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					     Strategies for Optimization of Engines,
            Fuels, and Aftertreatment

                                Bruce G. Bunting
                              senior staff scientist
                 Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center
                         Oak Ridge National Laboratory


             University of Wisconsin Engine Research Center Symposium:
          Fuels for Future Internal Combustion Engines
                                  June 6-7, 2007



OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                             What I want to show

   •   Fuel plays a role in HCCI engine performance
   •   HCCI engines put out pollution, too
        – Some effects same as conventional engines, some different
   •   Aftertreatment needs to play a role
   •   Fuel economy considerations can drive choices

   •   Order of talk:
        – Fuels
        – Engines
        – Aftertreatment
        – Interactions (examples, data)
        – Conclusions


OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                       Scope of this talk - fuels
   •   Liquid fuels
   •   Compatible with existing fuels and infrastructure
   •   Compatible with current in-use vehicles
   •   Meaning:
        – Gasoline
        – Diesel
        – Bio-derived fuels or blend components
   •   Allowing for the slow evolution of these fuels as driven by
        – Market requirements
        – Legislation
        – Product differentiation
        – Source and type of raw material
            • oil sands, oil shale, coal, NG, corn, oil crops, cellulose, etc.


OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                  Why did I set the scope here?

   •   If a new fuel requires a new infrastructure, it is going to happen slowly
   •   A new fuel type will take time to develop sufficient volume to make a
       difference
   •   Companies, investors, and the public have choices and take time to
       decide
   •   Every possibility for a significant transportation fuels that I see for my
       lifetime fits into this scope (except maybe electric)
         – But, hey, I am here to learn, too




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                               Fuels defined

   •   Fuels have specifications
        – Cetane, octane, distillation, vapor pressure, flash point, stability
   •   And simple chemistry specifications
        – Sulfur, aromatics
   •   And more chemistry, more chemistry
   ↓
   ↓
   ↓
   ↓
   •   And, eventually, individual molecule types

   •   How far do you need to go to control manufacturing and quality?
   •   How far do you need to go to understand and optimize?


OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                                                     Fuels defined
OIL SANDS DERIVED DISTILLATE FUELS AND INTERMEDIATE STREAMS   F6-483   F6-482   F6-606   F6-530         F6-605   F6-480   F6-607    F6-531
Density                 ASTM D4052             g/mL, 15°C     0.8862   0.8408   0.8190   0.8245         0.8400   0.8582   0.8488    0.8634
Viscosity               ASTM D445              cSt, 40°C       6.623    1.814    1.188    2.278          2.582    3.050    5.734     3.183
Sulfur content          ASTM D5623             mg/L             596     48.8      0.5      31.8           0.5      0.9       0.5     343.8
Carbon content          ASTM D5291M            wt%             87.26    86.74    86.52    86.22          86.02    86.57     86.3     86.82
Hydrogen content        ASTM D5291M            wt%             13.02    13.66    13.81    14.22          13.74    13.26    13.77      13.4
Nitrogen content        ASTM D4629             mg/L            130.8    15.78     0.52     2.08           0.21     4.42     0.52     74.89
Saturates               SFC ASTM D5186         mass %           62.2    72.4      76.3     81.8           76.4     73.1     85.1      67.6
Total Aromatics         SFC ASTM D5186         mass %           37.8     27.6     23.7     18.2           23.6     26.9     14.9      32.4
Mono-Aromatics          SFC ASTM D5186         mass %           27.4     25.6     22.8     16.2           19.5     21.9     10.3      26.5
Di-Aromatics            SFC ASTM D5186         mass %           8.7      1.9      0.8      1.9             4.0      4.1      3.3       5.1
Poly-Aromatics          SFC ASTM D5186         mass %           1.7      0.1      0.1      0.1            0.1      0.9       1.3       0.8
Saturates               PIONA+SOAP-SPE         mass %          58.92    51.96    31.41    66.63          71.71    60.64    80.51     56.12
Olefins                 PIONA+SOAP-SPE         mass %           0.32     0.70     0.66     0.23           0.54     0.34     0.47      0.3
Aromatics               PIONA+SOAP-SPE         mass %          37.74    21.89     14.6    35.66          21.03    24.92    15.33     30.51
Polars                  PIONA+SOAP-SPE         mass %           0.00     0.00      0   100 0                0        0        0         0
Cloud Pt C                                     deg.C            -14      -48     <-60      -10            -45      -23      -12       -23
Pour Pt. C                                     deg.C            -21     <-60     <-60   90 -18           <-60      -42      -27       -42
Cetane Index D976       ASTM D976                               44.8     40.6     34.0     51.9           49.4     45.2     56.0      44.4
Cetane Number                                                   41.8     35.4     32.3  80 na             46.0     41.3     52.3      40.4
Boiling point curve     ASTM D86 Distillation  IBP              189      171      156      176            207      170      213       178
Boiling point curve     ASTM D86 Distillation  5%               247      186      167   70 193            225      194      242       197
Boiling point curve     ASTM D86 Distillation  10%              268      192      171      202            232      206      259       209
                                                                                        60 214




                                                                                   % distilled
Boiling point curve     ASTM D86 Distillation  20%              287      201      176                     242      222      282       225
Boiling point curve     ASTM D86 Distillation  50%              318      230      193      249            262      268      318       271
                        ASTM D86 Distillation
                                                                                        50
Boiling point curve                            70%              344      262      215      294            280      316      344       319
Boiling point curve     ASTM D86 Distillation  90%              359      275      226      317            289      337      363       340
                                                                                        40
Boiling point curve     ASTM D86 Distillation  95%              373      285      235      337            296      354      391       356
Boiling point curve     ASTM D86 Distillation  FBP              378      298      248   30 354            305      369      410       368

                                                                                                 20

                                                                                                 10

                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                  150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425

                                                                            DISTILLATION CURVES                    temperature, C
                                                                                 (#2 SPECS IN RED)
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                                                                                                           Diesel vs. B100
                                                                           C17


                           ECD1                                      C16               C19

                                                                                 C18
                                                               C15
                                                                                             C20
                                                                                                                                          SME B100
Concentration (a.u.)




                                                                                                   C21

                                                         C14                                                                                                                  Mixed C18
                                                                                                                                                                              Methyl esters

                                                                                                         C22
                                                   C13


                                                                                                               C23
                                             C12


                                       C11

                                                                                                                     C24
                                                                                                                                                                  C16 methyl ester
                                 C10
                                                                                                                           C25
                            C9




                       5          10               15                      20                       25                           30       35
                                                           Elution Time                                                               0        5   10    15     20       25          30       35
                                                                                                                                                        Elution Time


                                                               • Biodiesel is far more “monolithic” than petrodiesel
                                                                    •Higher, narrower boiling point distribution
                                                                    •Fewer types of molecules
                                                                    •No low MW components

                       OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
                       U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
      2D-GCMS provides individual molecular composition
          of complex fuels (up to ~ 2500 compounds)
     SR- HGO




                                             S
                                        S IN
                           G AR EF RA ICS
                                                 PEAK #                    COMPOUND                    % COMPOSITION




                              T… AF IN FF
                                O P A AT
                                                   85     n-C17                                             5.59




                                       VY
                                  .H S
                                   O M


                                … FIN
                                                   99     n-C18                                             5.17




                                    EA
                                CL RO
                                                   32     n-C14                                             5.15



                              CY A

                         LI P L
                                                   76     Hexadecane                                        5.09
                                       NON-POLAR
                                                  102     n-C19                                             4.40




                            H
                                                   33     Cyclotetradecane                                  4.37
                                                   60     Pentadecane                                       3.91
                         POLAR
               SR- LGO                              8     Cyclodecene, 3-bromo-                             2.94
                                                   64     Spiro[2.3]hexan-4-one, 5,5-diethyl-               2.78
                                                   74     7-Octadecyne, 2-methyl-                           2.67
                               METHYL ESTERS
                                                  103     Eicosane                                          2.52
                                                   25     7-Heptadecene, 1-chloro-                          2.39
                                                   24     C14-diene                                         2.28
                                                   50     Cyclopentane, hexyl-                              1.96
                                                   35     1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-cyclohexane            1.78
                                                   52     Tetradecane                                       1.75
                            B20- SOY
                                                   82     n-Nonylcyclohexane                                1.55
                                                  104     n-C21                                             1.54
                                                   80     Dodecane                                          1.54
                                                   59     7-Heptadecene, 17-chloro-                         1.23
                                                   97     Anthracene-D10-                                   1.21
                                                   22     Cyclopentane, 1-methyl-3-(2-methylpropyl)-        1.19
                                                  105     n-C22                                             1.08
                                                   37     Naphthalene, C4-decahydro-                        1.07
                                                   12     Cyclopentane, hexyl-                              1.06
                                                   87     Heptadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-               1.04
                                                   etc    etc                                               etc

                              Search routines identify 1000’s of compounds
                                                                            of HCs
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Fuel issues confound automated identification goals
                              Experimental procedures must match analysis
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                                                   Fuel energy content
•   Virtually all fuels have different energy contents
•   Energy content can be measured on a
      – Volumetric basis (if you are interested in miles per gallon)
      – Weight basis (if you are interested in grams per kw-hr)
•   For HC fuels
      – Higher energy on weight basis favors high H/C, lighter fuels
      – Higher energy on volume basis favors low H/C, heavier fuels
•   Oxygen containing fuels have a lower energy content
•   In fuels and engines research, it is common to zero out energy content by comparing on
    an energy efficiency basis
      – But, that doesn’t get you any farther on a tank of fuel !!!
                                           density vs. % aromatics                                                         fuel energy content

                               0.9                                                                          45
                                                                                                            44




                                                                               energy content, btu per xx
                              0.88                                                                          43
                                                                                                            42
             density, gm/cc




                              0.86                                                                          41
                                                                                                                                            btu/gram
                                                                                                            40
                                                                                                                                            btu/cc
                              0.84                                                                          39
                                                                                                            38
                              0.82                                                                          37
                                                                                                            36
                               0.8                                                                          35
                                     10   20       30         40     50   60                                     10   20        30          40         50   60
                                                    % aromatics                                                                  % aromatics


OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                             HCCI combustion

   •   Defined here as fully premixed combustion with ignition initiated kinetically
       near top of compression stroke (traditional HCCI)
        – Temperature is main initiator of combustion
             • Intake heating, retained exhaust, higher compression ratio
        – Burning rate must be moderated
             • Lean mixtures – excess air
             • Dilute mixtures – EGR, retained exhaust, and/or excess air
   •   Advantages - potential for more efficient combustion
             • Fast combustion, un-throttled operation (maybe), high compression
                ratio (maybe), less heat loss to cylinder wall (maybe)
             • Low NOx and low smoke
   •   Risks - under development - potential issues include
             • Lower power density, more difficult to control, combustion noise,
                control compromises leading to reduced fuel efficiency, more sensitive
                to fuel variations


OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                     Why focus on this engine
                    type for our fuels research?

   •   Easy to build, operate, model, and understand
   •   Good for fuels research
        – Don’t need much fuel (5 gallons is usually enough)
        – Chemistry happens sequentially
            • Separation of LTHR and HTHR
   •   Same processes happen in all engines
        – But more mixed up in time and space




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                 By the way, ORNL Fuels, Engines, and
               Emissions Research Center also has……….
•   35 engineers, scientists, post graduates
•   6 engine test cells                                                                         150
                                                                                                108
                                                                                                67    NOx mg/s




    12 engines currently installed
                                                                                                25


•                                            100
                                                   80

                                          Speed ft/s
                                                        60
                                                                                      2.5
                                                                                         5.0
                                                                                              10.0
                                                                                            7.5

                                                                                             Accel ft/s/s
                                                             40
                                                                                   0.0



     – 8 to 600 hp
                                                                  20           -2.5
                                                                        0   -5.0




     – Several advanced PCCI engines               25        50        75   100   125

                                              1997 VW Jetta Tailpipe NOx emissions, mg/s
                                                                                         150




•   Advanced emissions characterization capabilities
•   Research in combustion, controls, fuels, aftertreatment,
    and emissions characterization
•   DOE funding and private funding
•   Partnerships with industry, universities, other labs




    Offsite Projects                                                                                             Simulink Model


OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                Two specific research platforms

   •   ORNL HCCI engine
           • Converted from small industrial diesel
           • Highly premixed – true HCCI
           • Lean, with intake air heating
           • Diesel or gasoline range fuels
   •   AVL HCCI engine
           • Located at AVL, used under subcontract
           • Hydraulic variable valve actuation, 60 to 70% retained exhaust
           • Dilute, nominally stoichiometric
           • Highly premixed – true HCCI
           • Gasoline range fuels
   •   Same fuel effects occur in more complex engines in certain operating
       modes, certain times, or select regions in combustion chamber

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                      ORNL Research Platform
                      INTAKE AIR HEATER
ENGINE




                                                    MODIFIED PISTON
                                                    WITH SPHERICAL
                                                   COMBUSTION BOWL

BELT DRIVE                                        Engine Displacement (cc)           517
                             ATOMIZING INJECTOR
                                                  Bore (cm)                          9.7

                                                  Stroke (cm)                        7.0

                                                  Compression Ratio                10.5:1

                                                  Intake Valve Opening (CA deg)      710

                                                  Intake Valve Closing (CA deg)      218
                             CONSTANT SPEED       Exhaust Valve Opening (CA deg)     499
                             MOTORING DYNO        Exhaust Valve Closing (CA deg)     20

                                                  Intake Air Temperature (°C)      30 - 400

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
             AVL single cylinder research engine

                                •   Capable of HCCI, mixed mode, and
                                    conventional operation
                                •   500 cc, 11.34 C/R
                                •   2 valves, naturally aspirated
                                •   Gasoline port fuel injection
                                •   Spark ignition
                                •   Fully variable valve actuation
                                •   HCCI currently initiated by early
                                    exhaust valve closing
                                     – “negative overlap”
                                     – Retains heat in cylinder
                                     – Retains internal EGR
                                     – Typically operates at > 50% EGR
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
       Does an HCCI engine need aftertreatment?
   •   Many of the same emission                •   An HCCI engine may need to
       production zones can exist as                transition to conventional
       in a conventional engine                     operation at higher load or
        – Rich, lean, quenched,                     other conditions (cold
           stoichiometric, dilute                   operation, starting, etc.)
                                                •   Generally, HCCI engines are
                                                    more uniformly lean, but can be
                                                    stoichiometric with very high
                                                    levels of EGR
                                                •   Fuel economy considerations
                                R Reitz, 2005
                                                    may drive emissions
                                                    characteristics




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                        Aftertreatment choices

   •   NOx
        – Three way catalyst
        – Lean NOx (SCR, LNT, or other)
   •   Smoke, particulate
        – Oxidation cat
        – DPF
   •   HC, CO
        – Oxy cat
        – TWC
        – DPF
        – lean NOx




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                    Interactions, data, examples


   •   Example 1, combustion phasing and fuel specific effects
   •   Example 2, oxidation catalyst on HCCI engine
   •   Example 3, TWC catalyst potential of HCCI engine




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                                Example 1

   •   Combustion phasing, efficiency, and fuel effects
   •   Diesel HCCI engine
   •   17 fuels and blend streams derived from oil sands crude
        – 34 to 60 cetane
        – 196 to 336 °C T50
        – 16 to 41% aromatics, ~50% cyclo-paraffinic
   •   Identified optimum combustion behavior and fuel specific effects




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                   Fuel efficiency shows both engine
                    specific and fuel specific trends
                                                                             10.5 gm/min fuel rate


                                                 400


                                                 380
                                                                                                                       f438
                                                                                                                       f439
                                                 360
                                                                                                                       f440
                                                                                                                       f441
       ↑ FUEL SPECIFIC                           340
                                                                                                                       f444




                             ISFC, gm/kwhr
                                                                                                                       f445
                                                 320

                                ISFC, gm/kw-hr
                                                                                                                       f446
       ↓ ENGINE SPECIFIC                                                                                               f447
                                                 300                                                                   f480
                                                                                                                       f481
                                                 280                                                                   f482
                                                                                                                       f483
                                                                                                                       f530
                                                 260
                                                                                                                       f531
                                                                                                                       f605
                                                 240




                                                                    TDC ->
                                                                                                                       f606
                                                                                                                       f607
                                                 220


                                                 200
                                                       350   355    360             365              370   375   380

                                                               COMBUSTION PHASING, MFB50
                                                                             MFB50, deg.CA




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
         Ability to advance timing limited by NOx,
            dP/dCA, peak pressure, noise, etc.
                                               NOx at 10.5 gm/min fuel rate


                        250




                                                                                                f438
                        200                                                                     f439
                                                                                                f440
                                                                                                f441
                                                                                                f444
                                                                                                f445
             NOx, ppm




                        150                                                                     f446
              NOx ppm




                                                                                                f447
                                                                                                f480
                                                                                                f481
                        100                                                                     f482
                                                                                                f483
                                                                                                f530
                                                                                                f531
                                                                                                f605
                         50                                                                     f606
                                                                                                f607




                          0
                           345   350     355      360          365            370   375   380
                                                   MFB50, deg.CA
                                       COMBUSTION PHASING, MFB50
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                       Ability to retard timing limited by
                        incomplete burning, high CO
                                             CO ppm vs. MFB50 at 10.5 gm/min fuel rate


                       2500


                                                                                                     f438
                                                                                                     f439
                       2000                                                                          f440
                                                                                                     f441
                                                                                                     f444
                                                                                                     f445
             CO, ppm




                                                                                                     f446
                       1500
                                                                                                     f447
              CO ppm




                                                                                                     f480
                                                                                                     f481
                                                                                                     f482
                       1000
                                                                                                     f483
                                                                                                     f530
                                                                                                     f531
                                                                                                     f605
                       500                                                                           f606
                                                                                                     f607
                                                                                                     bp15


                          0
                              350   355        360            365           370          375   380

                                          COMBUSTIONMFB50
                                                     PHASING, MFB50

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                                              And high HC…
                                                      HC ppm at 10.5 gm/min fuel rate


                           4500


                           4000                                                                      f438
                                                                                                     f439
                                                                                                     f440
                           3500
                                                                                                     f441
                                                                                                     f444
                           3000                                                                      f445
                                                                                                     f446
                 HC, ppm




                           2500                                                                      f447
                  HC ppm




                                                                                                     f480
                                                                                                     f481
                           2000
                                                                                                     f482
                                                                                                     f483
                           1500                                                                      f530
                                                                                                     f531
                                                                                                     f605
                           1000
                                                                                                     f606
                                                                                                     f607
                            500                                                                      bp15


                              0
                                  345   350     355         360        365         370   375   380
                                                        MFB50
                                              COMBUSTION PHASING, MFB50
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
        Best achievable ISFC correlates to cetane and T50

                              best ISFC vs. cetane                                             Best ISFC vs. T50
                                                                                                    2
                                         2                                                        R = 0.658
                                        R = 0.6142
              340                                                                340

              320                                                                320

              300                                                                300
  best ISFC




                                                                     best ISFC
              280                                                                280

              260                                                                260

              240                                                                240

              220                                                                220
                    30   35      40      45   50      55   60   65                     180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340
                                      cetane number                                        T50 distillation temperature, deg.C


                                      Don’t forget, cetane and T50 also correlate to energy
                                      content and % aromatics and % heavy aromatics


OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                 Variations on 2D-GCMS spectra




   FUEL 606                  FUEL 444                 FUEL 530      FUEL 438
   GOOD ISFC                 GOOD ISFC                POOR ISFC     POOR ISFC
   LOW CETANE                MID CETANE               HIGH CETANE   LOW CETANE
   LOW T50                   HIGH T50                 LOW T50
                                                      S
                                                                    HIGH T50
                                                  S IN
                                       G AR EF RA ICS
                                         T… AF IN FF
                                           O PA AT




                                                   Y
                                             .H S
                                                 V
                                            LO M



                                           … FIN
                                               EA
                                           C O
                                          Y AR

                                     LI P L




                                                   NON-POLAR
                                     C



                                        H




                                    POLAR
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                                Example 2

   •   Diesel HCCI engine
   •   Temperature (load) specific emissions behavior
   •   Performance of two different oxy cat formulations




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                     Diesel HCCI engine, lean, shows
            increasing CO and HC at low exhaust temperatures,
            increasing NOx at high exhaust temperatures (load)

                                      Diesel HCCI engine emissions vs. exhaust temperature

                              15000                                                          300
                                                             HC
                                                             CO
                                                             NOx

                              10000                                                          200
                CO, HC, ppm




                                                                                                   NOx, ppm
                               5000                                                          100




                                  0                                                          0
                                  140                190              240              290
                                                    exhaust temperature, C

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
         Low temperature light-off for CO and HC are important
      due to low exhaust temperatures of dilute-operation engines,
                   not all catalysts perform the same

                                               Oxidation catalyst performance vs. exhaust temperature

                                      100.00



                                       80.00
               % HC or CO reduction




                                       60.00



                                       40.00                                                cat 1   HC
                                                                                            cat 1   CO
                                                                                            cat 2   HC
                                       20.00                                                cat 2   CO



                                        0.00
                                          140.00              190.00              240.00                 290.00
                                                                exhaust temperature, C

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                                Example 3

•   Stoichiometric gasoline HCCI engine
•   Early exhaust valve closing used to control HCCI ignition
•   Emissions characteristics vs. lambda
•   Fuel efficiency characteristics vs. lambda
•   Stoichiometric operation for TWC may not match optimum fuel efficiency




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                                                                                            Stoichiometric HCCI engine looks
             250
                                                                                           like a conventional gasoline engine
             200         NOx, ppm                                                                      (AVL VVA)
                                                                                                          16000

             150
                                                                                                          14000                                    HC, ppm
   NOx ppm




                                                                                                          12000
             100
                                                                                                          10000




                                                                                                 HC ppm
              50                                                                                           8000


                                                                                                           6000

              0
                   0.8    0.85         0.9         0.95        1   1.05    1.1     1.15                    4000

                                                      lambda
                                                                                                           2000
                                           25000
                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                 0.85   0.9      0.95       1      1.05   1.1   1.15
                                           20000                                                                                          lambda



                                           15000                          CO, ppm
                                 CO, ppm




                                                                                                                              FUEL ON TIME, μs
                                           10000
                                                                                                                               IMEP=2 to 5 bar
                                                                                                                                        ON 3650
                                            5000                                                                                        ON 4200
                                                                                                                                        ON 4650
                                               0                                                                                        ON 6250
                                               0.85       0.9      0.95     1       1.05   1.1            1.15                          ON 6450
                                                                          lambda


OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                      If engine is run stoichiometric, a TWC should work,
                             but fuel economy favors lean operation


                280                                                 FUEL ON TIME, μs

                270                                                       ON 3650
                                                                          ON 4200
                260
                                                                          ON 4650
                                                                          ON 6250
                250
ISFC, gm/kwhr




                                                                          ON 6450
                240


                230                                                 •   We are returning to AVL to
                                                                         – Map engine for wider lambda
                220
                                                                           range (0.9 to 1.5)
                210
                                                                         – Operation and fuel economy
                200                                                      – Including a TWC to map catalyst
                   0.85   0.9   0.95     1      1.05   1.1   1.15
                                                                           operation and performance
                                       lambda




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                             Conclusions

   •   Fuel characterization can be carried down to individual molecules
        – Refiners and researchers generally work with simpler data sets
        – How far do you need to go
   •   Fuel properties and chemistry do affect HCCI engine performance and
       optimization
   •   HCCI engines put out pollutants, too
   •   Aftertreatment will be required
   •   Fuel economy considerations can drive choices

   •   THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME!




OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY