Cell and Molecular Biology Intro by duggybrown

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									Cell & Molecular Biology
            Module staff
• Dr Andrew Devitt
  – Module Coordinator

• Dr David Poyner

• Dr Anna Hine
                Module staff
• Dr Peter Hanson

• Dr Ann Vernallis

• Prof Mike Tisdale

• Prof Peter Lambert
                   Cell Biology
• What is it?
  – The study of cells
     •   Physiology
     •   Organelles
     •   Interactions with the environment
     •   Life, division, death
• How do we study it?
  – Microscopy
• Closely related to molecular biology
            Molecular Biology
• What is it?
  – The study of molecules
     •   DNA
     •   RNA
     •   Proteins
     •   How these link together
   Cell & Molecular Biology
• Learning Outcomes
  – By the end of this course you should
    better understand
    • The structure and function of different
      molecules in the cell
    • The various sub-cellular components of cell
    • How these contribute to the day to day life of
      the cell
• Knowledge
  Components of cells
  Whole organisms
Knowledge of normal function helps us
 understand disease
Organisms vary
Cells vary
     Cells have universal features
   – hereditary information
   – Transient info carrier
• Proteins
   – e.g. structural;
     enzymes; transport
• Central Dogma of
  molecular biology
   – DNA  RNA  Protein
 Cells have universal features
• Require genetic information
• Require free energy
  – To live and replicate
• Plasma membrane
  – Selective barrier
  – Concentrate desirable materials e.g. nutrients
  – Exclude undesirable materials e.g. waste products
                    Model Organisms
•   Universal features allow us to
    study one cell and extrapolate
    those results to others

•   Prokaryotic unicellular
     – Bacteria e.g. E. coli

•   Eukaryotic unicellular
     – Yeast e.g. Saccharomyces

•   Eukaryotic multicellular
     – Nematode e.g
       Caenhorabditis elegans
         Model Organisms
• Different organisms have similar genes
• C.elegans (a worm) provided most
  information about control of cell death in
• Mutations in similar genes can cause
  the same effect in different organisms
  Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
• Classified by presence of nucleus

• Prokaryote = pre-nuclueus
  – Bacteria (aka eubacteria)
  – Arachea (aka archae-bacteria)

• Eukaryote = true-nuclues

•   Most diverse
•   Small 0.2-2µm diameter
•   Simple
•   No nucleus just nuceloid
•   No organelles
•   Small & simple ribosomes
•   Small genome
           Eukaryotic Cells
• Large - 10 x bigger than prokaryotes
• Complex
• True nucleus with membrane
• Multiple specialised organelles (membrane-
• Larger & complex ribosomes
• Have cytoskeleton for structure and motility
• Large genome (much is irrelevant)
Eukaryotic Cells
• Organisms and cells are variable
• Organisms can be split in to 2 groups
  – Pro and eukaryotes with characteristc
• Cells have common features
• Model organisms can be used to exploit
  these common features

Characteristic   Prokaryote   Eukaryote
   Nucleus         Absent      Present
   Diameter       0.2-2 µm    10-100 µm
 Cytoskeleton      Absent      Present
  Organelles       Absent      Present
   Genome           Small       Large

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