Job Analysis - PowerPoint by usmanjee123

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									Strategic HRM


                JOB ANALSIS
                                Job Analysis
•       The systematic process of collecting
        information used to make decisions about
        jobs. Job analysis identifies the tasks, duties,
        and responsibilities of a particular job.
                           What is a Task
•       A basic element of work that is a logical and
        necessary step in performing a job duty
                            What is duty
•       Consists of one or more tasks that constitute a
        significant activity performed in a job

    Strategic Human Resource
    Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                            Job Analysis
    Job Analysis is a logical process to determine:
1. The Purpose – reason for the job
2. The Essential Functions – tasks, duties, responsibilities
   that are critical to performance of the job
3. Person Qualifications – minimal
   qualification/knowledge, skills, abilities an individual
   must possess to perform the essential functions
4. Job settings – the conditions wherein essential
   functions are performed, and physical and mental
   efforts required on part of the incumbent to perform
   the job.
Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                            Job Analysis – Process

                               DEVELOP JOB DESCRIPTION/ JOB SPECIFICATION   6
                            REVIEW INFORMATION WITH INCUMBENTS
                                                                            5
                   COLLECT DATA TO ANALYSE JOB                              4
            SELECT REPRESENTATIVE POSITIONS TO ANALYSE                      3
      REVIEW BACKGROUND INFORMATION
                                                                            2
IDENTIFY HOW INFORMATION WILL BE USED                                       1
Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
              Step 1
                                                     Step 2
   Identify the use to which the
                                          Review relevant background
information will be put, since this
                                       information such as organization
 will determine the types of data
                                         charts, process charts, and job
 you collect and how you collect
                                                  descriptions.
               them.



              Step 3                                Step 4                      Job
 Select representative positions to    Next actually analyze the job by
  be analyzed. This is done when       collecting data on job activities,    Analysis –
    many similar jobs are to be         required employee behaviors,
    analyzed and it is too time-
consuming to analyze, say, the jobs
                                       working conditions, and human
                                         traits and abilities needed to
                                                                              Process
      of all assembly workers.                  perform the job.


                Step 5
                                                      Step 6
  Review the information with job      Develop a job description and job
    incumbents. The job analysis      specification. A job description and
information should be verified with    a job specification are usually two
 the worker performing the job and        concrete products of the job
      with his or her immediate                      analysis
              supervisor.

  Strategic Human Resource
  Management : JOB ANALYSIS
      Whose responsibility is Job Analysis?
• It can be
    –      A Member of HR department
    –      A Job Incumbent
    –      A Functional Manager
    –      Or all three combined




Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
Sources of information for Job Analysis
•   Incumbent
•   Supervisor
•   Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)
•   Customers




Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
           Incumbent as a source of information

                    Points For                 Points Against

      1. An elementary and natural      1. Information gathered is very
         source of information about       much prone to be biased since
         the job being its occupier        the      incumbent       may
         especially about the length       overestimate or underestimate
         of time spent on the job and      the TDRs, KSAs, and working
         working conditions                conditions matching to her/his
                                           own interests.

                                        2. Research has supported the
                                           fact that good performers
                                           usually give different ratings
                                           as    compared      to    poor
                                           performers.


Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
             Supervisor as source of information

                     Points For                   Points Against
                                           1. Information by the Supervisor
       1. Another natural source of
                                             regarding KSAs could be biased
         information about the job
                                             to the extent of his/her own
         especially about importance of
                                             qualifications as a previous
         the TDRs.
                                             incumbent of the job rather than
       2. In many cases, supervisor          its contemporary requirements.
         may be the best source of
         information particularly when     2. Information by the supervisor
         the incumbent is new on the          regarding TDRs could be biased
         job and/or supervisor has            to the extent of his/her personal
         been occupier of that job for a      demands of the job in matters of
         substantial    time     before       meeting      demands      of  the
         promotion to the present job         departmental he/she is heading.
                                           3. Overall information given by the
                                              supervisor regarding the job
                                              could be coloured by the nature
Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                                              of relations with the incumbent.
                  SMEs as source of information

                  Points For                   Points Against

      1. SMEs are supposed to have      1. If the SME has not performed the
         exposure of variety of            job practically, information by
         situations   regarding   a        him/her could be more academic.
         particular    job    hence
         valuable     source     of
         information.

       2. If SME is a consultant s/he
          will be the best source of
          contemporarily     required
          TDRs and KSAs regarding a
          job.



Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
             Customers as source of information

                    Points For                   Points Against

      1. Customers being consumers of     1. Customers’ point of interest
         products and services of the        may be excessively narrow
         jobs are usually a precious         and reliable only to that
         source of information as how        extent.
         effectively the job is being
         performed,    what   important
         duties are missing and/or what
         KSAs on part of the incumbent
         are needed to make the job
         more effective.




Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                Modes of information collection

• Observation
• Questionnaire
• Interviews




Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
            Observation as a mode of information
                         collection
                 Points For                         Points Against
     1. It is a source of first hand
         knowledge and information          1. But observation as mode of
         about the job and helps               information collection has limited
         reduce the errors arising             efficacy     since       observing
         out       of       possible           employees is easier only where
         overstatement             or          job is observable and with limited
         understatement     of    the          duration like, assembly line
         TDRs by the incumbents.               worker,     machine       operator,
                                               construction     worker,      flight
        2. It allows the job analyst to
                                               attendant, bus driver, janitor etc
            directly observe the working
            conditions,        degree  of   2.Whereas        observing       an
            complexity of the job, inter-     administrative jobs, on the other
            job relations etc hence           hand, may not be easy because
            greater validity of the           the jobs and tasks may vary
            findings that is not possible     widely from day to day.
            through
Strategic Human Resource  interviews  and
            questionnaire.
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
           Questionnaire as a mode of information
                         collection
                    Points For                    Points Against

      1. The use of questionnaires is      1. But questionnaire may result into
         most efficient means when a          deferred information or no
         large number of employees            information at all.
         are involved or when a
         number of widely dispersed
         employees      are  to    be
         questioned about the job.

      2.     If well structured, the
           questionnaire is a simplified
           method of collecting job
           information that gives ample
           time to the respondent to
           organize their answers
Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
     Interview as information collection
             Points For                      Points Against
1. Interview is a source of        1. The interviewees may overlook
   getting then and there             The TDRs involved in the job
   information      from     the      during interviews.
   respondents as against the
   questionnaires that provide     2. Interviews, especially for the
   only deferred information          managerial and professional jobs,
                                      is a time consuming process
                                   3.     Cost is also involved      on
                                        training the interviewers.
                                   4. Given the time consuming and
                                     costly nature of the interviews,
                                     job analysts may prefer to use
                                     the interview as a means to
                                     answer      specific     queries
                                     generated from observation and
Strategic Human Resource
                                     questionnaires.
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                Discussion Questions
     1. Job analysis is key to every other HR
        function. Discuss.
     2. Give points for and points against the
        incumbent/supervisor/subject matter
        expert/customer as a source of
        information for job analysis.
     3. Give points for and points against the
        observation/questionnaire/interview as
        a mode of data collection for the job
        analysis.
Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
         How Does Job Analysis Help HRM?




Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
               Techniques of Job Analysis
• Task Inventory Analysis

• Critical Incident Analysis

• Position Analysis Questionnaire




Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                Task Inventory Analysis
• Technique establishes KSAs to perform a
  job successfully
     – Knowledge

     – Skills

     – Abilities

     – Above established through questionnaires
       and surveys
Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
    What are the major advantages of
        Task Inventory Analysis?
• One - It is a systematic means of analyzing
  tasks in a particular situation

• Two - It uses a tailor made questionnaire
  rather than an already-prepared stock
  questionnaire

    THIS TECHNIQUE CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP
    JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND PERFORMANCE
    APPRAISALS
Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
           1                2              3           4                                                                           5
       Very Low            Low           Medium       High                                                                     Very High




                                                                                                Ability to follow directions
                                                  Mathematical Reasoning




                                                                                                                                         Comprehension - Oral
  Example of a KSA Matrix




                                                                           Analytical Ability



                                                                                                                                Memory
Job Task



1. Reviews production schedules
   to determine correct job sequencing

2. Identifies problem jobs and takes
   corrective actions

3. Determines need for and provides
   special work order
        Critical Incident Technique (CIT)
•      It is used to develop behavioral descriptions
       of a job through four steps, namely

1. Generate Dimensions

2. Generate Incidents

3. Retranslate

4. Assign effectiveness values

Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
        Critical Incident Technique (CIT)
1. Generate Dimensions: What could this
       be?

 These are aspects of performance, for
  example, how to answer a phone, how to
  take down particulars of a caller, how to
  inform the called party are the dimensions
  of a receptionist’s job


Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
        Critical Incident Technique (CIT)
2. Generate Incidents:
     – This is generating or creating scenarios of
       “critical incidents” of behavior

     – These behaviors represent high, moderate, and
       low levels performance

     – The behaviors (based on critical incidents) are
       judged on each dimension

     – It is often used in appraisal system too
Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
        Critical Incident Technique (CIT)
3. Retranslation and Assigning
   Effectiveness Values means?
      Making sure that critical incidents
       generated in the first two steps are
       commonly viewed by the employees the
       same way



Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

1. It is a questionnaire that contains 194
   different items
      Five point scale determines the degree to
       which the different items, or job elements, are
       involved in performing a particular job

      The 194 items are organized into six sections



Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                   The Six Sections of PAQ
1. Information Input: Where and how a worker
       gets information needed to perform the job

2. Mental Processes: The reasoning, decision
       making, planning, and information processing
       activities involved in performing a job

3. Work Output: The physical activities, tools,
       and devices used by the worker to perform the
       job


Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                    The Six Sections of PAQ
 4. Relationship with other persons: Where
        and how a worker gets information needed to
        perform the job

 5. Job Context: The physical and social contexts
        in which the work is performed

 6. Other Characteristics: The other activities,
        conditions and characteristics relevant to the job

A computer analyzes the completed PAQ
 Strategic Human Resource
 Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                   Functional Job Analysis
•      Mostly done in Public Sector but can be used by Private
       Sector as well

•      It is conducted either through a questionnaire or an
       interview to collect following information
     1.     What the job incumbent does to people, data, and things

     2.     The methods and techniques to job incumbent uses to perform the
            job

     3.     The machines, tools and equipment used by the job incumbent

     4.     The materials, projects, or services produced by the job incumbent



Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
                 What is Job Description?
•      A written document that identifies, describes, and
       defines a job in terms of its duties,
       responsibilities, working conditions, and
       specifications

•      Specific Job Description : It is detailed
       summary of a job’s tasks, duties, and
       responsibilities.

•      General Job Description: It is associated with
       work flow strategies that emphasize innovation,
       flexibility, and lose work planning

Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
            Elements of Job Description?
•        It has four key elements, any ideas?
1. Identification Information. It identifies
     –      The job title,

     –      Location, and

     –      Source of job-analysis information,

     –      Who wrote the job description

     –      The date of job analysis

     –      Verification of the job description

     –      Whether the job is exempt from overtime provision
Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
            Elements of Job Description?
2. Job Summary
     –      A Short Statement that summarizes the job’s duties,
            responsibilities, and place in the organization

3. Job Duties and Responsibilities, It explains
                what is done on the job, (3-5 most important responsibilities)

                Each responsibility starts with an action word such as
                supervises, develops, maintains, and coordinates

                how it is done

                Why it is done


Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS
            Elements of Job Description?
4. Job Specifications and Minimum
   Qualifications
            Job Specification: The worker characteristics
            needed to perform a job successfully

            Minimum Qualifications: The basic
            standards a job applicant must have achieved
            to be considered for the job


Strategic Human Resource
Management : JOB ANALYSIS

								
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