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					Social Institutions
     The Educational Institution
   In the broader sense, education is
    almost synonymous with
    “socialization”, since both involve the
    passing on of culture from one
    person or group to another.
   The distinguishing feature of
    education in modern societies,
    however, is that it has become an
    institutionalized, formal activity.
Education is the systematic ,

formalized transmission of

knowledge , skills, and values.
     The Functions of Schooling

   Socialization

   Cultural Innovation

   Social Integration

   Social Placement

   Latent Functions
   As societies become more technologically
    complex , young people need to acquire rapidly
    expanding information and new skills, beyond the
    grasp of family members themselves, so other
    social institutions play a greater role in
   In industrial societies, schooling requires specially
    trained personnel to efficiently teach a wide
    range of knowledge.
   At the primary school level, children learn basic
    language and mathematical skills.
   Secondary school steadily builds on this
    foundation and, for some, college allows further
           Cultural Innovation
   Educational systems as well as transmit
   Schools stimulate intellectual inquiry and
    critical thinking, which lead to the
    development of new ideas.
   Today, for example many college professors
    not only teach but engage in research that
    yields discoveries and innovations.
   Medical research, carried on mainly at major
    universities, has helped to increase life
           Social Integration

   Schooling helps a mass of people

    into a unified whole.

   Schools meet this challenge, first, by

    establishing a common language to

    encourage broad communication.
              Social Placement
   Formal education helps young people assume
    culturally approved statuses and perform roles
    that contribute to the ongoing life of society.
   To accomplish this, schooling operates as a
    screening process that identifies and develops
    people’s various aptitudes and abilities.
   Ideally, schools evaluate students performance in
    terms of achievement while downplaying their
    social background.
   In this ideal scheme, the “best and the brightest”
    are encouraged to pursue the most challenging
    and advanced studies, while students of more
    pedestrian (dull) abilities are guided into
    educational programs and occupations suited to
    their talents.
    Latent Functions of Schooling

   Child Care

   To establish social relationships and


   Habits of punctuality and obedience to

     How Social-Class Background
      Affect Educational Success?
1.   Cost of Education
2.   Family Expectations
3.   Cultural Background
4.   Language Problems
5.   Teacher Attitudes
6.   Labeling
7.   IQ Testing
8.   Peer-Group Influence
    Why Academic Standards Have
   Permissive Child rearing
   Changing Family Patterns
   Impact of Television
   Overburdened curriculum
   Inferior teachers
   Discipline Problems
   Greater Educational access