.
     Translate:
         尽管有恐怖袭击,我们决不会向恐怖主义
         投降。
         We’ll never surrender to terrorism despite the
         terrorist attacks.


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                                   for the most part, almost
                   virtually
                                   差不多,几乎

          e.g. It’s virtually impossible to tell the
          imitation from the real thing.

    Translate:
         在过去的几天里,雨几乎没有停过。
         It has been raining virtually non-stop for the
         past several days.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                    NCE-B2



                                 vt. be like or similar to
                   resemble         与…相似

         e.g. In his childhood, Stevie Wonder loved music
         and would pound spoons or forks on any surface
         that resembled a drum.
    Translate:
         他酷似他的父亲。
         He strongly resembles his father.
        她说话时打手势的动作象她的妈妈。
        She resembles her mother in the way she moves her
        hands when she talks.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                     NCE-B2


                                 vi. come down (from a source),
                  descend        go down (followed by from)
                                 起源于;下来
         e.g. These ideas descend from those of the ancient
         philosophers.
    Translate:
         日本人被认为是起源于来自中国北方的部族。
         The Japanese are thought to be descended from
         tribes from the north of China.
         他出自名门。
         He (is) descended from a good family.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                    NCE-B2


                                 vt. 1) cause to be, set up 建立
              establish              2) used in the pattern:
                                     establish sb./oneself as
                                    使某人(自己)任职;安置;安顿

    e.g. The school was established in 1905 by an Italian
    professor.
          He established himself as governor of the province.

   Translate:
         我们现在已经在新居舒适地安顿下来了。
         We are now comfortably established in our
         new house.
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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2



                                 vi. move or go somewhere
                drift
                                 in a slow casual way 漂泊;离开

         e.g. As rural factories shed labor, people
         drift towards the city.

      Translate:
         足球赛结束了,人群渐渐离开体育场。
         The football match was over, and the
         crowds drifted away from the stadium.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                    NCE-B2




                                        hand or give (sth.) to (sb.)
              pass (sth.) on to (sb.)
                                        将…传给…

       e.g. The King passed on much of his fortune to
       the princess.
    Translate:
           你读完这本小说后,请传给劳拉。
           When you have finished reading the novel,
           please pass it on to Laura.
           现在让我们看看下一个题目。
           Let us now pass on to the next subject.


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                                 v. take possession and control
                 conquer
                                 by force; defeat 征服

       e.g. She has conquered the hearts of many men.

    Translate:
           西班牙人曾一度征服了南美洲的大部分地区。
           The Spanish once conquered most of South
           America.

          人定胜天。
          Man can conquer nature.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                      NCE-B2


                                 a. of a king or queen, or other
                royal            members of their family, and
                                 things relating to them
                                 国王或女王的;皇家的

            e.g. The new born baby was welcomed not
            only by the Japanese royal family but by the
            country at large.
    Translate:
           这个皇家婚礼吸引了许多观众。
           The royal wedding drew a large crowd.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                     NCE-B2



                                 n. one of two or more possibilities
            alternative
                                 (followed by to) 供选择的东西
           e.g. Check out the alternatives before
           deciding whether to go to a nearby college.

    Translate:
         除了回家,还有什么选择?
         What is the alternative to going home?

         我们除了战斗直到胜利,别无选择。
         We have no alternative but to fight till victory.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                  NCE-B2



                                 vt. change slightly
                     modify
                                 修改,更改
            e.g. The computer programmers tried to
            modify the design of the software to make it
            suitable for commercial production.

    Translate:
         这设备经过改装可以用来生产光碟机。
         The equipment may be modified to produce
         DVD sets.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                     NCE-B2



                                 v. 1) make rich or richer 使富裕
                  enrich
                                    2) improve 丰富
          e.g. That once poor coastal village has been
          enriched by the profits from tourism.

    Translate:
         旅行丰富人的生活。
         Travel enriches people’s lives.

         油田的开发使许多阿拉伯国家变得富有。
         The development of oil fields enriched many Arabian
         countries.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                     NCE-B2


                                 n. a work or art recognized as
                   classic       having lasting value 经典作品
                                 a.古典的;第一流的
         e.g. His manual on botany has become a classic
         among scientists.
               Jerry prefers classic music to popular songs.

   Translate:
         你喜欢读英国古典文学名著吗?
         Do you like reading the classics of English
         literature?


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                  NCE-B2



                                 n. a place from which sth.
                     source
                                 comes or is obtained 来源
             e.g. Tourism, which is a major source of
             income for the city, has been seriously
             affected by the terrorist attacks.
    Translate:
         这条消息来源可靠。
         The news comes from a reliable source.
         坏了的食物是疾病之源。
         Bad food is a source of illness.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                      NCE-B2



                                     Cf.:origin

                                 origin: n. 起源;血统
      e.g.      Many Americans are African by origin.

               许多美国人是非洲血统。
                The origins of civilization

                文明的起源
                be of noble (humble) origin

                出生高贵(微贱)

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2



                                 no longer able to be controlled
            out of control
                                 失去控制,不受约束

        e.g. The fire was out of control by the time the
        second fire engine arrived.

    Translate:
         他们无能为力,因为局势已经失去控制。
         There was nothing they could do about it ,
         because the situation was out of control.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                  NCE-B2




                 put into practice     将…付诸实施

            e.g. Having delayed several times, we
            must put this plan into practice now.

    Translate:
             你们应该把接受的教导在日常生活中
             付诸实施。
             You should put into practice in your
             daily lives the teachings you received.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                  NCE-B2




                                 create, produce
                   strike out
                                 创造,开创

         e.g. After working for his father for about ten
         years, he decided to strike out on his own.

     Translate:
         在狱中呆了五年后,他在朋友的帮助下开始
         了新生活。
         After being in prison for five years, he struck
         out with the help of his friends.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                     NCE-B2



                                 n. 独占的地区或范围;禁猎地
                 preserve
                                 vt. protect, save 保护,保存

          e.g. The Town Council spent a lot of money to
          preserve the old castle and other places of
          historic interests.

     Translate:
              你可以用盐保存肉或鱼。
              You can preserve meat or fish in salt.
               此区域内严禁打猎。
               No hunting is allowed in the preserve.

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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                   NCE-B2




  The history of English is
  revealed in the first words
  a child learns about
  identity.


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                    NCE-B2




     History of English:

         The roots of English: English
     began as a west Germanic language
     which was brought to England by
     the Saxons around 400 A.D. Old
     English was the spoken and written
     language of England between 400
     and 1100 A.D. Many words used

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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                      NCE-B2




             today come from Old English, including
             man, woman, king, mother, etc. But Old
             English was very different from modern
             English and only a few words can be easily
             recognized. In the 9th and 10th centuries,
             when Vikings invaded England, Old Norse
             words, e.g. sky, take and get and many
             place names, entered the language.

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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                        NCE-B2




         From      the    Norman   Conquest
   (1066) until the late 12th century
   English was replaced as the official
   language by Norman French, though
   English was still used by the lower
   classes. English from about 1300 to
   1500 is known as Middle English.
   It was influenced by French and
   also Latin in vocabulary and
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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                              NCE-B2




       pronunciation.            French   brought      many             words
       connected with government, e.g. sovereign, royal,
       court, legal and government itself. Latin was the
       language of religion and learning and gave to
       English words such as minister, angel, master,
       school and grammar. Literature began again to be
       written in English during this period. One of the
       most famous Middle English works is Chaucer’s The
       Canterbury Tales.
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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                     NCE-B2




           The development of Modern English: Modern
       English developed from the Middle English dialect
       of the East Midlands and was influenced by the
       English used in London, where a printing press was
       set up by William Caxton in 1476. English changed
       a great deal from this time until the end of the 18th
       century. During the Renaissance, many words were
       introduced from Greek and Latin to express new


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                            NCE-B2




         ideas,     especially   in   science,    medicine              and
         philosophy. They         included       physics, species,
         architecture, encyclopedia and hypothesis. In the
         16th century several versions of the Bible helped
         bring      written English to ordinary people. The
         Elizabethan period is also famous for its drama,
         and Shakespeare’s plays were seen by many
         people.
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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                            NCE-B2




             The development of printing
      helped       establish     standards   of
      spelling and grammar, but there
      remained a lot of variation. Samuel
      Johnson’s A Dictionary of the
      English Language (1755) was the
      first authoritative treatment of
      English. It defined about 40,000
      words and gave examples of their
      use.
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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                        NCE-B2




           By      the      18th   century
    American             English       was
    established        and       developing
    independently          from     British
    English. After colonists arrived
    in the US new words began to
    be     added            from    Native
    American languages, and from


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                               NCE-B2




      French and Spanish. In 1783, soon after Johnson’s
      dictionary       was       published,   Noah     Webster’s               The
      Elementary Spelling Book was published in the US. At
      first it used Johnson’s spellings, but later editions
      contained many of what have come to be known as
      American spellings, e.g. habor and favorite.

          20th Century English: During the 19th and early 20th
      centuries many dictionaries and books about language


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                      NCE-B2




      were published. New words are still being added to
      English from other languages, including Chinese (feng
      shui) and Japanese (karaoke). Existing words gain new
      senses, and new expressions spread quickly through
      television and the Internet.

          English is now an international language and is
      used as a means of communication between people
      from many countries. As a result the influences on the

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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                      NCE-B2




       English language are wider
       than ever and it is possible
       that World English will
       move away from using a
       British        or         American
       standard and establish its
       own international identity.


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                          NCE-B2




  Winston Churchill (1874-1965): a politician
  who is remembered as one of Britain’s
  greatest statesmen. He was the son of the
  Conservative         politician   lord   Randolph
  Churchill and his American wife Jennie. As
  a young man he served as a soldier in India
  and Egypt, and as a journalist in South
  Africa, before entering politics. Churchill


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                     NCE-B2




 became Prime Minister and        Minister of
 Defence in 1940. His radio speeches during
 World       War II gave the British people a
 strong determination to win the war,
 especially at times of great crisis. Examples
 of Churchill’s phrases still often quoted
 today are ―I have nothing to offer but blood,
 toil, tears, and sweat‖, and ―This was their


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                    NCE-B2




       finest hour‖. The Conservative Party led by
       Churchill lost the election of 1945, but he became
       Prime Minister again from 1951 to 1955 when he
       retired, aged 80. When he died in Jan 1965 he was
       given a state funeral.




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                       NCE-B2




     Julius Caesar (100-44 BC): the best-
     known of all the ancient Roman leaders,
     and the first one to land in Britain with an
     army. He did this twice, in 55 and 54 BC,
     although Britain did not become part of
     the Roman Empire until nearly a hundred
     years later.



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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                         NCE-B2




   Viking: a member of a people from
   Scandinavia who attacked parts of
   northern       and      western   Europe,
   including Britain and Ireland, in the
   8th to 11th centuries. In Britain they
   were also known as Norsemen. They
   settled on the Scottish islands and
   in areas of eastern England,


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                        NCE-B2




    and the Danish king Canute ruled
    England from 1016. The Vikings
    were feared as violent and cruel,
    but they were also noted for their
    skill in building ships and as sailors.
    They had an important influence
    on English culture and the English
    language.


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                             NCE-B2




                                 Norman: any of the people from
                                 Normandy in northern France who
                                 settled in England after their leader
                                 William defeated the English king
                                 at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
                                 The Normans took control of the
                                 country, a process known as the
                                 Norman Conquest. They used many
                                 existing Anglo-Saxon methods of

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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                              NCE-B2




                                 government of the state and the
                                 church,   but     added          important
                                 aspects of their own and made
                                 government much more effective.
                                 The    language     of       government
                                 became    first   Latin,        and        then
                                 Norman French, and this caused
                                 many new words to be added to the
                                 existing English language.


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                     NCE-B2




   William Caxton (c. 1422-1491): the man who set up the
   first printing firm in Britain. He printed his first book in
   1474. By printing books in English, Caxton had a strong
   influence on the spelling and development of the language.
   Many of the books he published were French stories which
   he translated himself.




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                               NCE-B2




   Otto         Jespersen           (1860-1943):
   Danish philologist, grammarian, and
   educationist. He promoted the use of
   the ―direct method‖ in language
   teaching with the publication of his
   theoretical work How to Teach a
   Foreign        Language         (1904).   Other
   books       include       his    seven-volume
   Modern English Grammar (1909-1949).

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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                      NCE-B2




         Norse: the official language of
         Norway. Old Norse was the
         Germanic language of Norway
         and its colonies down to the
         14th century. It is the ancestor
         of the Scandinavian language
         and is most clearly preserved in
         the saga literature of Iceland.


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                      NCE-B2




                  The enjoyment of reading poetry often leads
                  to the enjoyment of the beauty of the language
                  itself. For greater enjoyment, you will do well
                  to begin by reading poetry aloud and try to
                  get the feel of the language as a pattern of
                  sound. Here is a poem for you to enjoy.



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        laugh                 smile loudly
                                    Carl Sandbury

   There are no handles upon a language
Translate men take hold of it
   Whereby
   And mark it with signs for its remembrance.
   It is a river, this language,
   Once in a thousand years
   Breaking a new course



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                                  more   previous   back index   break   over
        laugh               smile loudly


      Changing its way to the ocean.
      It is
Translate a mountain effluvia
      Moving to valleys
      And from nation to nation
      Crossing borders and mixing.




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                    NCE-B2




                   The English language is the sea which
                   receives tributaries from every region
                   under heaven.
                                    Ralph Waldo Emerson


                   Language ought to be the joint
                   creation of poets and manual workers.
                                              George Orwell


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                NCE-B2




                   England and America are two
                   countries separated by the same
                   language.
                                    George Bernard Shaw




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Read the joke and see if you
can tell what caused the
misunderstanding of the
technician’s words by the
woman. You might need to
look up new words in a
dictionary.



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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                                NCE-B2




               An office technician got a call from a user. The user told
           the technician that her computer was not working. She
           described the problem and the technician concluded that the
           computer needed to be brought in and serviced.
             He told her to “Unplug the power cord and bring it up here
           and I will fix it.”
              About fifteen minutes later she showed up at his door
           with the power cord in her hand.




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The Movie                      NCE-B2




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                  NCE-B2




                            I Content Questions
                   Pair Work: One of you asks the first six
                   questions and the other answers. Starting
                   from question 7, change roles. When you
                   have finished, the teacher may want to put
                   some of the questions to you to check your
                   progress.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                        NCE-B2



          1. Why does English today have a much larger
          vocabulary than any other living language? How
          large is it?

          2. What is the attitude of the French toward
          borrowing from other languages? What do they
          do to preserve the purity of their language?

          3. What makes up the core of the English
          language?

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                           NCE-B2




               4. Who brought it to the British Isles? And
               when?

               5. What are the characteristics of those
               words that form the core of English?

               6. What do great speakers of English do
               when they want to arouse people’s
               emotions?


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                       NCE-B2




             7. How was the Indo-European parent
             language discovered?

             8. Which modern languages are the
             descendants of the Indo-European parent
             language?

             9. What happened to English when the
             Normans conquered England?



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                           NCE-B2




             10. How did the European Renaissance
             influence the English language?

             11. Explain the sentence ―The first shoots
             sprang up in England, and they grew stronger
             in America.‖

             12. Is there any need to worry about the
             purity of the English language in the opinion
             of the author? Why or why not?

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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                   NCE-B2




                           II Points for Discussion
                       Group work: break into small groups
                       and discuss the following questions.
                       Later the teacher may want to ask
                       some of you to report the answers of
                       your group to the class.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                           NCE-B2




         1. What does the title The Glorious Messiness of
              English mean? Give a few examples to illustrate.

         2. What do you think of Jespersen’s remark ―The
              English language would not have been what it is
              if the English had not been for centuries great
              respecters of the liberties of each individual…‖?

         3. What do you think has made English ―the first
              truly global language‖?

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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                        NCE-B2




                          1. The text can be divided into
                      three parts. Now write down the
                      paragraph numbers of each part
                      (Part Two has been done for you)
                      and its main idea:




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                               NCE-B2


           Parts                 Paragraphs       Main Ideas
                                               Massive borrowing from
        Part One             Paras 1— 3        other languages is a
                                               major feature of the
                                               English language.

                                              Tells about the history of
                                              the English language
        Part Two                 Paras 4—16   from the Indo-European
                                              parent language to
                                              modern English.

                                               Tolerance, love of freedom,
                                              and respect for the rights of
        Part Three           Paras 17—19      others—these qualities in
                                              the        English–speaking
                                              people explain the richness
                                              of their language.
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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                        NCE-B2




                   2. List, in order of time, the important
                   historical events mentioned in part 2
                   that have had a great impact on the
                   formation of today’s English:




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                                    NCE-B2


                       The introduction of the Indo-European language —
      Paras 4-9        the parent language of English
         Paras         Germanic tribes came to settle in Britain and brought
         10-11         Anglo-Saxon words — Old English
                       The Christian religion enriched English with words
        Para 12        from Greek and Latin

                       The Vikings from Scandinavia came with words from
        Para 13        Old Norse

        Para 14        The Norman Conquest — French influence

                       The European Renaissance and the printing press
        Para 15        brought many new words from Latin and Greek

                       The American revolution — the emergence of a new
        Para 16        variety — American English
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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                      NCE-B2




                        You need to study carefully all
                     the key words and phrases in the
                     box. We have a number of exercises
                     to help you learn how to use them.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                                  NCE-B2




                                     Dictation
              You are going to hear 10 words. Each will be
              read three times. Write down the sentences
              according to the dictation.

                  1              2       3        4               5


                  6              7       8        9              10


                                       Check Up

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                               NCE-B2




                                  Dictation
              You are going to hear 10 words. Each will be
              read three times. Write down the sentences
              according to the dictation.

                 11          12      13       14              15


                 16          17      18       19              20


                                   Check Up

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                                NCE-B2




                                  Dictation
              You are going to hear 10 words. Each will be
              read three times. Write down the sentences
              according to the dictation.

                 21          22       23       24              25


                 26          27       28       29              30


                                    Check Up

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                             NCE-B2




                                 Dictation
              You are going to hear 4 phrases. Each will be
              read three times. Write down the sentences
              according to the dictation.

                   31            32         33      34



                                      Check Up



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2




                   1              addition

                   2             alternative

                   3               arouse

                   4              martyr

                   5               classic



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                       NCE-B2




                   6             climate

                   7             conquer

                   8             corrupt

                   9             descend

                   10             drift



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                          NCE-B2




                   11              enrich

                   12             establish

                   13            fascinating

                   14            fortunately

                   15            independent



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                       NCE-B2




                   16            invade

                   17            invent

                   18            massive

                   19            modify

                   20            mystery



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                       NCE-B2




                   21            necessity

                   22            resemble

                   23             royal

                   24             snack

                   25             source



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                           NCE-B2




                   26             surrender

                   27             systematic

                   28              tolerance

                   29              virtually

                   30            out of control



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2




                  31             pass (sth.) on to (sb.)

                  32              put into practice

                  33              strictly speaking

                   34                 strike out




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                            NCE-B2




                           I. 1. Fill in the gaps with
                       words or phrases chosen from
                       the box. Change the form where
                       necessary:




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                           NCE-B2




         1. Mary never asks others for help in doing her
                                  ____________
         homework. She is far too independent for that.

             Strictly speaking
         2. ___________________ , he is not a southerner.
         Though he was born in the south, he spent a good
         part of his childhood years in New England.

         3. Right after the Spring Festival, millions of young
                 drifted
         people ___________ from the countryside to the
         cities in search of work.

                 resembles
         4. Tom _____________ his father both in appearance
         and in character.
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Unit 7: Learning about English                                            NCE-B2



         5. There is now virtually no unemployment in this
                         ________
         part of the country.

                                                    invaded
         6. There is no denying the fact that Japan__________
         China and committed many serious crimes against the
         Chinese people during the Second World War.

         7. Medical scientists expect it will be many years
                           conquered
         before cancer is ___________ .




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                            NCE-B2



                               fascinating
           8. The novel has a ____________ plot. This
           explains why it has remained number one on the
           best-seller list.

           9. I was so busy during the lunch hour today that I
                                      snack
           had time only for a quick _________.

                                      will be put into practice
           10. The different theories ____________________
           in order to see which one works better.

           11. Many of the Rolling Stones’s records have
                         classics
           become rock ___________.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                            NCE-B2



           12. Believe me. I’ve got the information from a
                     source
           reliable _________.

           13. We rarely have such terrible weather. The
            climate
           ____________ here is usually very mild.

           14. The invaders finally put down their arms and
             surrender
           ______________.

                                were           aroused
           15. Our suspicions _________ first _________ when
           we heard some strange noises in the woods.


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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                            NCE-B2




                                 I. 2. Multiple Choice
                  There are 8 incomplete sentences in this
                  part. For each sentence there are four
                  choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose
                  the ONE that best completes the sentence.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                               NCE-B2




                        A
         1. He made a ________ plan for the college entrance
         examination.
         A) systematic           B) classic
         C) virtual              D) massive

                                                   D
         2. The identity of the thief is still a _______ .
         A) miracle              B) wonder

         C) myth                 D) mystery




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                          NCE-B2




                                        B
          3. Tides are caused by the _________ of the moon
          and sun.
          A) reaction                B) influence
          C) degree                  D) product

                       C
          4. He was _________ from entering the city.
          A) allowed                 B) refused

          C) banned                  D) tolerated




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                            NCE-B2




                                           B
           5. Children have a lot more __________ now than
           they used to be.
           A) academy                  B) liberty

           C) freement                 D) liberal

           6. As the boat leaves only on alternate days, you
                     D
           have no _________ but to stay here overnight.
           A) choose                   B) course

           C) addition                 D) alternative


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                              NCE-B2



                 C
            7. ________ for the latecomer, the train was late
            too.
            A) Unfortunately            B) Well

            C) Fortunately              D) Naturally

            8. Candidates are required to publish the
              C
            _________ of their campaign funds.
            A. origins                  B) results

            C) sources                  D) messiness


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Unit 7: Learning about English
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                            I. 3. Rewrite each sentence
                     with the word or phrase in brackets,
                     keeping the same meaning. The first
                     part has been written for you.




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              1. In the United States, private cars
              are not a luxury. People absolutely
              need them.
              In the United States, private cars
              are__________________________
                   an absolute necessity rather
              than a luxury
              ____________.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2




               2. Everyone thinks that the new
              member is valuable to the football
              team.

              Everyone thinks that the new
                       is a valuable addition
              member ___________________
              to the football team
              _________________.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                    NCE-B2




               3. I am afraid we will not be able to
              stop the fire if the firemen do not
              arrive within ten minutes.

              I am afraid the fire will get out of
              _______________________________
              control if the firemen do not arrive
              _______,
              within ten minutes.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                    NCE-B2




           4. I’m afraid you have to go via
          Vancouver to get to Seattle. All flights to
          the United States have been cancelled.

          As all flights to the United States have
          been cancelled, you have no
          alternative but to go via Vancouver to
          ________________________________
          get to Seattle
          _____________.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                   NCE-B2




          5. The government has declared that
          beef imports will not be allowed for the
          next six months for fear of the spread of
          mad cow disease.
                                 declared all
          The government has _____________
          beef imports will be banned for the
          __________________________________
          __________________________________
          next six months for fear of the spread
          of mad cow disease
          ________________.
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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                      NCE-B2




                      I. 4. Complete the following, using
                the words or phrases in brackets. Make
                additions or changes where necessary.
                Model: A systematic study revealed that
                                           _____________
                many modern languages descended from a
                common parent language, __________ us
                                               lost to
                because nothing was written down. (descend,
                lose)


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                          NCE-B2




                        systematic
            1. Through ____________ research, scientists
              have invented
            ________________ many drugs that are said to
            help us live longer, but the cause of aging
                     to a very real extent
            remains, ___________________, one of life’s
             mysteries
            _____________. (to a very real extent, invent,
            mystery, systematic)




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                          NCE-B2




             2. The two parties have reached an agreement
           to establish a joint venture in Beijing, but
            __________
             before a formal contract is signed, some clauses
                                         to be modified
             in the draft agreement need _______________
             so that no misunderstanding will arise as to
             their interpretation. (establish, modify)




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2




             3. Our ancestors ________________ us the
                              have passed onto
             wisdom that to ensure the long-lasting
             prosperity of a country, we must show
              tolerance for
             ______________ the errors made by those
                   strike out
             who _________________ revolutionary paths.
             These people, with their new ideas and
                        will enrich
             practice, _____________ the national
             experience. (enrich, strike out, pass, tolerance)



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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                         NCE-B2




                           II. Synonyms
                    Some words, like wish and want, raise
                    and rear, royal, kingly and sovereign,
                    come very close in meaning but are
                    not interchangeable in some contexts.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                          NCE-B2




              Choose a suitable word from the given pairs to
                complete the following sentences and try
                 to figure out the difference in meaning.

             1. want/wish
                    wish
             a) I _________ you both a very pleasant
             journey.

                                    wish
             b) Ann, I am sorry. I ___________ I had never
             said that to you.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2




                             want
             c) My parents __________ me to give you their
                 best regards.

                           wish/want
             d) We do not __________ to waste our money
                 on such worthless things.

             2. skin/hide

             a) This is the best lotion I’ve ever known for
                  skin
                 _________ care.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                       NCE-B2




            b) ―I’m sorry I called you a pig.‖ ―my
            _________ is thick enough; it didn’t bother
            hide/skin
            me.

            c) This pair of boots is made of buffalo
               hide
            _________. They are very durable.

            d) I don’t need a knife; I can peel the
            _________ off with my fingers.
               skin

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                       NCE-B2



            3.raise/rear
            a) The male bird helps the female to
            rear/raise the young.
            ________
                              raise
            b) You cannot _________ corn here. The
            climate is not right for it.

            c) The couple agreed that to rear/raise the
                                         ________
            children properly they need two incomes.

                                 raise
            d) He worked hard to _____ himself from
            poverty.
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Unit 7: Learning about English                                      NCE-B2



            4. royal/kingly/sovereign
                             royal
            a) The British ________ family has been the
            focus of media attention in recent weeks.

                               ___________
            b) The young man’s kingly/royal bearing(仪
            态)has won him many admirers.

            c) When did India gain its independence and
            become a sovereign state?
                     ________

            d) With his health restored, he is now ready to
                        royal/kingly
            resume his __________ duties.
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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                          NCE-B2




                                 III.Usage
             In Unit 6 in our discussion of also, as well and too
             we have already touched on the position of adverbs
             or adverb phrases in a sentence. Generally speaking,
             there are three normal positions for them: initial,
             middle, or end position. Not all adverb, however,
             can go in all three of these positions. Most kinds of




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                           NCE-B2




               adverb can go in both mid-position and end-
               position, but there are some that can only go in
               one or the other. Only certain kinds of adverb can
               go in initial position. When we study adverbs or
               adverb phrases we should give enough attention
               to this aspect.
                Position of Connecting Adverbs
               Connecting adverbs refer to adverbs or adverb



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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                           NCE-B2




               phrases that indicate a connection between one
               clause or sentence and another. They are usually
               put at the beginning of the clause or sentence, or
               after the subject. A few can be used in end
               position. Several others like however can go in all
               three positions.

               e.g. However, I do not want to overstate my
               case.(Text A, Unit 1, Book2)



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Unit 7: Learning about English
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               The French, however, do not like borrowing
               foreign words because they think it corrupts
               their language. (Text A, Unit 7, Book2)
               John’s apartment is not very large. It has
               beautiful surroundings, however.
               Instead, it is a vehicle that is used globally.
               (Text B, Unit 7, Book2)



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Unit 7: Learning about English
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               So they invent a word, balladeur, which
               French kids are supposed to say instead — but
               they don’t. (Text A, Unit 7, Book2)
               I usually select a tree close to home, though,
               since I have to carry the pieces back to the
               woodshop area. (Text B, Unit 2, Book2)
               … the male nevertheless acted like the female
               wasn’t even in the room. (Text B, Unit 6,
               Book1)

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Unit 7: Learning about English
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               Moreover, there is a chilling indifference
               about all this ignorance. (Text A, Unit 8,
               Book1)
               Fortunately their idea has never been put into
               practice. (Text A, Unit 7, Book2)
               In a word, he lives much as Kevin Hanley
               1835 did in Ireland. (Text A, Unit 8, Book1)



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Unit 7: Learning about English
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               The voices of the programs are comforting,
               but then I’m jarred by the commercials. (Text
               A, Unit 4, Book2)
               Strictly speaking, it was invented by the
               Japanese manufacturers who put two simple
               English words together to name their product.
               (Text A, Unit 7, Book2)
               At any rate, Dan’s a nice guy. (Text B, Unit 3,
               Book2)

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                           NCE-B2




            Now fill in each gap in the following sentences
                with an appropriate adverb or adverb phrase
                from the box below:

           however frankly in other words indeed instead
           though nevertheless yet moreover to one’s knowledge



            1. Mathew contributed generously to our
                           Indeed
                project. __________, we would not have
                been successful without him.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2




            2. It’s hard work. I enjoyed it, _________.
                                              though

            3. ―What do you think of my hair?‖ ―_________,
                                                 Frankly
            dear, it’s a disaster.‖

            4. She saw that there was a man following her all
                      Moreover
            the way. ____________, he was observing her
            strangely.

                                     To my knowledge
            5. You must be mistaken. _________________,
            Steve did not make those comments.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                          NCE-B2




                                                   however
            6. We did not achieve our goal. This, _________,
            does not mean that our efforts have been wasted.

            7. I missed the train, but I arrived on time for
                         nevertheless
            the meeting _____________.

            8. No one believed my story. _____ it could’t be
                                          Yet
            truer. It is exactly what I saw with my own eyes.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2




            9. I ordered coffee, but the waiter served me tea
             instead
            _________.

            10. You haven’t answered my question;
             in other words
            __________________, you disapprove of my
            proposal, don’t you?




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                         NCE-B2




              1. Must can be used to express a strong belief as in
             the following models:
             Model: They must have also enjoyed themselves
             because they gave us the word laughter.
                     This must be Melinda’s sister. She is an
             exact copy of Melinda.
             Study the models and complete the following
             sentences by putting the Chinese in brackets into
             English.

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                        NCE-B2


            1. We are literally crawling.
             There must be some traffic accident ahead.
            _______________________________________
            (一定是出车祸了).
            2. Thomas sounds very knowledgeable about
            traditional Chinese medicine.
             He must have had some special training.
            _______________________________________
            (他一定受过专门培训).
            3. The draft document is complete in virtually
            every detail.
            It must have taken him months to prepare it.
            _______________________________________
            (起草这份文件一定用了他几个月).
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Unit 7: Learning about English                                        NCE-B2




             Cathy must have missed the train.
           4.________________________________

           (凯茜一定是误了火车). She should have
           arrived here two hours ago.

           5. What? It cost you one thousand dollars to fill
                             You must be exaggerating!
           a hollow tooth ? _________________________
           (你一定在夸张)!




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Unit 7: Learning about English
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                2. Rewrite the following sentences after the
               model, using ―be suppose to‖:
               Model: … so they invent a word, balladeur,
               which French kids are expected to say
               instead — but they don’t.
                  … so they invent a word, balladeur, which
               French kids are supposed to say instead — but
               they don’t.



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                       NCE-B2




             1. Do we have to deposit our bags before
             entering the supermarket?
               Are we supposed to deposit our bags
             _____________________________________
             before entering the supermarket?
             ________________________________

             2. The spaceship is planned to land on Mars at
             10:40 this morning.
               The spaceship is supposed to land on
             _________________________________________
             Mars at 10:40 this morning.
             ___________________________


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                        NCE-B2




           3. As a car driver, you ought to know how to
           change a tire.
             As a car driver, you are supposed to know
           _________________________________________
           how to change a tire.
           ________________________

           4. The nurses in the hospital are expected to
           take good care of the patients.
              The nurses in the hospital are supposed
           _______________________________________
           to take good care of the patients.
           _____________________________


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                        NCE-B2




            5. We are required to speak only in English
            when we discuss text organization.
              We are supposed to speak only in English
            _________________________________________
            when we discuss text organization.
            _______________________________




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                          NCE-B2




                                 I. Cloze (A)
                       Complete the following passage
                       with words chosen from the words
                       and Phrases to Drill box. Change
                       the form where necessary.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2



                  fascinating
               A ____________ (1) feature of the English
                             tolerance
           language is its _____________(2) of new words
                                           invented
           and phrases, either borrowed or ________(3).
           There exists no authority to examine each new
           addition
           ________ (4) to the language, to determine what is
                               ban
           acceptable and to _______ (5) what is not. True,
           some people do think that borrowed words
           corrupt (6) the language. They think the
           _________
                                out of control
           language is running _______________(7). There


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2




           was even some talk at one time of
           establishing (8)an academy to maintain the
           ___________
                                   Fortunately
           purity of the language. ___________(9) the idea
                             Massive
           never took hold. ________ (10) borrowing from
                             sources
           a rich variety of _______ (11) was, as a result,
                                 enrich
           left free to greatly _________(12) the language.




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                          NCE-B2




                                 I. Cloze (B)

                           Fill in the gaps with any
                          words you think fit:



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                           NCE-B2




              People have long speculated that their
                                                    early
           languages came from a single source . As _____(1)
           as 1767, physician James Parsons collected
           numbers from many European languages as
                    those
           well as ________ (2) of Iran and India, and
           found
           _______ (3) them to be quite similar. He
                                 must
           concluded that they __________ (4) have all
           come from one __________ (5): Noah’s Ark
                           source
           (《圣经》中的“诺亚方舟”). As an educated



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                         NCE-B2




                                     in
            man, he was trained ______(7) the classical
            languages, so that when he went to India and
            began (8) to examine Sanskrit, he saw right
            ______
                   how
            away _____ (9) similar it was to Greek and Latin,
                                               in
            not only in vocabulary, but even ____(10)
                                                given/delivered
            grammatical features. In a speech ____________
            (11) before Bengal Asiatic Society in 1786, he
            declared that the Sanskrit language bears to
            both Latin and Greek a stronger resemblance



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                           NCE-B2




             both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of
                      than
             grammar _____ (12) could possibly have been
                       by
             produced _____(13) accident. Indeed, the
                            so
             resemblance is ____ (14) strong, he said, that no
             scholar could examine them all three without
                                                  _______(15)
             believing them to have sprung from some
           common (16) source, which, perhaps, no longer
            _______
             exists.




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Unit 7: Learning about English
                                                                         NCE-B2




                                 II. Translation
                          Translate the following passage
                          into English, using the words
                          and phrases given below.




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Unit 7: Learning about English                                           NCE-B2



                      mystery descend enrich pass on to
                  tolerance independent source out of control

              虽然英语是如何产生的还是个谜, 语言学家倾向于
           认为它和很多欧洲语言来自同一个源头, 即印欧母语。
               Though how the English language came into
           ______________________________________________
          existence remains a mystery, linguists/language
          ______________________________________________
          scientists now tend to believe that English and
           ____________________________________________
          most other European languages have descended
          ______________________________________________
          from a common source: the Indo-European
           ______________________________________________
          parent language.
          _____________________
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Unit 7: Learning about English                                            NCE-B2



                      mystery descend enrich pass on to
                  tolerance independent source out of control


                   英语最初是在公元五世纪入侵英格兰的盎格
                  鲁—萨克逊人使用的。 他们将英语的基本词汇
                  传给了我们。
                     English was first spoken by the Anglo-
                  ________________________________________
                  Saxons who invaded England in the fifth
                  ________________________________________
                  century. They passed onto us the basic
                  ________________________________________
                  ________________________________________
                  vocabulary of English.


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Unit 7: Learning about English                                            NCE-B2



                      mystery descend enrich pass on to
                  tolerance independent source out of control


               在十五个多世纪的发展中, 英语大量借用了其他
               语言, 这种借用大大丰富了英语的词汇。
                  In its over 15 centuries of development,
               _________________________________________
               English has borrowed from other languages
               _________________________________________
               massively, and such borrowing has greatly
               _________________________________________
                enriched its vocabulary.
               ________________________



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Unit 7: Learning about English                                            NCE-B2



                      mystery descend enrich pass on to
                  tolerance independent source out of control


                 随着移民来到美洲建立了独立的美利坚合众
                 国, 英语又增添了一个新的变种: 美语。

                 As settlers landed in America and
                 ______________________________________
                 established the United States as an
                 ______________________________________
                 independent nation, a new variety
                 _____________________________________
                 was added to the English language:
                 _____________________________________
                  American English.
                 _____________________________________

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Unit 7: Learning about English                                            NCE-B2



                      mystery descend enrich pass on to
                  tolerance independent source out of control


              虽然有人担忧英语的发展失控了, 但大多数以英
              语为母语的人对他们语言的宽容性感到自豪。
                Though some people worry that the
              __________________________________________
                language is running out of control, many
              __________________________________________
                native speakers of English take pride in
              __________________________________________
                the tolerance of their language.
              __________________________________________



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Part III                                                    NCE-B2




           The following are useful words
           and phrases from Text B. Learn
           to make proper use of them.




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Part III                                                        NCE-B2




                        (high) social position
           status n.    地位, 身份


           exceed vt.   go beyond in quantity,
                        degree, etc. 超过

                        general tendency or direction
            trend n.
                        趋势


           crude a.     not refined 粗糙的



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Part III                                                           NCE-B2




                           help to cause 促成, 有助于,
           contribute to   是…的部分原因


           give way to     yield to 对…让步, 屈服于


           integrate vt.   make into a whole 使成一整体


                           being the only one of its kind
            unique a.
                           独特的


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Part III                                                          NCE-B2




           authority n.   权威人士 (或机构)


                          to give just a few examples
       to name a few      仅举几例

                          an element or side of a situation
             aspect n.    or idea 方面


            predict vt.   declare or tell in advance 预言



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Part III                                                             NCE-B2




                            real, not fake or artificial
            genuine a.      真的, 非伪造的

                            in the course of changing into
           in transition    another state or condition
                            在过渡时期, 在转变过程中

           rid oneself of   free oneself from 使自己摆脱


            shift n., vi.   改变, 变动



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Part III                                                        NCE-B2




     substantial a.      可观的, 有分量的; 重大的

                         of an economy or economics
       economic a.       经济(学)的


   professional n., a.   专业人员(的)


                         have control of or a very
       dominate v.
                         strong influence on 支配, 统治


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Part III                                                NCE-B2




           Choose the best answer
           for each of the following:




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Part III                                                               NCE-B2




           1. How many people are learning English across
              the globe?

           a. 5% of the world population.

           b. 10% of the world population.

           c. 20% of the world population.

           d. 50% of the world population.




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Part III                                                               NCE-B2




           2. The leading language for scientific purposes
           in the 1930s was _______________.

           a. Latin

           b. English

           c. German

           d. French



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Part III                                                             NCE-B2




           3. Written English is becoming more informal
           due to the influence of _______________.

           a. pop music

           b. American standards

           c. the Internet
           d. The growing number of speakers




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Part III                                                                NCE-B2




           4. English is unique in ______________.

           a. its alphabet

           b. the simplicity of its grammar

           c. its informality

           d. its wide range of sources




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Part III                                                                NCE-B2




           5. The writer points out that the different
           varieties of English __________.

           a. make communication difficult

           b. Allow the language to adapt to local

             circumstances
           c. are not equally acceptable

           d. require a central authority to set standards

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Part III                                                              NCE-B2




           6. The middle section of the essay, paragraphs
           11-17, could best be subtitled __________.

           a. The growth of English

           b. The forces behind the spread of English

           c. English past and present

           d. The future of English



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Part III                                               NCE-B2




           Translate into Chinese
           the underlined sentences
           in the essay:




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Part III                                                              NCE-B2




           1. It is unparalleled in several ways: by the
           increasing number of users of the language;
           by its depth of penetration into societies; by
           its range of functions.
           ——————————————————
           这一过程在几个方面都是前所未有的: 英语
           ——————————————————
           使用人数的增加, 英语在不同社会渗透的深
           ——————————————————
           度, 以及英语功用的广度。
           ———————————————




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Part III                                                            NCE-B2




           2. What began some 1,500 years ago as a
           crude language, originally spoken by little
           known German tribes who invaded
           England, now covers the globe.



           大约1500年前, 英语还只是那些入侵英格
           ___________________________________
           兰的鲜为人知的日耳曼部落使用的一种
           ___________________________________
           粗俗的语言, 如今它却遍及全球。
           __________________________




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           3. With this technical and scientific
           dominance came the beginning of overall
           dominance by the language, first in
           Europe and then globally.
           随着它在科技领域主导地位的确立, 英
           ___________________________________
           语先是在欧洲, 继而在全球开始取得全
           ___________________________________
           面的主导地位。
           ________________




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           4. While languages such as English, German,
           and French have been international languages
           because of their governments’ political power,
           this is less likely to be the case in the 21st century
           where economics and shifts in population will
           have more influences on languages.
           虽然英语, 德语和法语这些语言曾经凭
           ______________________________________
           着各自政府的政治力量而成为国际语
           ______________________________________
           言,这种情况在经济和人口变化对语言
           ________________________________
           的影响更大的21世纪不太可能发生。
           ______________________________

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           Fill in the gaps with words or
           phrases listed in the Words and
           Phrases to Learn box. Change
           the form where necessary.




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Part III                                                                NCE-B2




                                   give way to
            1. If you think I will __________ your threats,
            you are mistaken.

            2. Everybody thinks that it will be a very close
                                      predict
            race and no one dares to ________ its outcome.

            3. We should be thankful to Emily for her
           substantial contribution to our project.
            ________
                                            integrate
            4. Daniel found it difficult to ________ himself
            into a society whose culture was completely
            different from his own.


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Part III                                                                 NCE-B2




                                           in transition
           5. The Chinese economy is still ___________
           from a planned to a market economy.

           6. Lighting is a vitally important aspect of
                                              _____
           filmmaking.

           7. It’s the sort of ad that is intended to appeal
           to teachers, lawyers, doctors and other
           professionals
           ____________.

           8. The handbag is worth the money. It is
                     genuine
           made of _________leather.


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Part III                                                              NCE-B2



     9. The government’s policies have led us into the fastest
     economic
     ________ growth for years.

     10. ―Quite a number of students gave excellent answers
     to my last question. David Smith, Jane Anderson,
                        ____________,‖
     Edward Newman,to name a few said the professor in
     his comments on our performance in the exam.
                                         authority
     11. The new professor is a leading __________ on the
     history of Sino-British relations.

     12. Gone are the days when superpowers could dominate
                                                   ______
     the world.

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           13. ―No admittance‖ was painted in such
             crude
           __________ letters on the door that anyone would
           see right away the painter was a green hand (生手).
                     trend
           14. The __________ at the moment is towards a
           more natural and less made-up look.
           15. The government’s economic policy is to
             shift
           _________ the emphasis from primary industry (第
           一产业) to tertiary industry (第三产业).
           16. In his closing remarks, the chairman expressed
                                             had contributed to
           thanks to all those whose work _________________
           the success of the conference.

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Part III                                                                 NCE-B2



           17. As many as 100 species of fish, some of them
           unique to these waters, may have been affected by
           ______
           the pollution.

           18. Richard got two tickets for exceeding speed
                                           ________
           limits within one week. He really has to take care.

           19. It’s not impossible to ____________ this bad
                                       rid yourself of
           habit. But it will take a lot of effort.

           20. Many sociologists have called our attention to
                status
           the ________ of women in the rural areas.


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Part IV                                                 NCE-B2




             I Group Discussion
           The following graph shows
          the changes of the estimated
          numbers of the three groups
            of English speakers from
            1950 to 2050. L1 speakers

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Part III                                                          NCE-B2




           stand for native speakers of English; L2
           speakers those who use English as a second
           language; EFL speakers people who speak
           English as a foreign language.

           Now in small groups examine the graph and



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           discuss what is the information it gives
           you. Before you start it is advisable to read
           the writing strategy in the following box,
           too. Your discussion may focus on the
           following:




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Part IV                                                        NCE-B2




          1. The changes of the estimated numbers
          of each of the three groups of English
          speakers from 1950 to 2050;

          2. The individual patterns of the changes
          of the three groups during this period.




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Part IV                                                              NCE-B2




          Estimates of English Speakers from 1950 to 2050


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Part IV                                                       NCE-B2




                    II Essay Writing
          Drawing on what has been discussed in
          your group, write an essay entitled
          Estimates of English Speakers from 1950
          to 2050.




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Part IV                                                                NCE-B2




           Information transfer
              To transfer information into written (or spoken)
          language from a graph or chart, we need first of all
          decide what it is about. Then we must find out what
          is the general information the graph gives. After that,
          we may go into the details and make observations or
          comparisons about some specifics that are worth our
          attention.
              Take, for example, the graph given above. First
          of all, by looking at the explanation beside it, we

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Part IV                                                               NCE-B2




          know the graph is an estimate of English speakers
          during the period of 1950 to 2050. Upon closer
          examination we can establish what each curve in
          the graph represents.

             Then by examining the three curves, that is,
          where each starts and where it ends, we will find a
          general trend in the rise or fall of these curves.

             After that, you may comment on some of the



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Part IV                                                                NCE-B2




          specific details of the graph. You may observe, for
          example, that by 2010, the number of L2 speakers
          will exceed that of L1 speakers. You may also
          comment on the drastic increase of EFL speakers
          in the period between 1970-2000.

             Finally see to it that the information you give is
          well organized.




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Part IV                                                             NCE-B2




              This graph shows the changes of the
          estimated numbers of English speakers
          from 1950 to 2050. English speakers are
          divided into three groups, i.e. L1 speakers,
          L2 speakers and EFL speakers.




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Part IV                                                             NCE-B2



          According to the graph, it is estimated that the
    number of L1 speakers was a little over 200 million
    in 1950, a figure that will increase to around 450
    million by 2050. L2 speakers will triple during the
    same period, from less than 200 million to around
    600 million. EFL speakers will double in number
    over the period, starting from about 400 million in
    1950 and reaching over 900 million in 2050.


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Part IV                                                            NCE-B2



          Although the numbers of English speakers in
    all three groups tend to increase, their patterns
    of increase are different. L1 speakers increase
    steadily over the entire period, but not as rapidly
    as L2 speakers. This rapid growth is predicted to
    lead to L2 speakers outnumbering L1 speakers
    by the year 2010. Trends for the number of EFL
    speakers follow a somewhat


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Part IV                                                           NCE-B2



    different path. While the figures remained stable
    during the 1950s they then began to experience
    an increasingly sharp rise that is expected to
    level off and remain stable from 2020.




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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2




  有些语言拒绝引入新词。另一些
  语言,如英语,则似乎欢迎新词
  的引入。罗伯特·麦克尼尔回顾英
  语的历史,得出结论说,英语对
  变化的包容性体现了根深蒂固的
  自由思想。

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Chinese Version of Text A                         NCE-B2




                             罗伯特.麦克尼尔
                    我们的英语的历史是典型的大量窃取
             其它语言的历史。正因为如此,今日英语
             的词汇量据估计超过一百万,而其它主要
             语言的词汇量都要小得多。


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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2




             例如,法语只有约75,000个单词,其中还包
       括像snack bar(快餐店)和hit parade(流行
       唱片目录)这样的英语词。但法国人不喜欢借用
       外来词,因为他们认为这样会损害法语的纯洁性。
       法国政府试图逐出英语词汇,宣称Walkman(随
       身听)一词有伤大雅,因此他们造了个新词
       balladeur让法国儿童用——可他们就是不用。


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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2




            Walkman一词非常耐人寻味,因为这个词连
       英语也不是。严格地说,该词是由日本制造商
       发明的,他们把两个简单的英语单词拼在一起
       来命名他们的产品。这事儿我们不介意,法国
       人却耿耿于怀。由此一斑可见英语中绚丽多彩
       的杂乱无章现象。这种乐意包容的精神,这种
       不管源自何方来者不拒的精神,恰好解释了英


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Chinese Version of Text A                        NCE-B2




            语为什么会这么丰富,解释了英语缘何在
            很大程度上第一个成了真正的国际语言。

                   欧洲沿海一个弹丸小岛的语言何以会
            成为地球上的通用语言,比历史上任何一
            种其他语言都更为广泛地被口头和书面使
            用?英语的历史体现在孩子最先学会用来


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Chinese Version of Text A                        NCE-B2




          表示身份(I,me,you)、所属关系(mine,
          yours)、身体部位(eye,nose,mouth)、
          大小高矮(tall,short),以及生活必需
          品(food,water)的词汇当中。这些词都
          来自英语的核心部分古英语或盎格鲁-萨克
          逊英语。这些词通常简短明了,我们今天仍
          然用这些词来表示对我们真正至关重要的事
          物。

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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2




                 伟大的演说家常常用古英语来激发我
          们的情感。例如,在二战期间,温斯顿·丘
          吉尔作了如下的演讲来激励国民的勇气以
          抵抗屯兵英吉利海峡准备渡海作战的希特
          勒的军队:“我们要战斗在海滩上,我们
          要战斗在陆场上,我们要战斗在田野和街
          巷,我们要战斗在群山中。我们决不投
          降。”
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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2




                这段文字中几乎每个词都来自古英语,
           只有最后一个词——surrender 来自诺曼
           法语。丘吉尔原本可以说:“We shall
           never give in,”但这正是英语迷人之
           处和活力所在,作家为了加强效果可以糅
           合来自不同背景的不同词汇。而演说中使
           用古英语词汇具有直接拨动心弦的效果。


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Chinese Version of Text A                        NCE-B2



                 尤利乌斯·恺撒在公元前55年入侵不列颠
          时,英语尚不存在。当时不列颠的居民凯尔
          特人使用的那些语言流传下来主要成了威尔
          士语。这些语言的起源至今仍是个不解之谜,
          但有一种理论试图揭开这个谜。

                 两个世纪前,在印度当法官的一位英国
          人注意到,梵文中有一些词与希腊语﹑拉丁
          语中的一些词极为相似。系统的研究显示,

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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2



         许多现代语言起源于一个共同的母语,但由
         于没有文字记载,该母语已经失传。

                语言学家找出了相似的词,提出这些语
         言的源头是他们称之为印欧母语的语言,这
         种语言使用于公元前3500年至公元前2000年。
         这些人使用同样的词表达“雪” ﹑―蜜蜂”
         ﹑和“狼”,但没有表示“海”的词。因此
         有些学
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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2




        者认为,他们生活在寒冷的中北欧某个地区。
        一些人向东迁徙形成了印度和巴基斯坦的各种
        语言,有些人则向西漂泊,来到欧洲气候较为
        温暖的地区。最早西移的一些人后来被称为凯
        尔特人,亦即恺撒的军队在不列颠发现的民族。

             新的词汇随日尔曼部落——盎格鲁﹑萨克
        逊等部落——而来,他们在五世纪的时候越过


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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2



          北海定居在不列颠。他们共同形成了我们称
          之为盎格鲁-萨克逊的社会。

                 盎格鲁-萨克逊人将他们的农耕词汇留传
          给我们,包括sheep,ox,earth,wood,
          field和work等。他们日子一定过得很开心,
          因为他们留传给我们laughter一词。

                 下一个对英语产生重大影响的是基督教。


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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2


        基督教以400至500个希腊语﹑拉丁语词汇丰富
        了盎格鲁-萨克逊词汇,如angel(天使),
        disciple(门徒)和martyr(殉难者)等。

               接着北欧海盗从斯堪的纳维亚来到了这块
        相对和平的土地。他们也给英语带来了许多以
        sk开头的词汇,如sky和skirt。但古斯堪的纳
        维亚语和英语同时留传下来,因此你可以说
        rear a child(英语),也可以说raise a

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Chinese Version of Text A                        NCE-B2



          Child(斯堪的纳维亚语)。其他留传下来
          的这类同义词有:wish和want,craft和
          skill,hide和skin。每一个类似的词的增
          添都使英语更加丰富,更加多样化。

                 另一次新词的大量涌入发生在1066年,
          诺曼人征服英国的时候。这时英国三种语言
          并用:贵族使用法语,教会使用拉丁语,

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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2




          平民使用英语。由于三种语言相互竞争,有
          时同一事物就出现了不同的名称。例如,盎
          格鲁-萨克逊语有kingly一词,但诺曼人入
          侵后,royal和sovereign作为替代词进入了
          英语。不同寻常的是,法语没有取代英语。
          三个多世纪后,英语逐渐吞并了法语,到15



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Chinese Version of Text A                         NCE-B2



            世纪末,发展成为一种经过改进,大大
            丰富了的拥有一万多个“借来”的法语
            词汇的语言——中古英语。

                 大约在1476年,威廉·卡克斯顿在英
            国制造了一台印刷机,由此掀起了一场
            信息传播技术的革命。印刷术把欧洲文
            艺复兴运动中涌现出来的大量新思想传


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Chinese Version of Text A                         NCE-B2



         入英国。希腊罗马经典著作的译文纷纷印成书
         册,成千上万的拉丁词,如capsule(密封小
         容器;航天舱)和habitual(惯常的),希腊
         词,如catastrophe(大灾难)和thermometer
         (温度计)等也随之涌入。今天我们仍借用拉
         丁、希腊语命名新的发明创造,如video,
         television和cyberspace(虚拟空间)等。


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Chinese Version of Text A                        NCE-B2




                   随着移民在北美登陆并建立美国,英
            语出现了两个源头——美式英语和英式英
            语。英国的学者担心英语会失控,有人想
            成立一个有权威的学会,决定哪些词汇合
            适,哪些词汇不合适。幸运的是,他们的
            设想从未付诸实施。



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Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B2




                这种对变化的包容态度也体现了根深蒂
         固的自由精神。丹麦学者奥托·叶斯柏森在
         1905年写道:“如果不是多少世纪以来英国
         人一直崇尚个人自由,如果不是人人都能自
         由地为自己开拓新的道路,英语就不会成为
         今天的英语。”




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Chinese Version of Text A                        NCE-B2




                   我喜欢这一观点。想想吧,孕育英语
            的文化土壤也同样为现今的世界培育了伟
            大的自由精神及人权准则。最初的根芽在
            英国萌发,接着在美国生长壮大。英语国
            家的人民挫败了种种意欲建立语言保护的
            企图。



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Chinese Version of Text A                         NCE-B2




                    事实上,英语不是语法学家、语言
             卫道士、教师﹑作家或知识精英的特殊
             领地。英语是,而且一向是,人民大众
             的语言。




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Vocabulary to Read                                         NCE-B2


     messiness          massive          vocabulary

     snack              parade           corrupt

     ban                Walkman          strictly speaking

     invent             invention        fascinating

     manufacturer       product          tolerance

     to a (very real, certain, etc.) extent         necessity

     Anglo-Saxon        arouse            channel


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Vocabulary to Read                                  NCE-B2


   surrender         virtually          invade

   Celt              inhabit            Welsh

   mystery           Sanskrit           resemble

   Greek             Latin              systematic

   descend           linguist           Indo-European

   wolf              scholar            establish

   drift             climate            Germanic


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Vocabulary to Read                                            NCE-B2


    tribe            pass (sth.) on to (sb.)       influence

    Christianity           Christian               disciple

    martyr                 Norse                   addition

    Norman                 conquer                 kingly

    royal                 sovereign                alternative

    modify                 enrich                  Renaissance

    translation            Roman                   classic


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Vocabulary to Read                                     NCE-B2


  capsule            habitual              catastrophe

  thermometer        video                 cyberspace

  independent        source                out of control

  academy            fortunately           put into practice

  Danish             liberty               strike out

  cultural           nourish               preserve

  grammarian         intellectual          elite


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Web-links                                    NCE-B2



 www.wordorigins.org/histeng.htm

 www.winstonchurchill.org/

 www2.cs.uh.edu/~clifton/caesar.html

 www.schoolshistory.org.uk/Normans.htm
 www.todayinliterature.com/biography
 /william.caxton.asp
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