Animal Husbandry Research Division, USDA~ Washb~gto~; D.C

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					                                       OUR ASSOCIATION
      REWIEW           OF THE UNITED STATES' RELATIONS AND ACTIVITIES
                       WITH THE INTERNATIONAL  DAIRY CONGRESS

                                                       R. E. HODGSONI'3
                     Animal Husbandry Research Division, USDA~ Washb~gto~; D.C.
                                                          I. A. GOULD-~
                      Dept. Dairy Technology~ The Ohio State Unicersity, Cob~mb~s
                                                                AND

                                                         G. ~[. TROUT ~
                           Dept. of Dairy~ Michigan State E:niversity, East La.~.*iag

   The purpose of this paper is to review for                         groups of that counLry, such as production,
the membership of the American Dairy                                  manufacture, commerce, science, and admin-
Science Association the organization and                              istration. However, t h e membership of sever-
activities of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l D a i r y Feder-          al of the countries is maintained by the
ation and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Dairy Congress.               government. Each national committee is en-
This review is appropriate, in order that the                         titled to five members who are privileged to
membership will understand more fully the                             participate in the General Assembly. ttow-
reasons why the Association has, on different                         ever, each country is entitled to one vote only
occasions, given consideration to becoming                            in Federation affairs.
affiliated with the International ])airy Feder-
ation and has had committees appointed to                                    T h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y of I D F
study this possibility. This article and the                             The ~o'overning body ef I D F is the General
report on page 1381 are the results of the work                       Assembly, which is c~mposed of up to five
of a current A.D.S.A. committee which has                             member~ from each member country, and the
been investigating this subject.                                      President, three Vice-Presidents, and the
                                                                      President of the C,umltission of Studies, who
The International Dairy F e d e r a t i o n - - I D F                 is ex officio. The Assembly elects the Presi-
   The International Dairy Federation is an                           dent and three Vice-Presidents, and the Presi-
organization that has for its objective the                           dent of the Commission of Studies. The
promotion through international cooperation                           Assembly appoints the General Secretary,
of the solution of scientific, technical, and                         establishes the Executive Committee, and
economic problems in the international dairy                          appoints members thereto, and acts on all
field. I n carrying on its program, it does not                       proposals relating" to the activities of the
interfere with domestic matters of any                                I D F and on all pr~I),>sals of the Commission
country. I t was organized in Brussels, Bel-                          of Studies. The AssembIy holds meetings at
gium, in 1903, through the initiative of the                          least once a ?-ear.
Belgian National D a i r y Society, at the time
that Society arranged the first meeting of                                 The E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e of I D F
the International Dairy Congress. The home                               The Executive Committee is composed of
office of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Dairy F e d e r a t i o n     the President, the three Vice-Presidents, the
has always been in Brussels.                                          President of the Commission of Studies, and
   The I D F presently is made up of 22 mem-                          seven members from the membership of the
ber countries, including Australia, Austria,                          General Assembly, one of whom must be from
Belgium, Canada, Demnark, Finland, France,                            Belgium. The membership must represent at
W e s t Germany, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy,                       least eight different countries. The Executive
Japan, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand,                           Committee submits proposals to the General
Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,                           Assembly for its deliberation, is responsible
and the United Kingdom. The recommended                               for acting on decisions adopted by the Gen-
membership for each country is a national                             eral Assembly and for the administrative and
committee representing the different dairy                            financial management of IDF.

  a' 2ChMrman and members of A.D.S.A. Com-                                   T h e G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y of I D F
mittee for investigating affiliation of A.S.D.A.
with the International Dairy Federation.                                 The General Secretary, a Belgian, is re-
    Chairman, lI. S. Delegation to the XIVth                           sponsible for the organization and direction
International Dairy Congress, Rome, Italy, 1956.                       of the secretariat, is concerned with the finan-
                                                                    1377
1378                                        J O U R N A L OF D A I R Y S C I E N C E



eial, administrative, and office work, and                        Congress was held in Brussels, Belgium, ill
serves in the usual capacity as Secretary to                      1903. The 14th and most recent Congress was
the Executive Committee and the General                           held in Rome, Italy, in 1956. While Con-
Assembly for the I D F business affairs.                          gresses are held under the auspices and
                                                                  approval of I D F , it is the job of the National
    The Commission of Studies of IDF                              Committee of the country in which the Con-
                                                                  gress is held to organize and put on a Con-
   The Commission of Studies is a pernmnent                       gress. The National Committee undertakes
body established by the General Assembly,                         this task with the sanction of the local
and is charged with the general scientific,                       government and the cooperation and assist-
technical, and economic examination of all                        ance of the local dairy industry groups.
d a i r y problems. The Commission in t u r n                         A Congress meeting usually consists of a
reports to the General Assembly.                                  four- or five-day meeting during which
   Much of the work of the I D F is done by                       various sessions are held for the discussion
and through this Commission of Studies. The                       of technical, scientific, economic, and trade
Commission may establish special commis-                          topics relating to the world's dairy industry.
sions to make detailed investigations of special                  I n recent Congresses, the sessions have been
dairy problems, and appoints the president                        classified into three broad sections: one
and members of the special commissions                            dealing with milk, its production, handling
which usually are made up of members                              and marketing, nutritional value, and sanitary
representing national committees of the vari-                     quality; the second, with technical and eco-
ous countries. W i t h the approval of the                        nomic problems relating to dairy products;
General Assembly, the Commission of Studies                       and the third, with milk and dairy products,
may organize competitions, special scientific                     methods of analysis, and control measures,
meetings, and arrange for publication of                          dairy legislation and trade. Sepcial confer-
books, documents, proceedings of meetings,                        ence lectures and symposium are also held
and conferences relating to activities of the                     and various exhibits, tours, and related
special commissions.                                              functions are sponsored before, during, and
   A t the present time, there are nine special                   a f t e r the meetings.
commissions studying various problems. These                          Dairy specialists of member countries, and
commissions are: International Commission                         nonmember countries as well, are invited to
on Dairy Economics; International Commis-                         submit papers to the Congress covering sub-
sion for Standardization of the Methods of                        jects included in the agenda. The papers
Analysis for Milk and Milk P r o d u c t s - -                    submitted are collected and are included in
Chemistry;               International Commission for             the Congress proceedings, which are pub-
Standardization of the Methods of Analysis                        lished and made available at the time of the
of Milk and Milk P r o d u c t s - - B a c t e r i o l o g y ;    meeting. Papers included in a p a r t i c u l a r
International Commission for Cheese; Inter-                       subject are not presented as such at the
national Commission for Dried and Condensed                       Congress, but a specialist is appointed to
Milk and Milk Products; International Com-
                                                                  review the collection of papers dealing with
mission for Dairying in W a r m Countries;
                                                                  a common subject matter. The reviewer, or
International Commission for Hygienic Pro-
                                                                  rapporteur, presents a paper covering the
dnetion and Control of Milk; International
                                                                  information contained in the gToup of papers
Commission on Industrial Dairy Techniques,
                                                                  he has reviewed. He also includes his own
and Special Commission of the Countries
                                                                  information and ideas in this review. Follow-
Signatory to the Stresa Convention. I n addi-
                                                                  ing this report, the subject is discussed by
tion, the Commission of Studies proposes and
                                                                  a few selected discussion leaders and then
organizes special work conferences and sem-
                                                                  the discussion is opened to the participants
inars on various problems. Summaries of
                                                                  in attendance at the sessions. These reviews
the accomplishments of the activities of these
                                                                  and discussions are also included in the pro-
special commissions and meetings are period-
                                                                  ceedings. The abstracts of papers, the dis-
ically issued from the secretariat of I D F .
                                                                  cussions and related information, are made
The I D F , usually through the Commission
                                                                  available Jn the proceedings in several lan-
of Studies, collaborates on projects or meet-
                                                                  guages, usually English, French, German, and
ings with other international organizations,                      Spanish.
p a r t i c u l a r l y the Food and Agriculture Or-
ganization of the United Nations, with which                          Participation of the United States in
it enjoys special consultative status.                                   International Dairy Congresses
                                                                     The Congress meetings are open, and dairy
     The International Dairy Congress                              specialists from all countries are privileged
  Another p r i m a r y activity of I D F is to                    to register and attend. The countries t h a t
sponsor I n t e r n a t i o n a l ])airy Congresses. Con-          are members of I D F are also represented by
gresses are held about once every three years                      official delegations. I n addition, the govern-
in one of the member countries. The first                          ment of the host country, with the concur-
                                                ovR Associ.~xsox                                       1379


renee of IDF, extends official invitations to                workers in dairy science and teaching, in
the governments of n o n - I D P member coun-                the l)epartment o[ Agriculture and in the
tries to have official delegations in attend-                !and gr;int colleges :rod univecsities, members
ance. Quite a nmnber of countries send                       of the American Dairy S~dence Association,
delegations on this basis.                                   and representatives from w~rious phases of
   Although the United States has never been                 the dairy industry. Attempts have beeu made
a member of IDF, it has cooperated with the                  to have various sections of the country
host country by sending an official delegation               represented on delegatians. The liaison officer
to each of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Dairy Congresses.   usually has been designated the chairman,
Members of the delegation are recommended                    and the Agricultural Attach6 or' the U.S.
by the Secretary of Agriculture and ap-                      Embassy in the host country secretary, for
pointed by the Department of State.                          the oltieial L. 8. delegation. The Department
   I t seems appropriate to describe the man-                of State has inwlriably accepted the recom-
ner in which the United States has partici-                  mendations ~t the Secretary of Agriculture
pated in these Congresses. Well before the                   for the delegation membership. The Depart-
time the Congress was to be held, the govern-                ment of State ahvays has financed from the
ment of the host country, through its Ministry               International Conference Fund the expenses
of Foreign Affairs, has sent an official invita-             of the delegation chairman and a small
tion through its Embassy to the U.S. Depart-                 number of the delegates. The other members'
ment of State. The Department of State has                   expenses either have been paid by the organ-
referred the invitation to the U.S. Department               ization that employs them or have been handled
of Agriculture for a recommendation. The                     persona lly.
Department of Agriculture has repeatedly                        The United States always has sent strong
considered the technical aspects of this Dairy               delegations to the Congresses. While at the
Congress worth while, and has reconunended                   Congress, the delegates participate freely in
to the Department of State that the invita-                  the sessional meeting and give freely and
tion be accepted and that an official U.S.                   effeetivety of their km~wledge and experience.
delegation, representing the technical phases                Since the delegation members are guests, they
of the dairy industry, be in attendance. The                 do not participate in an)" official decisions or
Department of State, on concurrence, has                     recommendations. Following each Congress,
accepted the invitation and indicated to the                 the delegation mtlkes detailed formal report
host government that a U.S. delegation would                 to the I)epartment of State covering the
be represented at the Congress meeting.                       Congress deliberations and actions and the
                                                              activities of the U.,q. delegation while at
         United States Liaison Officer                       the Congress.
   Thereafter, the Secretary-General of the                     It is fair to sav~ that delegates who have
Congress Organizing Committee has requested                  been to recent (!ono~resses feel that it is
of the United States that an individual be                    importtmt that the United States be in
designated as liaison to develop U.S. partiei~               attendance in an ofllcial capacity. There is
pation at the Congress. The liaison desig-                   some concern that the Congress program is
nated has usually been a dairy science special-              too general amt is drifting away from the
ist, or a committee of specialists, located in               technical and scientific aspects of dairy pro-
the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This                      duction and manufacture problems. Others
liaison has assumed the responsibility o£                     lament the fact that there is too little in-
giving publicity in this country to the forth-               eluded in the agenda on the production side
coming I n t e r n a t i o n a l Dairy Congress meeting,      of dairying. However. the contacts made,
of inviting technical workers to submit papers               the information received, and the information
for inclusion in the Congress proceedings,                   given make the participation highly valuable
and to perform other duties relating to                      to this country.
activities in connection with the Congress
meetings.                                                     American Dairy Science Association--
                                                             International Dairy Congress Relationship
         The Official U.S. Delegation                           Members of the American Dairy Science
   When the time comes for the Department                    Association have wondered frequently why
of State to organize the official delegation,                tile Association has n~t participated more
it has looked to the Department of Agricul-                  actively in JDF affairs and the International
ture for proposals. The Secretary of Agri-                   l)airy Congresses. To do so the Association
culture has recommended to the Department                    w~mld need to become a member of the IDF.
of State the membership of the official dele-                The I D F on several occasions in the past has
gation. In formulating these recommenda-                     solicited the A.D.S.A. for a membership and
tions, the Department of Agriculture has                     the A.D.S.A., through special committees,
given consideration to proposing a delegation                has investigated the matter in detail on two
thst would represent recognized technical                     recent occasions, in 1948 and ]952. At the
1380                                      J O U R N A L OF D A I R Y S C I E N C E



request of I D F , the Association has reviewed                     (2) Reasonably full participation in the
the situation again this year and the Execu-                     activities of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Dairy Feder-
tive Board has approved the committee                            ation involving (a) attendance of members at
recommendation t h a t A.D.S.A. not affiliate                    the Congresses, at annual meetings of the
with the I D F . The compelling reason why                       Federation, and at meetings of the several
A.D.S.A. cannot affiliate with I D F is basi-                    Study Commissions, and (b) membership fees,
cally because the interest and activities of the                 would require funds f a r beyond the resources
l a t t e r are beyond the scope of interest of                  of the American Dairy Science Association.
the A.D.S.A.                                                     I t is estimated that to join and participate
     I n addition to the A.D.S.A. special com-                   actively in the affairs of the I D F would require
mittee's review, a number of d a i r y i n d u s t r y           an annual budget of from $16,000 to $20,000.
trade associations in the United States have                        (3) F o r these reasons, the Committee re-
been engaged jointly in determining the                          commended ttlat the American Dairy Science
feasibility and desirability of becoming affili-                 Association not consider taking out a member-
ated with I D F . A group of d a i r y leaders                   ship in the International Dairy Federation
representing different organized groups has                      by itself.
investigated the possibility of forming a                           The International Dairy Federation recom-
National Committee to become a member of                         mends that membership in the Federation be
I D F . However, at a recent meeting in Wash-                    maintained by a National Co~nmittee repre-
ington, D.C., of representatives of several                      senting different phases of the dairy industry
d a i r y associations, a decision was reached                   within a country. There has been some interest
that, owing apparently to lack of interest                       on the p a r t of several of the dairy industry
and financial means, the formation of a                          trade associations in the United States in be-
National Committee to take out a membership                      coming affiliated with the International Dairy
in I D F be deferred to the indefinite future.                   Federation. A study of this possibility was
A r e p o r t of the deliberations of these repre-               made recently by several of the major dairy
sentatives appears on page 1381.                                 associations. A representative of A.D.S.A.
                                                                 participated in these studies. The American
Report of the Special Commitee to Investi-                       Dairy Science Association, because of its
  gate the Desirability of the American                          interest in the scientific, technical, and edu-
   Dairy Science Association Affiliating                         cational phases of the Federation, and by
      with the International Dairy                               reason of the opportunity for service in this
               Federation                                        area, might well consider the possibility of
                                                                 joining with other organizations in forming
  President C. F. Huffman appointed a spe-                       a National Committee that would maintain a
cial committee to study and report to the                        membership in the International Dairy Feder-
Executive Committee on the desirability o f                      ation. The International Dairy Congresses
having the American Dairy Science Associ-                        certainly are of interest to A.D.S.A. and in
ation affiliate with the International Dairy                     the past many of its members have contributed,
Federation. This committee consisted of 1%. E.                   by attendance and participation as individuals,
Hodgson, Chairman, I. A. Gould, and G. M.                        or as official U.S. delegates, in the Congress
Trout. All were official United States dele-                     meetings. A.D.S.A. members also could render
gates to the X I V t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Dairy Con-      serviee to the Federation's Special Study
gress held in Rome, Italy, September 24 to                       Commissions.
28, 1956.                                                           Because of these interests the Committee
  I n addition to the meetings of the Congress,                  recommended :
this committee had the opportunity to meet
with the officers of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l D a i r y       (1) That if there was sufficient interest
Federation, at the F e d e r a t i o n ' s request, at           among the several dairy organizations in the
which time the l a t t e r outlined and discussed                United States to form a National Committee
the structure, objectives, and working pro-                      and take out a membership in the International
cedures of that organization. The Committee                      Dairy Federation, the A.D.S.A. would be
has had the f u r t h e r advantage of studying                  willing to join with these groups as a member
the F e d e r a t i o n Statutes, as well as reports             of this Committee.
of the activities of the nine Special Com-                         (2) That it be understood by all those who
missions of the Commission of Studies.                           may become members of the National Com-
  As a result of their studies, the Committee                    mittee that A.D.S.A. would not be in a position
reached the following conclusions:                               to contribute funds in support of the cost of
   (1) While the International D a i r y F e d e r -             membership and participation, and that this
ation concerns itself with scientific, technical,                cost would necessarily be borne by the other
and educational phases of dairying, it also                      member organizations.
has interests and carries on activities beyond                      (3) That as a member of the National
the scope and interest of the American Dairy                     Committee, A.D.S.A.'s m a i n      contributions
Science Association.                                             would be in the scientific, technical, and edu-
                                        OUR ASSOCIATION                                                  1381


eational phases, and it would be hoped that         vision, Department of State, for the excellent
the National Committee would depend heavily         support that that office has given in providing
on A.D.S.A. to represent this country in these      funds to send ofl3cial delegates to past Con-
aspects of the I D F membership responsibili-       gresses, and to urge on them the desirability
ties.                                               of continuing this support as a primary means
   I n conclusion, the A.D.S.A. Committee re-       whereby scientists from the state colleges and
commended that the A.D.S.A. should take             universities and the Department of Agriculture
formal action to express appreciation to the        may attend and participate in future Con-
officials of the International Conference Di-       gresses.




         REPORT OF MEETING OF REPRESENTATIVES                                 OF AMERICAN
            D A I R Y I N D U S T R Y A S S O C I A T I O N S , R E L A T I N G TO T H E
                     UNITED STATES AFFILIATING                      WITH TtIE
                      INTERNATIONAL               DAIRY FEDERATION

                                      R. E. HODGSON
                Animal Husbandry Research Division, USDA, Washingto~, D. C.

   During the meetings of the 14th Interna-         items that associations might wish to consider
tional Dairy Congress held in Rome, Italy,          in arriving at a decision as to the extent of
September 9.4-28, 1956, the officers of the In-     their interest in I D F . This material was sent
ternational Dairy Federation ( I D F ) invited      to the following 15 dairy organizations and
the members of the Official United States Dele-     to the members of the U . S . Delegation:
gation to a meeting, for the purpose of out-        American Butter Institute, American Dairy
lining the objectives and program of that           Association, American Dry 5[ilk Institute,
organization and to solicit the affiliation of      American Dairy Science Association, Dairy
the United States with the Federation. The          Industry Committee, Dairy Industry S u p p l y
recommended type of country membership is           Association, Evaporated Milk Association, In-
a national committee composed of representa-        ternational Association of Ice Cream Manu-
tion from all segments of the industry, in-         faeturers, International Association of Milk
cluding production, manufacture, science, com-      and Food Sanitarians, Milk Industry Founda-
merce, and administration. The present mem-         tion, National Association of Artificial Breeders,
bership comprises 22 countries.                     National Cheese Institute, National Dairy Coun-
   The officers of I D F were advised that the      cil, National Milk Producers Federation, and
United States delegation would study the pro-       National Purebred Dairy Cattle Association.
posal and, if possible, ascertain the interest         Following this, a meeting was called in
of the major associations of the American           Washington, D. C., on ] I a y 23, 1957, to which
dairy industry in forming a national committee      representatives of these associations, the mere-
and taking out a membership.                        hers of the U.S. Delegation, and other inter-
   A t a meeting of the United States Delegation    ested individuals were invited, the purpose
in Rome, the members instructed its Chairman,       being to discuss jointly the question of United
R. E. ttodgson, to assume the responsibility        States affiliation with I D F and to formulate
for the group, in taking the necessary steps        plans to carry out decisions arrived at. The
to acquaint the major dairy industry associ-        following individuals attended this meeting:
ations with the objectives and program of           C. M. F i s t e r e - - A m e r i c a n Dry Milk Institute;
I D F , and to solicit their interest in the mem-   M. ]:t. B r i g h t m a n - - D a i r y Industry Committee;
bership proposal; and further, to provide the       R. E v e r e t t - - D a i r y Industry S u p p l y Associa-
opportunity for these associations to come          tion; G. W. W e i g o l d - - D a i r y Society Inter-
together and formulate such plans and actions        national; D. I~. Williams--International As-
as they considered desirable in relation to         sociation of Ice Cream ][anufacturers; E. B.
the invitation to membership in I D F . I n         K e l l o g g - - M i l k Industry Foundation; E. M.
carrying out these instructions, R. E. ttodgson     Norton--National Milk Producers Federation;
secured from I D F copies of the Federation         M. Gebert--National ]Iilk Producers Feder-
statutes and other material relating to reports,    ation; J. It. Remsberg--Purebred Dairy Cattle
etc., issued by I D F , and made them available      Association; C. J. Babcock--Foreign Agri-
to dairy associations. He also provided them         cultural Service, USDA (also representing
with an abstract of the organizational struc-        International Association of Milk and Food
ture of I D F , a summary of its activities, in-     Sanitarians); D. R. Strobel--Foreign Agri-
terests, and programs, together with a list of       eultural Service, U S D A ; H. L. F o r e s t - - A g r i -

				
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