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Emotions - PowerPoint

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					Myers PSYCHOLOGY
     Seventh Edition in Modules




         Emotions
           Seema Arif
             PCBA

            30-04-08
Emotion
 Emotion
  a response of the whole
   organism
    physiological arousal
    expressive behaviors
    conscious experience
Typical Emotions

            Anger
            Anxiety
            Content
            Disgust
            Fear
            Gratitude
            Guilt
Typical Emotions

             Happiness
             Jealousy
             Joy
             Pleasure
             Relief
             Sadness
             Surprise
Theories of Emotion

  Does your heart pound
   because you are afraid...
   or are you afraid because you
   feel your heart pounding?
James-Lange
Theory of Emotion
 Experience of emotion is awareness of
  physiological responses to emotion-
  arousing stimuli
      Sight of      Pounding        Fear
     oncoming         heart       (emotion)
        car         (arousal)
   (perception of
     stimulus)
Cannon-Bard
Theory of Emotion
                 Pounding
                   heart      Emotion-arousing
                 (arousal)
   Sight of                    stimuli simultaneously
  oncoming
     car                       trigger:
(perception of
  stimulus)                     physiological
                                 responses
                   Fear         subjective experience
                                 of emotion
                 (emotion)
  Schachter’s Two-Factor
  Theory of Emotion
                 Pounding
                   heart                   To experience
                 (arousal)
   Sight of                       Fear      emotion one
  oncoming
     car
                                (emotion)
                                            must:
(perception of
  stimulus)                               be physically
                                           aroused
                 Cognitive                cognitively
                   label                   label the
                 “I’m afraid”              arousal
Experienced Emotion


                 The
                  Amygdala-
                  a neural
                  key to fear
                  learning
Cognition and Emotion
 The brain’s shortcut for emotions
Two Routes to
Emotion
James-Lange theory


 Anger            Distinctive
situation        physiological          Anger
                     state

Euphoria          Distinctive
situation                              Euphoria
                 Physiological
                     sate

The situation determines the physiological state,
and the physiological state completely determines
the emotion.
Schachter and Singer theory


                  Cognitive
                 appraisal of     Anger
                    anger
 Anger
                Un-distinctive   Intensity of
situation                        (whatever)
                physiological
                   arousal       emotion


                 Cognitive
                Appraisal of      Euphoria
Euphoria         euphoria
situation
               Un-Distinctive      Intensity of
                Physiological      (whatever)
                                     emotion
                    sate
Experienced Emotion
                   The
                    ingredients
                    of emotion
Two Dimensions of
Emotion
                     Positive
                     valence




             pleasant
            relaxation          joy
   Low                                   High
 arousal                                arousal
                                 fear
           sadness              anger



                     Negative
                     valence
                                               The Nervous System
                                      Consists of the brain & the neurons
                                        extending throughout the body

                      Peripheral Nervous System                                 Central Nervous System
                          Made of long axons & dendrites,
                                                                                Consists of the Brain and Spinal cord
                         it contains all parts of nervous system
                          other than the brain & spinal cord




Somatic Division                Autonomic Division                    Brain                        Spinal Cord
Specializes in the control of                                         An organ almost 3
                                   (involuntary)                                                   A bundle of nerves that
voluntary movements and                                               pounds that constantly       leaves the brain & runs
communication of information        Concerns with the parts
                                                                      controls behavior            down the length of the back:
to and from the sense organs.      of the body that function
                                                                                                   transmit messages between
                                   involuntarily without our
                                                                                                   the brain & the body.
                                           awareness.




     Sympathetic Division                           Parasympathetic Division
      Act to prepare the body in                          Act to calm the body after
   stressful emergency situations,                       an emergency situation has
    engaging resources to respond                     engaged the sympathetic division;
              to a threat.                              provides a means for the body
                                                    to maintain storage of energy sources.
Emotion and
Physiology
          Autonomic nervous system controls
                physiological arousal
       Sympathetic                    Parasympathetic
    division (arousing)               division (calming)
       Pupils dilate        EYES       Pupils contract
        Decreases      SALIVATION         Increases
        Perspires           SKIN            Dries
        Increases      RESPIRATION       Decreases
       Accelerates         HEART           Slows
         Inhibits         DIGESTION       Activates
      Secrete stress      ADRENAL         Decreases
        hormones          GLANDS         secretion of
                                            stress
                                          hormones
Expressed Emotion
 People more speedily detect an angry face
  than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)
Expressed Emotion
 Culturally universal expressions
Experienced Emotion
 Infants’ naturally occurring emotions
Experienced Emotion

 Catharsis
   emotional release
   catharsis hypothesis
     “releasing” aggressive energy (through
      action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
 Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
   people’s tendency to be helpful when
    already in a good mood
Experienced Emotion

 Subjective Well-Being
  self-perceived happiness or
   satisfaction with life
  used along with measures of
   objective well-being
   physical and economic indicators
    to evaluate people’s quality of life
  Happiness is...
Researchers Have Found That              However, Happiness Seems Not Much
Happy People Tend to                     Related to Other Factors, Such as

Have high self-esteem                    Age
(in individualistic countries)

Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable   Gender (women are more often
                                         depressed, but also more often joyful)

Have close friendships or a satisfying   Education levels
marriage

Have work and leisure that engage        Parenthood (having children or not)
their skills

Have a meaningful religious faith        Physical attractiveness

Sleep well and exercise
Emotions are our personalities

  Removal of amygdala personality changes
    Capacity for creative play
    Imagination
    Emotional nuances such as
       •   Arts
       •   Humor
       •   Imagination
       •   Love
       •   Music
       •   Altruism
Are Feelings and Emotions the Same?

 Noooo!
  Emotions are generated from biological automated pathways
   and have been found to be experienced universally
  Feelings are culturally and environmentally developed
   responses to circumstances
  Emotions can be measured
     Electrodermal responses
     Heart rate
     Blood pressure
     EEG activity
     Feelings and emotions travel through separate pathways in
      the brain
•   Feelings add color to our life, they can also disrupt our
    life!


•   Emotions are our body’s adaptive response, when we face
    challenges, emotions focuses our attention and energize
    our actions - - our heart races.
Expression of Emotion
Universality of facial expressions
  Charles Darwin
     First to study the relationship between emotions and facial
      expressions
     Believed that the facial expression of emotion was an aid
      to survival because it enabled people to communicate their
      internal states and react to emergencies before they
      developed language
     Maintained that most emotions, and the facial expressions
      that convey them, are genetically inherited and
      characteristic of the entire human species
     Concluded that facial expressions were similar across
      cultures
Plutchik
Three-dimensional Circumplex
Model
Protypical Behavior
Triangular Theory of Love
 Robert Sternberg’s theory that three
  components – intimacy, passion, and
  decision/commitment – singly and in various
  combinations produce seven different kinds of
  love:
    1.   Liking (I)
    2.   Infatuated love (P)
    3.   Empty love (C)
    4.   Romantic love (I, P)
    5.   Fatuous love (C, P)
    6.   Companionate love (C, I)
    7.   Consummate love (I, C, P)

				
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