The Educational Institution
In the broader sense, education is
almost synonymous with
“socialization”, since both involve the
passing on of culture from one
person or group to another.
The distinguishing feature of
education in modern societies,
however, is that it has become an
institutionalized, formal activity.
Education is the systematic ,
formalized transmission of
knowledge , skills, and values.
The Functions of Schooling
As societies become more technologically
complex , young people need to acquire rapidly
expanding information and new skills, beyond the
grasp of family members themselves, so other
social institutions play a greater role in
In industrial societies, schooling requires specially
trained personnel to efficiently teach a wide
range of knowledge.
At the primary school level, children learn basic
language and mathematical skills.
Secondary school steadily builds on this
foundation and, for some, college allows further
Educational systems as well as transmit
Schools stimulate intellectual inquiry and
critical thinking, which lead to the
development of new ideas.
Today, for example many college professors
not only teach but engage in research that
yields discoveries and innovations.
Medical research, carried on mainly at major
universities, has helped to increase life
Schooling helps a mass of people
into a unified whole.
Schools meet this challenge, first, by
establishing a common language to
encourage broad communication.
Formal education helps young people assume
culturally approved statuses and perform roles
that contribute to the ongoing life of society.
To accomplish this, schooling operates as a
screening process that identifies and develops
people’s various aptitudes and abilities.
Ideally, schools evaluate students performance in
terms of achievement while downplaying their
In this ideal scheme, the “best and the brightest”
are encouraged to pursue the most challenging
and advanced studies, while students of more
pedestrian (dull) abilities are guided into
educational programs and occupations suited to
Latent Functions of Schooling
To establish social relationships and
Habits of punctuality and obedience to
How Social-Class Background
Affect Educational Success?
1. Cost of Education
2. Family Expectations
3. Cultural Background
4. Language Problems
5. Teacher Attitudes
7. IQ Testing
8. Peer-Group Influence
Why Academic Standards Have
Permissive Child rearing
Changing Family Patterns
Impact of Television
Greater Educational access