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									                                                                       "FM 100-2-3 

Field Manual
No. 100-2-3                                                             Headquarters
                                                              Department of the Army
                                                         Washington. DC, 6 June 1991

                          The Soviet Army:
      Troops, Organization, and Equipment

   This field manual is part of FM series 100-2,The Soviet Army. The other
volumes in this series are FM 100-2-1, The Soviet Army: Operations and Tactics,
and FM 100-2-2, The Soviet Army: Specialized Warfare and Rear Area Support.
The three volumes complement each other. Used together, they provide a
thorough reference on the Soviet Army.
   These manuals are the US Army's definitive source of unclassified informa-
tion on Soviet ground forces and on their interaction with other services in
combined arms warfare. The Threats Directorate, Combined Arms Command,
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, updates these manuals periodically to provide the
most current unclassified information available.
   The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Users are encouraged to
recommend changes improving this manual to Commander, US Army Combined
Arms Command, ATTN: ATZL-SWW-L,Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-6900, using
DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms).
  Unless otherwise stated, whenever the masculine gender is used, both men
and women are included.
   This publication contains photographs from copyrighted sources. The
citations for these materials accompany the individual photographs.

   DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution
is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 100-2-3, 16 July 1984.

Preface ............................................................i

Chapter 1. Soviet Ground Forces
              Administrative Control ............................... 1-1 

              Troop Categories ..................................... 1-2 

              Force Structure ...................................... 1-4 

Chapter 2. Personnel 

              Manpower Procurement .............................. 2-0 

              Conditions of Service ................................ 2-3 

              Ranks ............................................... 2-6 

              Reserve System ..................................... 2-8 

Chapter 3. Training 

              Premilitary Programs ................................. 3-1 

              Military Educational Institutions ...................... 3-4 

              Individuals and Units ................................. 3-6 

Chapter 4 .     Organization
                  Motorized Rifle Regiment Structure (BTR) ............. 4-3 

                  Motorized Rifle Regiment Structure (BMP) ............4-26 

                  Motorized Rifle Division .............................. 4-37

                  Tank Regiment Structure ........................... 4-107 

                  Tank Division ...................................... 4-1 12 

                  Combined Arms Army .............................. 4-1 16 

                  Tank Army ........................................ 4-1 18 

                  Front .............................................. 4-130 

                  Airborne Regiment Structure (BMD) ................ 4-144 

                  Airborne Division .................................. 4-149 

                  Naval Infantry Regiment/Brigade Structure .......... 4-1 55 

                  Naval Infantry Division ............................. 4-157 

Chapter 5   .   Equipment 

                  Small Arms ........................................ 5-2 

                 Armored Fighting Vehicles .......................... 5-21 

                 Artillery ............................................ 5-60 

                  Antitank Weapons .................................. 5-94 

                  Air Defense ....................................... 5-114 

                  Engineer Equipment ............................... 5-139 

                  NBC Equipment .................................... 5-186 

                  Logistic Equipment ................................. 5-206 

                  Helicopters ........................................ 5-211 

                  Fixed-Wing Aircraft ................................ 5-225 

                  Radios ............................................ 5-234 

Glossary ..................................................... Glossary-1 

References ................................................ References-1 


  General ............................................... General Index-1 

  Equipment ......................................... Equipment Index-l 

                                                   CHAPTER 1 

                                      Soviet Ground Forces 


     ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL ............             1-1 
       Veterinary ......................... 1-3 

     TROOP CATEGORIES ..................             1-2 
       Military Topographic ................. 1-3 

      Combat Arms Branches ................          1-2 
       Finance ........................... 1-3

        Motorized Rifle .....................        1-2 
       Justice ............................ 1-4

        Tank .............................           1- 2
       Military Band .......................1-4 

        Missile Troops and Artillery ............ 1-2 
          lntendance ......................... 1-4 

        Air Defense Troops (Voyska PVO) .......      1-2 
       Administrative ...................... 1-4 

        Airborne ..........................          1-2 
   FORCE STRUCTURE ................... 1-4 

      Special Troops .......................         1-2 
     Major Geographical a n d Force Groupings ... 1-4 

        Engineer ..........................          1-3 
      TV ............................... 1-4 

        Signal ............................          1-3 
      TVD ............................. 1-4 

        Chemical ..........................          1-3 
      Military Districts a n d Groups of Forces . . 1-5 

        Motor Transport .....................        1-3 
      Front ............................ 1-5 

        Railroad ...........................         1-3 
      Army ............................ 1-5 

        Road .............................           1-3 
     Maneuver Divisions .................. 1-5 

      Services ............................          1-3 
     Reorganization and Modernization ....... 1-5 

        Medical ...........................          1-3 

   The Soviet armed forces include five separate             components, t h e Soviet ground forces. Highly
components: the strategic rocket forces, the ground          modernized organization and equipment combine
forces, the air forces, the air defense forces, and          to make the present Soviet ground forces the most
the naval forces. The generic term "Soviet Army"             powerful land army in the world, with unprece-
normally includes all but the naval forces. This             dented flexibility, mobility, and firepower.
m a n u a l concentrates on t h e l a r g e s t of these

                                    ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL
     The Commander in Chief (CINC) of the Ground             Defense (MOD) General Staff on ground forces
Forces is a Deputy Minister of Defense. He is                matters. I t also acts a s a consolidation point for
equal in status to the CINCs of the other com-               the work of the ground forces directorates. Among
ponents. His duties include supervision of technical         the principal directorates of the Ground Forces
a f f a i r s a n d research a n d development, direct       Headquarters are t h e Political Directorate, the
control of nonoperational training, and supervision          Combat Training Directorate, and t h e Military
of ground forces administrative organs. He does              Educational Institutions Directorate, all of which
not have direct operational control over the troops.         have counterparts a t MOD level.
    This lack of operational control is not i m m e             Large technical directorates exist for those troop
diately a p p a r e n t from t h e composition of t h e      branches peculiar to the ground forces. Each troop
Ground Forces Headquarters. I t s composition                branch directorate acts a s a branch or service
includes t h e Main Staff a n d several technical            headquarters which prescribes the organization,
directorates. The Main Staff, however, apparently            equipment, tactics, and training for its branch and
fills a traditional role of coordinating, planning,          operates the career management program for its
a n d maintaining liaison with t h e Ministry of             leading personnel.
                                         TROOP CATEGORIES 

   For administrative purposes, the Soviet ground         become important to other components, the MOD
forces comprise three categories: combat arms             generally oversees missile equipment development.
branches (troops), special troops, and services.          However, a Chief of Missile Troops and Artillery
These are administrative categories pertaining to         is present in Ground Forces Headquarters. His
personnel, not organization categories pertaining         supporting administrative agency is large and
to units. Thus, troops of one combat arms branch,         contains a coordinating staff. Also, chiefs of
such a s artillery, may organizationally be in            missile troops and artillery appear in the special
support units subordinate to a unit made up of            s t a f f s of combined a r m s units down to, a n d
troops of a n o t h e r combat a r m s b r a n c h (for   including, regiments. At regimental level, this
example, motorized rifle or tank). These support
     . .                                                  official is simply called the chief of artillery.
                                                                           ..               .
units may also include special troops and services.
                                                                  Air Defense Troops (Voyska PVO)
          COMBAT A R M S BRANCHES                                                                         e
                                                              This branch recentlv became a s e p a r a t c om­
   The firing elements of the ground forces com­          ponent combining air defense elements formerly
prise combat arms branches (troops). They differ          under the National Air Defense Troops (PVO
from one another in organization, armament,               Strany) and the Air Defense Troops of the Ground
tactics, and role in combat. Directorates of Ground       Forces (PVO Sukhoputnykh Voysk). Although
Forces Headquarters administer the troop branches         MOD headquarters now administers them, the
peculiar to the ground forces.                            troops may serve under combined arms command
                                                          i n t h e field during wartime. They coordinate
                  Motorized Rifle                         closely with aviation and radiotechnical elements
    Motorized rifle troops generally parallel the         in operational matters. Air defense schools pre-
infantry and mechanized infantry of other armies.         viously under the ground forces now belong to the
These troops constitute the basic arm of the              Air Defense Troops.
ground forces; therefore, various agencies under
the Ground Forces CINC, rather than one special                               Airborne
organization, administer their affairs. These                Airborne troops form a reserve force of the
agencies prescribe motorized rifle and combined           Supreme High Command (VGK) or the wartime
a r m s tactics a n d organization. They prepare          Stauka VGK, although operational control of them
training schedules for motorized rifle and combined       specifically belongs to the Chief of the General
arms units. They also administer motorized rifle          Staff. The VGK may-
schools and manage motorized rifle officer person-
nel. Other arms and services provide them with            .- Control their combat employment directly.
logistic support.                                           Place them under the command of a theater
                        T ank
    The Chief of Tank Troops in Ground Forces               Place them under operational control of a front
Head q uarters heads this branch. A Main Direc-             or army to support operational missions.
torate of Tank Troops supports him. The Main              The troops are not subordinate to a ground forces
Directorate is an intricate organization which acts       field command until the VGK commits them. This
a s a n administrative headquarters. Tank troop           definite separation suggests that they have the
officers command tank units at all levels. Com-           status of a sixth distinct component of the armed
bined a r m s formations feature a special staff          forces, even though they are nominally subordinate
officer as chief of tank troops. He commands sub-         to t h e CINC, Ground Forces, because of this
ordinate tank elements and reports to the com-            special status.
bined arms commander.
                                                                          SPECIAL TROOPS
          Missile Troops and Artillery                         The special troops provide combat support to
   This is one of the most prestigious branches           t h e combined a r m s field forces of t h e ground
of the ground forces or the MOD. Artillery troops         forces. They also support the other components of
have long held a n honorable position in Russian          the armed forces. For this reason, they are admin-
military annals. In recent decades, technological         istered centrally from directorates in the MOD.
advances in missile weaponry have enhanced that           Ground Forces Headquarters, however, contains
position. Since missile armaments have also               specialized directorates or departments in each of
the combat support areas to deal with specific                               Railroad
ground forces problems. These directorates act a s         Railroad troops support the field forces by
a ground forces administrative echelon for the          operating the railway links between the front and
superior MOD directorates.                              the central logistical base. They are responsible
                                                        for the construction, operation, and maintenance
                     Engineer                           of railroads in a theater of operations. Since
   As ground elements of the combined arms field        March 1989, these troops are no longer considered
forces, engineer troops serve only a s combat           part of the armed forces.
engineers. The Chief of Engineer Troops of the
MOD manages them. These engineers are not part                                 Road
of the engineer-technical service, which comprises         Road troops maintain military roads. They are
the logistic units of the various arms and services.    often called road building troops or road service
Other Soviet troop branches perform civil engi-         troops. The troops consist of separate traffic
neering, sanitation, and mapping functions; they        control, road construction, and bridge construction
are comparable to organizations like the US Corps       units. Operationally controlled by the chief of the
of Engineers. Engineer troops found in units at         rear at various levels, their administrative subor-
division level or higher are simply called engineers.   dination has been obscure since World War I I .
Those a t a lower level, in closer contact with the     They may be a component of VOSO.
enemy, are called sappers.
                       Signal                              The Soviet concept of services includes all
   Signal troops are organic to all levels using        troops, installations, and duty positions which
signal equipment that requires special training for     perform rear area support for the combat arms
operation and maintenance. The Chief of Signal          branches and special troops. Such services are not
Troops of the MOD administers them because they         specific to the ground forces, but support the other
perform tasks that are common to more than one          armed forces components as well; therefore, various
component of the armed forces. They include radio       agencies i n t h e MOD administer them. These
technical troops that serve mainly in the units         services differ from the special troops because they
whose missions require radar reconnaissance and         apparently have no intermediate administrative
electronic warfare. They also perform missions          directorates at Ground Forces Headquarters.
such a s electronic deception and radioelectronic                            Medical
reconnaissance, which include electronic intelli-
gence (ELINT) or signals intelligence (SIGINT).            These units and personnel are organic to all
                                                        levels of command down through company level.
                    Chemical                            The Central Military Medical Directorate under the
                                                        Chief of the Rear supervises their activities at the
   Chemical troops are organic to all tactical regi-    MOD level. The divisional and regimental surgeons
ments and divisions. They are allocated to armies       supervise personnel at their respective levels.
and fronts. Similar to engineer and signal troops,
they are directly subordinate to the MOD. The                               Veterinary
Chief of Chemical Troops administers them a t              The Veterinary Service falls under the control
that level.                                             of the Chief of the Rear. It inspects the meat used
                  Motor Transport
                                                        by the armed forces, supervises animal slaughter,
                                                        and deals with prevention and control of conta-
    The Chief of the Central Military Transportation    gious diseases among animals used for meat.
Directorate (VOSO), under the Chief of the Rear
i n t h e MOD, may administer motor transport                         Military Topographic
troops. The VOSO i s primarily responsible for             The Central Military Topographic Directorate
management and planning of defense transpor-            of the General Staff of the MOD administers and
tation. I t controls the training of all transport      controls the Military Topographic Service. The
officers at and beyond the military college level.      General Staff also probably disseminates the
The actual operation of the various modes of            products of this service.
transport is the duty of the force components,
which in this case are the ground forces. At lower                           Finance
levels, the deputy commander for the rear controls         The Finance Service is locally supervised. How-
these troops.                                           ever, it has a direct technical channel running
 vertically to t h e Central Finance Directorate,                         lntendance
 under the Deputy Minister for Rear Services in           This service corresponds to the US Quarter-
 the MOD.                                               master Corps. It uses the same insignia a s the
                        Justice                         Administrative Service.
    The military procurator (prosecutor) and the
military tribunal are the central elements of the                         .. ....... -.
Justice Service. These elements are attached to
each major headquarters down to division level.            This service may provide clerical and adminis-
This hierarchy is independent of t h e military         trative support at higher headquarters. According
command. It i s subordinate to the Procurator           to Soviet regulation, the highest rank provided for
General of the USSR and the Supreme Court of            this service is colonel. Personnel doing adminis-
the USSR, although its officers are considered          trative management, accounting, and similar
active duty military personnel.                         housekeeping t a s k s may be members of t h e
                                                        administrative service,the management service. or
                    Military Band                       the intendance service. Since there are no exclu­
   This service provides bands to headquarters          sively administrative units, these titles are probably
down through division. The Military Band Service        just personnel categories with the individuals in
Directorate (or Directorate of Military Music) in       them administered by the Main Personnel Direc­
the MOD administers it.                                 torate of the MOD and supervised locally.

                                        FORCE STRUCTURE 

   The Soviets have organized and equipped their        continental TV can include land, air space, and
ground forces to support their defensive doctrine.      assorted internal and coastal waterways. The
Moreover, they are constantly strengthening and         Western TV, for example, includes the European
modernizing their organization and equipment to         land mass and associated islands, the associated
improve their capabilities to fight either nuclear      air space, the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas, and
or nonnuclear war. A nuclear exchange in Europe         portions of the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans. The
could easily cause tremendous damage to the Soviet      T V s have political and economic significance in
Union. Therefore, the Soviets clearly want to be        shaping Soviet military goals. They contain one
able to fight and win a war in Europe quickly,          or more TVDs.
before either side employs nuclear weapons.
   The Soviets have determined that the only way                                TVDVD
to win such a war is by offensive operations. The          The TVD geographical concept is the focus of
Soviet concept of the offensive emphasizes surprise     planning and control for employment of Soviet
and high rates of advance combined with over-           armed forces in major theater strategic actions.
whelming firepower. The concept of combined             The Soviet planners divide t h e world into 14
arms is at the heart of Soviet combat doctrine.         TVDs: 10 continental TVDs and 4 oceanic TVDs.
                                                        The continental TVDs include not onlv the land
                     masses, but also the air space, inland waterways,
              FORCE GROUPINGS 
                         and a segment of the surrounding oceans and
   The Soviets organize ground forces by geo-           seas. The Western TVD of the Western TV, for
graphical boundaries into theaters of war (TVs),        example, includes NATO's Central Region plus
theaters of military operation (TVDs), and military     Denmark and the Danish Straits.
districts and groups of forces. They can organize
forces into large field formations called fronts            I n wartime, the Soviets would employ inter-
                                                        mediate High Commands of Forces (HCF) that
and armies.
                                                        would be responsible to the VGK. In keeping with
                         TV                             the Soviet concept of centralized control and com-
    The Soviets envision that hostilities might occur   bined arms operations, the TVD HCF not only
in any of three TVs: the Western, the Southern,         controls the assets available in the ground forces,
a n d t h e F a r Eastern. A TV i s a broad, geo-       but also the naval and air assets. Some, if not
graphically oriented designation within which           all, of the non-Soviet Warsaw Pact forces might
Soviet armed forces would function in wartime. A        also be subordinate to a TVD HCF. The TVD's
                                                        most important function in wartime would be to
o r c h e s t r a t e a n d control TVD-wide strategic         Soviets gain flexibility in either offensive or defen-
operations as directed by the HCF in support of                sive roles. An army can operate in different geo-
VGK campaign plans.                                            graphical areas and under various operational
                                                               constraints. Besides its complement of two to five
   Forces within a TVD can consist of as few as
                                                               maneuver divisions, a typical army of either
one front or as many as five or six. Other forces              type will normally have artillery, missile, air
allocated to a TVD can include fleets, airborne                defense, aviation, engineer, chemical, signal,
divisions, tactical aviation, strategic aviation,              reconnaissance, and rear support units.
military transport aviation, air defense forces, and
strategic rocket forces.                                                   MANEUVER DIVISIONS
                                                                  Soviet maneuver divisions are well-balanced,
    Military Districts and Groups of Forces                    powerful, and mobile fighting units. They have a
   There are 14 military districts in the USSR and             combined arms structure as well as a comprehensive
4 groups of forces in Eastern Europe. The Eastern              array of combat support (CS) and combat service
European groups of forces include-                             support (CSS) elements. In early 1987, there were
* The Western Group of Forces (WGF) in Germany.                211 active Soviet maneuver divisions: 150 MRDs,
                                                               52 TDs, 7 airborne divisions, and 2 static defense
  The Northern Group of Forces (NGF) in Poland.                divisions. The totals did not include 2 new army
  T h e C e n t r a l G r o u p of F o r c e s ( C G F ) i n   corps (NAC) and 5 mobilization divisions.
  Czechoslovakia.                                                 The basic structures of t h e three types of
  The Southern Group of Forces (SGF) in Hungary.               divisions (motorized rifle, tank, a n d airborne)
                                                               appear in Figure 1-1. While this manual presents
In peacetime, each of these districts and groups               "type" Soviet divisions, different configurations
of forces is an administrative headquarters directly           and different categories of readiness exist among
subordinate to the MOD. In wartime, the Soviets                actual divisions.
will o r g a n i z e t h e m i n t o f r o n t s for combat
operations. The military districts will continue to               Divisions receive new items of equipment
function a s territorial commands, serving a s                 according to the priorities established by the MOD.
mobilization and training bases and providing                  High-priority formations, such as the Soviet forces
logistical and other support services.                         in the Western TVD, are usually the first to receive
                                                               modern equipment. When they replace older
                           Front                               material, the Soviets send that older equipment to
   The front is the largest field formation in war-            lower-priority units in the interior of the USSR or
time. It is a n operational and administrative unit            to reserve stocks. Late-model T-64/72/80 tanks
whose size and composition are subject to wide                 constitute about one-third of the USSR's tanks.
variation depending on its mission and situation.              While older T-55 and T-62 tanks constitute moat
Roughly equivalent to a US/NATO army group,                    of the remainder, over 1,500 T-80s are currently
a front can include three to five armies. Other                deployed opposite NATO and nearly 75 percent of
forces organic or attached to a front can include              the 19,000 Soviet tanks in the Western Theater are
artillery, missile, air defense, engineer, chemical,           T-64/72/80 models.
signal, reconnaissance, and rear service units.
They can also include aviation, airborne, air                   REORGANIZATION A N D MODERNIZATION
assault, airmobile, and special purpose forces.                   Since the mid-1960s, the Soviets have been
                                                               building a force capable of fighting decisively at
                       Army                                    all levels of conflict. Recent improvements in force
   The Army is the highest peacetime combined                  capability include-
arms formation. The Soviet ground forces desig-                * 	Modernization of nuclear and conventional
nate two types of armies: the combined arms army                 weapons.
(CAA) and the tank army (TA). While both types
are actually combined arms organizations, a Soviet               Marked increases in the quantity and quality of
CAA will normally have a greater number of                       conventional fire support (air a n d artillery)
motorized rifle divisions (MRDs), while a TA will                available to ground maneuver formations.
have a greater number of tank divisions (TDs).                   Changes in organizational structure that generally
By altering the mix of MRDs, TDs, and artillery                  make fire support systems (air and artillery) more
and missile support in the army organizations, the               directly responsive to the supported commander.
       Basic organizational comparison of the motorized rifle, tank, andairborne divisions

      MOTORIZED RIFLE DIVISION                       T A N K DIVISION                     AIRBORNE DIVISION

      Division Headquarters                   Division Headquarters                     Division Headquarters
      Motorized Rifle Regiment (BMP)          Motorized Rifle Regiment (BMP)            Airborne Regiment (BMD)
      Motorized Rifle Regiment (BTR)          Tank Regiment                             Airborne Regiment (BMD)
      Motorized Rifle Regiment (BTR)          Tank Regiment                             Airborne Regiment (BMD)
      Tank Regiment                           Tank Regiment                             Assault Gun Battalion
      Artillery Regiment                      Artillery Regiment                        Artillery Regiment
      SAM Regiment                            SAM Regiment                              AA Battalion
      SSM Battalion                           SSM Battalion
      Antitank Battalion
      Reconnaissance Battalion                Reconnaissance Battalion                  Reconnaissance Company
      Engineer Battalion                      Engineer Battalion                        Engineer Battalion
      Signal Battalion                        Signal Battalion                          Signal Battalion
      Materiel Support Battalion              Materiel Support Battalion                Transportation and Maintenance
      Maintenance Battalion                   Maintenance Battalion
      Chemical Protection Company             Chemical Protection Company               Chemical Protection Company
      Medical Battalion                       Medical Battalion                         Medical Battalion
      Artillery Command Battery               Artillery Command Battery
      Helicopter Squadron                     Helicopter Squadron
      Other Support Elements                  Other Support Elements                    Other Support Elements

      NOTES. 1 . 	 In 1989, the Soviets began replacing one tank regiment with an additional BMP-
                  equipped M R R in both the M R D and T .
              2. 	 Armies in WGF are consolidating division-level SSM battalions into army-level
                  SSM brigades.
              3. 	 Not all M D and TDs have a helicopter squadron.

  Refinement and exercise of types of operations               includes the main features of the most current
  t h a t take greater advantage of the increased              organizational changes. The addition of new sub-
  firepower, mobility, and weapons sophistication              units and the upgrade of existing elements have
  of the general. 	purpose forces.
                      .                                        expanded both MRDs a n d TDs. The greatest
                                                               changes are in the TDs.
   In the 1980s, the Soviets began to form new
corps-type structures. These corps are divisions                   The BTR- and BMP-equipped motorized rifle
expanded to almost twice the size of a TD. Thev                battalions ( M R B s ) have expanded the mortar
are ideally suited to act as an operational maneuver           battery from six to eight tub&. They have added
group (OMG)for the front, conducting high-speed                a machine gun/antitank platoon to each company
operations deep in an enemy's rear area. These                 in the BTR-equipped MRB. The BMP-equipped MRB
NAC formations contain around 400 tanks, 750                   has added machine gun platoons, with no extra
infantry fighting vehicles ( I F V s ) a n d armored           antitank weapons. Also, the Soviets have now
personnel carriers (APCs),and 300 artillery pieces             consolidated the automatic grenade launcher and
and multiple rocket launchers (MRLs).Additional                antiaircraft (AA) squads in platoons a t the bat-
units of this type may appear once testing and                 talion level of both BTR- and BMP-equipped MRBs.
operational evaluation end.                                       In order to support the fast-moving maneuver
  Soviet maneuver divisions are continuously                   units envisioned for future battlefields, the Soviets
undergoing a reorganization t h a t significantly              have formed materiel support units within combined
upgrades their combat capability. This manual                  arms units from tactical to front levels. Within,
divisions and regiments, respectively, materiel sup-   Hence, the capability of the TR and TD to conduct
port battalions and companies combine formerly         largely self-supported combined arms combat has
fragmented motor transport, supply, and service        increased greatly.
functions. The new rear area units will provide a
30-percent increase in motor transport assets and          Large-caliber SP guns and mortars and long-
a streamlined command structure. A similar re-         range MRLs have increased the artillery available
organization at army and front levels has created      to army and front commanders. Additionally, some
materiel support brigades with centralized control     army-level regiments have grown to brigade size
for ammunition, fuel, and other supplies.              with the addition of a fourth artillery battalion.
   The airborne division is now a fully mechanized     These battalions are currently expanding from 18
combined arms organization. Airborne divisions         to 24 tubes, primarily in units opposite NATO. All
now consist of three regiments equipped with the       of t h e Soviet's S P and towed guns/howitzers
air-droppable BMD, affording these units greater       (152-millimeter and larger) are nuclear-capable.
firepower and mobility. The Soviets have also          The Soviets are also adding newer nuclear-capable
produced a new 120-millimeter 2S9 airborne self-       pieces such as the 203-millimeter S P gun 2S7 and
propelled (SP) howitzer with a mortar capability       t h e 240-millimeter SP mortar 2S4. They a r e
for airborne and air assault units.                    deploying the BM-22 220-millimeter MRL, which
                                                       can fire deep into the enemy's rear. These improve
   Concurrent with these organizational changes,       ments greatly enhance area coverage and counter-
the Soviets have pursued a comprehensive equip-        battery support to subordinate divisions. The new
ment modernization program that affects many           T-64/72/80-seriestanks feature improved firepower,
divisional subunits. The main thrusts of t h e         with a 125-millimeter main gun and a n improved
equipment upgrade are in the following areas:          fire control system. Both the T-80 and a variant
  Medium tanks.                                        of the T-64 can fire an ATGM through the main
                                                       tube. The T-80 can mount reactive armor which
  Armored IFVs.                                        further protects a g a i n s t t h e West's antitank
  Armored command and reconnaissance vehicles.         capabilities. At the same time, the establishment
                                                       of army aviation has given ground forces a vertical
  Antitank guided missiles (ATGMs).                    dimension. The helicopter now provides CAAs and
  Surfaceto-surface missiles (SSMs).                   T A s with a highly maneuverable and versatile
                                                       platform for reconnaissance, command and control
  Surfaceto-air missiles (SAMs).                       (C2),and fire support. General-purpose and attack
    Since the late 1970s,the Soviets have developed    helicopter units can move with armies and divisions
the t a n k regiment (TR) into a combined arms         at the high rates of advance they will need to
team (tank, motorized rifle, and artillery) that       conduct combined arms operations in depth.
 promises to be as flexible in its employment as
the motorized rifle regiment (MRR). (The MRR              While changes in the organization and equip-
already had a tank battalion (TB) and an artillery     ment of the ground forces are significant in them-
battalion.) The addition of an MRB to the TR of a      selves and have serious implications for Western
TD eliminates the necessity for the TD commander       defense planning, they do not take place i n
to reinforce each of his TRs with MRR assets.          isolation. Instead, these shifts appear to be part
This leaves the TD with four maneuver regiments.       of a larger change in the concept for employment
The addition of an artillery battalion to the TR       and organization of the armed forces. This change
places a great deal more firepower under direct        should greatly enhance the flexibility with which
control of the regimental commander. The division      Soviet military planners can apply force to achieve
commander then has greater flexibility in the use      military objectives. (For more information on
of his artillery resources to influence the battle.    Soviet operations and tactics, see F M 100-2-1.)
                                                     CHAPTER 2 



MANPOWER PROCUREMENT           ..................... 2-0
       Pay .............................................. 2-5 

 conscription ....................................... 2-0 
     In-Service Benefits ............................... 2.5 

 Upper Ranks ......................................2-2 
        Pensions ......................................... 2-5

   Officers ......................................... 2-2 
     Political Indoctrination ............................ 2-5

   Warrant Officers ................................ 2-2 
    RANKS ............................................ 2-6 

   Noncommissioned Officers ....................... 2-3 
     RESERVE SYSTEM                                    2-8
 Women in t h e Armed Forces ...................... 2-3
        Enlisted Obligations .............................. 2-8
CONTDITIONS OF SERVICE ........................ 2-3 
           OfficerObligations ............................... 2-8
 Officer Promotions   ................................2-4 
     Mobilization   ......................................   2-9
                                                               ~   -   -   -   -         ----         ~

    Over 60 million males between the ages of 15              the total population. Soviet youths are physically
and 49 live in the Soviet Union. About 80 percent             hardy as a result of participation in active sports
of these men are fit for military service. Each year,         programs. They are also better educated, more
some 2 to 21/2 million young men reach the military           sophisticated, and substantially better trained than
registration age of 17. The government will induct            their World War I I predecessors. Although the
at least one-half of them when they become 18                 conscript receives stern discipline and intensive
years old. These conscripts constitute approximately          political indoctrination, works hard, and has few
75 percent of Soviet ground force personnel. The              comforts or luxuries and little time to himself, his
remainder, who are deferred for various reasons,              morale is relatively high. He has a genuine love
serve at a later time on active duty unless they              of his native land. His hatred is easily aroused
are declared physically unfit for military service.           against a n invading enemy, of which there have
If deferred beyond their twenty-seventh birthday,             been many in Russia's and the Soviet Union's
they remain in the reserves, subject to periodic              history. Moreover, Soviet soldiers and sailors have
refresher training. All qualified male citizens               the capacity to withstand deprivations. The Soviet
remain in the armed forces reserve until their                officer is a well-regarded professional who occupies
fiftieth birthday.                                            a high social and economic position in society. The
                                                              officer corps, with its prestige and privileges,
                                                              stands apart from the troops. I n summary, the
   The quality of military manpower, particularly             Soviet armed forces, loyal to the regime, constitute
of the Great Russian element, is generally good.              a serious adversary; they are on a par with their
The Great Russians comprise about 53 percent of               counterparts in the West.

                                     MANPOWER PROCUREMENT
   The 1967 Law on Universal Military Service                 (R0TC)-type programs in institutions of higher
provides for the mandatory semiannual conscription            education. Enlisted men, noncommissioned officers
of 18-year old males. This law also governs the               (NCOs), and warrant officers are eligible to compete
system of drafting young men into the armed                   for entry into the officer corps by passing a n
forces. Those who are not drafted enter immediately           examination for promotion to officer rank.
into the reserves. On completion of conscriptduty,
men remain in the reserves until age 50. Women                               CONSCRIPTION
who have medical or other specialized training are               The Council of Ministers and the MOD deter-
also subject to call. Officers enter the armed forces         mine the personnel requirements for each semi-
from several sources. Most receive commissions                annual call-up period. They assign quotas based
upon graduation from officer schools. Others par-             on the number of draft-age males residing in each
ticipate i n Reserve Officers' Training Corps                 of the 16 military districts. A system of draft
boards, called military commissariats, is subor-            Twice each year- at the end of the spring
dinate to the military district. Military commis-       planting season and at the end of the fall harvest-
s a r i a t s i n Soviet civil jurisdictions roughly    the military commissariats call males who have
correspond to US civil jurisdictions as follows:        reached their eighteenth birthday to active duty.
                                                        Older men up to age 27 whose periods of deferment
  Republic, which is a geographic region similar        have expired also face call-up. In peacetime, women
  to the US South, West, or New England; there          19 to 40 years of age who have medical or other
  is no exact US counterpart.                           specialized training may face military service. The
  Kray and oblast, which are provinces similar to       1967 Law on Universal Military Service reduced
  US states.                                            the required length of active service from three to
  Gorod, which is a city.                               two years for all except naval personnel.
                                                            Within the framework of quotas fixed by the
  Rayon, which is similar to a US county or city        Council of Ministers and the MOD, the commis-
  ward.                                                 sariats assign inductees to the various branches,
   Military commissariats a t the district level        arms, and services of the component forces based
function as overall administrators of the system.       on their abilities, occupational expertise, or special-
They provide supervision to all subordinate officers.   ties learned in training courses conducted by the
Those at republic, kray, oblast, and rayon levels       Voluntary Society for Cooperation with the Army,
perform administrative functions, though not all        Aviation, and Navy (DOSAAF). The DOSAAF is
republics have military commissariats. Each of          subordinate to the MOD. It conducts premilitary
these levels also serves a s a collection point for     training in secondary schools. Its programs ac-
inductees. The center of the registration and draft     quaint students with military life. The programs
process i s the rayon military commissariat. I t        can include tracked- and wheeled-vehicle driver
registers draft-age males, issues draft notices, and    training, parachuting, radio operation and mainte-
processes conscripts. It also transports conscripts     nance, along with drill and rifle training. This
to the next higher military commissariat for move       training i s one of the prime considerations for
ment to their assigned units. The rayon offices also    future soldiers' selection to a particular program,
have mobilization and reserve management respon-        such as a military academy.
sibilities. There are about 4,700 military commis-          Draftees report to their military commissariat
sariat offices, of which at least 3,600 are a t the     on the date set. Inductees go directly to their as-
rayon level.                                            signed units for a period of orientation, drill, and
   During February and March of the year in             some refresher training. This lasts approximately
which they reach their seventeenth birthday, young      a month, after which the conscripts become young
men report to the military commissariat to register.    soldiers and young sailors by reciting the military
They receive a physical examination and a n inter-      oath in a public ceremony. (See figure on next
view to determine their educational background,         page.)
family situation, personal interests, attitude toward       The Soviets probably only rarely grant per-
the military, and special knowledge or skills (if       manent exemption from active or reserve duty
any) that would benefit the military. Each young        except for clearly medical reasons. They usually
man receives a booklet a s proof of registration.       give deferments for stated periods of time and then
He must report changes in residence, family situa-      review them at the expiration of the period. The
tion, educational status, or the acquisition of         1967 Law on Universal Military Service reduced
additional skills to the military commissariat so       the number of educational deferments and extended
officials can enter the new data in the registration    hardship or compassionate deferments.
booklet.                                                    There are three general categories of criteria for
   Each individual receives a final interview and       deferment: physical reasons, family circumstances,
a physical examination shortly before he is sched-      and continuation of education. The authorities may
uled for conscription. Then the draft commission        grant three-year deferments for physical problems
recommends that the young man be drafted, be            or one-year deferments for illnesses. After this
deferred for one year because of temporary unfit-       time, depending on the deferred citizen's state of
ness for active military service due to illness, be     health, the government will call him up for active
exempted from military service altogether if unfit,     duty, enroll him in the reserves, or acknowledge
or be granted a deferment for family reasons or         him to be altogether unfit and thus exempt from
for continuation of education.                          military service.
                The military oath                             The Soviets also conduct programs similar to
                                                          the US ROTC in their universities. These programs
                                                          give training i n subjects of military value a n d
   I, (name), a citizen of the Union of Soviet            provide the Soviets with a large number of reserve
Socialist Republics, by joining the ranks of the          officers. Military training for the duration of the
armed forces; take a n oath and solemnly swear            civilian curriculum leads to a reserve commission,
to be an upright, brave, disciplined, vigilant soldier,   but only infrequently does it lead to active duty.
to strictly preserve military and government secrets,     Reserve officer graduates of this program remain
and to execute without, contradiction, all military       liable for active duty call-up until age 30; they may
regulations and orders of commanders and supe-            face up to three years of service.
riors. I swear to learn conscientiously the trade
of war, to protect with all means the military and           A third source of officer recruitment is the rank
peoples' property, and to be devoted to my people,        and file of soldiers and sailors. Upon completion
my Soviet homeland, and the Soviet Government             of their active duty service, conscripts who have
to my last breath. I will always be ready to report,      a secondary or higher education can earn a lieu-
by order of the Soviet Government, as a soldier           tenant's commission in the reserves by passing a
of the armed forces for the defense of my home-           commissioning examination. Warrant officers, too,
land, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. I          can use the commissioning examination as a route
swear to defend it bravely and wisely with all my         to active duty officer rank; they can also receive
strength and in honor, without sparing my blood           a direct commission after ten years of active service
and without regard for my life to achieve a com-
plete victory over the enemy. Should I break my               Approximately 500,000 officers are on active duty
solemn oath, may severe penalties of the Soviet           in the Soviet armed forces at any given time. Three
Law, the overall hatred, and the contempt of the          to five thousand of these officers are generals and
working masses strike me.                                 admirals. Nearly 90 percent of Soviet officers belong
                                                          to the Communist Party or to the Komsomal. Seven
                                                          percent of the members of the Communist Party
                                                          of the Soviet Union (CPSU) Central Committee are
                                                          military officers.
   An individual who must remain a t home to
support or care for his family may qualify for a                            Warrant Officers
deferment due to family circumstances. The 1967               In January 1972, the Soviets created the warrant
law set specific criteria for this category. The          officer ranks of praporshchik (army) and michman
military commissariat can defer draftees up to 27         (navy). This action was an attempt to give the
years of age.                                             career NCO more incentive, to eliminate the ex-
   Military commissariats can also defer full-time        tended service conscript (though this action was
students at universities, in high schools (for stu-       later rescinded), and to improve the quality of small
dents up to age 20), and in technical institutions        unit leadership. Conscriptscompleting their service
(until graduation). They can also defer students          obligations and desiring to remain on active duty
studying in reserve officer training programs at          may apply for these positions if they possess the
technical institutions Draftees who receive educa-        required education, demonstrated ability, and polit­
tional deferments face call-up for active duty before     ical reliability. The initial term of service for a
they turn 27.                                             warrant officer is five years.
                                                              These warrant officers serve in close contact
                 UPPER RANKS 
                            with the soldiers and occupy positions a s first
                           sergeants, sergeants major, and technical special­
   Officers for the Soviet armed forces enter the         ists. Although the Soviet press publicizes them as
service from several sources. The largest number          the closest assistants to the officers, the warrant
are commissioned upon graduation from military            officer ranks are apparently less popular t h a n
colleges. There are at least 143 military colleges,       anticipated. To date, this new program has received
with average enrollments of 1,000, serving all            too few qualified applicants. The Law of Military
branches of the armed forces. Besides commissions,        Service permits a warrant officer to take a n exam-
graduates receive technical degrees from three-year       ination to become a lieutenant after five years;
schools and engineering degree8 from schools whose        after ten years, he may be certified as an officer
programs can last up to five years.                       if he is serving in an officer's position.
            Noncommissioned Officers                     amendment permits officer or enlisted women to
     The majority of NCOs in the armed forces are        voluntarily enter active service a t age 19 with
conscripts. During registration a n d induction,         duties according to their specialties and general
authorities identify outstanding conscripts a s po-      education. I t extends the age of eligibility to age
tential NCOs. Immediately after entering active          40. Those with medical or technical specialties can
service, these individuals attend NCO schools for        register during peacetime and can then conduct
six months of training before they report to units       military training courses.
for their remaining active duty. Other outstanding          Most service regulations for women are identical
individuals missed during this initial screening         to those for men. Training is similar in the initial
receive on-the-job NCO training in their units.          phases, though women stay in special dormitories
     Noncommissioned officers also fill the extended     in garrison. When off duty, women may wear civil-
service personnel category. To qualify for this cate­    ian clothes. The military disciplinary regulations
gory, a candidate for reenlistment must have com-        specify separate penalties for women commensurate
pleted high school or the equivalent; he cannot          with those for men.
he over 35 years of age. He may apply (or reapply)          Women enlistees may extend their service and
for extensions of two, four, or six years. His branch    remain on active duty. At least one woman in the
of service then prolongs his tour of duty according      medical service field has completed thirty years
to t h e branch personnel requirements. As with          of military service. Pensions and leave plans are
warrant officer selection, acceptance depends on         similar to those for servicemen, with the exception
t h e candidate's political reliability and military     of pregnancy leave, which is authorized before and
record. Recruiting takes place three months before       after childbirth.
discharge, with screening conducted by a permanent
committee. This committee includes the political            Women rarely achieve officer rank; therefore,
officer and secretaries of the Communist Party and       few h a v e attended command and general staff
Komsomol organizations. Final approval rests with        colleges. Most women officers attending midlevel
the individual's commander. Former service person-       professional schools are in the medical services.
nel can return to active duty under this program.           The first women warrant officers came from the
     The Soviets suspended t h e extended service        Soviet Army Parachute Team, but women should
 program in 1972, after the establishment of the         find increasing opportunities in the high technology
 warrant officer ranks. The intention was for war-       fields of the Soviet armed forces. Expanding the
rant officers to fill some of the higher NCO posi-       role of women in the Soviet Military could adversely
tions; conscripts would then fill the remaining NCO      affect t h e civilian labor force, however, since
ranks. Because the plan was not completely success-      women now constitute one-halfof that force.
ful, the Soviets reinstituted the extended service
                                                              Some military wives have formed women coun-
category the following year to provide essential
                                                         cils which provide a reserve force of dependents
 personnel for various high qualification specialties.
                                                         available to augment Soviet forces in the forward
These specialties require long periods of training;
                                                         a r e a s such a s WGF. Their training consists of
they include aviation mechanics, naval specialties,
                                                         basic courses in weapons use, combat skills, and
electronics, and personnel management.
                                                         nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC)protection.
      W O M E N I N THE A R M E D FORCES                 There is a n ongoing effort to expand this program
The 1967 Law on Universal Military Service pro-          to other military installations.
vided for compulsory military service for women             Although Soviet society proclaims equality for
only in time of war or emergency. The government         men a n d women, t h e Soviet armed forces still
will draft women with special skills, normally those     channel women into well-defined occupational roles.
in the communications and health fields.                 Generally, women do not participate in operational
   Recognizing that the pool of conscripts is dwin-      military activity during peacetime. Approximately
dling, the Soviet government amended the 1967            10,000 women currently serve in the Soviet armed
Universal Military Service Law in 1985. This             forces.

                                    CONDITIONS OF SERVICE
   Service in the Soviet armed forces offers poten-      vigorous training, strict discipline, thorough politi-
tial rewards such a s promotion, pay, in-service         cal indoctrination, and adherence to Communist
benefits, and a pension. Conversely, it requires         Party policies.
             O F F I C E R PROMOTIONS                      officers or a component or branch academy.
   After graduation from one of the military col-          Promotions to the next higher grade, up through
leges, an officer normally rotates through a number        colonel, depend on academic training, service expe-
of command and staff assignments. Some officers            rience, duty assignment, job performance, and
then attend one of the advanced institutes for             political reliability.

                      Minimum time-in-grade requirements for officer promotion

             GRADE                                                                                      TIME

                                                 ............................................ 2 years 

  Junior lieutenant to lieutenant and equivalent ranks
                                                 ............................................ 3 years 

  Lieutenant to senior lieutenant and equivalent ranks
                                               .............................................. 3 years 

  Senior lieutenant to captain and equivalent ranks
                                      ....................................................... 4 years 

  Captain to major and equivalent ranks
                                              ............................................... 4 years 

  Major to lieutenant colonel and equivalent ranks
                                                ............................................. 5 years 

  Lieutenant colonel to colonel and equivalent ranks
  To ranks above colonel   .......................................................... No fixed minimum 

   Promotions up to and including the rank of              fulfilled national goals, or has been assigned to a
colonel follow procedures determined by the USSR           higher position.
Council of Ministers. They probably result from               An officer's immediate superior, in consultation
the recommendations of a n officer's immediate             with his political deputy, prepares the officer's
superior and branch chief. The Council of Ministers        efficiency report. He evaluates the officer's work
grants promotions to generals and admirals, while          and rates his political and job qualities. Officers
the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet must              receive reports once every two or three years, upon
approve promotions to the ranks of army general,           either transfer or recommendation for promotion.
marshals of arms of the service, fleet admirals,              Officers remain on active duty until reaching
chief marshals of arms of the service, Fleet Ad-           the statutory age for retirement, which varies accord-
mirals of the Soviet Union, Marshals of the Soviet         ing to grade. (See "Stat'utory age for retirement,"
Union, and Generalissimo of the Soviet Union. The          below.) Officers who reach these respective age
USSR Minister of Defense can order the awarding            limits without being promoted must leave active
of t h e next higher rank before the end of the            duty and transfer to'the reserves. If granted a n
prescribed period of service in the previous rank.         exception, however, a n officer may serve a n
He may do this when an officer has demonstrated            additional ten years i n his grade before being
excellence in combat training, h a s successfully          discharged.

                                           Statutory age for retirement

              RANK                                                                                       AGE

  Junior lieutenants, lieutenants and equivalent ranks ................................................ 40 

  Senior lieutenants, captains, and equivalent ranks .................................................. 40 

  Majors and equivalent ranks   ..................................................................        45 

  Lieutenant colonels and equivalent ranks ......................................................... 45 

  Colonels and equivalent ranks ................................................................. 50 

  Generals and admirals up to lieutenant general and equivalent ranks                                     55 

  Generals, admirals, and marshals below Marshal of the Soviet Union, and equivalent ranks          Exempted 

                       PAY                                forces pays career personnel a subsistence subsidy
   Basic pay for members of the Soviet armed              at the rate of about 20 rubles per month when
forces is the sum of pay for rank, position assign­       rations are not available, per diem when on tem­
ment, and length of service. Unlike the US which          porary duty (TDY), and a dislocation allowance
pays all service personnel of the same rank the           based o n t h e distance traveled wh e n making a
same salary, the Soviets do not pay conscripts as          permanent change of station. Conscripts receive
much as career personnel serving in the same               only daily subsistence allowance when on TDY.
position.Typically, conscripts receive less than the      Families of first-time servicemen receive free
equivalent of $10 per month.                              postal privileges for letters sent to soldiers at their
                                                          duty station.
   Rank pay is a constant factor. Only officers
and warrant officers receive it. Position pay is the         Career personnel with less than 25 years of
major factor in the system. Its level may vary            active duty may take 30 days of annual leave; those
greatly, reflecting the command responsibility or         with over 25 years' service receive 45 days of leave.
technical requirement. Position pay does not vary         Conscripts serving their normal tour of duty may
with rank; thus, it is not unusual for the incomes        take no leave except for verified family emergencies
of personnel of the same rank to be substantially         or for outstanding performance in military or politi-
different. Although tables of organization specify        cal training. They may have only one such leave
nominal ranks for certain positions, personnel of         during their period of service. Pass policy depends
different ranks may frequently fill the positions.        on the local commander. He will issue conscripts
There is a growing tendency to place majors in            stationed within the Soviet Union passes perhaps
command of battalions, lieutenant colonels in             once a week. Passes are a luxury for conscripts
command of regiments, and colonels in command             assigned outside the country.
of divisions.
                                                             The armed forces provide service personnel and
   The Soviets do not publish pay scales for mili-        their families with free medical and health care,
tary personnel. The estimated average pay for             including treatments a t sanatoria-resorts when
officers in 1975 was about 150 rubles a month. (A         prescribed. The resorts also are available at reduced
ruble is officially equal to $1.66.) A lieutenant may     rates on a nonprescriptionbasis to career personnel.
realize a combined pay of about 150 rubles a
month, a major about 225, and a lieutenant colonel                              PENSIONS
about 250. Marshals may earn as much as 2,000
rubles a month.                                               Military personnel receive pensions for long
                                                          service or disability. After 25 years of service, all
            IN-SERVICE BENEFITS                           servicemen are eligible for pensions amounting to
   The provision of housing, rations, and other           at least 50 percent of their rate of pay at the time
service benefits depends on whether one is a con-         of discharge. Personnel separated from service with
script or a career serviceman. Conscripts cannot          between 20 and 25 years of retirement credit qualify
marry while serving. If already married, they can­        for benefits at a reduced rate of 30 to 40 percent
not be accompanied by their families.                     of their last military pay. Disabled veterans receive
                                                          pensions of up to 75 percent. When nonregular
   Since 1984, wives of noncareer military personnel      servicemen die, their families receive a pension and
have received a payment for the education of chil­        retain f o r s i x months all privileges to which they
dren. Another benefit which t h e y , a l o n g w i t h   were entitled. T h e All-Union Pension Fund, which
members of their families, receive is retention on        is similar t o other national retierement programs,
the waiting list for living space. Families retain        h a n d l e s pensions; pensions are not part of the
the living area that they occupy before the service       Soviet defense budget.
man went into service for the effective length of
military service. In 1986, privileges for families of              POLITICAL INDOCTRINATION
noncareer military personnel increased to allow a
monthly payment of 35 rubles per child.                      The Party exerts its control over the armed
                                                          forces through the Main Political Directorate (MPA).
   Officers. warrant officers. and extended service       The MPA has subordinate branches throughout the
personnel receive free living quarters, assigned          military chain of command. These branches serve
according to marital status, position, assignment,        as political directorates at force component, military
and size of family. When housing is not available,        district,and group of forces levels. Political depart-
they get a small allowance instead. Also, the armed       ments are their equivalents at army and division
levels. Below division, MPA affairs are the respon-                    of unit newspapers, and other cultural events with
sibility of the deputy commander for political                         propaganda potential. Political indoctrination is a
affairs, the zampolit. A zampolit is present in each                  scheduled part of the training curriculum.
regiment, battalion, and company. His authority                           The Communist Party and Komsomol organiza-
exists independently of that of the military com-                      tions for military personnel who are members are
mander. The next higher agency appoints the best                       the most visible and prevalent instruments of
trained and most experienced political workers to                      political control in the military. They involve the
these political organs.                                               largest number of personnel and exist at almost
   Besides handling MPA affairs, the zampolit                         every level in the chain of command, even down
organizes and conducts both nonmilitary and mili-                      to platoon and squad. T h e basic element of Party
tary political work in his unit. His responsibilities                  membership is t h e primary Party organization

    Supervising the activities of t h e Communist
    Party and Komsomol organizations.
                                                                       (PPO). T h e Party may establish a PPO wherever
                                                                       three Party members are present. A PPO with fewer
                                                                       than 15 members elects a secretary; one with 15
                                                                      or more elects a bureau and a secretary to direct
    Improving combat readiness and political loyalty                  its activities. The Party and Komsomol organiza­
    of the troops.                                                    tions politicize t h e military by recruiting as many
    Explaining Soviet domestic and foreign policies.                   personnel a s possible for membership and by
                                                                      involving them in political activities. While the
    Strengthening discipline.                                         Party encourages all military personnel to join,
    Instilline patriotism.                                             membership for officers is virtually required.
                                                                          There a r e presently some 16 million Party
    P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e development o f c o m b a t   members a n d 3 0 million Komsomolmembers i n t h e
    training programs and in the selection, place­                    Soviet Union. This represents a little over 20 per­
    ment, and rating of officers.                                     cent of the total population. In contrast, over 80
   At the MOD, military district, army, and fleet                     percent of all military personnel and 90 percent
levels, the Party organizations are responsible for                   of the officer corps are Party or Komsomol mem-
improving the efficiency of the command apparatus                     bers. The USSR subjects the majority of its citizens
by ensuring t h a t t h e headquarters a n d other                    to indoctrination for their entire lives; military
command bodies strengthen military discipline.                        personnel, because they are a captive audience,
They are also responsible for promoting progress                      receive constant exposure to it. Occasionally i r r ­
and innovation in training and equipment. Under                       tating, mostly taken for granted, but nonetheless
the direction of the political officer, all military                  effective, propaganda and indoctrination, both in
elements and units participate in activities such                     and out of the military, are established fixtures
as compulsory lectures and meetings, publication                      of the Soviet society.


    The highest military rank in the Soviet Union                     commanders normally bold the rank of Marshal
is that of Generalissimo. Only Stalin ever held that                  of the Soviet Union. Only combined arms officers
rank. All other military r a n k s fall into five                     can achieve this rank. The equivalent Navy rank
categories:                                                           is Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union.
    Marshals, generals, and admirals.                                    The armed forces further classify officers as
    Officers.                                                         senior or junior. The warrant officer group includes
                                                                      the ranks of praporshchik for n o n n a v a lpersonnel
    Warrant officers.                                                 and michman for naval warrant officers. Sergeants
    Sergeants and petty officers.                                     and petty officers comprise the NCO ranks, and
                                                                      the term soldiers and sailors refers to the two
    Soldiers and sailors.                                             ranks of private and seaman.
(The figure on page 2-7 represents the basic rank                        The ground/avaition ranks apply to all ground-
structure of the Soviet armed forces, translated into                 based servicemen, inclucing nonseagoing naval per­
 U S terms.)                                                          sonnel and all aviation personnel in the air force,
    The Minister of Defense. other t o o p e r s o n n e l            naval aviation. and fighter aviation of air defense.
of the MOD, and high-level' combined a r m s field                    The naval ranks are for shipboard personnel.
                               Soviet military r a n k s (translated i n t o US terms)

              GROUND/AVIATION                                                                  NAVY

                                           Generalissimo of t h e Soviet Union

                                        MARSHALS. GENERALS. AND ADMIRALS
    Marshal of the Soviet Union/Chief Marshal                                        Admiral of the Fleet of the
       (of specific arm)                                                                Soviet Union
    Army General/Marshal(of specific arm)                                            Fleet Admiral
    Colonel General (3-star)                                                         Admiral
    Lieutenant General (2-star)                                                      Vice Admiral
    Major General (1-star)                                                           Rear Admiral
                                                   SENIOR OFFICERS
   Colonel                                                                           Captain 1st Rank
   Lieutenant Colonel                                                                Captain 2nd Rank
   Major                                                                             Captain 3rd Rank
                                                   JUNIOR OFFICERS
   Captain                                                                           Captain-Lieutenant
   Senior Lieutenant                                                                 Senior Lieutenant
   Lieutenant                                                                        Lieutenant
   Junior Lieutenant                                                                 Junior Lieutenant
                                                  WARRANT OFFICERS
    Praporshchik                                                                     Michman
                                          SERGEANTS AND PETTY OFFICERS
   Master Sergeant                                                                   Ships Chief Petty Officer
   Senior Sergeant                                                                   Chief Petty Officer
   Sergeant                                                                          Petty Officer 1st Class
   Junior Sergeant                                                                   Petty Officer 2nd Class
                                                SOLDIERS AND SAILORS
   Private 1st Class                                                                 Seaman 1st Class
   Private                                                                           Seaman

     Officer personnel in the ranks of major general              Likewise, generals and officers of special services
t h r o u g h chief m a r s h a l i n aviation, artillery,    (intendance (quartermaster), administrative, medical,
engineer troops, a n d signal troops a n d major              veterinary, a n d justice) use the special service
general through colonel general in tank troops                designation. These special services have no mar-
carry the designation of the branch as part of their          shals or chief marshals. So, one refers to a colonel
rank; for example, chief marshal of aviation, mar-            general of intendance service, a colonel of medical
s h a l of armored troops, colonel general of tank            service, a major of veterinary service, and a junior
troops (who, upon promotion, would become a                   lieutenant of justice. There are, however, no general
marshal of armored troops), lieutenant general of             officers in the administrative service and no colonel
signal troops, and major general of engineer troops.          general of veterinary service.
T h e s a m e criteria apply to t e c h n i c a l troops
(chemical, railroad, road, motor transport, and units            Special rank designations also apply to engineer
of military topographic service). There is, however,          officer ranks of all branches of the armed forces.
no chief marshal or marshal rank for these troops;            Officers who complete studies a t a higher engineer
for example, colonel general of technical troops.             officer school or a military engineering academy
earn the title of engineer, which is combined with        cation use the title technical service combined with
the rank; for example, lieutenant-engineer, colonel-      the rank; for example, junior lieutenant of tech-
engineer, or colonel general-engineer. In the navy,       nical service, captain of technical service, and
the equivalent ranks would be lieutenant-engineer,        colonel of technical service. There are no general
captain 2nd rank-engineer, and admiral-engineer.          officers of the technical service.
Officers with a secondary military technical edu­

                                           RESERVE SYSTEM 

    The Soviet reserve system ensures that all citi­      basis of age: 18 to 35 years of age, 36 to 45 years
z e n sfit for military service have a definite reserve   of age, and 46 to 50 years of age.
commitment when not on active duty or deferred                Air reservists i n Category I, Group I, must
for a specific reason. The military commissariats,        participate in up to five 40-day refresher flying
in conjunction with other administrative organs,          training sessions, as well as in the required re-
manage the system a t the lower levels to make            fresher training. All reservists may have to attend
evasion of this responsibility practically impossible.    examination periods lasting up to ten days. This
The military service booklets issued to all reservists    is in addition to the required refresher training.
are necessary for residence permits when changing
locale and for work permits when changing jobs.              In the past, few reservists have been called for
                                                          training at the maximum level provided for by law.
   All former service personnel released from active      However, because of the shortened active duty
duty for reasons other than retirement or disability      tours enacted in 1967, the Soviets have accelerated
transfer to the reserves. These personnel, together
with individuals who for various reasons serve in         their reserve training programs. (See "Training
the reserves exclusively, form the Soviet reserve         periods," below.)
force. There are no reserve units a s such. The                      OFFICER OBLIGATIONS
closest equivalents to US reserve units are the
                                                             The officer reserve comprises the graduates of
transport, repair, and construction groups that
                                                          university reserve officer training programs; the
function as normal parts of the economy in peace-
time and move a s a whole when mobilized. Re-             body of soldiers, sailors, sergeants, and petty
servists called to active duty receive assignments        officers who have qualified for, and passed, com-
based on their occupational specialties.                  missioning examinations upon completion of active
                                                          duty; and a small number of officers who have
   In any five-year period, a n estimated 3,500,000
Soviets complete military training. Under a system                        Training periods
where reserve obligations for NCOs run to age 50
and for officers as high as age 65, the reserve
capability reaches into the tens of millions. The                             CATEGORY I
reserve manpower pool currently comprises more
than 55 million men subject to call-up, of which 9        Group I            Up to four periods of up to three
million have been discharged within the past five                            months each
years. Noncommissioned servicewomen remain in
the reserves to age 40.                                   Group II           Up to two periods of up to two
                                                                             months each
           ENLISTED OBLIGATIONS                           Group I I I        One period of one month
   Enlisted and NCO reserve personnel fall into
two categories according to experience and three
groups according to age. Category I includes those                           CATEGORY I I
with at least one year of active duty, twelve months
of accumulated reserve refresher training, or combat      Group I            Up to six periods of up to three
experience of any duration. Category I I consists                            months each
of all personnel with less than one year of active        Group II           Up to two periods of up to two
military duty, men subject to military service who                           months each
for various reasons have not been drafted into            Group I I I        One period of one month
active military service, and all women reservists.
Each category divides into three groups on the
left active service before the expiration of their full                     orders all call-ups for mobilization based on resolu-
obligation. Rank and age are the determinants of                            tions of the USSR Council of Ministers. At the
a n officer's reserve class. (See the figure below for                      time of mobilization, all personnel of the armed
maximum ages.) Women officers accepted for mili-                            forces stay active until further notice. Reservists
tary service with an acquired specialty enter in                            subject to military service receive notification of
Reserve Group III, regardless of the military ranks                         the places and times to report in their mobilization
they hold. The age limit for their reserve status                           instructions, in call-up notices, or in orders of the
is 50.                                                                      rayon military commissariats. Mobilization may be
    Reserve officers train more frequently than con-                        partial or universal, open or secret; it may involve
scripts. Those in Group I may be called up every                            all the armed forces or only part of them. In
year for a period of up to three months; those in                           peacetime, only a few members of the reserves may
Group I I , up to two sessions lasting up to three                          mobilize for training purposes; but in wartime,
months each; and those in Group I I I , up to one                           mobilization affects the whole economy. Only about
two-month session. The Minister of Defense has                              2.1 million reservists, or about 5 percent of the
the authority to detain reserve officers at training                        total reserve manpower pool, are needed to bring
sessions for up to two months longer t h a n the                            the Soviet armed forces to full wartime strength.
periods established by law. He can increase the                             Thus, a substantial base would remain available
number of training sessions without exceeding the                           to create new units and provide replacementa. Mili-
total amount of time required for all three classes.                        tary law in the Soviet Union also subjects women
The maximum time spent at the various reserve                               to conscription during wartime, thereby ensuring
sessions cannot exceed thirty months. Besides                               a large reservoir for expanding the force and
active duty refresher training, reserve officers must                       releasing men for active duty.
attend 30 to 60 hours of refresher training in
evenings and on weekends a t military facilities
near their place of work. Officers in Group I receive                          The General Staff of the army and navy, through
this training between annual active duty refresher                          its Organization and Mobilization Directorate,
tours. A lothers must attend sessions every three
               l                                                            controls military mobilization. The Directorate plans
years                                                                       and directs the mobilization of the armed forces
                                                                            and supervises the mobilization planning activities
                MOBILIZATION                                                of the military districts and subordinate military
  In the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the USSR                            commissariats. It also may be responsible for
Supreme Soviet orders mobilization. The MOD                                 mobilization supply stockpiles in the armed forces.

                                              Officer reserue classes: maximum ages

                                                                                     RESERVE      RESERVE        RESERVE
                                           RANKS                                     GROUP I      GROUP I I      GROUP I I I

  Junior lieutenants, lieutenants, and equivalent ranks               ...........       40            45             50
  Senior lieutenants, captains, and equivalent ranks                .............       45            50             55
  Majors and equivalent ranks                                                           45            50             55
  Lieutenant colonels and equivalent ranks                                              50            55             60
  Colonels and equivalent ranks                                                         55                           60
  Generals and admirals up to lieutenant general, vice-admiral, and
    corresponding ranks                                                                 60                           65
  Colonel generals, admirals, and corresponding ranks, generals of
    the army, marshals of arms o service, and fleet admirals
                                  f                                                                                  65

  S o v i e t law does not prescribean age l i m i t for these groups
   The personnel mobilization plan contains two           of its personnel as cadre for new units, and expand
phases. The first involves the call-up of fully trained   to wartime strength. Finally, new units may form
reservists (Category I) to bring active units up to       directly from the reserves.
authorized strength and to man additional line               The Soviet mobilization system also provides
divisions as well as new nondivisional service and        for the mobilization directly from the civilian
support units. The second phase deals generally           economy of cargo trucks and other specialized
with the induction, assembly, and training of par-        equipment interchangeable for military and civilian
tially trained reservists (Category II) for further       use. In August 1968, for example, the Soviet Union
expansion of the forces, replacement, and related         freely announced in the press that it would call
activities.                                               up reservists and mobilize equipment from the
                                                          civilian economy for participation in a largescale
   The Soviets use a number of methods to mobilize        rear services exercise called NEMAN. As it turned
and expand units. First, a peacetime unit may             out, the exercise, though carried out as announced,
expand and convert to the next higher level. So           was a method of mobilizing reservists and civilian
an MRB may become a regiment. Second, a peace             equipment t o support the Soviet troops that moved
time unit may retain its organization, release part       into Czechoslovakia in late August of that year.
                                                     CHAPTER 3

     PREMILITARYPROGRAMS                             3-1    INDIVIDUALS A N DUNITS                      3-6
     MILIATARYEDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS          ..   3-4                                     ........
                                                              Initial Processing and Instruction        3-6
      Officer                                        3-4      Training Characteristics...............   3-6
       Warrant Officer                               3-5      The Yearly Cycle  .....................   3-7
      Noncommissioned Officer                        3-6

    Military training in the Soviet Union includes          military personnel to a peak of combat effective-
civilian premilitary training, in-service training,         ness, the training programs are usually identical
and reserve training. The 1967 Law on Universal             from year to year. Their major elements are tactics,
Military Service established a compulsory system            firing, physical education, and political indoctrina-
of premilitary training for all young men and               tion. Field training is frequent and rigorous.
women aged 16 through 18. The government
conducts this training in the final two grades of             A system of military high schools and colleges,
t h e ten-year public high schools; i n specialized         command and staff schools, a n d a general staff
secondary schools; i n professional trade schools;          academy provides career military personnel with
and, for those w h ohave left school,i n t h e factories,   professional a n d f o r m a l academic training.
offices, or farms where they work. T h e s e young          Qualified conscripts receive a less formalized
people gain a fundamental knowledge of the mili­            education for NCO positions.s
tary and basic military-technical skills which make             Reservists prepare for military service while
their transition from civilian to military life easier.     attending civilian schools a n d universities o r while
The training helps them master modern military              working in the national economy. Refresher training
equipment more quickly after they are drafted.              through drills, classes, and active duty call-ups
   In-service training of a conscript begins when           continues until individuals pass out of the reserve
he arrives at a tactical unit. It normally continues        a t age 50. (Chapter 2 of this manual discusses
throughout his tour of service. Designed to bring all       maximum ages for the officer reserve classes.)

                                      PREMILITARY PROGRAMS
    The MOD, together with the DOSAAF, manages,             and number of programs on the quotas of the
implements, and conducts premilitary training.              Organization and Mobilization Directorate, for
Formed in mid-1968, the MOD's Directorate for               which they keep records. The military districts and
Premilitary Training has assumed responsibility for         commissariats plan the overall program. They
planning and organizing the Ministry's input into           selectthe training cadres; they organize individual
the premilitary and specialist training programs.           training groups according to the nature of the local
It is the logical organ to transmit the future needs        population; and they establish evening training
of the armed forces to the premilitary and specialist       sessions, military libraries, weapons rooms, and
training system in the form of quotas. Its tasks            military-technical training courses for local training
embrace the implementation of the MOD mandate               centers. The directors of the schools and enter-
to supervise and support the DOSAAF premilitary             prises control the physical operation of the centers,
training mission.                                           while DOSAAF conducts the actual training.
   Under the technical guidance of the Directorate             The Directorate for Premilitary Training is
for Premilitary Training, the military districts and        subordinate to the Central Committee of DOSAAF.
the military commissariats within the districts             It h a s overall responsibility for premilitary
assume responsibility for basic military training           training. Also, the DOSAAF Central Committee
in the schools and enterprises. They base the types         contains, among others, separate directorates for
military-technical training and sports, naval                In their basic premilitary studies, trainees attend
training and sports, and aviation training and           field exercises varying in duration from five to
sports. The DOSAAF operates its program through          fifteen days. These camps provide facilities for
a hierarchy of committees at all levels from the         practical training in weapons familiarization and
republics down to the rural counties and urban           other areas. They operate with the maximum
wards (rayon), which supervise most of the day-          possible cooperation of local military forces.
to-day work.
                                                            There has been a trend to offer courses to local
    Likewise, both the Ministry of Education and         preinduction trainees using the facilities of the
the State Committee for Vocational and Technical         more than 130 Soviet military colleges scattered
Education of the USSR Council of Ministers have          throughout t h e country. Professional military
departments for premilitary training. They coop-         college instructors present the standard 140-hour
erate with the MOD and DOSAAF in implementing            program, encouraging those selected for the training
the premilitary training courses in their respective     to enroll in commissioning schools.
civilian educational institutions. They develop the
courses that make up the premilitary as well as             Besides requiring basic premilitary training, the
civil defense training programs. They provide            1967 Law on Universal Military Service also
DOSAAF with logistical support such as training          directed that educational institutions of the tech-
sites, equipment, visual a n d other aids, a n d         nical-vocational system and DOSAAF organizations
resource funds. They also participate i n t h e          annually train specialists for the armed forces. The
training of instructors. Apparently, all Soviet          USSR Council of Ministers, in conjunction with
ministries must provide support for premilitary          the MOD, determines the number and types of
training programs conducted for their 16- to 18­         specialists to be trained. Youths in their second
year-old employees by territorial DOSAAF com-            year of premilitary training (generally 17 years
mittees and training centers at factories, farms,        old) are eligible.
institutes, and other locations.
                                                             The 1972 DOSAAF regulations s t a t e t h a t
    The premilitary training program presented to        DOSAAF will provide leadership for the develop-
 high school students and working youth at training      ment of military-technical skills. Among these
 points and centers provides them with the equiva-       skills are the following: aircraft and glider use and
 lent of the basic training formerly given to recruits   maintenance, parachuting, automobile and motor-
 after they were drafted. Phased into operation in       cycle use and maintenance, radio communications,
1968, its results have been uneven. The Soviets          underwater diving, motarboating, marksmanship,
 have continuously expressed concern over the            a n d modeling. Thus, DOSAAF h a s t h e basic
 quality of this program. They complain about the        responsibility for creating, guiding, and assisting
 large differences in skills and knowledge acquired      in the operation of the extensive network of clubs,
 by youths throughout the country. The differences       schools, and other training organizations. These
 make it necessary for many new draftees to be           organizations prepare specialists in military knowl-
 retrained after they enter active military service.     edge and skills for service in the armed forces.
 This significantly reduces the training time for        At the same time, they train individuals in the
 concepts and usage of complex, modern equipment.        technical professions for eventual employment in
   The standard program of premilitary basic             the national economy.
training provides 140 hours of familiarization with         Entry into DOSAAF specialist training pro-
military organization and regulations, small arms        grams, conducted at specialized DOSAAF schools,
use, and civil defense techniques. School students       is either voluntary or a s directed by local com-
typically spend two hours weekly during two 35­          missariats. Military commissariats receive their
week school years studying these topics. Workers,        annual quotas for the training of various groups
on the other hand, attend three week-long, full-         of specialists according to the MOD's projected
time sessions at training centers. These sessions        personnel requirements. They then screen the
are spaced over a year; this minimizes the time          individuals who have registered for the draft for
workers spend away from their jobs. Both young           special aptitudes and assign those selected for
men a n d women participate i n t h e standard           specialist training to the DOSAAF programs.
program. The curriculum for females, however,
requires more hours spent in civil defense and first        The recently revised curriculum for training
aid training and, in compensation, fewer hours in        youths to drive freight trucks with a cargo capacity
practical military training.                             exceeding 3.5 tons is one example of a specialist
program. The DOSAAF conducts this program,                 special time to general military training, the
which reduces the total number of hours from the           instructors still have the responsibility to teach
previous program, over a ten-month period. (See            students primary military skills.
figure below.) Instructors give a program in three
nonconsecutive sessions to youths engaged in                  For each training session, there are eight groups
productive work. There are two nonconsecutive              of 30 to 34 students. Each automotive school has
sessions for youths still in school. The course            15 to 17 training trucks. In many instances, the
attempts to give the students as much experience           program changes to compensate for the school's
as possible in driving, maintaining, and repairing         lack of equipment or space (or both). This creates
trucks. Although the program does not devote any           wide variation in the quality of training.

                    DOSAAF specialist training curriculum frieght truck driver

                  SUBJECT                      TOTAL HOURS                          HOURS I N
                                                                         Theory          Lab           Practice
 Political Training                                                         20               0                0
 Equipment and Use of Vehicle                                                0               0                0
   Theoretical Classes                                                     116               0                0
   Practical Shopwork-Equipment                                              0              88                0
   Practical Shopwork-Maintenance                                            0             122                0
 Traffic Rules                                                              80               0                0
 Traffic Safety                                                             40               6             0
 Driving                                                                     0               0            60
 Examinations                                                                0               0             0


   An extensive program of physical toughening             Technical Complex Ready for Labor and Defense
and training in endurance, dexterity, and courage          of the USSR (GTO).
for draft and predraft-age youths accompanies the
premilitary and specialist training conducted in              Within the framework of the GTO complex,
schools and training centers. The physical edu-            there are five stages of national physical training
cation classes are held in schools, enterprises, and       standards. The entire complex encompasses not
DOSAAF clubs. They conform to a general system             only draft-age youth, but also the rest of the
of physical training known as the All-Union Sports-        population.

                                      National physical training

                                                                                           AGE GROUP
 STAGE                                PROGRAM NAME                                     (MALE AND FEMALE)
                                    Courage and Skill                                  10-13 ("Pioneers") 

                                    Young Sportsmen                                    14-15 

                                    Strength and Courage                               16-18 

                                    Physical Perfection                                19-34 (females) 

                                                                                       19-39 (males) 

                                    Cheerfulness and Health                            34 plus (females) 

                                                                                       39 plus (males) 

   The appropriate Committees for Physical Cul-         badges and certificates for passing. The DOSAAF
ture and Sports, under the Council of Ministers,        clubs and training centers administer the exam-
provide overall guidance of the third-level GTO         ination, while DOSAAF committees supervise
program for draft-age youth. The third level            particular aspects, such a s grenade throwing,
consists of ten types of exercises. Participants        small arms marksmanship, and 500- and 1,000­
receive points for meeting minimum standards and        meter cross-country running.

                      OFFICER                           a foreign language; and at least 10 percent to
   The Soviet Union possesses the world's most          political studies.
extensive network of military schools and reserve          Graduates of Suvorov and Nakhimov schools,
officer commissioning programs. The total annual        reserve a n d regular enlisted personnel, a n d
output of all its officer candidate establishments      individuals undergoing preinduction military
is approximately 60,000 students. Over the forty        training may apply for the officer commissioning
years between the end of World War I I and the          schools. Civilians and reservists apply through
present, the schools have trained nearly one and        their local commissariats. Active duty personnel
one-half million officers, 500,000 of whom form the     apply through their immediate commanders.
regular officer corps of the Soviet armed forces.
                                                            Besides the commissioning schools, the force com-
    The first stage of the formal system of Soviet      ponents and arms and services operate advanced
military schools is the military high school; this      courses designed to improve t h e professional
includes the Suvorov schools for the army compo-        qualifications of officers; to familiarize them with
nents and Nakhimov schools for the navy. These          the latest developments in tactics and equipment;
institutions conduct two-year programs for boys         a n d to prepare them for command a n d staff
15 years of age and older who have completed            positions at battalion, regimental, and equivalent
eight g r a d e s of public education. There a r e      levels. These courses generally use the facilities
presently nine Suvorov schools and one Nakhimov         of t h e higher military schools or academies.
school, with average student bodies of 900 young        Officers selected for attendance normally are
men. Cadets wear uniforms, live at the schools,         captains, majors, or lieutenant colonels who are
a n d receive a well-rounded civil a n d military       not scheduled to attend a service or a branch
education, as well a s liberal doses o f Marxist-       academy. The advanced courses run from four to
Leninist theory. Graduates of these schools may         ten months, with approximately 10 percent of the
enter Soviet military colleges without taking           time allotted to tactical and staff work on the
competitive examinations.                               company level, 70 percent on the battalion level,
   The military colleges are the backbone of the        and 20 percent on the regimental level.
Soviet commissioning program. On a par with
                                                            Soviet military academies are roughly equivalent
civilian technical colleges, they offer degrees in a
                                                        to a combined US staff and war college. They are
wide variety of specialties. (See figure on next        the highest formal institutions of Soviet military
page.) There are a t least 6 military colleges or       education. Their commanders are senior general
schools (three-year, mostly technical schools) and      officers. T h e USSR m a i n t a i n s 1 7 of t h e s e
136 higher military colleges or schools (four- to       academies, which exist on all-service levels and
five-year schools). Graduates of both types of          i n each armed forces component i n a manner
colleges are commissioned lieutenants.                  similar to specialized military colleges. They train
   For one and one-half months each year, students      selected officers for command and staff positions
at these institutions train in a n appropriate troop    from regimental to army or equivalent levels.
unit in the field. Generally, the higher military       Besides providing t h r e e - to five-year resident
schools devote 60 percent of their curriculum to        instruction, the academies conduct and supervise
specialized military subjects such as regulations,      nonresident extension and correspondence courses.
branch tactics, weapons a n d equipment, and            They also are responsible for research and develop-
physical training; 30 percent to academic subjects,     ment in tactical doctrine and equipment engineering
including mathematics, physics, methods and             in their particular fields. They disseminate tactical
principles of teaching, psychology, various technical   and technical information through service journals
studies (depending on the school's specialty), and      and periodicals.
                                                 Schools per specialty

                                                                                    OF SCHOOLS

                            Combined Arms ......................                           9

                            Air Defense of the Country .............                      14 

                            Air Defense of Troops .................                        5

                            Air Force ..........................                          23 

                            Navy ..............................                           10 

                            Strategic Rocket Forces ................                       5

                            Political ...........................                          9

                            Airborne ................... .....         .
                                                                       .                   1

                            Artillery ...........................                         10 

                            Automotive .........................                           4

                            Chemical ...........................                           3

                            Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     4

                            Engineering .........................                          3

                            Railroad/Military Transport .............                      1

                            Rear Services/Finance .................                        4

                            Signal/Communication .................                        11 

                            Tank ..............................                            8

                            Technical ...........................                          1

                            Topographic .........................                          1

                            MVD ..............................                             5

                            KGB ..............................                             3

                            Miscellaneous .......................                          8

   The senior academy of the Soviet army and                         days off each month for study, and time away
navy, which represents the ultimate in military                      from some unit training activity. They may also
education in the Soviet Union, is the Voroshilov                     receive up to four months' free time to research a
Military Academy of the General Staff of the USSR                    diploma thesis. Upon successful completion of all
Armed Forces. It trains carefully selected officers,                 requirements, t h e enrollee g r a d u a t e s with a
usually colonels and major generals (captains first                  diploma of the same status a s that granted to
rank and rear admirals for the Navy), for the                        resident students.
highest command a n d staff assignments. The                                                                                 six-
course length is two years.                                                              WARRANT OFFICER
   Military educational institutions offer extension                    Coincidental with t h e introduction of t h e
and correspondence courses in over 100 specialties                   w a r r a n t officer grades i n 1972, t h e military
to interested personnel throughout the armed                         districts and groups of forces organized six to
forces who pass a qualification examination or                       nine-month courses to train extended service
meet prerequisites. Students supplement these                        personnel to become warrant officers. Subjects
courses through resident retraining of up to one                     covered in these schools include political education,
month per year a t the parent school. Consultation                   tactics, training regulations, and physical training.
teams of instructors visit all major gamsons to                      At the same time, the armed forces made pro-
give advice and assistance. Personnel enrolled in                    visions for warrant officers and warrant officer
extension and correspondence courses receive three                   candidates to attend departmental courses a t
evenings each week free of unit duties, three duty                   officers' schools. The 1985 guidelines on the service
of warrant officers emphasized the importance of           services operate specialized technical schools
their political a n d professional training. The           instructing NCOs in various military-technical
guidelines also stressed mastering the techniques          skills. The courses range from a few weeks to a
of small unit military instruction.                        year i n duration. On-the-job NCO training i s
                                                           almost continuous in regimental-sized units, which
       NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER                             provide refresher courses and equipment familiari-
   The Soviets select their NCOs from conscript 
          zation exercises. Due to the cyclical nature of the
classes based on the initial screening at military 
       Soviet conscription process, most NCO training
commissariats or based on t h e commander's 
              lasts for six months to allow for overlapping
recommendations. The components and arms and 
             resources required by the semiannual draft.

                                      INDIVIDUALS AND UNITS
 INITIAL PROCESSING AND INSTRUCTION                        regiments and divisions will involve live field
    Twice each year, the local military commissariat       firing and night training. Artillery and close air
calls up its quota of recruits based on the requi-         and/or attack helicopters will support tactical live
sitions received from the military district. On a          fire exercises. These exercises include evaluations
specified day, each commissariat sends its inductees       by t h e next higher headquarters based upon
to the next higher military commissariat office,           established training objectives.
which then transports the recruits to specific units
designated by military district headquarters.                 The Soviets place great importance on physical
                                                           conditioning. Exercise, calisthenics, diet, a n d
   When t h e recruits arrive a t a camp, they             organized sports are all factors in their integrated
undergo medical examinations, receive their                training concept.
clothing issue, and begin intensive initial military
training that lasts an average of four weeks. This             They also believe that proper mental condi-
period of training is known as the course of the           tioning is necessary for effective combat action.
young soldier. At its close, each recruit takes the        To achieve such conditioning,Soviet commanders
soldier's oath of allegiance. By this time, recruits       emphasize realism during long combat training,
presumably have a basic knowledge of military              especially during field exercises. They apparently
life, a n d they know how to fire a rifle. The             try to teach techniques which soldiers can use to
combination of preinduction training and the initial       cope with battlefield conditions. To achieve the
military instruction may be very loosely compared          proper attitude among all military personnel, the
to basic training in the US Armed Forces.                  services conduct political training and discussions
                                                           on a rigorous schedule of at least five hours per
        TRAINING CHARACTERISTICS                           week. Political officers are organic to all units
   Soviet training is repetitive. All soldiers, sailors,   down to company and equivalent levels. These
and airmen undergo individual training each year           officers are devoted Communists, the products of
of their military service, regardless of rank. The         special training schools. Their tasks are to create
aim of such repetitive training is the development         the desired attitudes in the minds of all personnel
of instinctive reflexes to cope with any situation.        a n d to work closely with the commanders i n
   Soviet trainine concentrates on field exercises         motivating soldiers.
under realistic conditions. While training in NBC              Above all, Soviet military training fosters pro-
warfare, the troops sometimes use live chemical            fessionalism. Self-improvement is a constant
agents under credible conditions. They must wear           requirement for career personnel who desire to
protective masks and clothing for several hours            remain on active duty. An extensive array of
at a time and practice decontamination techniques          publications dealing with practical matters of every
in actual contamination situations.                        part of the defense establishment is available a t .
   The Soviet ground forces conduct small unit             little or no cost. Besides taking extension and
training in habitual combat situations focusing            correspondence courses, servicemen can participate
upon squad, platoon, and company levels, but               i n organized evening study, i n t h e evening
sometimes involving a n entire battalion. Battle           uniuersity. Due to a n annual output of officers
drills are not stereotypes; they produce a known           which is greater than the active requirement, all
asset that the commander can apply in an antici­           personnel must strive to improve their professional
pated combat situation. Large unit training in             knowledge to preserve their tenure.
   Soviet training also has negative aspects. These           organization look good. I n other words, Soviet
include the uneven quality of academic training               training shortcomings are the same as those found
caused by incompetent teachers (the inevitable                in any army throughout the world. There is no
result of a military educational program the size             doubt, however, that the Soviet armed forces are
of the Soviet one) and the stifling of young leaders'         among the world's most professional and best-
initiative by overbearing superiors. Since over 100           trained military organizations.
languages are spoken among the many various
ethnic groups in the Soviet Union, the Soviet Army                          THE YEARLY CYCLE
has some difficulty in training the large numbers                The yearly training program includes a winter
of non-Russian-speaking conscripts. This problem
                                                              and a summer period. Each period, in turn, divides
will grow in the future as the Soviet Army must
                                                              into several stages. Every stage stresses a specific
rely more on nonethnic Russian manpower. An
                                                              theme or objective. The cycle s t a y s basically
additional training problem results from t h e
                                                              unchanged for several consecutive years. To ensure
government's power to divert the conscripts to
                                                              that they cover all material in sufficient detail,
complete economic tasks such a s construction
                                                              instructors may conduct different levels of training
projects and harvesting crops. This lost training
                                                              simultaneously. Young soldiers in their first year
time can hinder the efforts of the cadre to achieve
the required training objectives; but it is not yet           of service may receive more elementary instruction,
                                                              while senior servicemen get advanced training in
a significant weakness in providing a well-trained
                                                              their occupational skills. Instructors also conduct
soldier for the Soviet Army.
                                                              unit training on various levels at the same time.
   Other negative features include performance                Both winter and summer periods contain all levels
parameters which encourage faculties to inflate               of training activity as well as division maneuvers,
grades a n d pad exercise results to make t h e               where possible.

                                            Yearly training cycle

Septernber-October       Summer training period in progress. Newly commissioned junior officers arrive from military
                         schools and civilian universities.
November                 Summer training period ends. Newly trained NCOs arrive from the training division. New con-
                         scripts arrive and receive four weeks of basic training. Soldiers who complete their two-year
                         active duty obligation are released and transferred to the reserves. Preparations begin for the
                         coming winter training period. Training year ends.
December                 New training year begins. Winter training period begins.
January- April           Winter training period continues.

May                      Winter training period ends. Newly trained NCOs arrive from the training division. New con-
                         scripts arrive and receive four weeks of basic training. Soldiers who complete their two-year
                         active duty obligation are released and transferred t o the reserves. Preparations begin for the
                         coming summer training period.
June                     Summer training period begins.
July-August              Summer training period continues.
September-October        Summer training period continues. Newly commissioned junior officers arrive in the divisions
                         from military schools and civilian universities.
November                 Summer training period ends. Newly trained NCOs arrive from the training division. New con-
                         scripts arrive and receive four weeks of basic training. Soldiers who complete their two-year
                         active duty obligation are released and transferred to the reserves. Preparations begin for the
                         coming winter training period. Training year ends.
December                 New training year begins. Winter training period begins.
    The number of hours of daily training is the                  receive special instructions and prepare for the
same in winter and summer. Intense instruction                    coming term.
throughout the year leaves the soldier little free
time. The Soviets devote at least six hours of each                  The winter period lasts five to six months,
training day exclusively to scheduled instruction.                depending upon the type of unit, its location, and
Most of the remaining time goes to political indoc-               the length of the winter season. It usually ends
trination, maintenance of clothing and equipment,                 by the beginning of May. Units in warm climates
and personal needs. The training schedule for                     may start moving to summer camps earlier than
Saturdays is two to four hours shorter to allow                   units in the central USSR. Winter training takes
time for cleaning and inspection of unit equipment.               place mainly in garrison, with local training
Finally, required participation in organized sports               areas providing firing ranges, classrooms, work-
and cultural activities on weekends keeps free time               shops, and other facilities. Most garrisons are on
to a minimum. (See figure below.)                                 the outskirts of towns, using the adjoining country-
    Following t h e a n n u a l celebration of t h e              side for command post exercises, field training,
Bolshevik Revolution on 7 November, the Soviets                   and marches.
make preparations for the new training year.                         Summer training usually begins on the day
During this time, incoming recruits begin their                   after May Day, a Soviet national holiday. It is
initial training; instructors and students hold                   similar to the winter training in content. The
critiques of the previous year's program; and                     major difference is that soldiers spend a greater
soldiers inspect and overhaul training facilities,                amount of time out of garrison during the summer
e q u i p m e n t , a n d vehicles. T h e a p p r o p r i a t e   period. The summer training activity usually
directorates formulate all necessary training plans               culminates in autumn divisional maneuvers, which
for the winter period while command personnel                     may be part of a combined Warsaw P a d exercise.

                                  Typicnl Soviet armed forces training schedule

                                     ACTIVITY                                         HOUR           TIME ELAPSED

       Reveille                                                                                         5    minutes
       Physical Training ......................................... 
                                   30    minutes
       Personal Hygiene ......................................... 
                                    20    minutes
       Roll Call and Inspection .................................... 
                                 15    minutes
       Breakfast ............................................... 
                                     30    minutes
       Training                                                                                         6    hours
       Lunch                                                                                           40    minutes
       Afternoon Rest ........................................... 
                                    30    minutes
       Care of Personal Equipment .................................                                    20    minutes
       a) Political Education (Monday and Thursday)
       b) Equipment Maintenance (Tuesday and Friday)
       C ) Organized Sports (Wednesday and Saturday)                                                     3   hours
       Self-Study                                                                                       70   minutes
       Supper                                                                                           30   minutes
       Free Time (Supervised) ..................................... 
                                   90   minutes
       Roll Call                                                                                        15   minutes
       Taps                                                                                                   7
                                              CHAPTER 4 



    GROUND FORCES                                         FRONT   ............................. 4-13 0       

  MOTORIZED RIFLE REGIMENT                                  AIRBORNE FORCES
    STRUCTURE (BTR)                         4-3           AIRBORNE REGIMENT
  MOTORIZED RIFLE REGIMENT                                  STRUCTURE (BMD)                         4144
    STRUCTURE (BMP)                        4-26           AIRBORNE DIVISION                         4149
  MOTORIZED RIFLE DIVISION    ...........   4-37           AMPHIBIOUS FORCES
  TANK DIVISION                           4-11 2           BRIGADE STRUCTURE         ............4-155 

  COMBINED ARMS ARMY                      4-116           NAVAL INFANTRY DIVISION                    4-157
  TANK ARMY                               4-118

   Although one expects to find many organizational variations in a force the size of the Soviet ground
forces, descriptions in this chapter present a single model for each type of organization. The structures
portrayed here mirror forward-deployed Soviet forces such as those found in the Western TVD a s of the
end of 1988. They include all known structural elements, full assessed war-authorized strengths, and the
most modern equipment. The text and tables note several structural variations.

                            PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION
   The organization charts in this chapter focus         Stacked blocks in the charts indicate multiple,
on maneuver units, starting a t the lowest level      identical elements subordinate to a particular or-
(motorized rifle squad and tank squad) and building   ganization. Dashed blocks indicate elements which
up to the highest level (army and front). At each     may or may not be present in the type of organi-
level, the chapter breaks down subordinate CS and     zation shown.
CSS units and subunits whenever possible for
greater detail.
                                                          Figures inside the organization blocks reflect the
    The chapter begins with the structure of the      assessed total war-authorized personnel strength of
MRRs, the most common type in the Soviet ground       the organization. At lower levels, the chapter often
forces. Among these regiments, the BTR-equipped       divides personnel figures between officers (at the
units are the most numerous. The chapter discusses    left) and enlisted personnel (at the right). At bat-
them first. Then it addresses the BMP-equipped        talion level and above, the chapter gives a single
units. Discussion of the MRD and its support units    figure for t h e officers and enlisted personnel
follows. Next the chapter repeats the process for     combined.
the TR and the TD. Organizations above division
(army and front) complete the description of purely
ground force organizations. The next set of charts       Personnel totals, as well as equipment lists, are
deals with the airborne regiment and the airborne     cumulative, although recapitulation tables for larger
division. These are not technically part of the       units may show the breakdown among subordinate
ground forces but may fall under the control of a     units and subunits. Otherwise, the user may deter-
ground forces front. The final set of charts ad-      mine the distribution of personnel and equipment
dresses the amphibious forces: the naval infantry     by wnsulting cross-referenced charts for lower-level
regiment/brigade and the naval infantry division.     organizations.
             Ground Forces

   With approximately one-sixth of the earth's land            There is no fixed organizational structure above
surface within its boundaries, the Soviet Union                division level.
has traditionally maintained large, well-equipped
ground forces a s a primary instrument of military                The army is the largest peacetime combined
power. T h e s o v i e t g r o u n d f o r c e s a r e t h e    arms formation. It normally consists of two to
largest o f t h e f i v e components of their armed            five divisions and numerous nondivisional CS and
forces. Ground forces organizations may be either              CSS elements. Armies are capable of independent
tactical (division level and below) or operational             operations, but normally fight a s part of a front,
(army and front).                                              in which case their CS elements will be supple-
                                                               mented with front assets.
            Tactical-Level Organizations                          There are two types of armies. While both types
   T h e basic tactical units in the S o v i e t ground         are actually combined arms organizations, a Soviet
forces are the MRRs and TRs. There are two dis-                combined arms army (CAA) will normall y have a
tinct types of MRR: those equipped with BTRs                   greater number of MRDs, and a tank army (TA)
(APCs) and those equipped with BMPs (infantry                  will normally have a greater number of TDs. Of
          vehicles). T h e MRR and TR normally                 the armies identified, no two are exactly alike. The
operate a s part of a MRD or TD.                               number of divisions, a s well a s the numbers and
                                                               types of nondivisional elements, can vary greatly
         Operational-Level Organizations                       depending on the mission, the situation, and the
                                                               area of operations.
     Soviet ground forces organizations a t levels of
command between division (tactical) and TVD                       The front is the largest operational-level or-
(strategic) constitute the operational level. These            ganization. When formed in wartime, a typical
l a r g e formations include armies a n d fronts.              front may have three to five armies.
                                MOTORIZED RIFLE REGIMENT STRUCTURE (BTR)

Motorized Rifle Squad (BTR)

                                                      RIFLE SQUAD

Personnel                                         Equipment   Personnel                                     Equipment
Squad Leader/BTR Commander                           AK-74    Senior Rifleman/Asst. Squad Leader               AK-74
BTR Driver/Mechanic                                     PM    Rifleman/Assistant Grenadier                     AK-74
BTR M a c h i n e Gunner                                PM    Rifleman/Medic                                   AK-74
M a c h i n e Gunner                                RPK-74    Rifleman                                     AK-74/SVD
Grenadier                                       RPG-7V. P M

NOTES. 1. 	The dismounted squad element consists of seven personnel. The BTR driver/
           mechanic and BTR machine gunner remain with the BTR to provide fire support.
          The dismounted squad does not have a portable radio.
       2. One squad in each platoon has an SVD sniper rifle.

Motorized Rifle Platoon (BTR)

                                                      RIFLE PLATOON

                     PLATOON                                                                MOTORIZED
                  HEADQUARTERS                                                              RIFLE SQUAD

          Platoon Leader            PM
          Assistant Platoon 
                                                                (See above)
             Leader               AK-74 

                                            PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                             Total   Equipment                                      Total
9 - m m Pistol, P M                                     10    APC, BTR-60/70/80                                 3
5 . 4 5 - m m Assault Rifle, A K - 7 4                  16    Radios:
5 . 4 5 - m m Light M a c h i n e Gun, RPK-74            3      VHF, Portable. Low-Power, R-148 ............... 1
7.62- mm Sniper Rifle. SVD                                1     VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-123 ... 3
Antitank Grenade Launcher, RPG-7V                        3

NOTES. I. 	 a standard nine-man squad, each BTR has one empty seat (threeper platoon).
          which can accommodate the platoon leader and the assistant platoon leader.
       2. One squad in each platoon has an SVD sniper rifle.
       3. Firepower calculations should include the 14.5-mm and 7.62-mm coaxial machine 

          guns mounted on each BTR. 

Motorized Rifle Company, Motorized Rifle Battalion,
Motorized Rifle Regiment (BTR), M R D


                                                    RIFLE COMPANY 

                                                  7      (BTR)  103 

                                                          MACHINE GUN/
              HEADQUARTERS                                        LT O
                                                        ANTITANK P A O N                      RIFLE PLATOON
         3      (1 BTR)

        Company Commander          PM            Platoon Leader                  PM                     page 4-3
        Deputy Commander/                        3 x Machine
         Political Officer         PM               Gunner              P KM. PM 

        Senior Technician          PM            3 x Assistant

        First Sergeant ..... Ak - 7 4                Gunner                   A K-74 

        BTR Driver/Mechanic.
                          .      PM              3 x ATGM 

        B T R Machine                             O perator                    A T-7 

           Gunner           AK - 7 4             3 x Assistant

                                                   Operator . . . . . . . . . AH-74 

 BTR D r i v e r /
                                                   Mechanic                      PM
                                                 2 BTR Maching
                                                  Gunner                         PM

                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                Total         Equipment                                   Total
9 -m m Pistol. P M                                         42          ATGM, Manpack Launcher, AT-7/SAXHORN           3
5.45-mm Assault Rifle, AK-74                                 56        APC. BTR-60/70/80                               12
5.45-mm Light Machine          G u n , RPK-74 ............ 9           Radios:
7.62-mm Sniper Rifle. SVD                                     3          VHF. Portable. Low-Power, R-148                 5
7 . 6 2 - m m General Purpose MG, PKM                         3          VHF. Manpack, Low-Power, R-107                  1
Antitank Grenade Launcher. RPG-7V                             9          VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-123   ..   12

NOTE. The company commander's RTO comes from the battalion signal platoon and is not
      part of the BTR company personnel total.
Motorized Rifle Battalion, 

Motorized Rifle Regiment (BTR), M R D 

      BATTALION                                                          O TR
                                                                        M RA                            ANTITANK
    HEADQUARTERS                             O PN
                                      RIFLE C M A Y                     BATTERY                         PLATOON
       page 4-6                                                                                         page 4-7
                                        page 4-4

            I                              I

       SIGNAL                            SUPPLY
        LT O
       PA O N                           PLATOON                         O KH P
                                                                       W RS O
            14                             20                             7
       page 4.7                         page 4-8                       page 4-8                         page 4-8

                     AIR DEFENSE
                                                                                   GRENADE LAUNCHER
                        LT O
                       PA O N
                                                                                         LT O
                                                                                        PA O N

                      page 4-29                                                        page 4-29

                                        PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                             Total   Equipment                                            Total
120-mm Mortar M1943/M-120 or 82-mm                            Truck. POL (4,000 or 5,000-Liter)                       2
  Automatic Mortar. 2 B 9                             8       Truck. Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452
7.62-mm General Purpose MG, PKM                       9       Trailer. POL. 1-Axle                                    1
ATGM, Manpack Launcher, AT-7/SAXHORN                  9       Trailer. Cargo, 1-Axle                                  2
ATGM, Manpack Console, AT-3/SAGGER                            Trailer, Generator, 1-Axle                              1
  or AT-4/SPIGOT                                      4       Trailer. Water                                          1
73-mm Recoilless Gun. SPG-9                           2       Trailer. Kitchen                                        3
ATGL, RPG-7V ....................................    37       Rangefinder                                             1
SAM, SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN or                           Radios:
  SA-16                                               9         HF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-130                2
30-mm Automatic Grenade Launcher, AGS-17 ... 6                  VHF. Portable. Low-Power. R-148                      24
5.45-mm LMG. RPK-74                                  27         VHF, Manpack. Low-Power, R-107                       14
APC, BTR-60/70/80                                    47         VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-
ACV. BTR .......................      ............... 3            Power. R-123 ..............................      50
Truck. UAZ-69/469                                     3         Warning Receiver, R-31 1                             1
Truck, GAZ-66                                        15         Radio Transceiver, Portable,
                                                                   Very-Low-Power, R-147                              4
Truck, ZIL/Ural ..................................... 4
Truck. Van, ZIL (Maintenance)                         1
Truck, Van. Kitchen, PAC-170/200                      1
Battalion Headquarters. Motorized Rifle Battalion,
Motorized Rifle Regiment (BTR), M R D



                                          PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                              Total      Equipment                                      Total
9-mm Pistol, PM                                           4       Radios:
5.45-mm Assault Rifle, AK-74                              8         HF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-130 ..... 1
ACV, BTR-6OPU                                              1        VHF. Portable, Low-Power, R-148 ............... 1
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                         1         VHF. Manpack. Low-Power, R-107 .............. 2
Truck. GAZ-66                                              1        VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-123 ... 1
                                                                    Warning Receiver, R-311                         1

NOTE. 	 The signal platoon leader is also the battalioncommunications officer. The praporshchik
        in charge of the supply platoon and the fel'dscher in charge of the medical aid
        station are also part of the battalion staff. However, these three positions are not
        part of the personnel figures for the battalion headquarters.

Mortar Battery, Motorized Rifle Battalion,
Motorized Rifle Regiment, M R D and TD

                                                       BATTERY         70

              BATTERY                  HEADQUARTERS 8                                              MORTAR
        HEADQUARTERS                    HEADQUARTERS                                              PLATOON
   2                       2      1       PLATOON  20                                         1                 24

            PLATOON                   FORWARD OBSERVER                   RADIO                    MORTAR
         HEADQUARTERS                  RECONNAISSANCE                  TELEPHONE                   SQUAD
                                          SECTION                      S ECTION        5
  .1                       1      0                                                           0                  6


                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT
Equipment                                        Total           Equipment                                           Total
9-mm Pistol, PM                                     15           Stereoscopic Rangefinder, DS-1 or
5.45-mm Assault Rifle. AK-74                        62             DM-09/DAK-1                                           1
ATGL. RPG-7V                                         8           Periscope Aiming Circle, PAB2A                          1
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                    1           Collimator (Aiming Stakes)                          ... 8
Truck, GAZ-66 ...................................... 9           Redio:
120-mm Mortar M1943/M-120 or 82-mm                                 VHF, Manpack. Low-Power, R-107       ..............   4
  Automatic Mortar. 289                              8
Antitank Platoon, Motorized Rifle Battalion,
Motorized Rifle Regiment (BTR), M R D



                                                      1             27

              PLATOON                    RECOILLESS                                           TRANSPORTATION
            HEADQUARTERS                GUN SQUAD                                                 SECTION
        1               1          0



                                                                         A G TEAM
                                       GUN T A
                                  0                   3                             3

                                       PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                 Total   Equipment                                     Total
ATGM, Manpack, Console, AT-3/SAGGER                               APC. BTR                                         5
  or AT-4/SPIGOT                                             4    Radios:
73-mm Recoilless Gun, SPG-9                                  2      VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R­123    ... 5
ATGL, RPG-7V                                                 2      VHF. Portable, Low-Power. R-148                  4
NOTE.   High-readiness BTR-equipped MRBs may have six AT-4 SPIGOTS and three SPG-9s

Signal Platoon, Motorized Rifle Battalion, 

Motorized Rifle Regiment, M R D end T D 



                                       PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                             Total       Equipment                                     Total
9-mm Pistol. PM                                          1        Radios:
5.45-mm Assault Rifle. AK-74                            13          HF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-130           1
ACV. BTR                                                    2       VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                   3
Truck. UAZ-69/469                                           1       VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-123    ...   2
Truck. GAZ-66                                               1
Supply Platoon. Motorized Rifle Battalion,
Motorized Rifle Regiment, M R D and T D



                                               1                   19

                                       I                                    I                              1
       PLATOON                        MESS                            MOTOR TRANSPORT                 SUPPLY AND
     HEADQUARTERS                    SECTION                             SECTION                     SERVICE SECTION
 1                1            0                   8              0                6             0                     4

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                          Total       Equipment                                           Total
9-mm Pistol. PM                                       1        Trailer, POL, 1-Axle                                   1
5.45-mm Assault Rifle, AK-74                         19        Trailer, Cargo, 1-Axle                                 1
Truck,GAZ-66                                          4        Trailer. Water, 1-Axle                                 1
Truck, ZIL-130/131/151/157 or Ural-375                4        Trailer, Field Kitchen, KP-125                              3
Truck. POL (4.000 or 5,200-Liter)                     2        Radio:
Truck, Van, Field Kitchen. PAC-170/200                1          VHF. Manpack, Low-Power, R-107        ...........         1

Repair Workshop, Motorized Rifle Battalion.
Motorized Rifle Regiment, M R D and T D

                                                                      PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                       REPAIR                                                                                      Total
                                                               Truck. Van. ZIL (Maintenance)                          1
                                                               Trailer, Generator, l - A x l e                        1

Medical Aid Station, Motorized Rifle Battalion.
Motorized Rifle Regiment, M R D and T D

                                                                      PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                                                               Equipment                                           Total
                    MEDICAL AID
                                                               Truck. Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452        .............    1
                                                               Trailer. Cargo, 1-Axle                                 1
                                                                 VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                        1
Motorized Rifle Regiment (BTR), MRD

   The MRR is the basic combined arms organi-                           types of MRRs has been that BMP-equipped regi-
zation and most common maneuver element of the                          ments h a d a n organic battalion of 122-mm S P
Soviet ground forces. Motorized rifle, tank, artillery,                 howitzers (2S1s), while BTR-equipped regiments
antiaircraft, antitank, engineer, signal, and CSS                       had a battalion of 122-mm towed howitzers (D-30s).
assets are organic to the MRR. The regiment is                          However, some BTR regiments, especially those in
the smallest organization which bas all of these                        the forward area, now have the 2S1. Also, BTR
elements. 	                                                             regiments have antitank platoons within the MRBs,
                                                                        a feature not found in the BMP regiments.
     Regimental organization includes three MRBs
a n d one TB. A 122-mm howitzer battalion and                              The TBs of both BMP- and BTR-equipped MRRs
three 120mm mortar batteries or 82-mm automatic                         have 31 medium tanks. This chapter lists all tanks
mortar batteries provide fire support. While battalion-                 within the MRR as T-64/72/80, but older types are
sized elements support the division, corresponding                      often present outside the Western TVD.
company-sized units support MRRs.
                                                                            Although the regiment normally operates a s
   The MRRs have either the BMP amphibious                              part of the division, it is capable of short-term
infantry combat vehicle (AICV) or one of the BTR                        independent operations. I t has the assets to react
series of APCs a s the primary troop-carrying                           independently to changes in the combat situation.
vehicle. Another key difference between the two                         Much of its equipment is amphibious.

                                                          RIFLE REGIMENT

                                          MOTORIZED RIFLE

      AIR DEFENSE MISSILE               ANTITANK MISSILE                   RECONNAISSANCE                ENGINEER
    AND ARTILLERY BATTERY                     BATTERY                         COMPANY                     COMPANY
               60                                40                              55                         60
           page 4-18                          page 4-20                        page 4-19                  page 4-21

             SIGNAL                  CHEMICAL PROTECTION                  MATERIEL SUPPORT

            COMPANY                        PLATOON
               50                              24
           page 4-22                         page 4-23                         page 4-23 	                page 4-24

                                                            MEDICAL POINT

                                                              page 4-25
NOTES. 1. If the TB of this regiment has T-54/55/62 tanks, r e g i m e n t a l strength will increase
           by 31 or 40 enlisted personnel.
       2. Approximately 220 personnel are officers.
       3. 	In some BTR-equipped regiments, the howitzer battalion may have the 122-mm
           SP howitzer 2S1. (See p. 4-36 for the organization and equipment of a 2S1-
           equipped battalion.)
       4. 	In the late 1980s, forces in Eastern Europe began to standardize tank battalions
           at 31 tanks. (See p. 4-108.)
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation





 FOOTNOTES.     'This vehicle includes the TALL MIKE radar, which appears separately in      (continued)
                 this list.
               **The SA-9 system has a transporter-erector-launcher (TEL), while the SA-13
                 system has a transporter-erector-launcher and radar (TELARI.
              "'This vehicle includes the SMALL FRED radar, which appears separately in
                 this list.
                                                           FM 100-2-3

Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)




Chemical Reconnaissance


Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)



   Armored Recovery Vehicle   I
        I I I              I   I   I   I I   3

                                                     FM 100-2-3

Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)



    HF, Van-Mount. High-Power. R-118

                                                                                                                          Dashed l i n e s between blocks
                                                                                                                   indicate relationships w   i
                                                                                                                   elements which are n t actually

                                                   PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF E Q U I P M E N T

Equipment                                       MRR       MRR             TR   Equipment                         MRR    MRR            TR

                                                (BTR) (BMP)                                                      (BTR) (BMP)

S A M , SA-7/GRAIL or S A - 1 4 /                                              Truck. Van. ZIL (Command) .         3.    3 .            3

  GREMLIN or 511~16. . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . 3 .                  . .    3   Sedan. GAL.24                 .     1   I   .    .   . 1

Medium Tank. T - 6 4 / 7 2 / 8 0                                               Radios

  (Command V e h i c l e )............. 0 .                   0 .   . .    1     HF. Vehicle Mount. M e d i u m - 

APC, BTR-60/70/80           ...........2 . . . 1 .                         1      Power. A-130 .              .  . 0 . .. 0    . . .    1

ACV. B M P - 1 K S h .................. 0 . . 1 .                          0     VHF, Manpack, Low-power,

                                                                                                                                                        FOOTNOTES     T h e Special Staff normally c o n s i s t sf about seven K BpersonnelT h e y a r e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  o                 G
APC. B T R - 6 0 P A   I FACI . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . 1 .          1      R-107            .                3     3     .       2
                             not   subordinate to      the regimental commander a n d are not part o ftheir p e r s o n - 

Truck. UAZ-69/469 ................ 3 . . . 3 .                             3     VHF. V e h i c l e o u n t ,
                                                                                                  M                                                                    n e l total f o r t h e regimental headquarters

Truck. U r a l - 3 7 5 .................... I        .        1.           I       Medium-Power, R - 1 2 3 .        2 . 2       .       2                           **Usually the First         DeputyCommander

Tank Battalion, Motorized Rifle Regiment, M R D and TD


                   BATTALION                                   HEADQUARTERS                                          TANK
                 HEADQUARTERS                                AND SERVICE PLATOON                                    COMPANY
                        5                                              40                                               40

                                                 P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF E Q U I P M E N T        (See below)
Equipment                                                         Total       Equipment                                        Total
M e d i u m Tank. T -6 4 / 7 2 / 8 0                                 40       Trailer, Cargo, 1-Axle    ........................   1
ATGL, RPG-7V        ..............................                     2      Trailer. Generator    ............................   1

ACV. BTR-50/60        ............................                     2      Trailer, Water     ...............................   1

Truck. ZIL-157 or Ural-375     ....................                    7      Radios: 

Truck, POL       .................................                     3        HF. Manpack, Low-Power. R - 1 0 4 M         ...........

Truck, Van. ZIL (Maintenance)     .................                    2        HF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R -1 3 0          ....

Truck. Van. Kitchen, PAC-170/200      .............                    1        VHF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-107              ...........

Truck. Ambulance, UAZ-450A        .................                    1        VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R - 1 2 3 . . 4 1 
Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle    ........................                     8        Warning Receiver, R-311             ...................

NOTES. 1. TBs equipped with T-54/55/62 tanks have 31 or 40 additional enlisted personnel.
          2. In the late 1980s, forces in Eastern Europe began to standardize tank battalions
             at 31 tanks. (See p. 4-108.)
Tank Company, Tank Battalion, Motorized Rifle Regiment, M R D and T D



                                                   4                      35

                                 C o m p a n yCommander    PM                                           TANK PLATOON
                                                 ......    PM                                         (4 Medium Tank)
                                Gunner    .............    PM 

          P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF E Q U I P M E N T
Equipment                                                 Total
M e d i u m Tank, T -6 4 / 7 2 / 8 0                        13
                                                                         HEADQUARTERSSQUAD                                 TANK SQUAD
9 - m m Pistol, P M      ...........................        30                (I Medium Tank)                           (I Medium Tank)
5 . 4 5 -m m Assault Rifle. AKS-74   ................         9
                                                                      Platoon Leader/
    HF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R -1 3 0 ....            1          Tank Commander ... PM                     Tank Commander . . A K S - 7 4
    VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power.                                 D r i v e r / M e c h a n i . . . . . . PM
                                                                                                  c                Driver/Mechanic ...... PM
       R -1 2 3 .................................           13        Gunner . . . . . . . . . . . . . PM          Gunner . . . . . . . . . . . . . PM
NOTES. 1. The personnel total of 39 will be rounded off t o 40 in the organization chart for
                the TB, M R R . Tank companies with T-54/55/62 tanks have 10 o r 13 additional
               enlisted personnel.
           2. 	I n the late 1980s, forces in Eastern Europe began to standardize tank companies 

               at 10 tanks. (Seep. 4-107.)

122-rnrn Howitzer Battalion, 

Motorized Rifle Regiment (BTR), MRD and TD




                                                  E D U RE S
                                                                                           SUPPLY AND
                                                                                       MAINTENANCE PLATOON


                                                                                                                               (See page 4-17)

                                                      PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                               Total          Equipment                                                    Total 

122-mm Towed Howitzer. D-30                     ............... 1 8                    Truck, Ambulance, UAZ-450/452a            ............. 1 

ATGL. RPG-7V                                                                 .
                      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8                            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 

                                                                                       Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle
5.45-mm LMG. RPK-74                ......................18                            Trailer. POL................................. 
ACRV, M1979 (1)          ............................3                                 Trailer. Water............................... 
ACRV. M 1 979 (2)        ............................4                                                     .........................4 

                                                                                       Trailer, Field Kitchen
ACRV. M 1 9 7 9(3)       ............................1                                 Rangefinder. Laser. SAGE GLOSS            ............. 4 

Mobile Recon Post, PRP-3 (BMP M 1 9 7 5 ) *                      ....... 1             Radar. Battlefield Surveillance, SMALL FRED                .... 1 

Truck, UAZ-69/469            ..........................1                               Radios: 

Truck. GAZ-66         ............................. 2                        1           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power                   ...... 4 

Truck. ZIL/Ural       ............................. 3 4                                  VHF. Portable. Low-Power. R-148 or Very-

Truck, POL (4,000 or 5.200-Liter)                   .............. 2                        Low Power R-126      ........................2 

Truck, Van. GAZ         .............................                          2         VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107          . . . . . . . . . . 20 

Truck. Van. ZIL (Maintenance)                 ................. 1                        Warning Receiver. R-311         ...................2 

NOTE. 	 This howitzer battalion may also be found in the artillery regiment of a MRD. TD. or
        airborne division.

FOOTNOTE. 'This vehicle includes the SMALL FRED radar, which appears separately in this
1 2 2 - m m Howitzer Battery. 122-mm Howitzer Battalion,
Motorized Rifle Regiment (BTR), M R Dand TD


            I                                I

 I       BATTERY




                                                                 PLATOON                     GUN
                                                               HEAQUARTERS                 SECTION

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                      Total       Equipment                                 Total
122-mm Towed Howitzer. D -3 0 ................ 6           ACRV, M1979 (2) ............................ 1 

ATGL. RPG-7V    ..............................6                         ............................... 1 

                                                           Trailer. Cargo
5.45-mm LMG, RPK-74    ....................... 6           Rangefinder, Laser. SAGE GLOSS ............. 1 

Truck. GAZ-66   ..............................1            Radios: 

Truck. ZIL/Ural ..............................8              VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107  ...........   5

ACRV. M 1 9 7 9(1)............................ 1             VHF, Vehicle Mounted. Medium-Power  .......   1

Air Defense Missile and Artillery Battery, 

Motorized Rifle and Tank Regiment, M R D and TD 

                                                AIR DEFENSE MISSILE
                                                  AND ARTILLERY

                                            I                               I
 I         BATTERY
                                   AIR DEFENSE MISSILE
                                                                   AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY
                                                                                               I     MAINTENANCE


                                        PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                           Total        Equipment                                       Total

SAM. SA-9/GASKIN TEL or SA-13/GOPHER                             Trailer, Generator, 2-Axle   ..................... 2 

  TELAR    ................................... 4                 Radios:

SPAA Gun, ZSU-23-4 or 2 S 6   ................ 4                   VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107       ........... 2 

ACV, BTR-60   ................................ 3                   VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power. 

Truck. GAZ-66   .............................. 2                     R-123   ................................. 1 1 

Truck, ZIL-131/157 or Ural-375 ............... 4                   Warning Receiver. R-311  ................... 3 

NOTE, 	 instead of this battery, same MRRs and TRs now have an air defense battalion
       consistingof a battery of six 2S6 30-mm SP antiaircraft systems and a battery of six
      BMP-2 ICVs(with each BMP-2 carrying three SA-16 SAM launchers).
Reconnaissance Company. 

Motorized Rifle and Tank Regiment, M R D and TD




              I                                  I

 I         COMPANY

                                         PLATOON (TRACKED)

                                           3 X BMP-1/BMP-2
                                                                            PLATOON (WHEELED)

                                                                                4 x BRDM-2

                                                                                                       3 M otorcycle 


                                             PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                   Total       Equipment                                        Total

ATGL, RPG-7V       .............................. 4                     Radios: 

5.45-mm L M G , RPK-74    ....................... 3                       HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M ...........        1

ACV, BRM-1*       ............................... 1                       HF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-130....        1

AICV. BMP-1/BMP-2       ......................... 3                       VHF. Manpack, Low-Power, R-107 ...........        3

ASC, BRDM-2       ...............................               4         VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-123...        7

Motorcycle. M-72/K-750V/Ural-3     ..............               3         Warning Receiver, R-311...................        1

Radar. Battlefield Surveillance. TALL M I K E         ......    1

FOOTNOTE. ' This vehicle includes the TALL MlKE radar. which appears separately in this list.
Antitank Missile Battery. 

Motorized Rifle Regiment, M R D and TD





                                                                   I                                                     I


                                                                                                             3 x Truck, Ural/ZIL
1 x R-123
1 R-107
1 x Rangefinder
                                                                   I                                        I
                                                                                                             1 Truck. Van. ZlL
                                                                                                                 (AT-3/5 Simulator)

                     PLATOON                                                                             ATGM 


            1x   BRDM-2
            1    R-107                                                                          1    TM
                                                                                                    A G Launcher
            1x   R-123                                                                              Vehicle, AT-3/5
            1x   R-123                                                                          1   ATGL. RPG-7V
                                                                                                1   R-123

                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                  Total        Equipment                                                Total
ATGM Launcher Vehicle (BRDM-2). AT-3/                                   Rangefinder   .................................1
  SAGGER or AT-5/SPANDREL         ............... 9                     R a d i         o   s   :
ATGL, RPG-7V      .............................. 9                       VHF. Manpack, Low-Power, R - 1 0 7           ........... 4
ACV, BRDM-2      ...............................4
                       VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power,
Truck. Ural/ZIL .............................. 3                           R-123   ................................. 1 3                  

Truck, Van, Z I L (AT-3/5 Simulator) ............. 1 

NOTE. I n the late 1980s. MRRs began to add 100-mm AT guns (MT-12) to expand the battery
Engineer Company, 

Motorized Rifle and Tank Regiment, M R D and T D 



              I                                  I                                   I	                                     I
          COMPANY                          MINE WARFARE                           BRIDGE
        HEADQUARTERS                          PA O N
                                               LT O                              PA O N
                                                                                  LT O                             (CONSTRUCTION)
                                                                                                                        LT O
                                                                                                                       PA O N

                                            PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment 	                                               Total          Equipment                                                         Total
ATGL. RPG-7V    ..............................4                          Bucket Excavator. PZM         .......................3 

APC. BTR-60   ................................3                          Minelayer, Towed. PMR-3         .....................3 

Truck. UAZ-69/469   ..........................1                          Mineclearing Plow, K M T - 4 / 6   ............ 9*/28**

Truck, KrAZ/Ural/ZIL  .................... 8 * / 9 * *                   M i n e Roller-Plow. K M T - 5 M  .............. 3 * / 9 * * 

Truck, Dump, M M Z - 5 5 5 ......................2                       Water Filtration Set. MAFS, o n ZIL 

Truck. Van. ZIL (Maintenance)   ................. 1                         w i t h Trailer............................... 

Truck. Crane. K-61 ...........................1                          Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle   ........................2 

Truck. Crane Shovel. E - 3 0 5 V                                         Radios: 

Bridge, Tank-Launched. MTU/MT-55           ...... 1 * / 3 * *              HF or VHF. M a n p a c k , Low-Power. 

Bridge. Truck-Launched. T M M .................4 
                           R - 1 0 4 M or R-107  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 

Ditching Machine. B T M / M D K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1         VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. 

Dozer. BAT/BAT-M/PKT ......................1 
                               R-123    .............................4 * / 7 * * 

Dozer Blade. BTU ............................3 

NOTE. The following variations may exist:
      a. Frogmen may be attached to assist i n the reconnaissance of water obstacles.
      b. Some companies may have five KMM truck-launched bridge spans instead of four
      b. TMM bridge spans.
      C. 	 Trucks normally tow PMR minelayers. Some units may have BTR-152s for this 

           purpose. Some units may have GMZ armored tracked minelayers instead of PMR 

           towed minelayers. 

      d. Some units may have 	u p to six one-axle cargo t r a i l e r s
                                                                      besides the two-axle cargo 


        e. Some units may have tractor-trailers to carry heavy tracked equipment on long 

           road movements. 

FOOTNOTES.     "Personnel and equipment levels for the engineer company. MRR. BTR-                01
              "Personnel and equipment levels for the engineer company. TR.
Signal Company, 

Motorized Rifle and Tank Regiment, M R D and TD





                           PLATOON                                PLATOON

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                                Equipment 	                                       Total
                                ACV, BTR      .................................. 3 

                                Truck, UAZ-69/469     .......................... 5 

                                Truck, GAZ-66     .............................. 3 

                                Truck, Van. GAZ (Signal)  ...................... 3 

                                Truck, Van. ZIL (Signal) ....................... 2 

                                Motorcycle. M-72/K-750V/Ural-3    .............. 3 

                                Trailer, Generator. 2-Axle ..................... 1 


                                  HF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M        ........... 2
                                  HF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-130       .... 2
                                  HF. Van Mount. High-Power, R-118       .......... 1
                                  HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power        ...... 2
                                  HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount. High-Power       ......... 2
                                  VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107        ...........   7
                                  VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-123       ... 2
                                  Warning Receiver. R-311       ................... 3
                                  Radio Relay. VHF/UHF, R-401/405       ...........   2

NOTES. 1 . The radios listed support the regimental headquarters.
       2. 	 Motorcycles provide the regimental commander with messenger/courier service.
       3. 	 The TA-57 field telephone and P-193M Switchboard are standard equipment in
           the wire/telephone platoon.
Chemical Protection Platoon. 

Motorized Rifle and Tank Regiment, M R D and TD 




                                            1                     23 

                                                      I                                     I
                PLATOON                            CHEMICAL                               VEHICLE
            HEADQUARTERS                         RECONNAISSANCE                        DECONTAMINATION
        1                   2               0        SQUAD         3               0       SQUAD      3

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                         Total        Equipment                                      Total
Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle,                              Radios:
  BRDM-Zrkh or RKhM       ....................... 3             HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M     ............ 1
Truck. Decontamination    ....                    4             VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power. R-123    ... 3

Materiel Support Company, 

Motorized Rifle and Tank Regiment, M R D and TD



            I                           I                                I                          1
          O PN
         C MAY
                                    AND CARGO
                                     PA O N
                                      LT O
                                                              I          POL
                                                                                                 SUPPLY AND

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                         Total       Equipment                                       Total
Truck. UAZ-69/469   .......................... 2              Trailer. POL   ................................ 1 5 

Truck. GAZ-66   ..............................4               Trailer. Field Kitchen .........................2 

Truck. ZIL-131/157 or Ural-375 .............. 45              Trailer, Water   ...............................1 

Truck. Van. ZIL (Maintenance)................. 1              Trailer, Generator. 1-Axle .....................1 

Truck. ZIL-130/131 (Water) ................... 4              Radio: 

                                ............. 15
Truck. POL (4,000 or 5.200-Liter)                               VHF, Manpack. Low-Power. R-107      ........... 1 

Trailer, Cargo, 2-Axle....................... 3 0         

Maintenance Company, 

Motorized Rifle and Tank Regiment, M R D and TD




              I                             I                                    I                               I
        C MAY
         O PN                          OO
                                      M T R VEHICLE                        TANK/TRACK                   WEAPONS/ORDNANCE
      HEADQUARTERS                    REPAIR PLATOON                     REPAIR PLATOON                  REPAIR PLATOON

                                                                 I                                  I
                                                                                              MOBILE REPAIR
                       RECOVERY                         SPECIAL REPAIR
                                                                                            WORKSHOP PLATOON
                       PA O N
                        LT O                               PLATOON
               .                                                                           (BMP REGIMENT ONLY)

                                        PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment 	                          MRR' MRR**TR***                 Equipment                            M R R * MRR**TR***
                                     (BTR) (BMP)                                                          (BTR) (BMP)

ATGL, RPG-7V       .................4 . . . . 4 . . . . 4            Armored Recovery Vehicle         ....... 3 .... 3
                                                                                                                 .... 5

Truck, UAZ-69/469      .............1 .... 1 . . . . 1               Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle    ............ .... . . . . 6 

                                                                                                              6      6
Truck, ZIL    ......................1 .... 1 . . . . 1               Trailer, Generator, 2-Axle    ........ ....
                                                                                                              1      1 ....

Truck. Ural-375    .................1 .... 1 . . . . 1               Trailer, Generator, 1-Axle    ........   2 .... 2
                                                                                                                 .... 2

Truck, Van. ZIL-131                                                  Radios: 

  (Maintenance)      ................ 4 .... 4 . . . .       4         VHF, Manpack, Low-Power, 

Truck. Van. ZIL-157                                                       R-107      .....................1 . . . . 1 . . . . 1 

  (Maintenance)      ................8 . . . . 8 . . . . 8             VHF, Vehicle Mount, 

Armored Maintenance Vehicle,                                              Medium-Power. R-123        ....... 3 . . . . 6 . . . . 5 

  MTP   ........................O . . . .       3..     ..   0 

NOTES. 1. 	The special repair platoon consists of an arc and gas welding section, battery
           repair and recharging section, and electrical repair section.
       2. 	 The mobile repair workshop platoon consists of three sections, each equipped
            with a n MTP armored maintenance vehicle. During field operations, one MTP will
           support each MRB (BMP).

FOOTNOTES.       'Personnel and equipment levels for the maintenance company. MRR. BTR-
                "Personnel and equipment levels for the maintenance company, MRR. BMP-
                "'Personnel and equipment levels far the maintenance company. TR.
Regimental Medical Point, 

Motorized Rifle, Tank, and Artillery Regiment. MRD and TD


              I                               I                                 I                             I
 I         C MAY
            O PN
                           I I            SUPPLY AND
                                        SERVICE SECTION
                                                                                                    DISPOSITIONS SECTION

                                                   I      TREATMENT

                                          PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                              Total        Equipment                                          Total
Truck.   Van. GAZ  ............................. 1                  Trailer. Kitchen ..............................        1

Truck,   ZIL-130/131/151/157   ................. 2                  Trailer, Water  ...............................        1

Truck,   Decontamination. DDA-53/66 ...........   1                 Radio: 

Truck.   GAZ-66    .............................. 1                 VHF, Manpack, Low-Power, R - 1 0 7   ...........       1

Truck,   Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452  .............    4

NOTES. 1 . The UAZ-450A/452 is a standard ambulance. Other general purpose trucks may
            Serve as ambulances. The regimental medical p o i n t may also employ the
            LuAZ-967M  light evacuation vehicle.
        2. There may be two collection sections.
                          M O T O R I Z E D RIFLE R E G I M E N T S T R U C T U R E (BMP)

Motorized Rifle Squad (BMP)

                                                           RIFLE SQUAD

                                           P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF EQUIPMENT

Personnel                                            Equipment         Personnel                                    Equipment
Squad LEADER/BMP Commander                ........... A K - 7 4        Grenadier    ........................ RPG-7V, P M 

Assistant Squad L e a d e r / B M P Gunner     ........ P M            Senior Rifleman   .........................A K - 7 4 

B M P Driver/Mechanic            ...................... P M            Rifleman/Assistant Grenadier  ............. A K - 7 4 

Machine Gunner ....................... RPK-74                          Rifleman    .......................... AK-74/SVD 

R i f l e m a n / M e d i c .........................A K - 7 4 

NOTES. 1. The dismounted squad assault element consists of seven personnel. The BMP
          driver/mechanic and assistant squad leader/BMP gunner remain with the BMP
          to provide fire support. The dismounted squad does not have a portable radio.
       2. One squad in each platoon has an SVD sniper rifle.

Motorized Rifle Platoon ( B M P )


                                                        RIFLE PLATOON 

                                                       1     (3xBMP)       28


                                                                                                       MOTORIZED RIFLE

 PlatoonLeader ....... PM 

 Assistant latoon Leader ........... AK-74 

         P                                                                                                (See above)

                                               P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                  Total       Equipment                                         Total
                 ........................... 10
9 - m m Pistol, P M                                                    Amphibious Infantry Combat Vehicle.
                             ................ 1 6
5 . 4 5 - m m Assault Rifle. A K - 7 4                                   BMP/BMP-l/BMP-2        .......................       3
5.45-mm Light Machine Gun, RPK-74   .......... 3                       Radios:
7.62-mm Sniper Rifle. SVD ................... 1                          VHF. Portable, Low-Power, R - 1 4 8   ............   1
Antitank Grenade Launcher. RPG-7V ........... 3                          VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-123        ...   3

NOTES. 1. With a standard nine-man squad. each BMP has two empty seats (six per pla-
          toon], which can accommodate the platoon leader and the assistant platoon leader.
          The BMP-2 has one empty seat (three per platoon).
       2. One squad in each platoon has an SVD sniper rifle.
       3. Firepower calculations should include the 73-mm smoothbore gun or 30-mm
           cannon. ATGM. and the 7.62-mm machine gun mounted on each BMP.
Motorized Rifle Company, Motorized Rifle Battalion,
Motorized Rifle Regiment (BMP). M R D and TD

                                              .        MACHINE GUN                          OO IE
                                                                                           M T RZ D RIFLE
                 HEADQUARTERS                            PLATOON                               PLATOON
                   (1 BMP)                              (2 BMP)                               (3 BMP)
            3	                  3                1                        16           1                    28

         Company Commander . . PM              Platoon Leader...... PM
                                                                                              page 4-26
         Deputy Commander/	                       6 x Machine
          Political Officer .... PM             Gunner ...... .
                                                              PKM,           PM
         Senior technician ..... PM            6 x Assistant
         First Sergeant ...... AK-74                Gunner . . . . . . . . . . AK-74
         BMP Commander/                          6 x BMP Cdr/
          Gunner . . . . . . . . . AK-74        Gunner .......... AK-74
         BMP Driver/                             6 BMP Driver/

          Mechanic........... PM 
                Mechanic........... PM 

                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                             Total         Equipment                                        Total 

9 - m m Pistol, P M   ...........................
                                            43                      7.62-mm General Purpose MG. PKM         ........... 6 

5.45-mm Assault Rifle. AK-74     ................
                                            58                      Radios: 

5.45-mm Light Machine Gun. RPK-74      .......... 

                                              9                       VHF, Portable. Low-Power. R-148     ............ 5 

7.62-mm Sniper Rifle, SVD      ...................
                                              3                       VHF, Manpack. Low-Power. R-107       ........... 1 

Antitank Grenade Launcher. RPG-7V ........... 9 
                     VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power.
Amphibious Infantry Combat Vehicle,
   BMP/BMP-1/BMP-2         ................... 

NOTES. 1 . The company commander's RTO comes from the battalion signal platoon and is
           not part of the BMP company personnel total.
       2. The same BMP company organization is also organic to the MRB (BMP). TR, TD.
Motorized Rifle Battalion, 

Motorized Rifle Regiment (BMP), M R D and TD 


                                                                BATTALION (BMP) 

        BATTALION                               M T RZ D RIFLE
                                                 OO IE                                     AIR DEFENSE                      O TR
                                                                                                                           M RA
      HEADQUARTERS                               O PN
                                                C M A Y (BMP)                                 LT O
                                                                                             PA O N                        BATTERY
          page 4-29
                                                     110                                        13
                                                                                             page 4-29
                                                                                                                    .        75
                                                                                                                           page 4-6

     UO AI                                            SIGNAL                                 SUPPLY                        REPAIR
     ANHR                                            PLATOON                                 PLATOON                       O KH P
                                                                                                                          W RS O
           22                                           14                                      20                           7

          page 4-29                                  page 4-7                                page 4 8                      page 4-8

                                                                        MEDICAL AID 



                                                                          page 4-8

                                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                           Total            Equipment                                        Total
1 2 0 - m m Mortar. M1943/M120 or 82-mm                                              Trailer. POL. 1-Axle..........................1 

   Automatic Mortar, 289 .......................... 8 
                              Trailer. Cargo. 1-Axle........................2 

7.62-mm General Purpose MG. PKM ............ 1 8 
                                                            ..................... 1 

                                                                                     Trailer. Generator. 1-Axle
ATGL. RPG-7V .................................... 35 
                               Trailer. Water ...............................1 

SAM. SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN or                                                  Trailer, Kitchen..............................3 

   SA-16 ...........................................                       9         Rangefinder. Stereoscopic, DS-1 or
5.45-mm LMG. RPK-74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27           DM-O9/DAK-1       ............................1 

3 0 - m m Automatic Grenade Launcher. AGS-17 ... 6                                   Radios:
AICV, BMP-1 /BMP-2 ............................. 4 2 
                  .              HF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-130    .... 2
ACV, BRDM/BTR/BMP ............................ 3 
                                     VHF. Portable. Low-Power. R-148   ........... 2 0
Truck. UAZ-69/469 ................................ 3 
                                 VHF. Manpack. Low-Power. R-107     .......... 1 4
Truck, GAZ-66 ..................................... 15 
                               VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power,
Truck. ZIL/Ural ..................................... 4 
                                 R-123  ................................. 5
Truck. Van, ZIL (Maintenance) ...................                   .
                                                                    .      1
          Warning Receiver. R-311 ...................1
Truck, Van, Kitchen. PAC-170/200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 
                     Radio Transceiver, Portable, Very-Low-Power,
Truck. POL (4.000 or 5.200-Liter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
                   R-147  ..................................4 

Truck. Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452 ................ 1 

NOTE. The same BMP battalion organization is also found in the TR. TD
Battalion Headquarters, Motorized Rifle Battalion,
Motorized Rifle Regiment (BMP), M R D and T D


                                                     P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF E Q U I P M E N T
Equipment                                                            Total       Equipment                                                        Total
9 - m m Pistol. P M    ............................4                              Radios: 

5 . 4 5 -m m Assault Rifle, A K -7 4       ................. 8                      HF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R -1 3 0            .... 1 

ACV. BMP-1K       ...............................1                                  VHF. Portable, Low-Power. R-148              ............ 1 

Truck, U A Z - 6 9 / 4 6 9.......................... 1                              VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                ........... 2 

Truck, GAZ-66      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1     VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R - 1 2 3           ... 1 

                                                                                    Warning Receiver. R-311               ................... 1 

 NOTE. The signal platoon leader is also the battalion communications officer. The prapor

       shchik in charge of the supply platoon and the fel'dscher in charge of the m e d i c a l 

         aid station are also part of the battalion staff. However, these positions are not part 

         o f the personnel figures for the battalion headquarters. 

 Air Defense Platoon, Motorized Rifle Battalion, 

 Motorized Rifle Regiment. M R D and TD

                                                                                           P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF E Q U I P M E N T
                       AIR DEFENSE
                         PLATOON                                                  Equipment                                           Total
                   1                           12                                 S A M Launcher. S A - 7 / G R A I L or S A - 1 4 /
                                                                                    GREMLIN or S A - 1 6         ........................9

                                 I                                                                                          .............
                                                                                  AICV. B M P - 1 / - 2 / B T R - 6 0 / - 7 0 / - 8 0    3

             I                                                                    Radios: 

                                    SAM                            VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-123              3        ...
      HEADQUARTERS                                  SECTION                         Radio Transceiver. Portable. Very-Low-Power. 

  1                      0
              0                             4            R-147      ....................................      4

                                                                                  NOTE. Each MRC normally has one section attached.

Automatic Grenade Launcher Platoon, Motorized Rifle
Battalion, Motorized Rifle Regiment, M R D and TD

                 AUTOMATIC GRENADE 

                 LAUNCHER PLATOON 

                                                                                  Equipment                                                         Total 

                                                                                            P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF E Q U I P M E N T 

                                                                                  3 0 - m m Automatic Grenade Launcher. AGS-17                     ...    6

                                        Squad Leader . . . . . . AK-74
                                                                                  AICV. BMP-1/-2/BTR-60/-70/-80                 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

                                        2 x Grenadier . AGS-17, PM
                                        Senior Rifleman .... AK-74                   VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-123                      ...     3
                                        2 Rifleman/Assis-                            VHF. Portable Low-Power. R-148 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
                                         t a n t Grenadier ..... AK-74
                                        BTR/BMP D r i v e r /
                                         Mechanic . . . . . . . . . . . PM
Motorized Rifle Regiment (BMP). M R D and T D

   The MRR is the basic combined arms organiza-                              within MRBs. I n most other respects, the two
tion and the most common maneuver element of                                 regiments are similar. Exceptions are a s follows:
the Soviet ground forces. Motorized rifle, tank,                             BMP-equipped regiments each have a n organic
artillery, antiaircraft, antitank, engineer, signal,                         battalion of 122-mm SP howitzers (2S1),while BTR
and CSS assets are organic to the MRR. The regi-                             regiments may have 122-mm towed howitzers
ment i s the smallest organization which has all                             (D-30). Also, BTR regiments have antitank platoons
of these elements.                                                           within the MRBs, a feature not found in the BMP
    Regimental organization includes three MRBs
a n d one TB. A 122-mm howitzer battalion and                                   The TBs of both BMP- and BTR-equipped MRRs
three 120-mmmortar batteries or 82-mm automatic                              have 40 medium tanks. This chapter lists all tanks
m o r t a r batteries provide fire support. While                            within the MRR as T-64/72/80, but older types are
battalion-sized elements support the division,                               often present outside the Western TVD.
corresponding company-sized units support MRRs.
                                                                                 Although the regiment normally operates a s
   The MRRs have either the BMP AICV or one                                  p a r t of the division, it is capable of short-term
of the BTR series of APCs as the primary troop-                              independent operations. It has the assets to react
carrying vehicle. Both BMP and BTR regiments                                 independently to changes in the combat situation.
now have the AGS-17 automatic grenade launcher                               Much of the equipment is amphibious.


                                                              REGIMENT (BMP)

   A N D ARTILLERY BATTERY                                                             COMPANY                  COMPANY
              60                                                                                                  60
           p a g e 4-18                           page 4-20                              page 4-19               page 4-21

                                          CHEMICAL PROTECTION                      MATERIEL SUPPORT           MAINTENANCE
                                                PLATOON                                COMPANY                 COMPANY 

                                                     24                                    90                      70 

           page 4 22                             page 4 2 3                            page 4-23                page 4-24 


                                                                 MEDICAL POINT 


                                                                     page 4 25 

NOTES.      If the T B of this regiment has T-54/55/62 tanks. regimental strength will increase
             by 3 1 or 40 enlisted personnel.
         2 . In the late 1 9 8 0 s , forces in Eastern Europe began to standardize tank battalions
             at 31 tanks. (See p . 4 - 1 0 8 . )
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation


  MRD A N D T D 


Minelayer. lowed. PMR-3 

Water Filtration Set. MAFS
Trailer. POL                 3

Trailer. Cargo, I-Axle       6

Trailer. Cargo, 2-Axle            8




SP Howitzer Battalion (122-mm). 

Motorized Rifle Regiment (BMP) and Tank Regiment. M R D and TD 

                                                                     SP HOWITZER

                                                                                          SUPPLY AND                      SP HOWITZER
                                                                                     MAINTENANCE PLATOON
              10                                          20                                  25                              55

                                                      PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                       Total 
                             Equipment                                           Total
1 2 2 - m m SP Howitzer, 2S1 .................... 1 8 
                             Truck, Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452 ............... 1
ATGL. RPG-7V ................................ 1 8 
                                 Trailer, Cargo, 2-Axle ......................... 1 0
5 . 4 5 -m m LMG. RPK-74 ....................... 1 8 
                              Trailer. POL .....................................2
ACRV 1 V 1 3 ..................................... 

                                                   3                                Trailer. Water ...................................        1
ACRV 1 V 1 4 ..................................... 3 
                              Trailer. Field Kitchen ............................ 3
ACRV 1 V 1 5 ..................................... 1 
                              Rangefinder. Laser, SAGE GLOSS ............... 4
ACRV 1 V 1 6 ..................................... 1 
                              Radar, Battlefield Surveillance. S M A L L FRED . . . . . 1
Mobile Recon Post, PRP-3 (BMP M1975)* ........ 1 
Truck,   UAZ-69/469 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 
     VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107 ........... 1 0
Truck.   GAZ-66 ..................................7 
                                 VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power,
Truck.   Ural-375 ............................... 2 0 
                                 R -1 2 3 .................................... 28
Truck.   POL (4.000 or 5.200-Liter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
               Warning Receiver, R-311 ...................... 2 

Truck,   Van. ZIL (Maintenance) ................... 2 

NOTE. 	This SP howitzer battalion may also be present in the BTR-equippedMRR in lieu of a
       battalion of 122-mm towed howitzers (D-30).

FOOTNOTE. 'This vehicle includes the SMALL FRED radar, which appears separately in this
SP Howitzer Battery (122-mm). SP Howitzer Battalion, 

Motorized Rifle Regiment (BMP) and Tank Regiment. MRD and TD

                                      SP HOWITZER

              BATTERY                   HEADQUARTERS
           HEADQUARTERS                    PLATOON                        PLATOON



                                   PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                   Total      Equipment                                      Total
122-mm SP Howitzer. 2S1 .................... 6 
       Truck. Ural-375 ................................. 6 

ATGL. RPG-7V .............................. 6 
        Trailer. Cargo ................................... 1

5.45-mm LMG. RPK-74 ......................... 6 
      Rangefinder. Laser. SAGE GLOSS ............. 1 

ACRV 1V13 ..................................... 1 

ACRV 1V14 .....................................1 
       VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107 ............. 2 

Truck, GAZ-66 ..................................1 
      VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-123 .... 8 

                                  MOTORIZED RIFLE DIVISION 

Motorized Rifle Division

   The MRD is organized around a six-regiment           medical battalions provide limited but highly
structure: three MRRs, one TR, one artillery regi-      mobile CSS.
ment, and one SAM regiment. An SSM battalion,             As a result of the reorganization which began
an antitank battalion, and a helicopter squadron       in the late 1970s, the TR of the MRD has an SP
provide additional CS. Other support elements          howitzer battalion, the MRL battalion is part of
include engineer and signal battalions, a chemical     the artillery regiment, the reconnaissance bat-
protection company, a n d a n artillery command        talion h a s medium t a n k s , a n d t h e helicopter
battery. Materiel support, maintenance, a n d          squadron provides additional fire support. The
current trend i n t h e MRD is to r e p l a c e BTR-                generally keep pace with increases in the fire-
equi p ped MRRs with additional BMP-equipped                        power and mobility of combat organizations. 

MRRs. The modernization of equipment includes 

the deployment of increasing numbers of T-64, 

T-72, and T-80 tanks. It also includes the intro­                    With t h e exception of t h e MRRs already
d u c t i o n o f SS-21 t a c t i c a l ballistic missiles t o      described, the remaining elements of the MRD
replace free rockets over ground (FROGs).                           appear on the following pages. The organization
                                                                    charts show the latest upgrades in organization
  All subunits benefit from continuous upgrade.                     and equipment, even though these changes may
The capabilities of the organic support elements                    not have yet occurred in all divisions.


       N                             RIFLE REGIMENT (BTR)                RIFLE REGIMENT (BMP)

         page 4-45                          page 4-9                           page 4-30 	              page 4-46

          ARTILLERY                     S M REGIMENT	
                                         A                                        S
          REGIMENT                         (SA-6) 	                 I         BATTALION         I       BATTALION
                                                                    I                           I          195
            1.292                             504 	                              170
                                 ,     	                            L
          page 4-50                        page 4-62                          page 4-70 	               page 4-72

          page 4-73 	                     page 4-78                           page 4-85 	               page 4.88

         BATTALION                   PROTECTION COMPANY                       BATTALION

          page 4-91 	                      page 4 - 9 5                       page 4-96                 page 4-99

                                                            SQUADRON           I
                                                              200              I
                                                            page 4-100

 NOTES. 1. The MRD may have a n independent tank battalion (ITB) (p. 4-105) which is not
            included in the MRD personnel total.
        2 . Normally, one MRR in the MRD is BMP-equipped. Some MRDs have two BMP-

            equipped MRRs with only one BTR-equipped MRR. 

          3. The MRD may have a SAM regiment equipped with the SA-8 SAM (p. 4-101) or

             an AAA regiment equipped with the S-60 AA Gun (p. 4-104) instead of the SA-6 

             SAM regiment.
          4. Armies i n 	 GF are consolidating division-level SSM battalions i n t o army-level
             SSM brigades.
          5. Starting in 1989, the Soviets are converting the TR of the MRD into a fourth MRR.
          6. Not all divisions have a helicopter squadron.

and Equipment Recapitulation

            and Equipment Recapitulation

  'This vehicle includes    TALL      radar, which appears separately in this list.
'"This vehicle includes the SMALL FRED radar, which appears separately in this list.
"'This vehicle includes the     FRED radar. which appears separately in this list.

and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)


onnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued]

onnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)

           end Equipment Recapitulation (continued)



VHF. Vehiclc-Mount. High-Power

o Transceiver. Portable. Very-

          R-147                      12               I I   36

 Tank Regiment (T-64/72/80), MRD

    The TR of the MRD prpvides the division with                  This TR (of the MRD) lacks organic motorized
 a highly integrated armor threat in addition to                  rifle assets. It does have reconnaissance, air de-
 the TBs that are organic to the MRRs. The TR                     fense, signal, engineer, and chemical protection
 has three TBs of 31 medium tanks each. It also                   assets as well as a limited CSS capability similar
 has a battalion of 18 2S1 122-mm SF howitzers.                   to that found in the MRR.


                                                                           SP HOWITZER *                  AIR DEFENSE MISSILE
         HEADQUARTERS                      BATTALION                    BATTALION (122-mm)               AND ARTILLERY BATTERY
               65                            135 	                             220                                60
            page 4-14                                                       page 4-36 	                        page 4-18
                                           page 4-108

         RECONNAISSANCE                    ENGINEER                           SIGNAL
            COMPANY                        COMPANY                           COMPANY                      PROTECTION PLATOON
               55                               70                             50                                 24
            page 4-19                      page 4-21                        page 4-22                          page 4-23

                        SUPPORT COMPANY
                                            1                                                 I
                                                                                            E MNA
                                                                                           RG E T L
                                                                                          MEDICAL POINT

                            page 4-23 	                     page 4-24                        page 4-25

NOTES.                R
          1. If this T has T-54/55/62 tanks. personnel strength will increase by 94 enlisted
          2. Approximately 150 personnel in the regiment are officers
          3. 	Starting in 1989. the Soviets are converting the TR. MRD to a BMP-equipped

FOOTNOTE.      *In some TRs. the howitzer battalion may still have the 122-mm tawed howitzer
                D - 3 0 (See p . 4-16 for the organization and equipment of a D - 3 0 howitzer
                                     PRINCIPAL I T E M S OF EOUIPMENT                                                                                      HEADQUARTERS
                                                      Total        Equipment                                                    Total
REMLIN or 51\16
               ......................6                             Truck, POL       .............................. 

                                                                   Truck, Ambulance, U A Z - 4 5 0 A / 4 5 2        .......... 1 

7V       ...........................  3                            Sedan, GAZ-24       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 
M G . RPK-74     .................... 3                            Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle      ......................4 

                                                                           TRIBUNAL            PROSECUTOR
 D/60/70      .......................3                                                              .
                                                                   Trailer, Generator. 2 - A x l e ..................                 2
- 6 9 / 4 6 9 ......................12                             T r a i l eGenerator, 1 - A x l e
                                                                               r,                   ................... 1

-6 6     ...........................9                              Trailer, POL ............................. 
                       1                                                                    KEY

 /ZIL/Ural    ......................4
  Z I L / U r a(Command)
  ZIL (Maintenance0
                           ............ ( 2
                                                                   Trailer, Water ............................

                                                                   T r a i l e Kitchen ...........................

                                                                                                                                      3              I
                          DASHED          ile
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ns  between
                                                                                                                                                                                           blocks indicate relationships
                                                                                                                                                                                           w i t h elements which are n o t
                                                                                                                                                                                           actually part   of   the
. UAZ-452         ......................2                            VHF. Vehicle M o u n t , Medium-Power. R-123 ... 3 
                      FIRST DEPUTY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     R E A R STAFF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     I                   I                   I
ignal battalion provides C 2 vehicles o r the division commander and key members
s staff T h e division headquarters company ( a p p r o x i m a t105 personnel)
                                                                 ely                                                                                                                                                                                                   DEPUTYCOMMANDER
quipmentlisted on this page t o provide administrative/logistic                                                            POLITICAL
                                                                                                                                  STAFF                                                                                       DEPUTY COMMANDER    DEPUTYCOMMANDER
                                                                           to h e a d
e r s elements
                                                                                                                           DEPUTYCOMMANDER                                                 Coordinates                          F R M I REAR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 O                  O
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    F R ARMAMENTS
                                                                                                                          FORPOLITICAL AFFAIRS                        F
                                                                                                                                                               CHIEF O STAFF

                                                     ***                                       ****                        AND POLITICAL Ill,,

                                                                                                                                                              DIVISION       STAFF

             I                                         I                                          I                                  I                                                                          I                     I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        H E A D Q U A R T E R S
        CHIEF O F                                 CHIEF OF                                    CHIEF OF
                           CHIEF O F                                                             CHIEF OF                    HF or
       1 s t SECTION                             2 d SECTION                                 3 d SECTION                        4th SECTION
                                                          TOPOGRAPHIC               CRYPTOGRAPHIC       HEADQUARTERS        COMMANDANT/
       OPERATIONS                               INTELLIGENCE                                    SIGNAL                         ORGANIZATION
                                                             SECTION                   SECTION          ADMINISTRATION      HEADQUARTERS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ANDFINANCE SECTION      COMPANY

                                                                                                                                                     CHIEFSO F A M
                                                                                                                                                                RS           ANDSERVICES

             I                                         I                                          I                                  I                                                                          I                     I                  I
       CHIEF OF                                   CHIEF OF                                                                       CHIEF OF                                                                                      CHIEF OF MISSILE                          COMMANDERO F
                                                                                             CHIEF01                                                             CHIEF OF                              CHIEF OF                                        CHIEF OF
    MISSILETORPO  S                            RECONNAISSANCE                             SIGNALTROOPS                         AIR DEFENSE                    ENGINEERTROOPS                                                    AND ARTILLERY                             HELICOPTER
                                                                                                                                                                                                    CHEMICALTROOPS                                 FINANCE SERVICE
    A N D ARTILLERY                                                                                                               TROOPS                                                                                      ARMAMENTSERVICE                          ELEMENT/SQUADRON
                                                                                                                                                 I     -

    T h e s e three s e c t i o n s assistt h e division commander. b u t they a r e n o t s u b o r d i    ***The chief o f the intelligence section is also the c h i e of reconnaissance
     nate t o h i m , Corresponding offices a t            supervisehem The K G B Counter-
                                                                    t                                          troops
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation

(T-64/72/80). MRD


 'This vehicle includes the TALL MIKE radar, which appears separately in this list.
*+This vehicle includes the SMALL FRED radar, which appears separately in this list.

FM 100-2-3

Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)

Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)

(T-64/72/80). M R D

Artillery Regiment, M R D and T D

    The artillery regiment of a n MRD normally                        ever, some divisions may not yet conform to this
consists of three battalions of 152-mm S P howitzers                  standard; such divisions may still have one or
(2S3) and one battalion of 122-mm rocket launchers                    more battalions with older weapon systems such
(BM-21). I n a TD, it normally has only two bat-                      as the 122-mm towed howitzer D-30.
talions of 2S3s and one battalion of BM-21s.How-


          COMMAND A N D
         CONTROL BATTERY                                                    BATTALION (152-mm)   U U N C H E R BATTALION

             page 4-53 
                                                                                page 4-56
                                                                                page 4-54**

             ARTILLERY                           MOTOR                        MAINTENANCE             REGIMENTAL
                                       TRANSPORT 60 COMPANY                                          MEDICAL POINT

     I                      I
             page 4 - 5 9                    page 4-61                           page 4-60              page 4-25

                                                         SUPPLY AND SERVICE

             page 4-23                                        page 4-61 

FOOTNOTES:     *Motorized rifle/tank division.
              '"See p . 4 - 1 6 for the organization of a 0-30-equipped 1 2 2 - m m howitzer
                battalion that may still exist in some divisions in place of a 152-mm SP
                howitzer battalion.
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation


     MRD AND TD 

Truck. Van. CAZ (Command)                              I                                      1
Truck. Van. GAZ (Signal)                               2                                      2
Truck. Van. Z I L (Maintenance)                        3                                      3

FOOTNOTES.       'Some artillery regiments may have one battalion of eighteen 122-mm towed
                   howitzers D-30 instead of one of the 2S3 battalions. Some 2S3 battalions
                   may have 24 tubes rather than the 18 shown here.
                "This vehicle includes the BIG FRED radar, which appears separately in this
                "'This vehicle includes the SMALL FRED radar, which appears separately in
                   t h i s list.
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)


     MRD AND TD 

Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)

Command and Control Battery. Artillery Regiment. M R D and T D

                                                  AND CONTROL

              REGIMENTAL                                                                  HEADQUARTERS
             HEADQUARTERS                                                                  BATTERY
                  20                                                                         55

                                       PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                           Total        Equipment                                   Total
ATGL. RPG-7V ..................................... 4             Radios:
ACV. BTR-50/60 ................................... 2               HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M  ........... 1
Truck. UAZ-69/469 ................................ 6               HF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-130 .... 5
Truck. GAZ-66 ...................................... 2             HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power  ...... 3
Truck, ZIL/Ural ....................... .
                                        .  ...... .    1           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount, High-Power ......... 1
Chemical Recon Vehicle, BRDM-2rkh/RKhM ..... 1                     VHF. Portable. Low-Power. R-148 or
Truck. Van. G A Z ................................... 2              Very-Low-Power. R-126 ...................1 

Truck, Van, ZIL ..................................... 1            VHF, Manpack. Low-Power. R-107  ........... 6 

Trailer, Cargo ............................... ..... 1             VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power. R-123... 3 

Rangefinder. Laser, SAGE GLOSS ................ 1                  Warning Receiver. R-311 ...................1 

                                                                   Radio Relay, VHF/UHF, R-401/405 ........... 1 

152-mm SP Howitzer Battalion.
Artillery Regiment, MRD and TD

                                              SP HOWITZER


                                    PA O N
                                     LT O
                                                                    SUPPLY A D
                                                                             LT O
                                                               MAINTENANCE P A O N
                                                                                                SP HOWITZER
          10                .         20                               20                          60

                                                                                                 Page 4-55

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                       Total         Equipment                                       Total
152-mm SP Howitzer, 2S3*    .................. 1 8             Truck. POL    ................................. 2
ATGL, RPG-7V     ............................. 1 8             Truck. Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452     ............. 1
5.45-mm LMG. RPK-74     ...................... 1 8             Trailer, Cargo  .............................. 1 0
Mobile Reconnaissance Post, PRP-3                              Trailer. Water  ............................... 1
  (BMP M1975)**    ............................ 1              Trailer. Field Kitchen......................... 3
ACRV, 1V13     ................................ 3             Trailer, POL   ................................. 2
ACRV. 1V14     ................................ 3             Rangefinder, Laser. SAGE GLOSS     ............. 4
ACRV, 1V15     ................................ 1             Radar. Battlefield Surveillance. SMALL FRED  .... 1
ACRV, 1V16     ................................ 1              Radios:
Truck. UAZ-69/469    .......................... 1                VHF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-107     .......... 1 0
Truck, GAZ-66    .............................. 7                VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power.
Truck. ZIL/Ural  ............................. 2 0                  R-123   ................................. 28
Truck, Van, ZIL (Maintenance)  ................. 2               Warning Receiver. R-311   ................... 2
FOOTNOTES. 'Some 2S3 battalions may have 24 tubes rather than the 18 shown here.
          "This vehicle includes the SMALL FRED radar, which appears separately in
               this list.
152-mm SP Howitzer Battery, 152-mm SP Howitzer
Battalion, Artillery Regiment, M R D and TD

                                                     SP HOWITZER 



                                                    I                                       I
          BATTERY                            HEADQUARTERS                                   FIRING
       HEADQUARTERS                             PLATOON                                    PLATOON

                                                                           LT O
                                                                          PA O N                         U
                                                                        HEADQUARTERS                  SECTION"

                                        PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                               Total        Equipment                                   Total
1 5 2 - m mSP Howitzer. 2S3*................... 6                    Truck. Ural-375 ............................. 6

ATGL, RPG-7V     .............................. 6                    Trailer. Cargo............................... 1

5 . 4 5 - m mLMG. RPK-74....................... 6                    Rangefinder, Laser. SAGE GLOSS  ............. 1 

ACRV, M 1 9 7 4(1) ............................ 1                    Radios: 

ACRV, 1V14     ................................ 1 
                    VHF. Manpack. Low-Power. R-107   ........... 2 

Truck. GAZ-66    .............................. 1                      VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-123  ... 8 

FOOTNOTE. *Some 2S3 battalions may have expanded from 6-tube to 8-tube batteries, adding
           a fourth gun section to each firing platoon.
Rocket Launcher Battalion.
Artillery Regiment. MRD and TD





             page 4-57 

                                               page 4-57 

                                  PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                   Total 
    Equipment                                  Total
122-mm Rocket Launcher (40-Round) BM-21   ... 18 
     Truck, POL ................................. 2 

ACV, BTR-60/70/80    .........................  1
     Truck. Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452 ............. 1 

ACRV M 1 9 7 9(1) ............................ 3
                          ....................... 3 6 

                                                       Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle
ACRV M 1  979 (2) ............................ 4
                             ..................... 2 

                                                       Trailer, Generator. 2-Axle
ACRV M1979 (3)    ............................  1
                  ............................... 1 

                                                       Trailer. Water
Truck, UAZ-69/469   ..........................  5
                       .......................... 2 

                                                       Trailer, POL. 2-Axle
Truck, GAZ-66   .............................. 6
                    .............................. 3 

                                                       Trailer. Kitchen
Truck, ZIL-130/131/151/157   .................  8

Truck, Ural-375  ............................ 36 
       HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power ...... 2 

Truck, Van, GAZ (Command)   ..................  1
       VHF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-107 .......... 1 8 

Truck, Van, GAZ (Signal)...................... 2 
       Warning Receiver, R-311................... 1 

Truck, ZIL (Maintenance)...................... 3 

H e a d q u a r t e r s a n d H e a d q u a r t e r s Platoon. R o c k e t L a u n c h e r
Battalion, A r t i l l e r y R e g i m e n t , MRD a n d TD


                     I          BATTALION 


                                                 PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                        Total        Equipment                                          Total 

ACV, BTR-60/70/80           .........................1                        Truck. Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 

ACRV. M1979 (2)          ............................1                        Trailer. Generator. 2-Axle   .....................       1

ACRV, M 1 979 (3)        ............................1                        Radios: 

Truck. UAZ-69/469          ..........................1                          HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power         ......     2

Truck. ZIL-130/131/151/157          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1          VHF. Manpack. Low-Power. R-107         ...........     5

Truck, Van, GAZ (Command)          .................. 1                         Warning Receiver. R-311       ...................      1

Truck. Van, GAZ (Signal)       ......................2 

F i r i n g Battery, R o c k e t L a u n c h e r Battalion,
A r t i l l e r y R e g i m e n t , M R D a n d TD


                    BATTERY                                           SUPPORT
                 HEADQUARTERS                                         PLATOON

                                                PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                       Total         Equipment                                            Total
122-mm Rocket Launcher (40-Round) BM-21       ....                 6          Truck. Ural-375    .............................         6

ACRV, M 1 9 7 9 (1)    ............................                1          Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle  ........................         6

ACRV, M 1 979 (2)      ............................                1          Radio: 

Truck. UAZ-69/469        ..........................                1            VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107          ........... 4 

Truck, GAZ-66        ..............................2                     

Service Battery. Rocket Launcher Battalion,
Artillery Regiment, M R D and TD



           AT R
          B TE Y
                       I I
                                     PA O N
                                      LT O
                                                                  PA O N
                                                                   LT O
 '        S P L AND
                                                                                            U PY
                                                                                         SERVICE SECTION

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                          Total    Equipment                                      Total
Truck, UAZ-69/469   .......................... 1                                   ..................... 1 

                                                           Trailer, Generator. 2-Axle
Truck, ZIL-130/131/151/157   ................. 7           Trailer. Water............................... 1 

Truck, Ural-375  ............................ 1 8                             .......................... 2 

                                                           Trailer, POL, 2-Axle
Truck. Van. ZIL (Maintenance)................. 3                          ..............................
                                                           Trailer. Kitchen                                   3

Truck, POL.  ................................. 2           Radio: 

Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle....................... 18             VHF, Manpack. Low-Power, R-107   ...........     1

Artillery Reconnaissance Battery.
Artillery Regiment, MRD and TD




                                                                  S U D RANGING
                                                                                                RADAR SECTION

           I                              I                            I                             I

                         II           TOPOGRAPHIC
                                     SURVEY PLATOON

                                                                  SURVEY PLATOON



                                      PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                           Total    Equipment                                          Total
ACV, BTR-60/70/80      ......................... 2           Sound Ranging Set       .......................... 1
APC. Radar, MT-LB M1975*     ................... 1           Radar, Direction Finder    ....................... 3
Mobile Recon Post, PRP-3**                                   Radar, Meteorological, END TRAY     .............. 1
  (BMP M1975)     ............................. 1 
          Radar, Battlefield Surveillance, BIG FRED  ....... 1
Truck, UAZ-69/469    .......................... 6 
          Radar. Battlefield Surveillance, SMALL FRED   .... 1
Truck, GAZ-66    .............................. 7 
          Radar, Countermortar/Counterbattery...........
Truck. Van, GAZ   ............................. 4 
Truck, Van, UAZ-452 (Computer)  ............... 1 
            VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107       .......... 13 

Trailer, Generator, 1-Axle..................... 2 
            VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-123      ... 4
Rangefinder. Laser, SAGE GLOSS    ............. 2 
            Warning Receiver, R-311      ................... 1 

FOOTNOTES.   'This vehicle includes the BIG FRED radar, which appears separately in this
             "This vehicle includes the SMALL FRED radar. which appears separately in
               this list.
Maintenance Company. 

Artillery Regiment, M R D and TD 


        O PN
       C MAY
                                     LT O
                                   PA O N                           PLATOON                   PLATOON

                                                SPECIAL SUPPORT

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                      Total        Equipment                                        Total
ATGL. RPG-7V    ..............................4             Armored Recovery Vehicle    ................... 1 

5.45-mm LMG, RPK-74    ....................... 2            Trailer, Cargo, 2-Axle ........................ 3 

Truck, UAZ-69/469   ..........................1             Trailer, Generator. 2-Axle..................... 2 

Truck, ZIL/Ural .............................. 3            Radio:

Truck, Van. ZIL (Maintenance)................. 6 
            VHF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-107    ........... 1 

Truck. Van. GAZ  ............................. 2 

Motor Transport Company,
Artillery Regiment. M R D and TD

           I                            I                             I                             1


                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT
                                                                                               SERVICE AND

Equipment                                        Total     Equipment                                         Total
Truck. UAZ-69/469      ..........................1         Truck. POL     ................................. 

Truck. GAZ-66      ..............................1         Trailer, POL   ................................. 8 

Truck. ZIL/Ural    .............................36         Trailer. Cargo   ..............................3 0 

Truck. Van. ZIL (Maintenance)   .................2         Radio: 

Truck. ZIL-130/131 (Water)    ...................3           VHF. Manpack. Low-Power. R-107        ........... 1 

Supply and Service Platoon,
Artillery Regiment, M R D and T D

                                                 SUPPLY AND

                LT O
               PA O N                                                                            N
                                                                                       CLOTHING A D
                                                          E TO
                                                 SERVICE S C I N
            HEADQUARTERS                                                             EQUIPMENT SECTION

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                        Total     Equipment                                         Total
Truck, ZIL/Ural    .............................. 3        Trailer. Water    ............................... 1
Trailer, Cargo    ...............................1         Trailer. Field Kitchen  .........................2
 S A M Regiment (SA-6). M R D and TD

    The SAM regiment makes up an important part                           regiments equipped with the 57-mm towed antiair-
of a n extensive air defense envelope over the bat-                       craft gun S-60 still exist in some divisions in rear
tlefield. This chapter depicts the SA-6 SAM regi-                         areas. Although the SA-6 SAM regiment appears
ment as standard at division level. However, many                         here, this chapter also provides organization charts
divisional SAM regiments have the SA-8 as an al-                          and equipment tables for the SA-8 SAM regiment
ternativeto the SA-6. Antiaircraft artillery (AAA)                        (p. 4-101) and the S-60 AAA regiment ( p . 4-104).

                                                        SAM REGIMENT 










                                                                          MISSILE TECHNICAL 


                                                                                                               MISSILE FIRING

                                       (TARGET ACQUISITION/ 

                60                    EARLY WARNING) BATTERY

             page 4-65                       page 4-66 
                        page 4 6 7 

                                                                                                                     page 4-68

                         MOTOR TRANSPORT                    MAINTENANCE                  CHEMICAL PROTECTION
                             COMPANY                         COMPANY                           PLATOON

                                80                               50                                 24

                             page 4-69                        page 4-69                         page 4 - 2 3

NOTE. Since 1979, a very limited number of S A M regiments have deployed the n e w S A - 6 b
      S A M alongside the SA-6a.

Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation

        SAM. SA-7/GRAIL or SP-14/GREMLIN
         or SA-16                          3         3       15

        Truck. Decontamination                                    4   4

        Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle.
         BRDM-2rkh/RKhM                                           3   3
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)
Regimental Headquarters. 

SAM Regiment (SA-6). MRD and TD


    C M A D C NE
     O MN ETR

                                                                                   SERVICE SECTION

                                PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                    Total   Equipment                                       Total
SAM, SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                                             ..................... 2
                                                     Trailer. Generator. 1-Axle
 or SA-16 .................................. 3 
                                                     Trailer, Kitchen
ACV. BTR-60 PA  ............................ 1 
Truck. UAZ-69/469 ..........................1 
        HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power  ...... 4
Truck, GAZ-66 ..............................3 
        HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. High-Power ......... 2
                   ......................... 2 

Truck. Van, Ural-375                                   VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107  ........... 1

Truck, Van. Ural-375 (Signal)                          VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-123 ... 1
Truck, Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452 .............2 
        Warning Receiver, R-311 ................... 2

Trailer. Van, 2-Axle                                   Radio Relay. VHF/UHF, R-401/405 ........... 1
Artillery Reconnaissance (Target Acquisition/Early Warning) Battery.
S A M Regiment (SA-6). MRD and TD

                                               EARLY WARNING)

            t                            I

          B TE Y
           AT R
                                 TARGET ACQUISITION
                                                                  LT O
                                                                 PA O N
                                                                                    I     MAINTENANCE AND
                                                                                           SERVICE SECTION

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT 

Equipment                                        Total    Equipment                                 Total
Truck. UAZ-69/469   .......................... 3 

Truck. GAZ-66   .............................. 1 
          HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M     ...........

Truck, Van. Utal-375 (Maintenance) ............ 1 
         VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107     ...........

Truck. Van, UAZ-452 (Computer)  ............... 1 
         VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-123    ...

Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle........................ 1 
Trailer. Van. 2-Axle.......................... 1 
          Radar, Aerial Surveillance/Target Acq..
Trailer. Kitchen.............................. 1 
            LONG TRACK       ...........................

                                                            Radar, Height Finding, THIN SKIN  ............

Missile Technical Battery. 

SAM Regiment (SA-6). M R D and TD 


                                                                      MISSILE TESTI G
                                                                                                MISSILE TRANSPORT/
                                                                                                  E U PY L T O
                                                                                                R S P L PA O N
       HEADQUARTERS                                                        LT O
                                                                         PA O N
                                        LT O
                                       PA O N

                                                       U PY N
                                                      S PL AD
                                                     E VC
                                                    S R I E SECTION

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                          Total        Equipment                                       Total
SAM, SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                                Trailer. Cargo, 2-Axle ........................     1
 or SA-16   .................................. 3 
              Trailer. Generator, 1-Axle.....................     1
Truck. UAZ-69/469   .......................... 1 
              Trailer. Van. 2-Axle ..........................     1
                .............................. 6 

Truck, G A Z - 6 6                                              Trailer, Kitchen .............................. 2
Truck, ZIL/Ural .............................. 5 
                                                   ......... 15
                                                                Semitrailer, SA-6 Canister Transporter
Truck, Crane, Ural-375 ....................... 2 
                                .............. 6 

Truck, Van. Ural (Missile Testing)                                VHF. Portable, Low-Power. R-148    ............ 3 

Truck-Tractor. SA-6 Canister Transporter, 
                       VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107      ........... 1 

  ZIL-157/131V   ............................ 15 

                                       ....... 5 

Truck, SA-6 Missile Transloader, ZIL-131
Missile Firing Battery,

S A M Regiment (SA-6),M R D and TD

                                               MISSILE FIRING

                              MISSILE FIRING
                                                                     FIRE C N R L
                                                                                                   IEE S
                                                                                               AIR D F N E
                    1     .      PLATOON                                SECTION                   SQUAD

                                                 SERVICE SECTION

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                       Total        Equipment                                     Total
SAM. SA-6a/GAINFUL TEL or SA-6b/GAINFUL                      Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle ........................   1

  TELAR     ................................... 4 
          Trailer. Van, 2-Axle ..........................   1

SAM. SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN or                          Trailer, Kitchen ..............................   1

  SA-16 ....................................3 
              Radar. Fire Control. STRAIGHT FLUSH  ..........   1

ACV, BRDM-2  ...............................1 

Truck, GAZ-66 ..............................1 
                VHF. Manpack, Low-Power, R-107    ...........   1

Truck. Van, Ural/ZIL                                                                                     ...
                                                               VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R - 1 2 3     6
                               ............ 2 

Truck. Missile Transloader. ZIL-131                            Warning Receiver. R-311   ...................   1
Motor Transport Company. 

S A M Regiment (SA-6). M R D and TD 



                                                          POL TRANSPORT
                                                                                         SERVICE PLATOON

                                            SUPPORT SECTION

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                   Total     Equipment                                                     Total
Truck, UAZ-69/469   .......................... 1      Trailer. POL, 2-Axle..........................7 

Truck, GAZ-66   ..............................1       Trailer. Generator, 1-Axle  .....................3 

Truck. ZIL/Ural/KrAZ ........................33                             . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 

                                                      Trailer, Water, 1 -Axle
Truck, POL, ZIL/Ural ........................15       Trailer. Kitchen..............................1 

Truck. Van, Ural/ZIL ......................... 4      Trailer. Van. 2-Axle.......................... 2 

Truck, Van (Maintenance) ..................... 3      Radio: 

Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle........................5         VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                ........... 1 

Maintenance Company. 

S A M Regiment (SA-6). M R D and TD 



              O PN
             C MAY
           HEADQUARTERS                                                             SERVICE S C I N
                                                                                             E TO

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                   Total    Equipment                                                      Total
Truck. UAZ-69/469   ..........................1                               .....................7
                                                     Trailer. Generator, 1-Axle
Truck. GAZ-66   ..............................1      Trailer. Water ...............................1
Truck. ZIL-151/157  ..........................3      Trailer, Kitchen..............................1
Truck. Van. Ural or ZIL (Maintenance).......... 8    Radio:
Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle........................ 3       VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. A-107                ........... 1
Artillery Reconnaissance (Target Acquisition/Early Warning) Battery.
S A M Regiment (SA-6). MRD and TD

                                               EARLY WARNING)

            t                            I

          B TE Y
           AT R
                                 TARGET ACQUISITION
                                                                  LT O
                                                                 PA O N
                                                                                    I     MAINTENANCE AND
                                                                                           SERVICE SECTION

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                        Total    Equipment                                 Total
Truck. UAZ-69/469   .......................... 3 

Truck. GAZ-66   .............................. 1 
          HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M     ...........

Truck, Van. Utal-375 (Maintenance) ............ 1 
         VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107     ...........

Truck. Van, UAZ-452 (Computer)  ............... 1 
         VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-123    ...

Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle........................ 1 
Trailer. Van. 2-Axle.......................... 1 
          Radar, Aerial Surveillance/Target Acq..
Trailer. Kitchen.............................. 1 
            LONG TRACK       ...........................

                                                            Radar, Height Finding, THIN SKIN  ............

S S M Firing Battery, S S M Battalion, M R D and T D

                                                SSM FIRING
            B TE Y
                                                                 SURVEY SECTION
                                                                                         LAUNCHER SECTION

    .    HEADQUARTERS                  SECTION

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                      Total         Equipment                                      Total
FROG/SSM TEL, FROG-7/7B or SS-21/                            Truck. Van. ZIL                                   1
  SCARAB                                            2        Truck. Van. UAZ-452                               2
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                   1        Trailer, Generator                               1
Truck, GAZ-66                                       1        Radar, Meteorological, END TRAY                  1
Truck. ZIL/Ural                                     1        Radio:
Truck, Van. GAZ                                     1          VHF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-107                 6
Antitank Battalion, MRD

     T h e d i v i s i o n a n t i t a n k b a t t a l i o n exists o n l y in   B R D M - 2 chassis. T h e p r i m e mover for t h e T-12/
t h e MRD. T h e standard structure i s n o w two 6 - g u n                      M T -1 2 a n t i t a n k g u n i s n o r m a l l y t h e MT-LB.
batteries o f 100-mm a n t i t a n k g u n s (T-12/MT-12)                            Some M R D s m a y n o t yet h a v e vehicle-mounted
a n d one 9-vehicle battery of mounted ATGM s y s ­                              A T G M s in t h e a n t i t a n k b a t t a l i o n . In such cases,
tems. T h e latter m a y consist of the A T - 3 / S A G G E R                    the	 b a t t a l i o n consists o f three 6 - g u nbatteries of
o r t h e newer A T - 5 / S P A N D R E L mounted o n t h e                      T-12/MT-12.

                                                                                                                           SERVICE BATTERY

       I 	 ACV, BTR-60PU/                        (Each Battery)          9 ATGM Launcher Vehicle                     1     Truck, UAZ-69/469
           BRDM-2                            6   100-mm Antitank             (BRDM-2),AT 3/5
                        4     Truck, GAZ-66
 Truck, UAZ-69/469                     Gun, T12/MT-12          9 
                           6     Truck, ZIL-131/157
       1 HF. Vehicle Mount.                  7   Prime Mover, MT-LB/AT-P 4 
                           I     Truck, Ural-375
           Medium-Power R-130                1   Truck, ZIL-131/157      3 *Truck. ZIl-131/157
                      2     Truck, Van, GAZ
       Z HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount,              1   Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle  1 
 Truck, Van, Zll                         2     Truck, Van, ZIL
          Medium Power                       1   Rangefinder                 ATGM Simulator 
       1 VHF. Manpack, L o w -               1   Radar, Battlefield      1 
 Rangefinder                              2    Truck, POL
          Power, R-107                           Surveillance. Man-      1 Radar, Battlefield                         1    Truck, Ambulance,
       I VHF, Vehicle Mount,                     Portabie PSNR-1             Surveillance Man-                             UAZ 450A/452
          Medium-Power, R123                 1   VHF, Manpack, Low-          Portable PSNR-1                          8    Trailer, Cargo, 2-Axle
       1 Warning Receiver, R-311                 Power, R-107            4 VHF, Manpack, Low-                         1    Trailer, POL. 2-Axle
                                             7   VHF, Vehicle Mount,         Power, R-107                             1    Trailer, Generator, 2-Axle
                                                 Medium-Power, R-123 13 VHF, Vehicle Mount.                           1    Trailer, Water
                                                                             Medium-Power, R-123                      2    Trailer, Kitchen
                                                                                                                      1    HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount,
                                                                                                                      3    VHF, Manpack,
                                                                                                                           Low-Power, R-107
                                                                                                                      1    Radio Relay, VHF/UHF
                                                   PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                          Total         Equipment                                                            Total
ATGM Launcher Vehicle (BRDM-2). AT-3/5                           . .. .. 9        Trailer, POL. 2-Axle      . . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . . 1
1 0 0 - m mAntitank Gun, T-12/MT-12 .        .          .... .. . . 1 2           Trailer. Generator. 2-Axle    .      . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . 1
ATGL. RPG-7V         .... . . .... .... . .. . . . . .. . . 9
                                               .                                  Trailer. Water   . . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . . . 1
ACV. BTR-60PU/BRDM-2                 . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 5
                                       .                                          Trailer, Kitchen   ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Prime Mover. MT-LB/AT-P .         ,      . .... .. . . . . . . . . . . 1 4        Rangefinder    ................................. 3
Truck, UAZ-69/469          ... .... ... . . . .. . . . . .... 3
                                 . .           .                                  Radar, Battlefield Surveillance,
Truck. GAZ-66        .............................. 4                               Man-Portable PSNR-1            .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .   3
Truck. ZIL-131/157      . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . 11          Radios:
Truck, Ural-375       . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... ... . . . . . 1
                             . . .       .                                          HF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-130                          .. .. 1
Truck, Van, GAZ       ... . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . 2
                      .             ..     .                                        HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power                         . .. .. . 3
Truck, Van, ZIL (Maintenance) .             . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . 2         VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R - 1 0 7                  .. . . .. . .. . 1 0
Truck, POL        .................................2                                VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power.
Truck, Van, ZIL. ATGM Simulator      .     .. .  .. ... . .. .. 1                      R-123    ................................. 28
Truck. Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452                     . .. . . . . . .... . 1          Warning Receiver. R-311    . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle     .. . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . ... 1 0               Radio Relay. VHF/UHF. R-401/405           ... . . . . . . . . 1
Reconnaissance Battalion, MRD and TD



                                        C MAY
                                         O PN
                O PN
      SERVICES C M A Y                                                  ASSAULT COMPANY
                                       (TRACKED)                                                       O PN
                                                                                                      C MAY

          page 4 -7 4
                                        page 4 -7 5
                                                                           page 4 7 6
                                                                                          .              80
                                                                                                      page 4 -7 7

                                       PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                              Total        Equipment                                       Total
ATGL. RPG-7V      .............................          13 
       Trailer. Kitchen                                     4
5.45-mm LMG, RPK-74                                      25         Trailer, POL                                         2
ACV. BRDM-2U       .............................          1
        Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle.
ACV. BTR-6OPA                                             2           BRDM-2rkh/RKhM                                    4
ACV, Recon, BRM-1**      ........................         3
        Radar. Battlefield Surveillance, TALL MIKE          3
AICV. BMP-l/BMP-2       ........................         12 
       Radar Direction Finder                              3
Medium Tank, T-64/72/80                                   6         Radio Direction Finder. HF/VHF/UHF                  3
ASC, BRDM-2 or APC. BTR-60/70/80                         12         Intercept Receiver, VHF/UHF                         9
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                         5         Radios:
Truck. GAZ-66                                             2            HF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M                    6
Truck, ZIL Series                                         5            HF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-130           4
Truck, Ural-375    .............................          4
           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power              6
Truck, Van, GAZ (Command)                                  4           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. High-Power                 2
Truck, Van. GAZ (Radio/Radar Recon)                      13            VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                   12
Truck. Van. ZIL (Maintenance)                              2           VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power.
Truck, Van, ZIL                                           6              R-123                                          40
Truck, POL. ZIL/Ural/KrAZ                                  2           Radio Relay. VHF/UHF. R-401/405                   1
Truck, Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452                             1           Warning Receiver, R-311  ...................      5

Trailer. Generator                                        2            Radio Telegraph                                   6
Trailer. Water  ...............................1 

FOOTNOTES.     'Also called the long-range reconnaissance company o the airborne recon-
                naissance company.
             '"This vehicle includes the TALL MlKE radar, which appears separately in this
Headquarters and ServicesCompany,
Reconnaissance Battalion. M R D and TD


                                                               AND SERVICES 




                                  .                                                                              O PN
                                                                                                                C MAY

                                                PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                         Total        Equipment                                  Total 

ACV. Reconnaissance, B R M - 1 *           . . . . ............ 1              Radar, Battlefield Surveillance, TALL MlKE     1
  .. ... .
ACV. BTR-60PA       . .. . ...... . .. . .. ... . ... .. . .. . 2              Intercept Receiver. VHF/UHF      ... . ... ... . . . .....

Truck. UAZ-69/469         ... ... . ... ... . . . . . . . . . ... . 4          Radios: 

Truck, ZIL Series     . .... .... . . . ... ... . . . . . . . . 5                HF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M               . .. . . .. ..

Truck, Ural-375     . . . . . ... ... ... . . . ... . ... . . ... 4              HF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power. R-130       1
Truck, Van, GAZ (Command)              .. . . . . . . . ... ... . . . 2           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power         2 
      .. ....
Truck. Van, ZIL (Maintenance)             . ... . . . ... . . . ... . 1           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount, High-Power           1
  . . . . ... . .
Truck. POL. ZIL/Ural/KrAZ            ... ... ... ... . ... . . . . 2              VHF. Manpack, Low-Power, R-107              . .. . . ... . . .

Truck. Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452                   . ... . ... . . ... 1            VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-123     3
            . ..
Trailer, POL . . .. . .. . . . ... .. . .. . ... . .. ... . 2                     Radio Relay. VHF/UHF, R-401/405            .. . . . . . . . . .

Trailer. Generator    . . . . . . . .............. ...... . 2                     Warning Receiver, R-311     . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... .

Trailer. Water   . . .... ... ... . .. . .. . ... ..... .. 1                     Radio Telegraph. . . . . . ... . . . . ... . . . . . . . . ...

Trailer, Kitchen   .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ... . . 4 

FOOTNOTE. *This vehicle includes the TALL MlKE radar, which appears separately in this
 Reconnaissance Company (Trackad),
 Reconnaissance Battalion, MRD and TD


             COMPANY                                RECONNAISSANCE                          RECONNAISSANCE
           HEADQUARTERS                                                                           LT O
                                                                                                 PA O N
              1 BRM-1                                                                          3 T-64/72/80
                                                        each: 3 BMP-1/2

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT 

 Equipment                                            Total     Equipment                                     Total
 5.45-mm LMG, RPK-74                                     6                                                ......
                                                                 Radar, Battlefield Surveillance, TALL MIKE        1
 ACV, Reconnaissance, BRM-1*                             1       Radios:
 AICV, BMP-1/2                                           6         HF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-130          1
 Medium Tank, T-64/72/80                                 3         VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power.
 Truck, GAZ-66                                           1           R-123   ................................. 12
 Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle. BRDM-2rkh                        Warning Receiver, R-311  ................... 1
   or RKhM                                               2

FOOTNOTE. 'This vehicle includes the TALL MlKE radar. which appears separately in this
Reconnaissance Assault Company.
Reconnaissance Battalion, MRD and TD




                                                     LONG-RANGE                        LONG-RANGE
                        COMPANY                     RECONNAISSANCE                    RECONNAISSANCE
                       HEADQUARTERS                     PLATOON                           PLATOON
                                                      (WHEELED)                         (WHEELED)
                   1    A V BRDM-2U
                         C,                        6 ASC. BRDM-2                  6    S,
                                                                                      A C BRDM-2 o r
                                                                                  6   APC, BIR-60/70/80

                                       P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment	                                         Total      Equipment
ATGL. RPG-7V     ............................. 1 3           VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                       3
                        ......................1 3
5 . 4 5 - m m LMG, RPK-74                                    VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power.
ACV, BRDM-2U                                          1        R-123                                          13
ASC, B R D M -2 or APC, BTR-60/70/80     .........   12      W a r n i n g Receiver. R-311  ...................   1
    HF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-130       ....   1

NOTE 	 Personnel in the reconnaissance assault company (also called the long-range recon-
       naissancecompany) have parachute training Small teams of five to six men can enter
       the enemy rear area by parachute, helicopter and vehicle, or on foot They can also
       land by transport helicopter (MI-6A/HOOK or MI-26/HALO A) along withtheir combat
Radio/Radar Reconnaissance Company.
Reconnaissance Battalion, M R D and TD

      HEADQUARTERS              AND DF PLATOON                   AND DF PLATOON          INTERCEPT AND DF


                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                        Total     Equipment                                    Total
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                    1
    Radar Direction Finder ....................... 3 

Truck. Van, GAZ (Command)                            2
Truck. Van. GAZ (Radio/Radar                                                                  ........... 4 

                                                             HF, Manpack. Low-Power. R - 1 0 4 M
  Reconnaissance)                                  13 
      HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power            4

Truck, Van, ZIL (Maintenance)                       1
       HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount. High-Power              1

Truck, Van. Z I L                                   6
       VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                 7

Intercept Receiver, VHF/UHF                          8       Warning Receiver. R-311                        1

Radio Direction Finder. HF/VHF/UHF                  3



                                COMBAT ENGINEER
                                                                       ASSAULT                          TECHNICAL
HEADQUARTERS                   (SAPPER) COMPANY                   CROSSING COMPANY                       COMPANY
     15                               65                                    55                             55
                                                                                                        page 4-82
  page 4-81                        page 4-81                           page 4-82

                 ROAD/BRIDGE                                                        PONTON BRIDGE 

                 CONSTRUCTION                                                         COMPANY 

                   COMPANY                                                               65 

                     65                                                                                 . 

                  page 4-83                                                           page 4 - 8 3

                                          I                            I

                                    COMMUNICATIONS                MAINTENANCE 

  RECONNAISSANCE                       PLATOON                      PLATOON
                   SERVICE PLATOON
     page 4-84                        page 4-84                     page   4-84                      page 4.84
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation

 Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)

Trailer, POL                 I     I    I     I       I   I   I   2
Trailer, Water
Trailer. Kitchen

Warning Receiver. R-311
Battalion Headquarters, Engineer Battalion, M R D and T D



                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                      Total           Equipment                                    Total
                     .......................... 2
Truck, U A Z - 6 9 / 4 6 9                                     Radios:
Truck, ZIL-130/131/151/157                           1           HF. Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M                  1
Truck, Van, GAZ (Signal)                             1           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power             1
Trailer, Cargo, 1 -Axle........................      1           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount, High-Power               1

Combat Engineer (Sapper) Company. Engineer Battalion,
M R D and T D

                                           COMBAT ENGINEER
                                           (SAPPER) COMPANY

              C MAY
               O PN                               S P E PA O N
                                                   APR LT O
            HEADQUARTERS                                                               (SAPPER) PLATOON

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                         Total         Equipment                                   Total
ATGL, RPG-7V                                         2         Mineclearer. MTK/MTK-2                         2
ACV, BTR-50/60                                       1         Minelayer. Armored, SP. GMZ.................   3
Truck, ZIL-130/131/151/157    ................. 3                                  ........................2
                                                               Trailer. Cargo. 1 -Axle
Truck, Ural-375   .............................2               Radios:
Truck, UAZ-69, DIM Mine Detector                     2           HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M                  1
Armored Engineer Tractor, IMR                        2           VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-123   ...   4
Assault Crossing Company. Engineer Battalion,
M R D and T D

                I                                                    HEAVY AMPHIBIOUS
             O PN
            C MAY                                                                                  RECONN&ISSANCE
          HEADQUARTERS               PLATOON (K-61/PTS)                                            DIVING PLATOON

                                        PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT
Equipment                                            Total       Equipment                                            Total
ACV. BRDM-2                                             1        Trailer. Amphibious. PKP                                 3
Truck. ZIL-130/131/151/157                              2        Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle                                   1
Truck. Crane. K-61                                      1        Trailer. Compressor        ..........................    1
Tracked Amphibian. K-61/PTS                            12        Radios:
Tracked Ferry, GSP                                      6          HF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M         ........... 1
Assault Boat. NDL-10                                   10          VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-123        ...
NOTE. Two GSP heavy amphibious ferry vehicles make up one ferry; the twelve right-and
      left half-ferries In MRD and TD engineer battalions form six ferries.

Technical Company, Engineer Battalion, M R D and T D


          O PN
         C MAY
                                   B N E CONSTRUCTION
                                         LT O
                                        PA O N
                                                                          HEAVY EQUIPMENT
                                                                               LT O
                                                                              PA O N
                                                                                                      SPECIAL TASKS
                                                                                                         PA O N
                                                                                                          LT O
                                                       FIELD WATER
                                                                 E TO
                                                     S u p p l yS C I N

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT
Equipment                                            Total       Equipment                                            Total
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                        1       Dozer, BAT/BAT-M                                        6
Truck. ZIL-130/131/151/157                              3        Piledriver Set. KMS (on 3 ZIL Trucks)                   1
Truck. Ural-375                                        10        Tractor, K-700      ..............................      2
Truck. Crane, Ural-375                                   2       Trailer. Cargo, 2-Axle    ........................      1
Truck, Crane Shovel, E-305V                              1       Trailer. Generator. 2-Axle                              1
Truck, Dump. MMZ-555                                     1       Radios:
Truck, Water Purification    .....................       1         HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M                           1
Ditching Machine. BTM/MDK-2        ...............       4         VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power. R-123            ...   3
R o a d / B r i d g e C o n s t r u c t i o n C o m p a n y . E n g i n e e r Battalion,
MRD and TD



          I          COMPANY
                                         1                     O SR CI N LT O
                                                              C N T U TO P A O N
                                                                                                     SUPPORT P A O N
                                                                                                              LT O

                                                 PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                        Total         Equipment                                    Total
Truck. UAZ-69/469                                                   1          Concrete Mixer                                   1
Truck. ZIL-130/131/151/157                                          2          Trailer, Cargo, 1-Axle                           1
Truck. Crane Shovel. E-305V                                         1          Trailer. Generator, 1-Axle                       1
Truck. Dump. MMZ-555                                                2          Trailer. Saw. 2-Axle                             1
Truck. Sawmill. Ural-375                                            1          Radios:
Bridge. T M M on KrAZ-214/255                                       8            HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M   ........... 1
Dozer, BAT/BAT-M                                                    2            VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-123  ... 3
Grader, D 1 1 4                                                     2

NOTE. The eight TMM spans make up two TMM bridge sets

P o n t o n Bridge Company. E n g i n e e r Battalion,                 MRD and TD

                                                              PONTON BRIDGE

                O PN
               C MAY                            PONTON BRIDGE
             HEADQUARTERS                                                                   LT O
                                                                                  POWERBOATP A O N        SUPPORT SECTION

                                                 PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                        Total         Equipment                                    Total
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                                   1          Powerboat. BMK-90/150                            6
PMP Center on KrAZ-214             ....................            16          Radios:
PMP Ramp o n KrAZ-214                                               2            HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-104M                1
PMP Service on KrAZ-214                                             1            VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-123    ... 4
NOTE. 	 A full bridge set consists of 32 center and 4 ramp sections. The half-set held by the
       engineer battalion can make up a bridge or several raffs.
Combat and Combat Service Support Structure.
Engineer Battalion, MRD and TD



               6 ATGL. RPG-7V 
                1    UAL Truck
                 1 x ZIL Truck
 UAZ Truck 
                 1 x GAZ Van
 ZIL Truck 
                 1 x * Generator T r a i l e r
 DIM Mine Detector 
         1 x HF/VHF, Vehicle
 HF, Manpack, Low-
               Mount, M e d i u m
                   Power. R-104M 
 V F Vehicle M o u n t
                     H,                        1 x HF/VHF, V e h i c l e
                   Medium Power,                    Mount. High-
                   R-123                            Power
                                               1 x Warning- Receiver,


               1    ZIL Truck                   8 ZIL Truck
               4   * ZIL Van                    4 Ural Truck
               1 Cargo Trailer                  I KrAZ Truck
               1 Generator Traller              3 POL Truck
                                                1 Ambulance
                                                1 * Lowboy T r a i l e r
                                                2 * Trailer
                                                3 x Cargo Trailer
                                                3 Water Trailer
                                                5 Kitchen Trailer
Signal Battalion, MRD and TD




                                    I                           I
                                                          RADIO TELEPHONE
                                                           AND TELEGRAPH

                                                                                     SUPPLY AND
    HEADQUARTERS               RADIO COMPANY                                     MAINTENANCE PLATOON
         17                        110                                                   30
        page 4 - 8 6             page 4-86                   page 4-87                page 4-87

                                 PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                    Total   Equipment                                    Total
ACV. BTR-50/60                                  8    Trailer. Generator                             10
Truck, UAZ-69/469                              12    Trailer, Water                                  1
Truck, GAZ-66                                   7    Trailer. Kitchen                                2
Truck, ZIL/Ural                                 9    Radios:
Truck. Van. ZIL (Maintenance)                   4      HF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M                   5
Truck, Van, GAZ (Signal)                       21      HF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power. R-130           8
Truck. Van. ZIL (Signal)                        12     HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power              7
Truck. POL. ZIL/Ural                            1      HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount, High-Power                8
Truck. Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452                  1      VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                  20
Truck, Van. UAZ-452 (Bus)                       1      VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power. R-123    ...   6
Motorcycle, K-750V/Ural-3                      13      Warning Receiver. A-31 1                         3
Trailer. Cargo, 1-Axle                         10      Radio Relay. VHF/UHF, R-401/405/409              6
Trailer, POL, 2-Axle                            1      Communications Center                            2
Battalion Headquarters, Signal Battalion. MRD and TD


                                   PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                    Total Equipment                                     Total
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                 4         Radio:
                                                              HF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M                    1

Radio Company, Signal Battalion, MRD and TD


                                                                                 I   LT O
                                                                              RADIO P A O N

                                   PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                    Total          Equipment                                    Total
ACV, BTR-50/60   ............................ 8             HF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-130 .... 8
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                 4         HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power  ...... 6
Truck, ZIL/Ural                                   1         HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount. High-Power               8
Truck. Van. GAZ-66 (Signal)                       7         VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                  7
Truck, Van, ZIL-157 (Signal)                      5         VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-123   ...   6
Trailer. Cargo. 1-Axle                            1         Warning Receiver, R-311                         1
Trailer. Generator                                3
  HF. Manpack. Low-Power. R-104M    ...........   1
Radio T e l e p h o n e a n d T e l e g r a p h C o m p a n y ,
Signal B a t t a l i o n , MRD and TD

                                                         TELEPHONE AND 

                                                       TELEGRAPH COMPANY 

           HEADQUARTERS                          WIRE PLATOON

                                                                  COURIER PLATOON

                                                PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                         Total     Equipment                                                        Total
Truck. UAZ-69/469                                                    3       Radios:
Truck, GAZ-63/66                                                     4         HF, Manpack, Low-Power, R - 1 0 4 M                                2
Truck, ZIL/Ural                                                       2        HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium Power                                1
Truck, Van. GAZ-66 (Signal)                                         14         VHF, Manpack. Low-Power. R-107                                    13
Truck, Van, ZIL-157 (Signal)                                         7         Warning Receiver. R-311                                             2
Motorcycle, K-750V/Ural-3           ...................             13 
      Radio Relay, VHF/UHF, R-401/405/409                                  6
Trailer, Cargo, 1-Axle                                               4       Communications Center                                                 2
Trailer. Generator                                                   5

Supply and M a i n t e n a n c e Platoon, S i g n a l Battalion,
MRD and TD



                                                PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                         Total     Equipment                                                         Total
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                                    1      Trailer. Cargo, 1-Axle          ........................                5
Truck. GAZ-63/66                                                     3      Trailer. POL. 2-Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Truck. ZIL/Ural                                                      6      Trailer, Generator                                                      2
Truck, Van. ZIL (Maintenance)                                        4      Trailer. Water                                                          1
Truck, POL. ZIL/Ural                                                 1      Trailer. Kitchen                                                        2
Truck. Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452                                       1      Radio:
Bus. UAZ-452                                                         1        HF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M                    ...........         1

Materiel Support Battalion, M R D and T D


          BATTALION                                                    POL TRANSPORT          CARGO TRANSPORT
        HEADQUARTERS               TRANSPORT COMPANY                                               O PN
                                                                                                  C MAY

                                                                        FIELD BAKERY

   iI                  MEDICAL SECTION
                                           page 4-90
        , ,

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                              Total        Equipment                                   Total
ATGL. RPG-7V    .............................            19                                         ............ 2
                                                                    Truck, Field Kitchen. PAC-170/200
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                         7         Truck. Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452 ............. 1
Truck, GAZ-66                                            33         Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle                       122
Truck, ZIL-130/131/151/157                              38          Trailer. Cargo, 1 -Axle                        2
Truck. Ural-375                                        120          Trailer. POL. 2-Axle                         160
Truck. Van. GAZ  .............................           1          Trailer, Generator                             6
Truck, Van, ZIL ..............................           2          Trailer. Water                                 7
Truck, Van. ZIL (Maintenance)                              9        Radios:
Truck, Van, UAZ-452    .........................1                     HF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M  ........... 1
Truck. POL. Ural-375 (5.200-Liter)                      160           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power  ...... 1
Truck. Crane, K-61                                        6           VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107  ........... 5
Truck, Water Tank                                         6           Warning Receiver, R-311................... 1
Truck. Van. Mobile Field Bakery                           4
Battalion Headquarters, Materiel Support Battalion,
M R D and T D
                                                                        PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT
                                                              Equipment                                                         Total
                                                              Truck, UAZ-69/469                                                    2
                                                              Truck. Van. GAZ                                                      1
                                                              Truck. Van. ZIL                                                      1
                 HEADQUARTERS                                 Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle                                               2
                                                                HF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M                                      1
                                                                HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power                                 1
                                                                Warning Receiver, R-311                                             1

Ammunition Transport Company, Materiel Support
Battalion, M R D and TD

                                            I                           I

        I     COMPANY

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT
                                                                                            TRANSPORT PLATOON

Equipment                                        Total        Equipment                                                        Total
ATGL. RPG-7V                                        3         Trailer. Cargo, 2-Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                   1         Radio:
Truck, Ural-375                                    60           VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107                                       1
Truck. Crane, K-61                                  1

Petroleum. Oil. and Lubricants (POL) Transport Company,
Materiel Support Battalion, M R D and TD

                                                POL TRANSPORT

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT
Equipment                                      Total   Equipment                                                               Total
ATGL, RPG-7V                                      4   Trailer. POL. 2-Axle                                                       80
Truck. UAZ-69/469                                 1    Radio:
Truck, POL, Ural-375 (5.200 Liter)               80     VHF. Manpack. Low-Power, R-107                                             1
Truck, Crane. K-61                                1
Cargo Transport Company, Materiel Support Battalion,
M R D and TD



                                                                                         CARGO TRANSPORT

                                        PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                         Total        Equipment                                   Total
ATGL,    RPG-7V     ..............................     3        Truck, Crane, K-61...........................1
Truck,   UAZ-69/469                                             Radio:
Truck,   GAZ-66     ............................. 30            VHF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-107                     1
Truck,   ZIL-151/157    .........................30

Service Support Structure, Materiel Support Battalion.
M R D and TD

                                    I         1
                                                  AND SERVICE

                                                   ATGL, RPG-7V

            1 ATGL, RPG-7V                                                           1   Ambulance
            9 ZIL Van                         3    GAZ-66
            1 Crane Truck, K-61               1    ZIL Van
            6   Generator Trailer             1    UAZ Van
                                              2                T
                                                   K i t c h e n ruck
                                              6    Water Truck
                                              2    Cargo Trailer, 1-Axle
                                              2    Cargo Trailer, 2-Axle
                                              3    Water Trailer
Maintenance Battalion,     MRD      and   TD


                                    TANK/TRACKED VEHICLE
                                                                             MOTOR VEHICLE                ORDNANCE MAINTENANCE
       HEADQUARTERS                 MAINTENANCE COMPANY                   MAINTENANCE COMPANY                    COMPANY
         page 4-92
                           .              45*/65**
                                          page 4-92
                                                                               page 4-93

                                                                                                                page 4 - 9 3

                            I                                     I
                       SUPPLY AND
                     SERVICE PLATOON
                       page 4 9 4
                                                               page 4 - 9 4
                                                                                           I   SPECIAL MAINTENANCE
                                                                                                    page 4-94

                                          PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                   MRD*        TD**          Equipment                          MRD*    TD"
ATGL, RPG-7V                                    11    ....
                                                        12            Armored Recovery Vehicle              5..     5          ...
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                5..    ...
                                                         5            Trailer. Cargo, 2-Axle               13..    14          ..
Truck, GAZ-66                                    4..... 4             Trailer, Generator, 2-Axle            1       1
Truck, ZIL Series                               14..    ..
                                                        16            Trailer, Generator, l - A x l e       6..     6          ...
Truck, Ural-375                                  6..    ...
                                                         6            Trailer, POL, 2-Axle                  4..     4          ...
Truck, ZIL-555                                   1       1            Trailer. Lowboy                       2..     2          ...
Truck, Van, GAZ                                  3..    ...
                                                         3            Trailer. Water                        1       1
Truck. Van, Ural                                 1       1            Trailer. Field Kitchen                3..     3          ...
Truck. Van, ZIL (Maintenance)                   40..    ..
                                                        42            Radios:
Truck. POL                                       4..... 4               HF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power.
Truck. Tractor, KrAZ-214/255                     2.      2                 R-130                            1.. ... 1
Truck, Crane, Ural-375                           3..    ...
                                                         3              HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-
Truck, Recovery, ZIL-157                         2..    ...
                                                         2                 Power  ........................... .....
                                                                                                            1       1
Truck, Water Tank                                1    .....
                                                         1              VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107      5.      5
Truck, Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452                   1       1              VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power,
Tracked Amphibian, K-6l/PTS                      1    .....
                                                         1                 R-123                            4..... 4
Tractor. Artillery. AT-S                         1       1            Warning Receiver. R-311               1       1
Motorcycle, M-72/K-750/Ural-3                    3..    ...

NOTE. Page 4-92 outlines differences in personnel and equipment levels

FOOTNOTES.     +Personnel and equipment levels for the maintenance battalion, MRD
             '"Personnel and equipment levels for the maintenance battalion. TD.
Battalion Headquarters. Maintenance Battalion.
M R D and TD


                                       PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                           Total     Equipment                                     Total
Truck, UAZ-69/469                                      2          VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107 ........... 1
Truck. Van. Ural                                       1          Warning Receiver. R-311 ................... 1
Motorcycle. M-72/K-750/Ural-3                          3
  HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power                  1

Tank/Tracked Vehicle Maintenance Company.
Maintenance Battalion, M R D and TD





                                       PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                MRD*      TD"        Equipment                        MRD*    TD"
ATGL. RPG-7V                                  3        4      Truck, Crane, Ural-375              1 ...... 1
Truck, UAZ-69/469                             1        1      Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle              3...... 4
Truck, ZIL Series                             4        6      Trailer, Generator, 1-Axle          2        2
Truck, Van, GAZ                               1        1      Radio:
Truck, Van. Z I L (Maintenance)              12       14        VHF. Manpack, Low-Power, R-107    1        1

NOTE. This company comprises two platoons when organic to an MRD. but three platoons
      when organic to a TD.

FOOTNOTES.   'Personnel and equipment levels for the tank/tracked vehicle maintenance com-
               pany, maintenance battalion. MRD.
             "Personnel and equipment levels for the tank/tracked vehicle maintenance com-
               pany, maintenance battalion, TO.
Parachute Battalion, Air Assault Brigade
and Airmobile Assault Brigade, Front



                                                                                                            AIR DEFENSE
            HEADQUARTERS                       COMPANY



                                                                                                        SAM. SA-7/
                                      Each:                                Mortar, M 1 9 4 3            GRAIL or SA-14/
                                      9 ATGL, RPG-16D                      or M - 1 2 0                 GREMLIN or SA-16



                                                                          GRENADE LAUNCHER 


                                      6    ATGM, Manpach             6 x 30-mm Automatlc
                                           Console. A T - 4 /            Grenade Launcher.
                                           SPIGOT                        AGS-17
                                       3   73-mm Recoilless
                                           AT Gun, SPG-9

                                            PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                 Total      Equipment                                             Total
ATGL. RPG-16D                                                   27   73-mm Recoilless AT Gun. SPG-9           ............. 3
SAM. SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                                     120-mm Mortar, M 1 9 4 3or M - 1 2 0     ............. 8
  or SA-16                                                      9
ATGM, Manpack Console. AT-4/SPIGOT                              6
30-mm Automatic Grenade Launcher. AGS-17          ...           6

NOTE. In the airmobile assault brigade, the parachute battalion may be called an airmobile
      assault battalion.
Supply and Service Platoon, Maintenance Battalion.
M R D and TD

                                                            PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                                                      Equipment                                      Total
                                                      ATGL, RPG-7V   ..............................1 

                                                      Truck. GAZ-66  .............................. 

                 SUPPLY AND                           Truck, ZIL Series                                   4
                   SERVICE                            Truck. Ural-375 ............................. 6 

                  PLATOON                             Truck, ZIL-555 ..............................1 

                       25                             Truck. POL                                          4
                                                      Truck, Water Tank                                   1
                                                      Truck, Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452  .............       1
                                                      Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle                              4
                                                      Trailer, POL, 2-Axle                                4
                                                      Trailer, Water...............................       1
                                                      Trailer, Field Kitchen                              3
                                                        VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107      ...........   1

Recovery Platoon, Maintenance Battalion, M R D and TD

                                                             PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                                                      Equipment                                      Total
                                                      Truck. Tractor. KrAZ-214/255                      2

                                                      Truck, Recovery. ZIL-157 ......................   2
                                                      Tracked Amphibian. K-61/PTS                       1
                                                      Tractor, Artillery. AT-S                          1
                                                      Armored Recovery Vehicle                          5
                                                      Trailer. Lowboy ..............................    2

                                                        HF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-130     .... 1
                                                        VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-123     ... 4

Special Maintenance Platoon, Maintenance Battalion.
M R D and TD

                                                             PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT


                                                      Equipment                                      Total

                                                      Truck, Van, ZIL (Maintenance)   ................. 6
                                                                               ..................... 1
                                                      Trailer. Generator. 2-Axle
Parachute Battalion, Air Assault Brigade
and Airmobile Assault Brigade, Front



                                                                                                             AIR DEFENSE
            HEADQUARTERS                       COMPANY

                                                                      . 8


                                                                                                            SAM. SA-7/
                                      Each:                                  Mortar, M 1 9 4 3              GRAIL or SA-14/
                                      9 ATGL, RPG-16D                        or M - 1 2 0                   GREMLIN or SA-16



                                                                            GRENADE LAUNCHER 


                                      6    ATGM, Manpach               6 x 30-mm Automatlc
                                           Console. A T - 4 /              Grenade Launcher.
                                           SPIGOT                          AGS-17
                                       3   73-mm Recoilless
                                           AT Gun, SPG-9

                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                 Total       Equipmentotal
ATGL. RPG-16D                                                   27    73-mm Recoilless AT Gun. SPG-9            ............. 3
SAM. SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                                     120-mm Mortar, M 1 9 4 3or M - 1 2 0       ............. 8
  or SA-16                                                       9
ATGM, Manpack Console. AT-4/SPIGOT                               6
30-mm Automatic Grenade Launcher. AGS-17          ...            6

NOTE. In the airmobile assault brigade, the parachute battalion may be called an airmobile
      assault battalion.
Medical Battalion, MRD and T D


                                                                                                   DISINFECTION AND
          BATTALION                                                COLLECTION AND
                                     MEDICAL COMPANY                                              DECONTAMINATION
        HEADQUARTERS                                            EVACUATION PLATOON
                                           50                                                         PLATOON
             10                                                         45                               15

                                                                      page 497                       page 4-98
           (See below)                   page 4-97

                                                                                    SUPPLY AND
                     TRANSPORT SECTION                                             SERVICE PLATOON

                         page 4-98                                                   page 4-98

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                            Total   Equipment                                                Total
Truck. UAZ-69/469                                       4    Truck. Water Tank       ...........................          3
Truck, GAZ-66                                           1    Trailer. Cargo, 2-Axle                                     10
Truck. ZIL Series                                      21    Trailer, Generator. 2-Axle                                   2
Truck. Van. GAZ                                         1    Trailer, POL                                                 2
Truck. Van, ZIL (Maintenance)                           2    Trailer, Decontamination, DDP                                3
Truck, Van, ZIL                                         1    Trailer. Kitchen     ..............................          4
Truck, Van, Generator                                   1    Trailer. Water      ...............................          1
Truck. Van. Hospital                                    9    Radios:
Truck. POL (5.200-Liter)                                2      HF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M                             1
Truck. Decontamination, DDA-53/66..                     1      HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power                        1
Truck. Decontamination. ARS-12U/14..                    3      VHF, Manpack. Low-Power. R-107                             3
Truck, Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452                         20      Warning Receiver. R-31 1          ...................      1

Battalion Headquarters, Medical Battalion, MRD and TD

                                                                      PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                                                             Equipment                                                Total
                                                             Truck. UAZ-69/469       ..........................1 

                  HEADQUARTERS                               Truck, Van. GAZ      .............................1 

                                                               HF, Manpack. Low-Power. R-104M             ........... 1
                                                               HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power                       1
                                                               Warning Receiver, R-311           ................... 1
Medical Company, Medical Battalion.         MRD and TD


              I                               I
    I       SURGICAL
                                    I   INTERNAL MEDICINE
                                                                       RECEIVING AND
                                                                      EVACUATION PLATOON

                               I                               I                             I
                         DENTAL SECTION               PHARMACY SECTION                     MORGUE

                                          PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EOUIPMENT

Equipment                                             Total         Equipment                                        Total
Truck. UAZ-69/469                                        1          Radio:
Truck, ZIL Series                                        7            VHF. Manpack. Low-Power. R-107                     1
Trailer. Cargo. 2-Axle                                   7

Collection and Evacuation Platoon, Medical Battalion.
M R D and T D






                                                                                       AIDMAN SECTION

                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

 Equipment                                             Total        Equipment                                         Total
 Truck. UAZ-69/469                                        1         Truck. Van. Hospital                                 9
 Truck. Van. ZIL                                          1         Radio:
 Truck. Van, Generator                                    1           VHF, Manpack. Low-Power. R-107         ........... 1
Disinfection and Decontamination Platoon.
Medical Battalion, M R Dand T D

                                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                DISINFECTION                        Equipment                                      Total
                                                    Truck. GAZ-66                                       1
                DECONTAMINA-                        Truck, Decontamination. DDA-63/66     ........... 1
                TION PLATOON                        Truck. Decontamination, ARS-12U/14                  3
                                                    Trailer, Cargo. 2-Axle   ........................ 1 

                                                    Trailer. Decontamination. DDP                       3
                                                    Trailer. Water ...............................1 

Transport Section. Medical Battalion, MRD and T D

                                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                                                    Equipment                                      Total
                                                    Truck, UAZ-69/469                                 1
                                                    Truck. ZIL Series                                   8
                    SECTION                         Truck, Van, ZIL (Maintenance)                       2
                                                    Truck, POL (5,200-Liter)   ...................... 2 

                                                    Truck. Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452                    20 

                                                    Trailer, Generator ............................ 2 

                                                    Trailer, POL                                        2
                                                      VHF. Manpack, Low-Power, R-107      ...........   1

Supply and Service Platoon, Medical Battalion.
M R Dand T D

                                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT 

                                                    Equipment                                       Total 

                       Truck. ZIL Series  ............................ 6 

                       Truck, Water Tank                                   3
                                                    Trailer. Cargo, 2-Axle   ........................ 2 

                                                    Trailer. Kitchen                                    4
Artillery Command Battery, M R D and TD


          BATTERY                                                 COMMUNICATIONS             METEOROLOGY
       HEADQUARTERS                  PLATOON                          PLATOON                  PLATOON

                                                   SERVICE SECTION

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                          Total        Equipment                                   Total 

ATGL, RPG-7V                                          4         Trailer. Cargo...............................2 

5.45-mm LMG. RPK-74   .......................         4                          ............................2 

                                                                Trailer, Generator
ACV. BTR-6OPA                                          2        Rangefinder ................................. 2 

Truck, UAZ-69/469                                      2                                      .............. 2

                                                                Radar, Meteorological. END TRAY
Truck. GAZ-66                                          5        Radios:
Truck. ZIL-157                                         2          HF. Manpack. Low-Power, R-104M    ...........   2
Truck, Van. GAZ                                        1          HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power             4
Truck, Van, Ural                                       2          VHF, Manpack. Low-Power. R-107    ...........   6

Mobile Field Bakery, Materiel Support Battalion.
M R D and T D

                                                                                           E TO
                                                                                   BAKERY S C I N

                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                           Total       Equipment                                    Total
Truck, ZIL-130/131/151/157                             8        Trailer. Water                                    4
Truck. Van, Mobile Field Bakery                        4
Helicopter Squadron. MRD and TD

     Some MRDs and TDs have a n organic helicopter                    have a helicopter detachment that performs mostly
squadron, which is also known a s a fire support                      administrative/liaison roles. The detachment h a s
squadron. The squadron has 18 helicopters which                       6 H O P L I T E s , 2 H I P a i r b o r n e c o m m a n d post
m a y be a r m e d w i t h v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s of   variants, a n d approximately 100 personnel. The
weapons, including antitank guided missiles and                       detachment does not have significant fire support
air-to-surface rocket pods.                                           or troopcarrying capabilities.
     E v e n i n t h e forward area, not a l l divisions 

 h a v e a helicopter squadron. Instead, they m a y 


                                        HOPLITE FlIGHT
                                                                              HIP FLIGHT
                                                                                                               HIND FLIGHT


                                                        AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
                                                               SECTION                                        SECTION

                                              P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                  Total      Equipment                                               Total
Light Helicopter. Mi-2/HOPLITE                                 6      Airborne Command Post. Mi-8T/HIP D / G                      2
M e d i u m Helicopter. Mi-8T/HIP C      or                           Attack Helicopter, Mi-24/HIND D/E/F                         6
  M i - 1 7/HIP H                                              4

NOTES. 1.    Squadron structure and the totals of 18 aircraft (3 per flight) and 200 personnel
             are estimates only.
         2 . In some squadrons, the number of HlND attack helicopters has Increased.
SAM Regiment (SA-8). MRD and TD

                                               MISSILE TECHNICAL   MISSILE F I R I N G
                        (TARGET ACQUISITION/
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation


FOOTNOTE. 'The TELAR includes the LAND ROLL fire control/target acquisition radar, which
            appears separately in this list.
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)
Antiaircraft Artillery Regiment (S-60), MRD and TD



                                  COMMAND AND
                                                               FIRING BATTERY                SERVICE BATTERY
             20                       60                               65                         80


                                                                                 FIRE CONTROL
                                             GUN SECTION

                                  PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                     Total        Equipment                                          Total
57-mm A A Gun S-60                              24         Trailer. Cargo, 2-Axle                                4
SAM, SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                           Trailer, Cargo, 1 -Axle                               1
  or SA-16                                      15         Trailer, Generator, 2-Axle                            4
ACV, BTR-6OPA                                    2         Trailer, Generator, 1 -Axle                           4
Truck, UAZ-69/469                               10         Trailer. Field Kitchen                                8
Truck, ZIL-131/157                              12         Trailer, Water                                        7
Truck, Ural-375                                 65         Radars:
Truck, GAZ-66    ..............................  3
          Radar, Fire Control, FLAP WHEEL    ............     4
Truck, Van, GAZ                                  2           Radar. Aerial Surveillance/Target Acquisition.
Truck, Van, Ural (Radar) ......................  4              FLAT FACE                                        2
Truck, Van. ZIL (Radar)                          2         Radios:
Truck. Van. ZIL (Maintenance)                    4           HF, Manpack,Low-Power, R-104M      ........... 1
Truck, POL. KrAZ/Ural/ZIL ....................   4           HF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-130    .... 2
Truck, Crane. K-61                               1           HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount. High-Power    ......... 2
Truck, Water Tank                                1           VHF, Portable. Very-Low-Power. R-126  ....... 15
Truck, Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452                   1           VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107     .......... 2 4
Truck, Chemical Reconnaissance, UAZ-69rkh   .....1           VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R-123    ... 2
Trailer, POL                                     2           Warning Receiver, R-311    ................... 5
Independent Tank Battalion. M R D

   S o m e M R D s h a v e an i n d e p e n d e n t tank b a t t a l i o n                 M R D s , t h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s an o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t   p a r t o f t h e t y p i c a l MRD. F o r that r e a s o n , i t s
  TB) in    a d d i t i o n t o t h e tank a s s e t s p r e v i o u s l y                 a n d an e q u i p m e n t table o f t h e ITB a s an a l t e r -                      p e r s o n n e l and e q u i p m e n t do n o t a p p e a r in t h e
 iscussed. T h e ITB n o r m a l l y has 51 t a n k s . S i n c e                          n a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . H o w e v e r , t h e ITB i s n o t a l w a y s        MRD t o t a l s .
  e   ITB   i s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t in f o r w a r d - d e p l o y e d

                                                     I                                        I                                      I                                   I                          I                                 I
                                            TANK COMPANY                               ENGINEER SECTION                   COMMUNICATIONS                          MAINTENANCE                 SUPPORT PLATOON                MEDICAL SECTION
        HEADQUARTERS                    (10 Medium Tank)+                                                                    SECTION                                SECTION
      ( 1 Medium Tank)                                                                        10                                                                                                     15                                  5
                                                   32                                                                          10                                     15

     Medium lank.                                page 4-106                       1 * Bridge, Tank-                  1 ASC, BRDM-2                        I Truck, Van, ZIL             1   Truck, GAZ-66                1 Truck, Ambulance, 

     7-64/72/80                                                                       Launched, MTU/MT-55            1
 Truck, UAZ-69/469                   (Maintenance)                4  Truck. ZIL-131/157                  GAZ-450A/452

     ACV. BTR-50/60                                                               1 * DitchingMachine                1 
 Truck, Van, G Z
                                                                                                                                      A                   1 Truck, Crane, K-61          4 X Truck. Ural.375
     Truck, UAZ-69/469                                                                BTM/MDK-2                           (Signal)                        2 Armored Recovery            2 XTruck. POL

     ATGL. RPG-7V                                                                 1
 Dozer, BAT/                    1 HF. Manpack, Low-                     Vehicle                     I x Truck. Kitchen,
 1 HF, Manpach, Low-                                                                  BAT-M                             Power, R-104M                     1 Trailer. Generator.             PAC-I 70/200 

     Power, R-104M                                                                                                  1 
 HF. Vehicle Mount                    I-Axle                     2 Trailer, Cargo,

 1 * VHF. Manpack,                                                                                                      Medium-Power. R-130                                                 2-Axle
     Low-Power, R-107                                                                                               I VHF. Vehtcle Mount,                                               2 Trailer, POL,
     HF, Vehtcle Mount,                                                                                                 Medium-Power, R-123                                                 2-Axle 

     Medium-Power, R-130                                                                                                                                                                1Trailer, Water 

     VHF, Vehicle Mount, 


   * Radio Relay.

     VHF/UHF, R - 4 0 1 / 4 0 5                                                                                                          NOTES. 1.      The I T Bexists only in some MRDs. 

 1 * Warning Receiver,                                                                                                                              2 . I f the I T B has T-54/55/62 tanks, its strength will increase by 31 or 51 enlisted
     R-311                                                                                                                                              personnel.
                                                                                                                                                    3. In the late 1980s, ITBs began to adopt a 31-tank structure similar to other
                                                                                                                                                        tank battalions.(See p . 4 - 1 0 8 . )

I uipment
   dium Tank, T - 6 4 / 7 2 / 8 0
   GI    RPG-7V
                                            . . . . . . . . .... . .. . . .
                                                         .. ...          ..
                                                                                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                                                                                          Truck. A m b u l a n c e . U A Z - 4 5 0 A / 4 5 2
                                                                                          Truck Crane            K-61
                                                                                                                                                   . . .... ..... ..
                                                                                                                                                                                  Trailer, POL. 2 - A x l e
                                                                                                                                                                                  T          r Water
                                                                                                                                                                                                  a        i
                                                                                                                                                                                                               . .. . . .. ... . .. . . .... .. .. ...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    l       e        r
FM 100-2-3

Tank Company, Independent Tank Battalion, MRD

                                            TANK COMPANY
                                            5                 27



                                                TANK PLATOON
                 ( 1 Medium Tank)                                               (3 Medium Tank)
             2                      3                                       1                     8

            Company Commander . P 

            Driver/Mechanic       M

            Gunner               PM
            Senior Technician    PM
            Truck Driver      AKS-74

                                                      PLATOON HEADQUARTERS
                                                                                                      TANK SQUAD


                                                  Platoon Leader/

                                                                                             Tank Commander    ..

                                                  Tank Commander ..... PM                    Driver/Mechanic           PM
                                                  Driver/Mechanic      PM                    Gunner                    PM
                                                  Gunner ............. PM

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                         Total            Equipment                                                   Total
M e d i u m Tank, T - 6 4 / 7 2 / 8 0               10             Radios:
9 - m m Pistol. P M                                 25              HF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power. R - 1 3 0                     1
5 . 4 5 -m m Assault Rifle, A K S -7 4                    7          VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power.
Mineclearing Plow/Roller, K M T - 4 / 5 M / 6             3            R -1 2 3                                                  10
Truck. ZIL-131/157                                        1

NOTE. If the ITB has T-54/55/62 tanks. company strength will increase by ten enlisted
                                           TANK REGIMENT STRUCTURE

 Tank Company, Tank Battalion,
 Tank Regiment, M R D and T D

                                           TANK COMPANY

                                                                                    1                .
                   HEADQUARTERS                                                 TANK PLATOON
                 ( 1 Medium Tank)                                             (3 Medium Tank)
             1                       2                                    1                      8

            Company Commander   ..   PM
            Driver/Mechanic          PM
            Gunner                   PM

                                                         PLATOON HEADQUARTERS
                                                                              ,                          I
                                                                 SQUAD                               TANK SQUAD
                                                            (1 Medium Tank)                      ( 1 Medium Tank)
                                                         1                    2              0                      3

                                                      Platoon Leader/                       Tank Commander . . AKS-74
                                                      Tank Commander    ...   PM            Driver/Mechanic       PM
                                                      Driver/Mechanic         PM            Gunner                PM
                                                      Gunner                  PM

                                          PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                             Total       Equipment                                             Total
Medium Tank, T - 6 4 / 7 2 / 8 0                        10        Radios:
9-mm Pistol. PM                                         24          HF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power. R-130                 1
5.45-mm Assault Rifle, AKS-74                            6          VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power,
                                                                      R-123       .................................10 

NOTE. Tank companies equipped with T-54/55/62 tanks have 10 additional enlisted personnel
Tank Battalion, 

Tank Regiment, MRD and TD 


              BATTALION                           HEADQUARTERS AND
                                                                                          TANK COMPANY
            HEADQUARTERS                           SERVICE PLATOON
                                                         40                                   30


                                       PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                          Total        Equipment                                    Total
Medium Tank, T-64/72/60     ..................        31
       Trailer, Generator............................ 1 

ATGL, RPG-7V     ..............................          2
     Trailer, Water ............................... 1 

ACV, BTR-50/60/152/BRDM       ................. 2 

Truck. ZIL-157                                          7
        HF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-104M                 2

Truck. POL   .................................          3
        HF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power, R-130 

Truck. Van, ZIL (Maintenance)                           1
        VHF, Manpack, Low-Power, R-107                 1

Truck, Van. Kitchen. PAC-170/200                        7
        VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power. 

Trailer. Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452                        1
           R-123  ................................. 3 3 

Trailer, Cargo, 2-Axle                                  6
        Warning Receiver. R-311  ................... 1 

Trailer. Cargo. 1-Axle                                  1

NOTE. TBs equipped with T~54/55/62 tanks will have 31 additional enlisted personnel.
Tank Regiment (T-64/72/80). TD
     T h e TR of the T D consists of five combat a n d         MRD a n d the TD. The TR retains all other CS
CS battalions: three TBs, each of which h a s 31               a n d CSS subunits common to all MRRs a n d TRs.
t a n k s ; o n e MRB; a n d , one battalion of 18 2 S 1       T h e o n e m a j o r exception i s t h a t t h i s TR, like
122-mm S P howitzers. T h e MRB i s identical to               t h a t of t h e MRD, does n o t h a v e a n a n t i t a n k
those found i n BMP-equipped MRRs of both the                  missile battery.

                                                       TANK REGIMENT

      REGIMENTAL                                                       MOTORIZED RIFLE                SP HOWITZER
                                   TANK BATTALION
     HEAOQUARTERS                                                      BATTALION (BMP)                 BATTALION

         65                            135                                 497
       page 4-14                                                            page 4-28                     page 4-36
                                     page 4-108

      AIR DEFENSE                 RECONNAISSANCE
      MISSILE AND                                                    ENGINEER COMPANY                SIGNAL COMPANY
          60                             55                                    70 	                         50

       page 4.18
                              .       page 4-19                             page 4-21
                                                                                                         page 4-22

                                    MATERIEL SUPPORT                   MAINTENANCE                      REGIMENTAL
                                       COMPANY                          COMPANY                        MEDICAL POINT
                            70                              34

       page 4-23                         page 4-23 
                       page 4 2 4                     page 4-25

NOTES. 1 . 	 If the TR. TD. has T-54/55/62 tanks. personnel strength will increase by 9 4
             enlisted personnel.
       2. Approximately 180 personnel are officers.

FOOTNOTE. 	    In some TRs, the howitzer battalion may still have the 122-mm towed howitzer
               D-30. (See p. 4-16 for the organization and equipment of a D-30 howitzer
  (T-64/72/80). TO

FOOTNOTES T h i s vehicle includes t h e TALL MIKEradar which a p p e a r separately i n t h i s
              **This v e h i c l en c l u d e s
                                              the   SMALL F A E D radar   which appears separately in
                this   list
                                                          TANK DIVISION

 Tank Division (T-64/72/80)

     I n t h e reorganization t h a t began i n t h e l a t e           t h e MRD. Likewise, the SAM regiment, SSM bat-
 1970s, the Soviet TD gained more combat equip-                         talions, a n d helicopter s q u a d r o n h a v e similar
 ment a n d personnel t h a n the MRD. I t is now a                     structures, whether they are organic to an MRD
 more balanced combined a r m s formation. T h e TD,                    or to a TD. T h e s a m e variations i n equipment are
 like t h e MRD, comprises six regiments: three TRs,                    possible. Some differences also exist i n the con-
 one MRR, one artillery regiment, a n d one SAM                         figuration of the artillery regiment, the engineer
 regiment.                                                              battalion, a n d t h e maintenance battalion. T h e user
    All other elements of the TD are virtually iden-                    of this document should consult the organization
 tical to those of the MRD, except t h a t there is no                  c h a r t s a n d the personnel a n d equipment tables
 antitank battalion i n t h e TD. T h e MRR i s BMP-                    presented u n d e r t h e M R D for a more complete
 equipped a n d i s identical to the BMP regiment of                    explanation of such differences.

      AND HQ COMPANY 	                                                          REGIMENT ( B M P )

         page 4 45                                                                 page 4 3 0                   page 4 5 0

       SAM REGIMENT                      SSM BATTALION       I                 RECONNAISSANCE              ENGINEER BATTALION
          (SA-6)                   I                         I                    BATTALION
                                   I    170 	 I                                       340
                                   L -,---,----
          page 4 - 6 2                      page 4-70                              page 4 73                    page 4-78


          page 4.85                        page 4-8 8 	                            page 4-91                   page 4 95


                                                 I       SQUADRON         I
             175                               70                                                      I          200
          page 4-96                        page 4-39 	                                                         page 4-100

NOTES. 1 	 The TD may have a SAM regiment equipped wlth the SA-8 SAM ( p . 4-101) or
            an AAA regiment equipped with the S-60 AA Gun (p. 4 - 1 0 4 ) instead of the S A - 6
            SAM regiment.
       2. 	 Armies in WGF are consolidating division-level SSM battalions into a r m y - l e v e l 

            SSM brigades. 

       3. Starting in 1989. the Soviets are converting one of the TRs of the TD into a
            second MRR.
       4 . Not all divisions have a helicopter squadron.

FOOTNOTES   This vehicle i n c l u d e t he TALL MIKE radar, which appearsseparately
                                       s                                               i n this s
            **Thisv e h i c linlcudes SMALLFRED radar,
                              e     the                w i h a p p e a rs p r t l
                                                        hc               e
                                                                        s aaey    in this l i s t
                       includes the BIG FRED radar,which a p as separatelyin this list
            This vehicle                                   p er
                                              COMBINED ARMS ARMY

Combined Arms Army

   A typical CAA consists primarily of two to three              balanced 2:2. However, other combinations may be
MRDs a n d up to two TDs. Based on army struc-                   possible. Therefore, the organizational charts below
tures identified in WGF in recent years, the ratio               depict a variable number of divisions and all the
of MRDs t o TDs i n a CAA can vary from a pure                   different nondivisional CS and CSS elements which
3:O to a p e r h a p s m o r e t y p i c a l 3:1 o r a more      could be part of any given CAA.

                                    MOTORIZED RIFLE                                                  ARTILLERY
                                                                    I          DIVISION               BRIGADE
                                                                    I            (0-2)

                                                                              page 4-112             page 4-120
                                         .p age 4-38
     ROCKET LAUNCHER               ARTILLERY COMMAND                      SSM BRIGADE               A
                                                                                                   S M BRIGADE
         REGIMENT                     AND CONTROL                           (SCUD)                    (SA-4)
        page 4 - 1 2 0                                                     page 4-122                 page 4-123

                               I           TANK
                                                                          AIR ASSAULT
        page 4-121	                   150     Tanks                        page 4-128 	             page 4-129

          ATTACK                   GENERAL-PURPOSE
        HELICOPTER                    HELICOPTER
         REGIMENT                     SQUADRON
        page 4-127                  30      Helicopters                                             page 4-125
                                                                           page 4-124

                                   MATERIAL SUPPORT

                                                                                                    page 4-125
FOOTNOTES.         "In 1989, the Soviets began converting independent tank regiments (TRs)to
                    independent motorized rifle regiments (IMRRs), presumably organized like
                    other MRRs. (See p. 4-30.)
                  **Also known as a mobile computation and analysis station.
                ***Also known as a radio intercept and direction-finding battalion.
               ****Also known as a radio and radar intercept and direction-finding battalion.

NOTE: 	Armies in WGF are consolidating division-level SS-21 battalions into
       army-level SSM brigades.
                                            COMBINED ARMS ARMY

Combined Arms Army

   A typical CAA consists primarily of two to three             balanced 2:2. However, other combinations may be
MRDs and up to two TDs. Based on army struc-                    possible. Therefore, the organizational charts below
tures identified in WGF in recent years, the ratio              depict a variable number of divisions and all the
of MRDs to TDs in a CAA can vary from a pure                    different nondivisional CS and CSS elements which
3:O to a p e r h a p s more ty p ical 3 : 1 or a more          could be part of a n y given CAA.

                                                     COMBINED ARMS 


          ARMY                     MOTORIZED RIFLE                      I                            ARTILLERY
      HEADQUARTERS                    DIVISION                      I          DIVISION             BRIGADE
                                           (2-3)                    I            (0-2)
                                                                             page 4-112            page 4-120
                                      page 4-38

     ROCKET LAUNCHER              ARTILLERY COMMAND                         SSM BRIGADE
        REGIMENT                           OTO
                                     AND C N R L                               (SCUD)


        page 4-120                                                           page 4-122             page 4-123

 .                                                                          I NDEPENDENT           SPETSNAZ
        REGIMENT              I        TANK           I                           SAL
                                                                             AIR A S U T           COMPANY/
                                     REGIMENT'                                BATTALION            BATTALION
       page 4-121                    150     Tanks                           page 4 128           page 4-129

         ATTACK                   GENERAL-PURPOSE
        REGIMENT                                                                                   REGIMENT

      MAINTENANCE                 MATERIAL SUPPORT                           H A Y LIFT
                                                                              EV                    ASSAULT
        REGIMENT                       BRIGADE                               REGIMENT              CROSSING
                                     page 4-127                                                   Page 4-125

FOOTNOTES.         'In 1989. the Soviets began converting independent tank regiments (TRs) to
                     independent motorized rifle regiments (IMRRS), presumably organized like
                     other MRRs. (See p . 4-30.)
                 **Also known as a mobile computation and analysis station.
                ***Also known as a radio intercept and direction-finding battalion.
              ****Also known as a radio and radar intercept and direction-finding battalion.

NOTE: Armies in WGF are consolidating division-level SS-21 battalions into
      army-level SSM brigades.
                                                                                FM 100-2-3

Combined Arms Army (continued)

          DRONE            MOBILE ROCKET          AIR DEFENSE ROCKET
             SQUADRON           TECHNICAL BASE           TECHNICAL BASE
          (ESTIMATED)             (PRTB)                   (ZRTB)

        CHEMICAL            RADIOLOGICAL           PERSONNEL 


                           RECONNAISSANCE       DECONTAMINATION             BATTALION 

        BATTALION             BATTALION            BATTALION 

        page 4-123


 I       SMOKE
                          MOBILE ANALYTICAL
                          PLOTTING STATION"
                                                  NUCLEAR BURST
                                                DIRECTION FINDING
                                                 (NBDF) BATTALION

            I                     I
         MEDICAL              RAILROAD               TRAFFIC                 SPECIAL
        TRANSPORT           CONSTRUCTION             CONTROL               PROPAGANDA
        BATTALION             BRIGADE               BATTALION
                                                                    .      DETACHMENT

                            INDEPENDENT               AIR                     EARLY

                            RADIO RELAY             SIGNALS                  WARNING

                              BATTALION             COMPANY                 BATTALION
        page 4-126

          RADIO            RADIOTECHNICAL                                    AIRFIELD
     RECONNAISSANCE        RECONNAISSANCE                                   TECHNICAL
       BATTALION"'          BATTALION * * * *                               BATTALION
                             page 4-126
                                                         TANK ARMY 

Tank Army

   A typical TA consists primarily of three to four                     However, other combinations may be possible.
TDs and perhaps one MRD. Based on army struc-                           Therefore, the organizational charts below depict
tures identified in WGF in recent years, the 'ratio                     a variable number of divisions and all the different
of TDs to MRDs in a TA can vary from a pure                             nondivisional CS and CSS elements which could
4:O to more balanced 4:1 3:1,or 2:1 structures.                         be part of any given TA.

                                                                                  DIVISION       ,        ARTILLERY
 .                                           (2-4)                        I         (0-1)
                                                                                  page 4-38              page 4.120
                                          page 4-112

 .                                   ARTILLERY COMMAND
                                                                                     I                         1
      ROCKET LAUNCHER                                                           SSM BRIGADE              SAM BRIGADE
                                        AND CONTROL                                (SCUD)
         REGIMENT                                                                                           (SA-4)
 .         page 4-120
                                                                                  page 4 122             page 4.123


          AIR ASSAULT 


          page 4-128                      page 4-129                            page 4.127              30     Helicopters

                                            PONTON                                ASSAULT 

           ENGINEER                         BRIDGE                               CROSSING 

           BRIGADE                         REGIMENT                              BATTALION 

          page 4-124                      page 4-125                             page 4.125

                                         MAINTENANCE                          MATERIEL SUPPORT
                                          REGIMENT                                BRIGADE

                                                                                 page 4.127

NOTE: Armies in WGF are consolidating division-level SS-21 battalions into army-level S S M
Artillery Brigade, Army




                I	                            I
       HEADQUARTERS AND                 GUN BATTALION                                         I        RECONNAISSANCE
         SERVICE BATTERY                  (152-mm)                                            I             BATTERY
                                                                             (152-mm)         I

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

        Equipment                                                                     Total
                                                            5       18-Tube Battalion         4   24-Tube Battalion
         152-mm Field Gun 2A36 or
           152-mm SP Gun 2S5 or
           130-mm Field Gun M -4 6                                    36                               48
         152-mm Gun-Howitzer D-20 or
                  or M I 9 8 7                                        54   .......................     48

NOTES. 1. While some armies, particularly those in the forward area, have an artillery brigade
           with four 24-tube battalions, most armies have an artillery b r i g a d e
                                                                                   consisting of
           two gun battaltons and three gun-howitzer battaltons. with only 18 tubes per
       2. 	Some battalions still have the older 130-mm field gun M-46 or 152-mm g u n -
           howitzer M L - 2 0 .

Rocket Launcher Regiment, Army

                                                  ROCKET LAUNCHER


                                                                I                                        I
           HEADQUARTERS AND                           ROCKET LAUNCHER                                 ARTILLERY
            SERVICE BATTERY                              BATTALION                                 RECONNAISSANCE

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                                 Equipment                                       Total
                                 122-mm Rocket Launcher (40-Round) B M - 2 1 . . . 5 4
Tank Army (continued)

                                            I                                   I
                     DRONE                          MOBILE ROCKET              AIR DEFENSE ROCKET
                        SQUADRON                         TECHNICAL BASE               TECHNICAL BASE
                     (ESTIMATED)                           (PRTB)                        (ZRTB)

                                     RECONNAISSANCE                     DECONTAMINATION
        BATTALION                                                          BATTALION
        page   4-123
                           I         MOBILE ANALYTICAL
                                                                          NUCLEAR BURST
                                                                        DIRECTION FINDING
                                                                        (NBDF) BATTALION
        TRANSPORT                     CONSTRUCTION                           CONTROL                     PROPAGANDA
        BATTALION                                                           BATTALION                    DETACHMENT

               I                            I
          SIGNAL                      INDEPENDENT                               AIR
         REGIMENT                      RADIO RELAY                            SIGNALS                    WARNING
                                        BATTALION                            COMPANY                     BATTALION
        page 4-126

                              RADIO                           REAR                  AIRFIELD TECHNICAL
                         RECONNAISSANCE                                                 COMPANY/
                           BATTALION **                                                 BATTALION

FOOTNOTES.     "Also known as a mobile computation and analysis station.
               **Also known as a radio intercept and direction-finding battalion.
                                                                                                        FM 100-2-3

Antitank Regiment, Army






               A N D SERVICE 


                                                                                          (See page 4-72)

                                        PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                             Equipment                                           Total
                                                                     .. . .... . .
                                 100-mm Antitank Gun T - 1 2 / M T - 1 2 ..          36
                                 ATGM Launcher Vehicle (BRDM-2). AT-3/5    . .. .    27
FM 100-2-3

SSM Brigade (SCUD). Army or Front

                                                         SSM BRIGADE

               I                                  I                                  I
                                                                              SIGNAL COMPANY             ENGINEER COMPANY
          HEADQUARTERS                    SSM BATTALION

                                         2TELS per battery

                                                                                                I   UP R
                                                                                         TECHNICAL S P O T
                                                                                            A D SERVICES
                            BATTE RY

                                             PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                    Total       Equipment                                                Total
SSM, SS-lc/SCUD B TEL     ... . .. . ... . ...   12 or 18*           Meteorological Radar, END TRAY   . ... . . . . . .....   3

NOTE, The 1987 INF Treaty calls for elimination of the SS-23 from the Soviet inventory

FOOTNOTE. *An SSM battalion may consist of either two or three firing batteries; therefore,
           a battalion may have 4 or 6 TELs, and a brigade may have 12 or 18 TELs.
           There is at least one reload missile per TEL.
SAM Brigade (SA-4). Army or Front

                                                      SAM BRIGADE

                                                               I	                                    I
               HEADQUARTERS                              A
                                                        S M BATTALION                                    UP R
                                                                                              TECHNICAL S P O T
                                                                                                 A D SERVICES

                                                         SAM BATTERY

                                                       3 launchers per battery

                                        P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF E Q U I P M E N T

Equipment                                Total (estimated)          Equipment                             Total (estimated)
SAM. SA-4/GANEF TEL                                      27         Radar. Target Acquisition, LONG TRACK                5
Radar, Fire Control, PAT HAND                              9        Radar, Height Finding, THIN SKIN                     1

NOTES: 1. This chart depicts the key subunits of an SA-4 brigade: thus. not all of the
          brigade's subunits are shown.
        2. 	 The SA-11 is replacing the SA-4 in army-level SAM brigades, but under a dif-

             ferent organization. The SA-12a/GL4DIATOR and the SA-12b/GIANT are replac-

             ing the SA-4 in nondivisional SAM units, but under an organization different 

             from that of the SA-4 or the SA-11 

Chemical Protection Battalion, Army



        I	       SERVICES
             HEADQUARTERS A D

                                I                        PROTECTION	

                                                                                                 C MAY
                                                                                                  O PN
Engineer Brigade, Army or Front




                                    COMBAT ENGINEER
                                                                       ROAD AND

                                        (SAPPER)                        BRIDGE                   BATTALION
          AND SERVICES
                                         BATTALION                     BATTALION

                      P ONTON 


                                        BATTALION                      BATTALION 

                                      PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                            Total       Equipment                                   Total
ACV. BRDM-2                                             4        Bridge Ramp, PMP o n KrAZ-255                  4
APC, BTR-60                                             6        Tracked Ferry, GSP                           24
Truck, UAZ-469    ............................ 1 9           
   Tracked Amphibian, K-61/PTS                  28
Truck. ZIL-131/151/157                                 82        Ditching Machine. BTM/MDK-2                  12
Truck, KrAZ-255   ............................         25 
      Dozer. BAT/BAT-M/PKT  .....................  15 

Armored Recovery Vehicle                                6        Powerboat. BMK-150                           15
Bridge. T M M on KrAZ-255                               20       Minelayer, PMR-3/GMZ                         13
Bridge, Tank-Launched. MTU/MT-55       .......       12-74       Armored Engineer Tractor, IMR                  6
Bridge. Section, PMP o n KrAZ-255                       32       Mineclearer, MTK/MTK-2                         3

NOTE: Structure and number/type of equipment vary.
Assault Crossing Battalion, Army or Front

                                              ASSAULT CROSSING



                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                        Total       Equipment                                    Total
ACV, BRDM-2                                         4        Tracked Ferry. GSP                             40
Truck. UAZ-469                                      2        Tracked Amphibian. K-61/PTS                    36
Truck. ZIL-131/151/157                             10        Ditching Machine. BTM/MDK-2                     3
Armored Engineer Tractor. IMR                       3        Dozer. BAT/BAT-M/PKT                            3
Armored Recovery Vehicle                            3

Ponton Bridge Regiment. Army or Front

                                               PONTON BRIDGE

                     I                                   I                                 I
            HEADQUARTERS AND                                                          TECHNICAL COMPANY
            SERVICES COMPANY                        BATTALION

                                  BATTALION                          PONTON BRIDGE

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                        Total       Equipment                                    Total
ACV. BRDM-2                                        10        Bridge Section, PMP on KrAZ-255                96
Truck, UAZ-469                                      5        Bridge Ramp. PMP on KrAZ-255                   12
Truck, ZIL-131/151/157                             60        Tracked Amphibian. K-61/PTS                      8
Truck, KrAZ-255                                     5        Ditching Machine, BTM/MDK-2                     3
A r m o r e d Recovery Vehicle                      3        Dozer, BAT/BAT-M/PKT                            7
Bridge, T M M on KrAZ-255                           4        Powerboat. BMK-l5O/BMK-T                       36
Signal Regiment. Army

       HEADQUARTERS                    RADIO BATTALION                 WIRE BATTALION          RADIO RELAY
       AND SERVICES                                                                             BATTALION

Radiotechnical Reconnaissance Battalion, Army



                                                                       DIRECTION-FINDING   AND DIRECTION-FINDING

NOTE: This battalion is also known as a radio and radar intercept and direction-finding
Material Support Brigade. Army




                                    MOTOR TRANSPORT
                                                                         POL TRANSPORT                      RNP R/
                                                                                                     TANK T A S O T       I
                 BATTALION                            BATTALION               H A Y LIFT BATTALION**
                                                                                               L                          J

FOOTNOTE: 'A tank transport/heavy lift battalion, equipped with MAZ-537 heavy tank trans-
           porters. may be attached to the brigade when the mission dictates.

Attack Helicopter Regiment, Army


 .          I                             I                                   I
      HIND SQUADRON                 HIP SQUADRON
                                                          1               MAINTENANCE                   FLIGHT SERVICES

                                       PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                              Total         Equipment                                      Total
Attack Helicopter. Mi-24/HIND     D/E/F   . . . . . . . . . 40       Medium Helicopter, Mi-8T/HIP C/E or
                                                                       Mi-17/HIP H .............................20 

Independent Air Assault Battalion, Army


                                                      AIR ASSAULT 


           BATTALION                      ASSAULT                              PARACHUTE             MORTAR
         HEADQUARTERS                     COMPANY                               COMPANY              BATTERY
                                         page 4 - 1 4 1
                                                                              page 4-142

           AIR DEFENSE                RECONNAISSANCE                            SIGNAL
                                                                                               GRENADE LAUNCHER
              PLATOON                     PLATOON                              PLATOON


                                        PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                 Total         Equipment                                 Total
120-mm Mortar. M 1 9 4 3 or M-120                            8          ATGL, RPG-16D                               27
SAM. SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN or                                     AAICV. BMD-1                               13
  SA-16                                     ......... 9                 APC, BMD M1979/1                             3
30-mm Automatic Grenade Launcher. AGS-17          ... 6                 ACV, B M D - 1 K S h                         1

NOTES. 1. This represents a provisional assessment of the strength, organization, and equip-
          ment of the independent air assault battalion, based on fragmentary information
          from several sources.
       2. A n army may have more than one of these battalions.
       3. The battalion has no organic lift capability.
Material Support Brigade. Army




                                    MOTOR TRANSPORT
                                                                         POL TRANSPORT                      RNP R/
                                                                                                     TANK T A S O T       I
                  BATTALION                            BATTALION               H A Y LIFT BATTALION**
                                                                                               L                          J

FOOTNOTE: 'A tank transport/heavy lift battalion, equipped with MAZ-537 heavy tank trans-
           porters. may be attached to the brigade when the mission dictates.

Attack Helicopter Regiment, Army


 .         I                              I                                   I
      HIND SQUADRON                 HIP SQUADRON
                                                          1               MAINTENANCE                   FLIGHT SERVICES

                                       PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                              Total         Equipment                                      Total
Attack Helicopter. Mi-24/HIND     D/E/F   . . . . . . . . . 40       Medium Helicopter, Mi-8T/HIP C/E or
                                                                       Mi-17/HIP H .............................20 



   The front is the highest Soviet operational com-      of a front in wartime, currently has three TAs and
mand in wartime. It is both an administrative and        only two CAAs.
an operational entity, incorporating the air and             I n addition to these ground armies, a typical
ground forces required for operations in a given         front may have air forces of the front, one or two
area. No fronts exist in peacetime, although the          artiller y divisions, SSM brigades, a SAM brigade,
basic elements of a wartime front (that is, the           an air assault brigade, and a SPETSNAZ brigade.
combat and CS units and the rudimentary frame-            If required, the front may receive support from
work of the CSS units) are present in the peacetime      airborne and amphibious forces. The TVD may
structures of the military districts in the USSR          receive additional assets from the Reserve of the
and Soviet groups of forces in Eastern Europe. In        Supreme High Command (RVGK), which it, in
wartime, Soviet force developers will activate fronts.    turn, may allocate to the front. The front may also
They will organize each front for a specific stra-        receive support from assets of the Strategic Rocket
tegic operation within a TVD, based on their              Forces (SRF), strategic aviation, naval forces, rail-
analysis of the objectives, enemy, and terrain. Thus,     road troops, and Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD)
there is no fixed front organization. Historically,       and KGB units.
fronts have varied greatly in size, consisting of            Due to the wide variety in types and numbers
as few as two and as many as nine armies. Today,         of units which may make up a given front, con-
however, a typical front may have three to five          struction of a sample front structure is impossible.
Soviet/non-Soviet CAAs or TAs.
                                                         Instead, the following charts depict all of the dif-
                                                         ferent units that could be allocated to any given
    Most fronts which could be formed throughout         front, depending on its mission within the context
the Soviet Army would have three to four CAAs            of the overall strategic operation. Not all fronts
and perhaps one TA. This may not be the case             would have all these units present. Many of the
i n the Western TVD, where there is a greater            units may be modified to suit the particular needs
percentage of TDs versus MRDs and, consequently,         of the front. More than one of some types of unite
a greater percentage of TAs versus CAAs. For             will probably be present; for example, SSM brigades
example, the WGF, which could form the nucleus           or ponton bridge regiments.
        FRONT                        COMBINED ARMS                                           AIR FORCES
    HEADQUARTERS                      OR TANK ARMY                                          OF THE FRONT

                                                                                           page 4-133 

                                    page 4-116 and page 4-118


      ARTILLERY                                                   SSM BRIGADE
                                                                     (SCUD)       I



        page 4-135 
                   page 4-136 
                page 4-122 

     AIR ASSAULT                       SPETSNAZ                   SAM BRIGADE                ENGINEER
       BRIGADE                         BRIGADE                       (SA-4)                  BRIGADE

      page 4.139                        page 4-143 

                                                      .            page 4-123                 page 4-124 

     AIRMOBILE               I 

                             I         AIRBORNE       I 

I     ASSAULT                                         I 
      BRIGADE        !


                                    ARMORED VEHICLE                MATERIEL                                  I

                                                                           HEAVY LIFT
                                        REPAIR                     SUPPORT                   REGIMENT*

                                       BATTALION                   BRIGADE 

                                                                                       I                     I 

                                                                   page 4-127 

                             .                                                               AIR DEFENSE
       MISSILE                          MISSILE                  MOBILE ROCKET
                                         FUEL                    TECHNICAL BASE                 ROCKET
                                       BATTALION                     (PRTB)                TECHNICAL BASE
.                                                                                                (ZRTB)
Front (continued)

        CHEMICAL                     CHEMICAL                         RADIOLOGICAL                 PERSONNEL
       PROTECTION                   BATTALION                         AND CHEMICAL               AND EQUIPMENT
        BRIGADE                    Of THE REAR                       RECONNAISSANCE             DECONTAMINATION

       page 4.137
                                                     .                  BATTALION
                                                                                            .      BATTALION

                                MOBILE ANALYTICAL
                                PLOTTING STATION*.
                                                                    DIRECTION FINDING
                                                                     (NBDF) BATTALION
        MEDICAL                 EPIDEMIC CONTROL
       TRANSPORT                  DETACHMENT/                            HOSPITAL
       BATTALION                    BATTALION

        RAILROAD                                                                                   SPECIAL
      CONSTRUCTION                                                                               PROPAGANDA
        BRlGADE                                                                                    COMPANY

         SIGNAL                    RVGK SIGNAL                         INDEPENDENT                   AIR
        BRIGADE                     BRIGADE'                            RADIO RELAY                SIGNALS
                                                                         BATTALION                 COMPANY
       page 4-137

        RADIO                    RADIOTECHNICAL                       RADIOTECHNICAL 

    RECONNAISSANCE               RECONNAISSANCE                       RECONNAISSANCE 

      REGIMENT"'                   REGIMENT+*'*                         BRIGADE""" 

                                    page 4-138

      AIR DEFENSE                 EARLY WARNING                                                  SECURITY AND
        JAMMING                     REGIMENT/                                                      SERVICES
        REGIMENT                     BRIGADE
                                                          .         COMPANY/BATTALION             DETACHMENT

                                     PIPELINE                              REAR
                                     BRIGADE                             SERVICES

FOOTNOTES.       'RVGK assets allocated through N D to front.
                **Also known as a mobile computation and analysis station.
              ***Also known as a radio intercept and direction- findingregiment.
             ****Also known as a radio and radar intercept and direction-finding regiment
Air Forces of the Front

           I	                            I
                                      FIGHTER/    I
                                                                                 I                             I
        FIGHTER                    FIGHTER-BOMBER                      FIGHTER-BOMBER
        DIVISION                     DIVISION*'                           DIVISION    I                    REGIMENT
                                                         I                            I
 MiG-21/FISHBED L                     page 4-134
                                                                  Su-17/FITTER D/H                  Mig-25/FOXBAT B/D
MiG-23/FLOGGER B/G                                                Su-24/FENCER                      Yak 28/Brewer E (Electronic
                                                                  Su-25/FROGFOOT                        Warfare)
                                                                  Mig-27/FLOGGER D/J

I 	        ATTACK         I
                                                         I                                           GENERAL PURPOSE
I                               TRANSPORT HELICOPTER                    HELICOPTER
        HELICOPTER                                           I
                                   HELICOPTER SQUADRON***
                           I          REGIMENT                          ECM SQUADRON
 I      REGIMENT(S)        I
        page 4-127                        page 4-134 	                      Mi-8/HIP J/K

NOTES. 1 . 	The Air Forces of the Front have no fixed organization and may tailor their struc-
            ture to meet specific needs. A typical Air Farces of the Front would include two
            or three divisions of fighters and fighter-bombers and one or more independent
            regiments of reconnasissance aircraft, in addition to helicopter units of the types
            shown above.
        2. 	The Air Forces of the WGF, which comprise the largest concentration of air forces
            in peacetime. include more than 700 combat aircraft. over 350 attack helicopters.
            and about 300 other aircraft and helicopters. These assets are organized into
            five air divisions (one fighter division. two fighter/fighter-bomber divisions, and
            two fighter-bomber divisions) and at least ten independent regiments (three a i r
            reconnaissance regiments, two transport helicopter regiments, and five attack
            helicopter regiments). While the five attack helicopter regiments belong organi­
            zationally to the Air Forces of the WGF. they are under the operational control
            of the five CAAs and TAs of the WGF.

FOOTNOTES. 'Fighter and fighter-bomber divisions have the same basic structure. a s
             shown o n p. 4-134.
          " fighter/fighter-bomber division has a mix of the aircraft types shown for
             the fighter division and the fighter-bomber division.
         ""The general-purpose helicopter squadron normally has 20 to 30 helicopters.
Fighter or Fighter-Bomber Division,
Air Force of the Front


                                                                   FIGHTER-BOMBER                     SUPPORT ELEMENT


NOTE.	 Each fighter or fighter-bomber regiment has 45 aircraft (in three squadrons of 15
       aircraft each). This total includes up to 5 trainer aircraft per regiment that can serve
        as combat aircraft.

Transport Helicopter Regiment.
Air Forces of the Front



              HEAVY-LIFT                                                             MAINTENANCE            FLIGHT SERVICES
              SQUADRON                               SQUADRON

                                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                          Total   Equipment                                          Total
Heavy-Lift Helicopter. Mi-6A/HOOK                                          Medium Helicopter, Mi-BT/HIP C
  or Mi-26/HALO A             .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. .....
                               .. ..                               24      or Mi-17/HIP H                                     32
Artillery Division, Front



      DIVISION                        U
                                     GN                       HOWITZER
                                                          GUN-	                          HOWITZER               ROCKET LAUNCHER
                                  BRIGADE                                               BRIGADE**                   BRIGADE***
                                (152/203-mm) 	                                        (122/152-mm                    (220-mm)

                   ANTITANK                   ARTLLERY                    MATERIEL                    MAINTENANCE
                  BRIGADEa*'*              RECONNAISSANCE                  SUPPORT                     BATTALION
                                              BATTALION                   BATULION
                                                                                                  .                 A

                    SIGNAL                   ENGINEER                   CHEMICAL                      MEDICAL
                   COMPANY                   COMPANY                   PROTECTION                     COMPANY

                                           P R I N C I P A L I T E M S OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment 	                                             Total       Equipment                                               Total
1 2 2 - m m Howitzer D - 3 0 or M-30 	                    72        2 2 0 - m m Rocket Launcher (16-Round)
1 5 2 - m m Gun-Howitzer D-20or M L - 2 0 or                           E M - 2 2 or 1 2 2 - m m Rocket Launcher
   M 1 9 8 7 or 1 5 2 - m m SP Howitzer 2S3              144           (40-Round) B M - 2 1  .......................... 72
1 5 2 - m m Field G u n 2 A 3 6 or 2 0 3 - m m                      1 0 0 - m m Antitank G u n T-12/MT-12      ............      48
   SP. G u n 2 S 7                                        72        A T G M Launcher Vehicle (BRDM-2). AT-3/5                    36

NOTE: 	 In some artillery divisions, howitzer, gun-howitzer, and gun brigades consist of four
        18-tube battalions, while in other artillery divisions, these brigades consist of three
        24-tube battalions

FOOTNOTES.        'Some gun brigades (for example, one in WGF) may have the 203-mm SP
                    gun 2S7. In some artillery divisions, gun brigades may still have the older
                    130-mm field gun M-46.
                "Most artillery divisions have a mixture of 122-mm howitzer and 152-mm
                    gun-howitzer brigades: others (for example, in WGFI employ only 152-mm
                    howitzers or gun-howitzers.
                "'The rocket launcher brigade normally consists of four battalions, each with
                     18 EM-22 rocket launchers. Some brigades may still have the 122-mm
                    rocket launcher (40-round) EM-21, which the EM-22 is replacing in the
                    forward area.
              '""Equipment totals given are for an antitank brigade with four antitank bat-

                    talions of the type shown on p. 4-72, although some artillery divisions. such 

                    as those in WGF, may have no antitank unit.

High-Powered Artillery Brigade. Front

                 HEAVY ARTILLERY	                            HEAVY MORTAR

                    2 tubes each 	                            2 tubes each

                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                               Total         Equipment                                                        Total
2 0 3 - m m S P Gun, 2S7 or 2 0 3 - m m Howitzer                         2 4 0 - m m SP Mortar, 2 S 4 or 2 4 0 - m m Mortar
   M 1931 ( B - 4 M )... .. . .. . . . .. ..... .... .....
                       . .                 .                  24         M-240    . . ..   . . .. ... ..... .. . ... . . . . . ... .. . .      24

NOTE. 	A high-powered artillery brigade from the Reserve of the Supreme High Command
       (RVGK) will probably be allocated to a front. This nuclear-capable brigade is not part
      of the front'sartillery division.
Radiotechnical Reconnaissance Regiment, Front





                                                     I                                 I
                                                                                                    RADAR INTERCEPT
           HEADQUARTERS                     RADIO INTERCEPT                                          AND DIRECTION-
           AND SERVICES                        BATTALION                                           FINDING BATTALION

NOTE. This regiment is also known as a radio and radar intercept and direction-finding regi

Materiel Support Brigade. Front





                                         MOTOR TRANSPORT
                                                                              POL TRANSPORT
                                                                                                   TANK TRANSPORT/
         AND SERVICES 

                                      .      REGIMENT                           REGIMENT         HEAVY LIFT BATTALION
Air Assault Brigade. Front

            BRIGADE                                                                                  RECONNAISSANCE
          HEADQUARTERS                                                                                 C OMPANY

            COMPOSITE                   AIR DEFENSE
                                                                          ENGINEER                     SIGNAL
            ARTILLERY                    ARTILLERY
      page 4-143
                                                                          COMPANY                     COMPANY
                                        TRANSPORT AND
                                         MAINTENANCE                  PROTECTION
         RESUPPLY COMPANY                   COMPANY

                                                  I        SUPPLY

                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                           Total         Equipment                                             Total
1 2 0 - m m Mortar, M 1 9 4 3or M - 1 2 0               32        A T G M Manpack Console, AT-4/SPIGOT                   12
1 2 2 - m m Howitzer, D - 3 0                      1 2 -1 8       7 3 - m m Recoilless AT Gun. SPG-9                       6
1 2 2 - m m Rocket Launcher (12-Round) 8 M - 2 1 V     ...
                                                         6        ATGL. RPG-16D                                         150
SAM, SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                                  3 0 - m m Automatic Grenade Launcher,
   or S A -1 6                                          45           A G S -1 7                                          24
2 3 - m m A A Gun. ZU-23                                  6        AAICV, B M D - 1 and variants     ................... 6 8

NOTES.    1.This represents a provisional assessment of the strength, organization, and equip-
            ment of the air assault brigade, based on fragmentary information from several
         2. Air transport support units required for deployment may be allocated t othe brigade 

            from Military Transport Aviation (VTA) assets. Either transportaircraft or heavy-lift

            helicopters could air-land the BMD-equippedbattalions or insertthe parachute bat-

            talions by parachute. Helicopters could also air-land the parachute battalions. 

FOOTNOTE. 'Some     air assault brigades may have a different mix, consisting of one BMD-
              equipped assault battalion and three parachute battalions.
Airmobile Assault Brigade. Front

                                                 ASSAULT       BRIGADE


               I                                                      CHEMICAL
             SIGNAL                     TRANSPORT                                                 MEDICAL
             COMPANY                         COMPANY                  PROTECTION                  PLATOON

                                        SUPPLY A D


                                           O PN
                                         C M A Y

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                Total                  Equipment                                           Total
120-rnrn Mortar. M 1 9 4 3or M - 1 2 0     24                   A T G M M a n p a c k Console, AT-4/SPIGOT            18
1 2 2 - m m Howitzer. D - 3 0                6                  7 3 - m m Recoilless AT Gun. SPG-9                     9
SAM, SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                                ATGL, RPG-16D       .............................    114
   or S A - 1 6                             36                  3 0 - m m A u t o Grenade Launcher, AGS-17            18
A T G M Launcher Vehicle (BRDM-2).                              ACV. BRDM-2                                            4
   AT-3/SAGGER or AT-5/SPANDREL ............ 9

NOTES. 1 . This represents a provisional assessment of the strength, organization, and equip-
           ment of the airmobile assault brigade, based on fragmentary information from
           several sources.
       2. The helicopter is the primary mode of transportation for the airmobile assault 

           brigade. Helicopters organic to the Air Forces of the Front may come under the 

           operational control of the brigade headquarters. However, Military Transport 

           Aviation (VTA)assets may also lift the brigade. 

FOOTNOTE, *The parachute battalions in the airmobile assault brigade are sometimes called
             airmobile assault battalions.
Assault Battalion (BMD), Air Assault Brigade, Front




                                                                                              AIR DEFENSE
         COMPANY                         BATTERY                      PLATOON
                                                    ,                                  .
     1   ACV, BMD-IKSh       Each:                        8   120-rnrn Mortar.          9   SAM, S A - 7 / GRAIL or
                              10 AAICV, BMD-1                 M 1 9 4 3OR M - 1 2 0         SA-14/GREMLIN
                               9 ATGL, RPG-16D                                              or SA-16



                                              GRENADE LAUNCHER 


                                          6    30-mm Automatic
                                               Grenade Launcher,
                                          3    APC, BMD M1979/1

                                  PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                      Total     Equipment                                                    Total
ATGL. RPG-l6D                                    27      120-mm Mortar, M 1 9 4 3or M-120                                 8
SAM, SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN or                      AAICV. BMD-1          .............................30
 SA-16                                              9    APC. BMD M1979/1                                                 3
30-mm Automatic Grenade Launcher. AGS-17      ...   6    ACV. BMD-1KSh                                                    1
Parachute Battalion, Air Assault Brigade
and Airmobile Assault Brigade, Front




                                                                                                            AIR DEFENSE
            HEADQUARTERS                       COMPANY



                                                                                                         SAM. SA-7/
                                      Each:                                Mortar, M 1 9 4 3            GRAIL or SA-14/
                                      9 ATGL, RPG-16D                      or M - 1 2 0                  GREMLIN or SA-16

                                               ANTITANK                       AUTOMATIC 

                                               PLATOON                    GRENADE LAUNCHER 


                                      6    ATGM, Manpach              6 x 30-mm Automatlc
                                           Console. A T - 4 /            Grenade Launcher.
                                           SPIGOT                        AGS-17
                                       3   73-mm Recoilless
                                           AT Gun, SPG-9

                                           PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                                 Total      Equipment                                              Total
ATGL. RPG-16D                                                   27   73-mm Recoilless AT Gun. SPG-9           .............    3
SAM. SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                                     120-mm Mortar, M 1 9 4 3or M - 1 2 0     .............    8
  or SA-16                                                      9
ATGM, Manpack Console. AT-4/SPIGOT                              6
30-mm Automatic Grenade Launcher. AGS-17          ...           6

NOTE. In the airmobile assault brigade, the parachute battalion may be called an airmobile
      assault battalion.
Composite Artillery. Battalion, Air Assault Brigade, Front


                                                    PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

 Equipment                                                           Total        Equipment                                                Total

 122-mm Howitzer             .
                       D-30 . . . .   . . . . . . .. . . . . .       12-18                                                          . ..
                                                                                   1 2 2 - m m Rocket Launcher (12-Round) B M - 2 1 V          6

SPETSNAZ Brigade. Front



                                                                 .      900-2,000
              BRIGADE                               (PARACHUTE)                           SIGNAL                          SUPPORT
            HEADQUARTE RS                             BATTALION              I           BATTALION                         UNITS
      .                                               180-410


                                                                 page 4-129

NOTES. 1. Brigade structure is not fixed. This chart represents a provisional assessment of
             what may be a typical SPETSNAZ brigade's strength and organization, based on
             fragmentary information from several sources.
          2. A brigade may deploy about 8 0 to 1 0 0 SPETSNAZ teams.
                  Airborne Forces

    Soviet airborne forces are directly subordinate               would be allocated to TVDs a n d possibly, in turn,
 to t h e VGK or t h e wartime S t a v k a VGK, with              to f r o n t s or armies for specific missions. Other
 operational control exercised by the Chief of the                airborne units would remain under VGK control.
    n e r a l Staff. I n wartime, some airborne units

                                AIRBORNE REGIMENT STRUCTURE (BMD)
BMD Squad
                                                                    Personnel                            Equipment
                                                                    Squad Leader/BMD Commander             AKS-74
                            BMD SQUAD                               BMD Driver/Mechanic ..................... PM
                                                                    BMD Gunner ............................. PM
                                                                    Machine Gunner                        RPKS-74
                                                                    Grenadier ....................... RPG-16D. PM
                                                                    Assistant Squad Leader/Senior
                                                                      Rifleman                             AKS-74
                                                                    Rifleman/Assistant Grenadier           AKS-74
Airborne Company, Airborne Battalion, Airborne Regiment,
Airborne Division

                       COMPANY                                            BMD PLATOON
                     HEADQUARTERS                                          (3 B M D )

             Company Commander . . PM 

             Deputy Commander1 

               Political Officer     PM 

             Senior Technician ..... PM 

             First Sergeant ..... AKS-74

             BMD Gunner ......... PM 

             BMD Driver/ 

               Mechanic              PM      Platoon Leader         PM
                                                                                            (See above)
                                             Assistant Platoon
                                               Leader            AXS-74
                                            PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT
Equipment                                  Total                  Equipment                               Total
9-mm Pistol, PM                               35                  Radios:
5.45-mm Assault Rifle. AKS-74 ............... 31                    VHF. Portable, Low-Power, R-148           4
5.45-mm Light Machine Gun. RPKS-74             9                    VHF. Manpack. Low-Power. R-107            1
Antitank Grenade Launcher. RPG-16D .......... 9                     VHF, Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power.
AAICV. BMD-1                                  10                      R-123 .................................1 0
NOTE. 	 The company commander's RTO comes from the battalion signal platoon and is not
      part   of   the BMD company personnel total.
Airborne Battalion, Airborne Regiment, Airborne Division


                                                   AIR DEFENSE 




              page 4-144
                                          9   " SAM,    SA-7/GRAIL or 

 VHF, Manpack,                                                                               SA-14/GREMLIN

         Low-Power, R-107
                                                                        or SA-16

 VHF, Vehicle Mount,                                                                   3 ' APC, BMD M1979/1

         Medium-Pawer. R-123

 Warning Receiver, R-311 

                        S UPPLY AND                 REPAIR


    6 " 30-mm Automatic 

        Grenade Launcher. 

                                   M EDICAL AID

 RPC, BMD 197911
                             S TATION 

                                     PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                         Total           Equipment                                       Total 

ATGL, RPG-16D                                       30            Truck, Van, ZIL (Maintenance)                       1

SAM, SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                                  Trailer. Cargo, 1-Axle                              3

   or SA-16  ................................. 9                  Trailer. Field Kitchen                              3

3 0 -m m Automatic Grenade Launcher,                              Trailer, Water                                      1

   AGS-17                                            6            Radios: 

5.45-mm LMG, RPKS-74                                27              HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount, Medium Power       ...... 1 

AAICV. BMD-1                                        30              VHF. Portable, Low-Power. R-148     ........... 1 2 

APC. BMD M 1 9 7 9 / 1                               6              VHF, Manpack, Low-Power. R-107       ........... 7 

ACV. BMD-1KSh                                        1              VHF, Vehicle-Mount, Medium-Power. 

Truck. UAZ-69/469                                    1              R-123                                           35 

Truck, GAZ-66A                                      10              Ground-to-Air Radio Set                          2

Truck. Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452                       1              Warning Receiver, R-311                          1

Airborne Regiment (BMD)

   The airborne regiment has a nucleus of three             grenade launcher platoons within battalions use
airborne battalions and three fire support subunits.        the BMD M1979/1. The BMD-1 KSh serves as a
These fire support subunits include one mortar              command vehicle a t battalion and regimental
battery, one ATGM battery, and one AA battery.              headquarters.
There are other elements that support the combat
elements.                                                      By adding the BMD to such a n extent, the
                                                            Soviets have upgraded troop protection, mobility,
   Each regiment now has over 100 BMDs in three             and firepower while retaining air-droppability.
different configurations. The basic BMD-I is the            Only a few items within airborne regiments are
standard squad vehicle. Air defenseand automatic            not air-droppable (for example, several trucks).

                                                AIRBORNE REGIMENT 


                                        page 4-145
                                                                                         PARACHUTE RIGGING
                                                                                           AND RESUPPLY
             45                            60                         50                     COMPANY
                                                            .                                   85

                                            I                         I                         1
      TRANSPORT AND                     CHEMICAL                                            SUPPLY AND
                                                                MEDICAL PLATOON
   MAINTENANCE COMPANY                 PROTECTION                                         SERVICE PLATOON
                                        PLATOON                       15
              65                                                                                25

NOTE. Approximately 150 personnel are officers.

4- 146




Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation
                                       AIRBORNE DIVISION

Airborne Division

    The Soviet airborne division is now almost fully          (ASU-85)battalion, and an antiaircraft battalion
equipped with motorized equipment. This signifi-              provide essential CS. The introduction of t h e 2S9
cantly increases its combat power and mobility                S P howitzer as a replacement for towed artillery
while retaining a n airdrop capability for most of            will increase mobility. Also, the airborne division
its equipment. The airborne division now has the              has other CS and CSS units that provide limited
BMD AAICV in all three of its airborne (infantry)             backup for combat operations.
regiments. An artillery regiment, a n assault gun


                                                                 ARTILLERY REGIMENT             ASSUALT GUN

                                                                     page 4 153                  page 4 154
                                    page 4 146

      ANTIAIRCRAFT                                                SIGNAL BATTALION          PARACHUTE RIGGING
       BATTALION               ENGINEER BATTALION                                          & RESUPPLY BATTALION

          155                         220
                                                          .             180                        220 

                                       I                                 I                          1
     TRANSPORT AND                                                 RECONNAISSANCE                CHEMICAL
                               MEDICAL BATTALION
      MAINTENANCE                                                     COMPANY                   PROTECTION
       BATTALION                       95                                75                      COMPANY
          165                                                                                       65
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)
FM 100-2-3
Personnel and Equipment Recapitulation (continued)
Artillery Regiment, Airborne Division

     T h e airborne division's artillery regiment                         w i t h twelve D-30s and six 122-mm rocket launchers
consists p r i m a r i l y o f t w o f i r i n g battalions. T h e        (BM-21V). T h e artillery regiment also has limited
first i s a 122-mm towed howitzer (D-30) battalion                        organic support elements.
w i t h 18 tubes. The other i s a composite battalion



                                            HOWITZER                               O P ST
                                                                                  C M O IE                    ASSAULT
  HEADQUARTERS BATTERY                      B T AI N
                                             A T LO                               ARTILLERY                   SECURITY
                                                                                  BATTALION                    AT R
                                                                                                              B TE Y
             75                               240                                    240                         35


                                       18             oe
                                             122-mm T w d                   1 * 122-mmT w d
                                                                             2         oe
                                             Howitzer(D-30)                      Howitzer (D-30)
                                                                             6   122-mmRocket
                                                                                 Launcher (12-Round)

                                                    I                             I




                                             PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                 Total                           Equipment                                         Total
122-mrn Rocket Launcher (12-Round) EM-21V    6  ...                       Truck, Chemical Reconnaissance. UAZ-69rkh  .... 1
122-rnm Towed Howitzer. D-30       ...............
                                            30                            Trailer, Cargo, 1-Axle  .......................23
ATGL, RPG-16D         ............................
                                            40                            Trailer, Water   ...............................4
SAM, SA-7/GRAIL or SA-14/GREMLIN                                          Trailer, Field Kitchen ........................10
  or SA-16        ................................
                          Radar, Counter-Mortar/Counter-Battery ......... 2
5.45-mm LMG, RPKS-74             ....................
Truck, UAZ-69/469         .........................
                            HF/VHF, Vehicle Mount, Medium-Power          ...... 5
Truck, GAZ-66A/B         ..........................
                            HF/VHF. Vehicle Mount, High-Power    ......... 1
Truck, Ambulance, UAZ-450A/452         .............
                             VHF. Portable. Low-Power. R-148   ............ 5
Truck, Van, GAZ (Signal)      ......................
                             VHF. Manpack, Low-Power, R-107     .......... 45
Truck, Van, ZIL (Maintenance)      .................
                             Warning Receiver. R-311    ................... 3
Truck, POL, GAZ-66        ..........................
                             Radio Relay, VHF/UHF, R-401/405    ...........     1
Assault Gun Battalion, Airborne Division

   T h e assault g u n battalion h a s 31 85-mm SP                companies with 10 ASU-85s each; there i s 1 ASU-85 

assault guns (ASU-85s). T h e battalion h a s three               a t battalion headquarters. 

                                                     ASSAULT GUN 


                         BATTALION                                                     ASSAULT GUN
                       HEADQUARTERS                                                     COMPANY

                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment                                   Total 
               Equipment                                      Total
85-mm Assault Gun. ASU-85 ................ 31 
                   Trailer, Cargo, 1-Axle ........................3 

                                 Trailer, Water ............................... 1 

  or SA-16 ................................1 2 
                  Trailer. Field Kitchen .........................3 

ATGL, RPG-16D ............................. 2 

Truck. UAZ-69/469 ..........................2 
                     HF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, R - 1 3 0 .... 1 

Truck, ZIL-130/131 .......................... 
 6                   VHF. Manpack, Low-Power. R-107 ........... 2 

Truck. Ambulance. UAZ-450A/452 ............. 1 
                    VHF. Vehicle Mount. Medium-Power, 

Truck. Van, ZIL (Maintenance) ................. 1 
                    R-123 ................................. 1 
Truck. POL. GAZ-66 .......................... 1 
                   Warning Receiver, R-311 ................... 1 

            Amphibious Forces

       The Soviet Naval Infantry. ( S N I ) i s a branch         similar t o t h a t of a n MRB i n t h e ground forces.
 of t h e Soviet N a v y . T h e S N I u n i t s a r e opera-    These S N I battalions, along with a T B a n d other
 t i o n a l l y subordinate t o fleet commanders. They          u n i t s , form either regiments o r brigades. While
 m a y conduct l a n d i n g s i n s u p p o r t of a front or   brigades operate se p aratel y , regiments are part of
 T V D a s p a r t of t h e combined a r m s o p erations.       a naval infantry division.
 T h e organization of a naval infantry battalion is

Naval lnfantry Battalion, Naval lnfantry Regiment or Brigade




                                                                                                           SUPPLY AND
    BATTALION                   MEDICAL                                             SIGNAL                 MAINTENANCE
   HEAOQUARTERS                 PLATOON                                            PLATOON
        12                           5                                                16                       27

   1 * BTR-60/80

                                                              M RA                        ANTITANK
                                                              PLATOON                      LTO
                                                                                          PAO N

                         10   BTR-60/80                  1     BTR-60/80              2   BTR-60/80
                          3   SA-7/GRAIL                 3     82/120-mm              3   AT-3 (Manpack)
                          9   RPG-7                           Mortar                  3   SPG-9
                          9   RPG-7V
                                         PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT
Equipment                                                Total         Equipment                                    Total
APC. BTR-60/80 (including command                                      ATGM Manpack Console. AT-3     ................ 3 

  variants   .................................3 4                      73-mm Recoilless Gun, SPG-9    ................ 3 

82/120-mm Mortar     ..........................3                       7.62-mm Sniper Rifle, SVD   ...................9 

SAM, SA-7/GRAIL     ...........................9                       5.45-mm LMG. RPK-74     ......................27 

ATGL, RPG-7V .......................
                                   .                         27        5.45-mm Assault Rifle, AK-74  ...............282 

Naval Infantry Company


                                                                             PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT

                                                                       Equipment                                     Total
                                                                       APC, BTR-60/80   ........................... 1 0 

                                                                       SAM, SA-7/GRAIL   ........................... 3 

                                                                       ATGL, RPG-7 ...............................9 

                                                                       7.62-mm Sniper Rifle. SVD ...................3 

                                                                       5.45-mm LMG, RPK-74 ....................... 9 

      BTR-60/80                      3   .   BTR-60/80
                                                                       5.45-mm Assault Rifle, AK-74 ................ 68

Naval Infantry Regiment. Naval Infantry Division




                               r             I
                           RECONNAISSANCE                         ANTITANK
                          O PN
                                                                           C MAY                               BATTERY

                                             188                             50                                   30
                                   41    PT-76/T-54/55                         3    PT-76              6       AT-3 (BRDM-2)
     34 * BTR-60/80
                3   * BTR-60/80                            9    BRDM-2
     27 x RPB-7V

                                    REGIMENTAL                          ROCKET LAUNCHER

                                    4     BTR-60/80                            6   *BM-21




                                                                                O PN
                                                                               C MAY
                                                                                            O PN
                                                                                                            C M A Y

          58                                                                      57 

 4 * ZSU-23-4                            3    K-61                         2   *BTR-60/80                  3    BRDM-2rkh
 4   xSA-9/GASKIN                                                                                          3    ARS-12U
      or SA-13/GOPHER
                                    SUPPLY A D                                 MEDICAL

                                    MAINTENANCE                                COMPANY 

                                       O PN
                                     C MAY                                         27 

Equipment                                            Total     Equipment                                               Total
Medium Tank. T-54/55 or
  Light Amphibious Tank. PT-76 ................. 44 
          Tracked Amphibian, K-61 .......................... 3

APC. BTR-60/80 (including command                              Truck. Decontamination. ARS-12U ................ 3

  variants) ......................................... 111 
    8 3 / 1 2 0 - m m Mortar ........................... 

                                                                                                                ...   . 
ASC, BRDM-2 ..................... 
 ........ ....       9      ATGL, RPG-7V..................................... 90 

ATGM Launcher Vehicle {BRDM-2), AT-3 ......... 6               SAM, SA-7/GRAIL ................................ 2 7 

Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle, BRDM-2rkh ... 3               7 3 - m m Recoilless Gun. SPG-9 .................... 9 

122-mm Rocket Launcher. BM-21 ................ 6               ATGM Manpack Console. AT-3 .................... 9 

SPAA Gun, ZSU-23-4 .............................. 4            5.45-mm LMG. RPK-74 ........................... 9 0 

SAM, SA-9/GASKIN TEL or                                        5.45-mm Assault Rifle. AK-74 ................ 1,521 

  SA-13/GOPHER TELAR ......................... 4 
             7 . 6 2 - m mSniper Rifle. SVD ....................... 27 

                                        NAVAL INFANTRY DIVISION

Naval Infantry Brigade
   There are three SNI brigades. The Northern,
Baltic, and Black Sea Fleets each have one.






                                     TANK                          RECONNAISSANCE              ANTITANK
                                   BATTALION                          COMPANY                 BATTALION

      page 4-155

                            BRIGADE              ROCKET LAUNCHER                SP HOWITZER
                         HEADQUARTERS               BATTALION                    BATTALION

                                                    18   BM-21                    18   2S1

   AIR DEFENSE                     ENGINEER                            SIGNAL                  PROTECTION

                                  SUPPLY A N D
Naval Infantry Division

   There is only one SNI division. It is in the
Pacific Fleet.





      DIVISION                 INFANTRY                        TANK          SP HOWITZER
   HEADQUARTERS                REGIMENT                      REGIMENT         REGIMENT

                               page 4-156

       SAM                     ENGINEER                        SIGNAL    ROCKET LAUNCHER
     REGIMENT                  BATTALION                     BATTALION      BATTALION

                                            .                            .
                                                                      CHAPTER 5 



         SMALL ARMS          ........................ 5-1 
                    ENGINEER EQUIPMENT       ............... 

          Pistols Rifles. and Submachine Guns   ..... 5-2 
                     Bridges and Rafts   ................... 

          Grenade Launchers       ................... 5-8 

                                                                                Amphibians and F e r r i e s
          Machine Guns         ...................... 5-12 
                    Ditching Machines    .................. 

                                                                                  Antipersonnel Mines ................. 

                                                                                  Antitank Mines ..................... 

         ARMORED FIGHTING VEHICLES       ......... 5-21 
                         Minelaying Equipment ............... 

          Light Armored Vehicles (Wheeled) ....... 5-21 
                         Mineclearing Equipment .............. 

          Light Armored Vehicles (Tracked)........ 5-30 
                         Other Equ~pment ................... 

           Medium Tanks ...................... 5-44 

           Assault Guns and Light Tanks .......... 5-54 
                      NBC EQUIPMENT             ...................
                                                                                Collective Protection Systems    ..........
                                                                                Vehicle-Mounted Decontamination
        ARTILLERY    ...........................5-60 
                            Apparatuses      ...................... 

         Guns and Howitzers   .................. 5-60 
                         Flame Equipment       ................... 

           Mortars ............................ 5-74 

           Rocket Launchers .................... 5-82 

                                                                                Smoke Generators       .................. 

                                                                                                . .
                                                                                Smoke Pots Drums Barrels. and 

           Free Rockets and Surface-to-Surface 

             Missiles     .......................... 5-88 
                       Grenades       ........................ 

           Artillery-Associated Radars ............. 5-93 

                                                                               LOGISTIC EQUIPMENT              ................ 5-206 

                                                                                  Pipelaying Machines         ................. 5-206 

        ANTITANK WEAPONS                ................. 5-94 
                  Maintenance Support Vehicle        .......... 5.208 

         Antitank Grenade Launchers and Rocket                                    Armored Recovery Vehicles         ........... 5-209 

           Launchers         ........................5-94 

         Antitank Guns         ...................... 5-99 
                   HELICOPTERS           ...................... 5-21 1 

         Antitank Guided Missiles      ..............5-102 

                                                                                FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT              ..............          5-225 

                                                                                  Fighter/Interceptor/Ground Attack 

        AIR DEFENSE          .......................                5-1 14 

                                                                                    Aircraft    .........................5-225

          Antiaircraft Guns      ...................                5-1 14 

                                                                                  Bomber Aircraft    .................... 5-229 

          Air Defense Artillery-Associated 

            Radars      .......................... 5-121 
                        Transport Aircraft  ................... 5-231 

          Surface-to-Air Missiles  ............... 5-121 
                        Air-to-Surface Missiles ............... 5-233 

          Surface-to-Air Missile-Associated 

            Radars      .......................... 5-138 
                     RADIOS        ...........................5-234 

    T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s descriptions a n d perfor-                                      .
                                                                               g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s M o s t categories c o n t a i n sub-
m a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p r i n c i p a l items of    sections d e a l i n g with specific types o f e q u i p m e n t       .
equipment l i s t e d in t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t s o f         S u b s e c t i o n s b e g i n w i t h t a b l e s o f characteristics.
C h a p t e r 4. T h e c h a p t e r d i v i d e s c u r r e n t S o v i e t   f o l l o w e d in m o s t cases b y descriptions a n d i l l u s t r a -
weapons. vehicles. a n d o t h e r e q u i p m e n t into                      tions o f i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s o f e q u i p m e n t.
                                                      SMALL ARMS
                                       Pistols. Rifles. a n d Submachine G u n s 

                             Pistol,rifle, and submachine gun characteristics 

                                 PISTOL          ASSAULT RIFLES                   SUBMACHINE GUN    SNIPER RIFLE
CHARACTERISTICS                    PM         AKM/AKMS       AK-74                    AKSU-74           SVD

CALIBER (mm)                 9                 7.62           5.45                5.45               7.62

LENGTH, overall (m)          0.16             0.88/0.87       0.94/0.88*          0.73/0.49****      1.23

WEIGHT, loaded (kg)          0.735            4.02/3.80        3.95               3.11               4.49

WEIGHT, empty (kg)           0.658            2.93/3.13       3.40                2.55               4.31

F I R E MODE                semiautomatic     Selective       selective           selective          semiautomatic

FEED                         8-rd box         30-rd           30-rd               30-rd             10-rd
                             magazine         Uetachable      detachable          detachable        detachable
                                              box magazine    box magazine        box magazine      box magazine

AMMUNITION (type)           9       18-mm     7.62 39-mm      5.45    x   39-mm   5.45    39.5-mm    7.62 54-mm
                                              M1943 rimless                                          rimmed

Muzzle velocity (rn/sec)    315               710             900                 850                830

Maximum ( m )               INA               2,500           3,150               1,500             3,800 (est)
Effective ( m )             50                200/300***      500                 250-300           800/1,300**

Rate of Fire (rd/min)
Cyclic                      NA                640             600                 600               NA
Practical                   30                100/40***       100/40***           100-150           30

U N I T OF F I R E (rd)     16                300             INA                 INA               100

DOI                         1951              1951/1961       1974                1984?             1967

STATUS                      standard         Obsolete         standard            standard           standard

FOOTNOTES           *With/without muzzle brake.
                   **Without/with scope.
                  "'Fully automatic/semiautomatic
                  ""Stock extended/folded
9-mm Pistol PM


                                                           RED DOT 

                                                               MAGAZINE CATCH 

DESCRIPTION:                                              LIMITA TIONS:
    The PM is a semiautomatic, blowback-operated,            The use of a low-powered round limits the range
magazine-fed weapon fitted with a double-action           of the PM, as it does with other pistols. There is
trigger mechanism. It fires a 9 x 18-mm cartridge         no option for automatic fire.
and uses an 8-round magazine. The Soviets issue
it with a leather holster, a n extra magazine, and        REMARKS:
a cleaning rod.                                              Following World War II, the Soviets introduced
                                                          two new blowback-operated 9-mm weapons to
CAPABILITIES:                                             replace the 7.62-mm Tokarev pistol (TT-33). The
                                                          larger weapon, the 9-mm machine pistol Stechkin
   The effective range of the PM is 50 meters. Its        (APS), appeared only in small numbers. The 9-mm
muzzle velocity is 315 meters per second. I t s           pistol Makarov (PM), however, has become the
practical rate of fire is 30 rounds per minute.           Soviet's most widely issued pistol.
7.62-mm Assault Rifles AK and AKM

     The original AK was also known as AK-47. It         full cyclic rate, they can fire about 600 rounds per
was a gas-operated, selective-fire weapon. Like all      minute (up to 640 rounds per minute for the AKM),
7.62-mm Kalashnikov assault rifles, it fired the         with a practical rate of 100 rounds per minute
Soviet 7.62 x 39-mm M1943 round and used a               fully automatic or 40 rounds per minute semi-
standard 30-round curved box magazine. The AK            automatic. Both the AK and AKM can mount a
came in two versions: one with a fixed wooden            grenade launcher. Both can have passive image
stock, and another, the AKS, with a folding metal        intensifier night sights. Both can function normally
stock issued primarily to parachutists and armor         after total immersion in mud and water. The fully
troops. Except for the differences in the stock and      chromed barrel ensures effective operation even at
t h e lack of a tool kit with the AKS, the two           very low temperatures. The muzzle of either
versions were identical. The early AKs had no            weapon fits into the swiveling firing ports of the
bayonet, but the version with the fixed wooden           BMP. Thus, the infantryman can fire the weapon
stock later mounted a detachable knife bayonet.          while the vehicle is moving.
   The improved model, known as the AKM, is              LIMITATIONS:
easier to produce and operate. It weighs about one
kilogram less than the AK. The reduced weight                The most serious drawback to the AK and AKM
results from using thinner, stamped sheetmetal parts     is the low muzzle velocity (710 meters per second)
rather than machined, forged steel; laminated wood       of the relatively heavy 7.62-mm round. This results
rather than solid wood in the handguard, forearm,        in a looping trajectory that requires a clumsy sight
pistol grip, and buttstock; and new lightweight          adjustment for accuracy at ranges beyond 300
aluminum and plastic magazines. Other improve-           meters. The barrel overheats quickly when the
ments include a straighter stock for better control;     weapon fires for extended periods, making the
a n improved g a s cylinder; a rate-of-fire control      weapon hard to handle and occasionally causing
alongside the trigger; a rear sight graduated to         a round to explode prematurely in the chamber.
1,000 meters rather than 800 meters; and a greatly       The exposed gas cylinder is easily dented, some-
improved, detachable bayonet.                            times causing the weapon to malfunction.

   The AKM also h a s a folding-stock version,           REMARKS:
designated AKMS, intended for use by riflemen                 Although they designed it in 1947 and thus
in armored infantry combat vehicles such a s the         referred to it as the AK-47, the Soviets actually
BMP. Except for its T-shaped, stamped-metal,             adopted the AK in 1949. The AK entered service
folding buttstock, the AKMS is identical to the          i n 1951. I t was t h e basic individual infantry
AKM. The folding-stock model can reduce its length       weapon of the Soviet Army until the introduction
from 868 to 699 millimeters.                             of the AKM. The Soviets developed the AKM in
                                                         1959. I t entered service i n 1961. All 7.62-mm
CAPABILITIES:                                            Kalashnikov assault rifles are very dependable
                                                         weapons. They produce a high volume of fire and
   All 7.62-mm Kalashnikov assault rifles fire in        are simple to maintain. However, the new 5.45-mm
either a semiautomatic or automatic mode and             a s s a u l t rifle AK-74 i s replacing t h e 7.62-mm
have an effective range of about 300 meters. At          weapons.
 5.45-mm Assault Rifle AK-74

    T h e AK-74 is basically a n AKM rechambered                        T h e muzzle brake on the AK-74 uses a fluidic
a n d rebored to fire a 5.45-mm cartridge. Externally,              device t o m i n i m i z e recoil a n d muzzle climb.
it h a s t h e s a m e general appearance a s the AKM,              Although the AK-74 is somewhat heavier than the
with two notable differences. I t h a s a distinctive,              AKM when empty, i t s loaded weight is slightly
two-port muzzle brake, giving it a slightly greater                 less t h a n that of the A K M this is due primarily
overall length than the AKM. I t also has a smooth                  to t h e plastic magazine a n d i t s smaller-caliber
plastic magazine which is slightly shorter and is                   ammunition. Like the AK and AKM, the AK-74
curved to a lesser extent t h a n the grooved metal                 c a n m o u n t a g r e n a d e l a u n c h e r a n d a passive
AKM magazine. I t uses the same type of bayonet                     image intensifier night sight.
a s the AK-series weapons.
   There is also a folding-stock version, designated                LIMITATIONS:
AKS-74, which h a s a Y-shaped, tubular stock. The                      T h e g a s cylinder, like the cylinders on the AK
stock h a s a n extremely n a r r o w b u t t p l a t e , a s       a n d AKM, i s in a vulnerable position; if dented,
opposed to the T-shaped, stamped-metal buttstock                    i t m a y cause weapon malfunction. T h e reddish-
of the AKMS.                                                        brown or orange color of the plastic magazine does
CAPABILITIES:                                                       not lend itself to camouflage.

      The AK-74 fires 5.45 x 39-mm ball, ball-tracer,               REMARKS:
and incendiary-tracer rounds. The 5.45-mm round
of t h e AK-74 h a s a considerably higher muzzle                      T h e S o v i e t s fielded t h e AK-74 i n 1974, a s
velocity t h a n the 7.62-mm round of the AKM; this                 indicated by the weapon's designation. The folding-
e l i m i n a t e s t h e range-limiting d r a w b a c k of i t s   stock AKS-74 was first seen with Soviet airborne
predecessor. Like t h e AKM, t h e AK-74 h a s a                    troops in November 1977. The AK-74 is also the
maximum sight setting of 1,000 meters, but the                      basis for other 5.45-mm small arms, including the
effective range i s 500 meters (versus 300 meters                   AKSU-74 submachine gun and the RPK-74 light
for the AKM).                                                       machine gun.
6.46-mm Submachine Gun AKSU-74

   The AKSU-74 i s a modified version of the          to bleed off gases which would otherwise cause a
AK-74 assault rifle with a much shorter barrel        violent recoil. With a loaded weight of 3.106 kilo-
(207 millimeters versus 413 millimeters) and a        grams, the submachine gun is considerably lighter
conical flash suppressor instead of a muzzle brake.   than the assault rifle AK-74 and has a somewhat
Like the AKS-74, it has a folding metal stock. The    higher rate of fire.
overall length of the submachinegun is only 492
millimeters with stock folded or 728 millimeters      LIMITATIONS:
with extended stock. The rear sight is a flip-type       The AKSU-74 has a greatly reduced range due
U-notch.The front sight is a cylindrical post.        to its shortened barrel. However, it still has more
                                                      power and longer range than conventional s u b ­
CAPABILITIES:                                         machine guns that fire pistol cartridges.
   The Soviets designed the AKSU-74a s a weapon       REMARKS:
short enough to be handled easily when the crew
enters and exits vehicles. The device at the end         The AKSU-74 was first seen with Soviet air-
of the barrel functions as a n expansion chamber      borne troops in early 1984.
7.62-mm Sniper Rifle SVD

   The Sniper Rifle Dragunov (SVD) is a gas-             a n illuminated rangefinder reticle. Thus, the SVD
operated, semiautomatic weapon. It fires the Soviet      is effective in daylight against point targets or at
7.62 x 54R cartridge and uses a detachable 10-round      night against active infrared emitters, such as
box magazine. Its overall length is 1,225 milli­         night driving aids and weapon sights. It can fire
meters, and its empty weight is 4.3 kilograms. (Its      light ball, heavy ball, steel core, tracer, and anti-
loaded weight with bayonet is 4.78 kilograms.) Its       tank incendiary ammunition.
bolt mechanism and gas recovery system are
similar to those of the AK and AKM: but, because         LIMITATIONS:
of the difference in cartridges used, parts are not
interchangeable with the assault rifles. The most           The SVD can fire only light and heavy ball-type
distinguishing features of the SVD are the open          ammunition with accuracy. Even though it is
buttstock, which has a cheek pad for ease i n            equipped with a bayonet, the SVD is not an ideal
sighting, and the telescopic sight mounted over          weapon for close combat because it can fire only
the receiver. It has a combination flash suppressor/     in the semiautomatic mode. Its weight and length
compensator. It may mount the standard AKM               also limit its maneuverability. The 7.62 x 54-mm
bayonet. The Soviets issue it with four magazines,       rimmed cartridge of the SVD is not interchangeable
a cleaning kit, and an extra battery and lamp for        with the 7.62 x 39-mm rimless round of the AKM.
the telescopic sight.
                                                            The Soviets developed t h e SVD i n 1965. I t
   The SVD fires approximately 30 rounds per             entered service in 1967 and is the standard Soviet
minute i n t h e semiautomatic mode. I t h a s a         sniper weapon. One squad in each motorized rifle
maximum effective range of 1,300 meters with the         platoon has a n SVD; selected riflemen receive
4-power telescope or 800 meters without it. The          regular, centralized sniper training on it. Largely
PSO-1 optical sight has a 6-degree field of view.        due to its open buttstock, the SVD is lighter than
It contains an integral, infrared detection aid and      older sniper rifles.
                                                         Grenade Launchers
                                            Grenade launcher characteristics

       CHARACTERISTICS                                            AGS-17                  BG-15

       CALIBER (mm)                                          30                  40

       LENGTH, overall (m)                                   1.28                0.325

       WEIGHT, loaded (kg)                                   45.05 (with         1.79
                                                             full magazine)

       WEIGHT, empty (kg)                                    3 0 . 7 1(without   1.54

       FIRE MODE                                             selective           single shot

       FEED                                                 29-rd drum           muzzle loaded

       AMMUNITION (type)                                     30-mm Frag-HE       40     101.6 m m (7P17)
                                                                                 40     118.5 mm (VOG-25)

       Muzzle velocity                                       approximately       approximately
       (M/sec)                                                    190                 71

       Maximum ( m )                                        1,730                400
       Effective                                            700/1,200*           INA

      Rate of fire (rd/min)
      Cyclic                                                100/400**            NA
      Practical                                             60+                  INA

       UNIT OF FIRE (rd)                                    89                   INA

      ELEVATION      (c)                                    + 7 to +87           NA

       TRAVERSE     (c)                                      30 total            NA

      CREW                                                  3                    NA

      DOI                                                   1974                 1984?

      STATUS                                                standard             standard

FOOTNOTES.     *Direct/indirect fire.
             * * M i n i m u m / m a x i m u m setting
30-mm Automatic Grenade Launcher AGS-17


    The AGS-17 i s a blowback-operated 30-mm            kilograms a n d may be enclosed i n a canvas
automatic grenade launcher which can be mounted         carrying case. The sight weighs 0.99 kilograms;
on a tripod or vehicle. A prominent drum magazine       the folding tripod weighs 11.86 kilograms; and the
mounted on the right side holds 29 belted grenade       magazine weighs 14.34 kilograms fully loaded, or
rounds. The nondisintegrating metallic link belt        2.87 kilograms empty.
exits from the left side. The short barrel with disc-
shaped cooling fins protrudes from a large rectan-
gular receiver. A range table is riveted to the top
of the receiver cover; it provides sight settings in    CAPABILITIES:
Soviet mils for direct fire a t ranges from 50 to
1,730 meters and for indirect fire at ranges from            MRBs have a n automatic grenade launcher
1,000 to 1,730 meters. The 2.6-power illuminated        platoon with six AGS-17 launchers, carriedin pairs
telescopic sight PAG-17is mounted on the left rear      in three armored vehicles (BTR or BMP). Each of
of the launcher. All exposed nonmoving p a r t sare     t h e battalion's three MRCs could receive one
subdued black.                                          vehicle. A platoon of six AGS-17s is also organic
                                                        to airborne battalions and to assault and p a r a c h u t e
   For ground transport, the system breaks down         battalions i n air assault and airmobile assault
into four parts. The launcher itself weighs 17.86       brigades.
30-mm Automatic Grenade Launcher AGS-17 (continued)

    The AGS-17 crew consists of a gunner and two       wooded areas. The gunner can engage targets by
riflemen-assistant gunners. For training, there may    high-angle indirect fire at ranges from 1,000 to
be only one assistant. When they dismount, the         1,730 meters; he can also use direct fire or high-
gunner carries the sight and launcher, the fust        angle direct fire at ranges from 50 to 1,730 meters.
assistant carries the tripod and a magazine, and       The sight reticle can serve a s a direct-fire sight
the second assistant carries two additional maga-      for point targets at ranges of up to 700 meters.
zines. Dismounted AGS-17s can provide effective        The range table allows the gunner to adjust his
fire support for Soviet infantry operating in areas    fire rapidly for various ranges without computing
where BTRs, BMPs, and tanks cannot go or where         elevations for the sight.
minimum safety distances preclude artillery or air
support.                                               LIMITATIONS:
   The Soviets designed the AGS-17 to provide             To effectively employ the AGS-17, the gunner
their infantry with a n area-type suppressive-fire     must make accurate determinations of distances
capability. They intend to use it primarily against    to all targets. Low muzzle velocity makes grenades
personnel targets. It probably has some capability     susceptible to crosswinds, especially when the
to e n g a g e soft-skinned a n d lightly armored      weapon fires at high angles. The grenade fuze is
vehicles. It is very accurate in the semiautomatic     armed shortly after leaving the bore. Fuze sensi-
mode; it is also quite effective in area coverage      tivity probably preempts firing under conditions
in the automatic mode. The 50-m increments in          of heavy rainfall, high ground cover (grass or
the range table atop the receiver give some indi-      brush) within 50 meters of the muzzle, or low-
cation of the accuracy against point targets. The      hanging tree limbs.
gunner can select a "maximum" cyclic rate of fire
of 400 rounds per minute or a "minimum" cyclic         REMARKS:
rate of 100 rounds per minute.
                                                          Introduction of AGS-17 into Soviet units began
   One of the most important characteristicsof the     in 1974. The acronym, AGS, stands for automa­
AGS-17 is its ability to provide indirect fire from    ticheskiy granatomet stankouyy (automatic grenade
protected positions a g a i n s t enemy troops i n     launcher on mount). The Soviet nickname for the
trenches, on reverse s l o p e s of hills, or behind   weapon is Plamya (flame).
 - m m Under-Barrel Grenade Launcher BG-15

   The BG-15 grenade launcher consists of two           button-released notch which connects to the bayo-
parts: the barrel and the trigger mechanism. The        net lug. The grenade launcher is muzzle-loaded. A
barrelsegment includes the barrel itself, the sight,    pre-engraved band on the projectile body positions
and the mounting bracket. The barrel i s 120            the grenade. Two types of 40-mm grenades are
nillimeters long. The sight attaches to the left side   known to be used: the 7P17 and the rebounding
of themounting bracket. It consists of a front post     VOG-25. The launcher is percussion-primed.
and a rear open U-notchedsight graduated for
ranges out to 400 meters. An additional sight           LIMITATIONS:
setting is available for high-angle fire at ranges
of 200 a n d 300 meters. The trigger mechanism             The extremely low muzzle velocity would make
attaches to the barrel by means of an interrupted       the grenades susceptible to crosswinds, especially
thread coupler. The rifleman can activate it only       when the grenades are employed in high-angle fire.
when the complete weapon is attached to the
assault rifle.
                                                           The BG-15 was first observed in 1984. I t is
  The BG-15 can attach under the barrel of the          standard i n units equipped with the AK-74 or
AK-74 and AKS-74assault rifles. It uses an integral     AKS-74 assault rifles.
    CHARACTERISTICS                                                                  NSV

      CALIBER (mm)

      LENGTH, overall (m)

    WEIGHT, loaded ( k 1 ) 

    WEIGHT, empty (kg)

      FIRE MODE                                                                automatic

      FEED                                                                     belts
                                                                               in 60-rd

      AMMUNITION (type)                                                        12.7x108-mm
                                                                               API, API-T,
      Muzzle velocity
      Maximum ( m )                                                            7,850
      Effective (m)                                                            1,000 AA
                                                                               2,000 ground
                                                                               (800 against

I     Armor penetration
      (mm @ 0" obliquity
      @ 500/1,000 m)

      Rats of fire ( r d / m i n ) 




      UNIT O FIRE (rd)
            F                                                                  300
                                                                               early 1970s
      STATUS                                                                   standard

    FOOTNOTES.         *40-rd magazine.

                     **Fully atu t m a t i c / s e m i a u t o m a t i c . 

                    ***PKM ( s quad)/PKT (vehicle-mounted) 

    The RPK is a variant of the AKM assault rifle.        machine gunner normally attaches the 75-round
I t h a s a longer, heavier barrel (591 millimeters       drum magazine beneath the weapon at the begin-
versus 414 millimeters); a stamped metal bipod;           ning of a n attack. He subsequently replaces it with
and a heavier type of fixed, wooden buttstock. The        a 40- or 30-round magazine during the assault or
modified receiver of the RPK can accommodate its          in the early stages of defense. Almost all of the
larger-diameter barrel. The RPK normally feeds            moving parts of the RPK are interchangeable with
ammunition from either a 40-round curved box              those of the AK or AKM assault rifles.
magazine or a 75-round spring-loaded drum maga-
zine: However, it can also use the 30-round curved        LIMITATIONS:
box magazine of the AKM, if necessary. It has a               Because the RPK fires from a closed bolt, it
chrome-plated barrel, chamber, and gas piston. It         tends to "cook off" its cartridges after prolonged
also h a s a cyclic rate reducer built into the trigger   firing. Since the barrel cannot be changed, the
mechanism. The Soviets usually install luminous           sustained rate of fire must not exceed about 80
night sights on the front and rear sights. Some           rounds per minute. The lack of a gas regulator
RPKs can mount an infrared night-sighting device.         causes roueh action and vigorous ejection to the
    The Soviets issue a folding-stock version, the        right rear when the gun is clean. It also causes
RPKS, to airborne troops. With stock folded, it is        the rate of tire to slow down gradually as residue
only 820 millimeters long (versus the RPK, which          and dirt accumulate in the gas port.
is 1,035 millimeters long).
                                                             The Soviets first produced the RPK in 1961. It
   The RPK has a maximum effective range of               entered service around 1964. It was first displayed
800 meters in either automatic or semiautomatic           in the 1966 May Day parade in Red Square. It
mode. It also has a practical rate of fire of 150         has become the standard squad automatic weapon
rounds per minute automatic or 50 rounds per              in most Warsaw P a d armies. However, the 5.45-mm
minute semiautomatic. In offensive operations, the        RPK-74 is now replacing it in Soviet units.
5.45-mm Light Machine Gun RPK-74

    J u s t a s t h e RPK i s t h e s q u a d machine g u n   round of the RPK. However, both weapons proba-
version of the AKM, the RPK-74 is a machine gun               bly have the s a m e maximum range (2,500 meters)
version of the AK-74, firing the same ammunition.             a n d effective range (800 meters). Unlike the RPK,
T h e RPKS-74 i s a folding-stock version of t h e            t h e RPK-74 i s compatible with t h e front firing
weapon. Instead of the prominent muzzle brake                 ports of the BMP.
used on the AK-74, the machine gun h a s a short
flash suppressor. The magazine is longer than that
normally used with the AK-74, but the magazines               REMARKS:
are interchangeable. The RPK-74 has a bipod.                     Since i t s introduction i n t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s , t h e
CAPABILITIES:                                                 RPK-74 h a s become the standard squad machine
                                                              gun in Soviet motorized rifle units. I t is replacing
   The 5.45-mm round of the RPK-74 h a s a con-               both the RPK a n d PKM 7.62-mm weapons. Air-
siderably higher muzzle velocity t h a n the 7.62-mm          borne squads also employ the RPKS-74.
7.62-mm General-Purpose Machine Guns, PK Series

    T h e 7.62-mm general-purpose machine gun           belt. The belt feeds from a box placed to the right
P u l e m y o t Kalashnikov (PK) is a gas-operated,     of the weapon.
belt-fed, sustained-fire weapon. The Soviets based
                                                            The PKT is the tank-mounted version of the
its design on the Kalashnikov assault rifle. No-
                                                        PK. Late-model Soviet tanks, turreted APCs and
table differences from the assault rifle are the gas
                                                        ICVs, and amphibious scout cars mount it a s a
cylinder below t h e barrel and the hollow-frame
                                                        coaxial machine gun. It has a longer and heavier
stuck resembling that of the SVD sniper rifle. The
                                                        barrel t h a n the PK. It also lacks the PK's stuck,
PKM fires 7.62 x 54R rimmed cartridges using a
                                                        sights, bipod, and trigger mechanism. The PKT
metal nondisintegrating belt.
                                                        h a s a solenoid at the rear for remote-controlled
                                                        firing, although it also has a n emergency manual
     The basic PK model is bipod-mounted. It is fed     trigger.
by a 100-round belt carried in a box fastened to
t h e right side of the receiver. I t weighs 9 kilo-       The PKB i s a variant of t h e PKT. I t is in-
grams a n d is 1,161 millimeters long. I t is con-      tended for use a s a pintle-mounted gun on APCs
structed partly of stamped metal and partly of          and SP guns. It differs from the PKT by having
forged steel.                                           a butterfly trigger rather than a solenoid trigger
                                                        and by having double space grips and front and
   The PKS is a PK mounted on a lightweight             rear sights. There may also be a PKMB, derived
(4.75-kg) tripod. It uses either a 200- or 250-round    from the PKM rather than from the PK.
7.62-mm General-Purpose Machine Guns, PK Series (continued)

   The PKM is a n improved, lighter version (8.4          machine gun has a n effective range of 600 meters
kilograms) of the PK, using stamped metal com-            against slow-moving aircraft.
ponents instead of machined metal. Joinable
25-round sections of nondisintegrating metallic              The PKT serves as a coaxial machine gun on
belts feed the bipod-mounted PKM. An assault              most modern Soviet t a n k s , I C V s , and APCs. The
magazine attached to the rails under the receiver         PKB (PKBM)serves as a pintle-mounted gun on
can carry 100 cartridges belted in this way. Either       older armored vehicles s u c h a s t h e BRDM,
200- or 250-round belt boxes can also feed the PKM.       BTR-50, and BTR-60.

   The tripod-mounted PKMS is a lightweight               LIMITATIONS:
version of the PKS. It has the same characteristics           The nondisintegrating belt can get in the way
as the PKM. from which it is derived.                     if the gunner must move the weapon during firing.
                                                          Barrel changing is not as fast and effective as in
CAPABILITIES:                                             the more recent Western machine guns. Although
                                                          designed by Kalashnikov, the weapon's moving
   The effective range of the PK-series machine           p a r t s a r e not interchangeable with those of
guns is 1,000 meters. They have a cyclic rate of          AK-series weapons.
fire of 650 rounds per minute and a practical rate
of fire of 250 rounds per minute. Ammunition types        REMARKS:
include the following: ball, ball-tracer, a r m o r -        The Soviets introduced the basic PK machine
piercing incendiary, armor-piercing incendiary-           gun in 1964. They followed it with the PKS, PKT,
tracer, and incendiary-ranging.                           PKB (1968), PKM (1971), and PKMS. Compared
   The PKM is currently organic to the machine            to the US M-60, the PK-series machine guns are
gun platoon of a BMP-equipped MRC and to the              easier to handle during firing, easier to care for,
machine gun/antitank platoon of a BTR-equipped            and lighter. They use a more powerful cartridge
MRC. It normally fires from its bipod mount but           and have a slightly shorter effective range (1,000
can also fit in vehicle firing ports.                     meters versus 1,100 meters for the M-60). The PK
                                                          and PKM once served as squad machine guns in
   The PKS and PKMS are also infantry weapons.            BMP-equipped motorized rifle squads, but now the
Used as heavy machine guns, they provide long-            5.45-mm light machine gun RPK-74 has that func-
range urea fire. Their tripod provides a stable           tion. The vehiclemounted PKT continues to be
mount for long-range ground fire. The tripod opens        standard equipment on many armored fighting
quickly to elevate the g u n for antiaircraft fire. The   vehicles.
12.7-mm Heavy Machine Gun DShK 38/46

                                               DShK 38/46

   The DShK is one of the standard heavy ma-            medium tanks and armored personnel carriers. It
chine g u n s of t h e Soviet Army. I t i s a g a s -   is capableof full automatic fire only.
operated, belt-fed, air-cooled weapon which fires
from the open-bolt position. The model 38/46 has        REMARKS:
a shuttle feed housed in a flat, rectangular cover.         The Soviets adopted the original DShK (model
It has reversible feed; that is, the ammunition belt    38 or M1938) in 1938 a s a ground-mounted, dual-
can feed from either the left or the right side with    purpose antiaircraft and antitank gun. Largely
minor adjustment. I t also h a s a quick-change         superseded by the 14.5-mm ZPU-seriesweapons in
barrel.                                                 the antiaircraft role, the ground-mounted version
                                                        h a s become obsolete. In 1946, the Soviets adopted
                                                        the improved version (model 38/46 or M1938/46,
CAPABILITIES:                                           also known as D S h K M ) with a modified feed
                                                        mechanism and a quick-change barrel. It is still
  The Soviets use the DShK extensively as a n           in use as a vehiclemounted armament. When used
antipersonnel a n d antiaircraft armament on            as a tank machine gun, it is known as the DShKT.
12.7-mm Heavy Machine Gun NSV

                                              NSVT on T-64B

    The NSV is a gas-operated, belt-fed, air-cooled     by means of a n electrical solenoid when the tank
automatic weapon with a horizontal sliding wedge        i s buttoned up. An optic serves t h i s purpose.
breechblock and a quick-change barrel. It h a s a       Instead of the normal 50-round ammunition belt
long, smooth, unfinned barrel with a conical flash      container, the NSV on the T-64 may use a larger
suppressor. It features a rectangular stamped-and-      belt container, which probably holds 200 rounds.
riveted receiver. Ammunition loaded in nondisinte­
g r a t i n g belts feeds i n t o t h e weapon from a   CAPABILITIES:
50-round-capacity metal container.
                                                           On a vehicular mount, the NSV can engage
   A tripod-mounted version of the NSV is avail-
                                                        both aerial and ground targets. The weapon fires
able for infantry use in a ground role. However,
                                                        from a n open-bolt position. I t fires the same 12.7
the NSV appears more commonly mounted on the
                                                        x 108-mm cartridges a s t h e older DShK model
turrets of T-64, T-72, and T-80 tanks a s a n anti-
                                                        38/46. Although t h e NSV i s approximately 11
aircraft machine gun. On the T-72 and apparently
                                                        kilograms lighter than the DShK, the ruggedness
also on the T-80,it has a rotating mount; there is
                                                        of t h e g a s regulator and cylinder suggest t h a t
no provision for firing it from within the tank.
                                                        barrel vibrations would be dampened, resulting in
The tank commander employs the K10-T reflex
                                                        accuracy comparable to t h a t of the DShK. The
sight to engage aircraft. On the T-72/T-80 mount,
                                                        firing mechanism does not provide for semi-
he engages ground targets with the metallic sights
                                                        automatic fire. T h e weapon h a s a 360-degree
(tangent leaf rear and folding front post) on the
                                                        traverse and a n elevation capability of -5 to +75
gun itself.
                                                        degrees. It has a n estimated barrel life of 5,000
   The T-64 tank mounts a modified version with         rounds, and its barrel change time is approximately
a fixed mount on the commander's cupola. It fires       5 seconds.
12.7-mm Heavy Machine Gun NSV (continued)

   Although ammunition can feed from either side,     the configuration of the tripod, the ground-mounted
the manufacturer determines direction of feed;        NSV has only a limited antiaircraft capability.
soldiers cannot easily change it in the field. Evi-
dence indicates that NSV mounts on the T-72 and       REMARKS:
T-80 permit only left-hand feed, a n d that the
NSV mount on the T-64 provides for right-hand            The NSV was first observed in 1976 but was
feed only. The left-hand-operated trigger mecha-      probably introduced in the early 1970s. The desig­
nism on the vehicular mounts i s awkward, but         nation incorporates the initials of its designers
training can overcome this awkwardness. Due to        (Nikitin. Sokolov, a n d Volkov).

                                              NSV on T-72 

14.6-mm Heavy Machine Gun KPV


   The Soviets use the 14.5-mm heavy machine            Metallic nondisintegrating link belts, coupled
gun Vlaimirou (KPV) in both ground and antiair-         together in 10-round sections, can feed it either
craft roles. In its antiaircraft role, the KPV is the   from the left or the right of the receiver. The
basic machine gun mounted on the ZPU series of          quick-change barrel is removable with the barrel
antiaircraft gun mounts. It also serves a s the         jacket as a unit. The bore is chromium-plated to
main turret armament of the BRDMS amphibious            increase barrel life. The weapon fires the Soviet
scout car and the BTR-60PB, BTR-70, and BTR-80          14.5 x 114-mm cartridge.
APCs. In this armored vehicle role, the weapon is
known a s KPVT.                                            The gun is simple in design and rugged in con-
                                                        struction. It is considered to be reliable.
  The KPV is a recoil-operated, fully automatic
weapon which fires from the open-bolt position.             The Soviets first produced the KPV in 1953.
                                     ARMORED FIGHTING VEHICLES
                                            Light Armored Vehicles (Wheeled) 

                                Light Armored Vehicles (Wheeled) Characteristics 

    CHARACTERISTICS                           BRDM-2                BTR-60PB                 BTR-70                   BTR-80

CREW                                   2 to 4 or 5            3 (cdr, d r i v e r ,   3 (cdr, d r i v e r ,   3 (cdr, d r i v e r
                                       (variesw/mission)+     gunner) + 8             gunner) x 8             gunner) + 8
                                       up to 4 (varies        passengers              passengers              passengers
WEIGHT (mt)                            7.0                    10.2                    11.5                    11.0
Gun forward (m)                        5.70                   7.22                    7.535                   7.535
Without gun (m)                        5.70                   7.22                    7.535                   7.535
WIDTH, overall (m)                     2.35                   2.82                    2.800                   2.800
HEIGHT, overall (m)                    2.31                   2.31                    2.235                   2.235
ENGINE                                 V-8 140-hp,            2x6-cyl 90-hp,          2x8-cyl 120-hp,         V-8, 260-hp diesel
                                       gasoline               gasoline                gasoline                (turbocharged)
Road (km/hr)                           100                    80                      80                      80-85
Water (km/hr)                          10                     10                      10                      10
FUEL CAPACITY ( l i t e r s )          290                    290                     290                     290
ROAD RANGE (km)                        750                    500                     500                     500
TRENCH CROSSING (m)                    125~1.60               2.00                    2.00                    2.00
VERTICAL STEP ( m )                    0.40                   0.40                    0.40                    0.40
GRADABILITY (c)                        30                     30                      30                      30
FORDING (m)                            amphibious             amphibious              amphibious              amphibious
ARMOR ( m a x i m u m )
Hull (mm)                              14                     9                       10                      25
Turret (mm)                            7                      7                       7                       7
Driver                                 yes                    yes                     yes                     yes
Gunner                                 no                     no                      no                      no
Commander                              yes                    yes                     yes                     yes
NBC PROTECTION                         filtration and over­   filtration and over­    filtration and over­    filtration and over-
                                       pressure system        pressure system         pressure system         pressure system
DO1                                    1966                   1961 (BTR-60P)          mid-1970s               1984
STATUS                                 standard               standard                standard                standard
 FM 100-2-3

                             Light armored vehicle (wheeled) armament characteristics

         CHARACTERISTICS                         BRDM-2                     BTR-60PB                    BTR-70                   BTR-80

   CALIBER (mm)                           1 45                        14 5                          14 5                  14 5

  NUMBER                                  I                           1                         1                         1

  TYPE                                   turret mounted               turret mounted            turret mounted            turret mounted
                                         machine gun                  machine gun               machlne gun               machlne gun

  MODEL                                  KPVT"                        KPVT*                     KPVT*                     KPVT*

  TRANSVERSE (c)                          360                         360                       360                       360

  ELEVATION         (c)                  -5 to + 3 0                  -5 to +30                 -5 to + 3 0 * *           -5 to +60

   STABILIZATION                          no                          no                        no                        no

  FIRE CONTROL                                     sight
                                          telescopic                  telescopic
                                                                               sight                     sight
                                                                                                telescopic                telescopic

  BASIC LOAD (rd)                        500                          500                       500                       500

    CHARACTERISTICS                              BRDM-2                     BTR-60PB                   BTR-70                  BTR-80

  CALIBER ( m m )                        7 62                         7 62                      7 62                      7 62

  NUMBER                                 1                            1                         1                         1

  TYPE                                                       g
                                         coaxial m a c h i n e un                         gun
                                                                      coaxial m a c h i n e                         gun
                                                                                                coaxial m a c h i n e     coaxial machine gun

  MODEL                                  PKT'                         PKT*                      PKT*                      PKT*

  BASIC LOAD (rd)                        2,000                        2 000                     2,000                     2,000

   F O O T N O T E S . * S e e Characteristics of DShK 38/46. KPVT, and PKT on page 5-12
                      " Elevation is -5 to +60 on variants with high-angle-of-fireturret.

5 -2 2
Amphibious Scout Car BRDM-2

    Like the earlier BRDM, the BRDM-2 is a fully          The basic BRDM-2 reconnaissance vehicle is
armored, four-wheel-drive, amphibious reconnais-       distinguished by its turret, which is the same as
sance vehicle. It has two pairs of belly wheels and    that mounted on the BTR-60PB.The conical turret,
a centralized tire pressure regulation system for      which mounts two machine guns (14.5-mm and
increased cross-country capability. It also has a      7.62-mm), is unusual in that it has no top hatch
single w a t e r j e t for propulsion through water.   opening. This model carries a crew of four: the
Externally, it differs from the BRDM due to its        commander, the gunner, the driver, and the co-
larger, box-like hull. I t retains the boat-like bow   driver. It also has a land navigation system that
of the BRDM. However, the crew compartment is          gives coordinate readings.
now farther forward and the engine is in the rear.
I n t h e b a s i c model, a small conical turret is        The BRDM-2rkh radiological-chemical recon-
mounted on the hull in a central position above        naissance vehicle h a s dispensers for emplacing
the belly wheels. There are two front cupolas. Both    warning flags around contaminated areas. Its
sides have centrally placed vision blocks. The         primary armament is the 7.62-mm PKT instead of
engine is larger than the BRDM's (it is a 140-hp       t h e 14.5-mm KPVT. The regimental chemical
V-8 instead of a 90-hp 6-cylinder). The BRDM-2         defense platoon and the division-level chemical
has a n IR spotlight and IR driving lights, as well    defense company use it, a s does the divisional
a s an NBC filter system.                              reconnaissance battalion. The Soviet open press
                                                       has designated it the BRDM-2rkhb; this stands for
CAPABILI                                               radiological-chemical-biological reconnaissance.
   Like the BRDM, the BRDM-2 exists in several
versions. The first four of these have the same          The BRDM-2U command vehicle has no turret;
roles a s their BRDM counterparts.                     however, it carries a generator and extra radios.
 Amphibious Scout Car BRDM-2 (continued)


The increased number of antennas marks this ver-                     LIMITATIONS:
sion a s a C2 vehicle. Battalion and regimental
headquarters of maneuver a n d reconnaissance                            Artillery fragments and a .M-caliber machine
u n i t s employ i t ; a r t i l l e r y u n i t s a l s o use i t   gun fire c a n penetrate BRDM-2 series vehicles
extensively.                                                         with maximum armor of 1 4 millimeters. The
                                                                     BRDM-2-series tires are not protected by armor.
      The ATGM launcher vehicle (BRDM-2) can                         They are particularly vulnerable to puncture from
mount the AT-2/SWATTER, AT-3/SAGGER, or                              fire of all kinds.
AT-5/SPANDREL. The AT-5 launcher can also
f i r e t h e A T - 4 / S P I G O T missile. T h e ATGM              REMARKS:
launcher replaces the turret. This model is found
in regimental and divisional antitank units of                           T h e o r i g i n a l BRDM ( a l s o known a s t h e
MRDs, the antitank regiments of combined arms                        BTR-40P) first appeared in 1959. The BRDM-2
armies (CAA), and in the antitank regiment or                        (also known a s the BTR-40PB) was first seen in
brigade in the artillery division of a front.                        1966. I t has generally replaced the BRDM in the
                                                                     Soviet a n d Warsaw Pact armies. The BRDM-2
   The SA-9/GASKIN TEL uses a variant of the                         i s sometimes confused w i t h t h e H u n e a r i a n
BRDM-2 chassis. The SAM launching system with                        F U G (OT-65) amphibious scout c a r a n d t h e
quadruple canisters replaces t h e machine gun                       FUG-70 APC, which have rear engines but also
turret on top of the vehicle; it is capable of 360                   have twin waterjets. The BTR-60PB is replacing
degrees t r a v e r s e a n d limited elevation. T h i s             t h e BRDM-2 i n d i v i s i o n a l r e c o n n a i s s a n c e
version probably has four crewmen.                                   hattalions.
Amphibious Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-60PB


    The BTR-GOPB is a n eight-wheel-drive vehicle               The BTR-60PUarmored command vehicle h a s
with evenly spaced wheels, except for a slightly             n o t u r r e t ; however, i t does h a v e a d d i t i o n a l
larger space between the second and third wheels.            communication equipment. It is easily recognizable
I t has a long, boat-like hull with well-sloped armor        by the bent, dipole antenna that runs nearly all
on the sides and overhead armor cover. Its small             around the top of the vehicle. The BTR-60PU nor-
conical turret is identical to that of the BRDM-2.           mally does not have integral armament. There are
The turret sits over the second set of wheels and            numerous other command variants, with and with-
mounts coaxial 14.5-mm and 7.62-mm machine                   out turrets. They differ according to role a n d
guns. The BTR-60PB h a s a three-man crew: the               command level.
commander, the driver, and the gunner. There are
two semicircular hatches for the crew in front of            CAPABILITIES:
the turret. The vehicle also has two rectangular
hatches behind the turret for mount and dismount                  The BTR-60PB is the standard APC in some
of up to eight passengers. There are three firing            motorized rifle units. It is widely used by Soviet
ports in each side of the troop compartment. The             naval infantry. It has begun to replace BRDM-2s
rear-mounted power plant employs two 6-cylinder,             in some divisional reconnaissance battalions. The
90-hp engines. A s i n g l e w a t e r j e t propels t h e   vehicle performs well cross-country in conditions
vehicle through water. The tires are partially filled        t h a t favor wheels. I n the water, the vehicle is
with a foam-rubber-like substance. They have the             steered by a rudder in the waterjet port and by
centralized pressure regulation system common to             the two front sets of wheels, which also have
Soviet wheeled APCs.                                         power steering. The boat-shaped hull with sloped
Amphibious Armored Personnel C a r r i e r BTR-60PB (continued)

sides provides good swimming capability a n d                      BTR-60PB.The BTR-60PUcommand vehicle, with
helps deflect hostile fire. The BTR-60PB has a                     additional radios, is a later modification. The
searchlight a n d IR equipment. These give it a                    Forward Air Control Vehicle, another modified
night fighting capability; however, the gunner's                   BTR-60PB, has a large window replacing the co-
periscope is a day sight only.                                     axial machine g u n s i n the turret a n d a large
                                                                   portable generator mounted on the rear deck. All
LIMITATIONS:                                                       versions in the series are still in service, although
     The BTR-60PB's armor is thicker than that of                  the BTR-60P and -60PK models seldom appear
older model APCs. However, it is still vulnerable                  today in first-line units. The Soviets have exported
to Frag-HE as well a s to small arms fire. Its tires               the vehicle to many countries, including North
are extremely vulnerable to puncture. Soft ancil-                  Korea and most of the Warsaw Pact. There are
lary equipment (antennas and integral fuel tanks)                  also Polish, Romanian, and Czech versions of this
a r e vulnerable to destruction by field artillery                 vehicle. Since 1978, the BTR-70 h a s begun to
weapons. Troops m u s t mount a n d dismount                       replace the BTR-60PB.
through the top hatches; this exposes them to fire.                    The artillery command a n d reconnaissance
REMARKS:                                                           vehicle (ACRV) M1979(2) i s a n o t h e r BTR-60
                                                                   variant. It serves a s a command observation post
     The BTR-60PB first appeared in 1965 a s the                   (COP) vehicle i n towed artillery batteries and
t h i r d modification i n t h e BTR-60P series of                 battalions. The same organizations have two other
APCs. It was preceded in 1961 by the open-topped                   types of ACRV: the M1979(1),mounted on a
BTR-60P a n d i n 1964 by the BTR-60PA (also                       GAZ-66 box-body van (BBV),serves as a battery
known a s BTR-60PK).The latter added overhead                      fire direction center (FDC);the M1979(3),mounted
a r m o r c o v e r b u t l a c k e d t h e t u r r e t of t h e   on a ZIL-131 BBV, serves a s a battalion FDC.
                                                                                            FM 100-2-3

Amphibious Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-70


   The BTR-70 is a successor vehicle to the BTR­          Like the BTR-60PB,the BTR-70 has good cross-
60PB. Both vehicles have the same turret arma-         country capability, high road speed, and large
ment. The BTR-70 is slightly longer in the hull.       troop-carrying capacity. The redesigned seating
It also has a recognizable gap between its front       arrangement allows the troops to sit back-to-back,
set of road wheels and the rear set. Triangular-       facing outward. The vehicle's versatility and
shaped access doors are in this lower hull space       amphibious capability are also advantages. Its pri-
on both sides of the vehicle. They provide side        mary disadvantage is its relatively light armor
entrance and exit for troops. (The BTR-GOPB has        protection, although the bow section reportedly
only top hatches.) Also, the wave deflector attaches   may incorporate special layered armor.
differently on the BTR-70 than on the BTR-60PB
The BTR-70has two upgraded, &cylinder, 120-hp
gasoline engines.
FM 100-2-3

 Amphibious Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-70 (continued)

                                    Modified BTR-70 M1986/1

   The BTR-70 was first seen in 1978; thus, i t   modified wave deflector, rear bumpers, and head-
received the preliminary designation BTR M1987.   light brush guards; rooftop firing ports (this
A BTR-70 variant (M1986/1) appeared in the        included two on each side, mounted in chamfered
October 1986 Moscow parade. This vehicle          edges of the hull roofj; and brackets which the
mounted the following equipment: the modified     Soviets may possibly use to attach additional
high-angle-of-fire turret used on the BTR-80; a   armor to the sides of the vehicle.
Amphibious Armored P e r s o n n e l C a r r i e r BTR-80

   The Soviets based the BTR-80 on the BTR-70               The redesigned side doors are split horizontally.
APC. It has a 260-hp, V-8, turbocharged, water-             The upper portion opens forward; this gives dis-
cooled, diesel engine. The reconfigured rear portion        mounting troops some protection against small
of the hull accommodates a new, single engine.              arms fire from the front of the vehicle. The lower
The Soviets removed the roof chamfers of the                portion opens down, forming a step. Six smoke
modified BTR-70, raised the rear, and squared off           grenade projectors are mounted on the rear of the
the rearward-sloping engine compartment.                    turret. Armor protection, particularly in the frontal
                                                            60-degreearc, has probably increased.
    The Soviets modified the truncated cone turret          LIMITATIONS:
used on the BTR-70for the BTR-80 by redesigning                The side firing ports are angled forward. This
the mantlet. This allows the 14.5-mm and coaxial            design prevents mounted infantrymen from engag-
7.62-mm machine guns to be elevated to a maxi-              ing targets directly to the sides and rear of the
mum of 60 degrees. This high angle of fire is useful        vehicle with small arms fire.
in engaging targets on steep mountainsides, such
a s those in Afghanistan. It may also give the              REMARKS:
BTR-80 increased air defense capability. The Soviets
have also modified the design and positioning of                I n 1984, the Soviets began production of a
the firing ports; the ports are now round, rather           dieselued variant of the BTR-70,which they called
than tear-shaped, and have ball mounts similar              the BTR-80. The Soviets have retrofitted some
to those used on the BMP. The forward firing ports          BTR-70s with several of the improvements incor-
now sit i n angled recesses which allow the indi-           porated into the BTR-80, including the high-angle-
vidual weapons to fire to the front of the vehicle.         of-fire turret.
                                                 L i g h t Armored V e h i c l e s ( T r a c k e d )

Light armored vehicle (tracked)characteristics                                                                          L i g h t armored vehicle (tracked) armament characteristics

                                                                                                                                                    BTR-50                 BMP-1                BMP-2              BMD-1               MT-LB           ACRV 1 V 1

                                                                              M A I N ARMAMENT                     CALIBER ( m m )               127 ( 1 4 5 )       73                  30                  13                   7 62                12 7 (1V13 A
                                                                              CHARACTERISTICS                                                                                                                                                         1V16)
                                                                                                                   NUMBER                       I                    I                   1                   I                    I                   I
                                                                                                                   TYPE                         open-mounted         smoothbore          automatic g u n     smoothbore           corret-mounted      curret-mounte
                                                                                                                                                heavy MG DShK        2A28                2A42                2A28                 MG PKT              AAMG DShk
                                                                                                                   TRAVERSE ( c )               90                   360                 360                 360                  360                 INA
                                                                                                                   ELEVATION ( c )              -10 to +80           -4 t o +33          -5 t o + 7 4        -4 to +33            up to + 3 0         INA
                                                                                                                   RATE OF FIRE ( r d / m i n ) 540-600/80-100       8/23                550/200-300         8/23                 650/250             5406001801
                                                                                                                   Maximum/Sustained            (600/150)                                (high/low cyclic)
                                                                                                                   STABILIZATION                no                   no                  dual plane          no                   no                  no
                                                                                                                   FIRE C O N T R O L            reflex sight        image intensityimage   intensity                 intensity   optical s i g h t
                                                                                                                                                 (opticals ight)     ing. 1PN22M1   i n g BPK-1-42
                                                                                                                                                                                          ,                  i n g ,1PN22M1
                                                                                                                   AMMUNITION                            T           HEAT FS,                    aT
                                                                                                                                                                                                r -           E
                                                                                                                                                                                                             H FS,
                                                                                                                                                                                                               T                            tracer,   API,API-T
                                                                                                                                                 (AP). API-T,I l l   Frag-HE(FS)                             Frag-HE(FS)
                                                                                                                   API                          840 (1,000)          NA                  900                 NA                   855                 840
                                                                                                                   HEATFS                       NA                   700                 NA                  700                  NA                  NA
                                                                                                                   FRAG HEIFS                   NA                   700                 900                 700                  NA                  NA

                                                                                                                   MAZIMUM RANGE (in)*                                                   INA                                                          7.000
                                                                                                                   EFFECTIVE RANGE                                                       3.000 A A /         8 0 01,000           1,000               1,000 A A /
                                                                                                                   50% Ph (m)                                                            2,000-4,000                                                  1.500 ground
                                                                                                                   ARMOR PENETRATION
                                                                                                                   (mm@     obliquity                                                                        300 (HEAT-FS         8 (5OO m )          201132


                                                                              CHARACTERISTICS                      CALIBER (mm)                                                                              162
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MG,                          NA
                                                                                                                                                                                                             2/bow MG
                                                                                                                                                                                                             2,000 3,000          NA                  NA

                                                                                         I A R TTYPE
                                                                             A U X I ALR M A M E N Y
                                                                              CHARACTERISTICS                      YODEL                                             AT3/SAGGER o r
                                                                                                                                                                     AT-4/SPIGOT o r
                                                                                                                                                                     A 5/SPANDREL****
                                                                                                                   LAUNCH RAILS/TUBES
                                                                                                                   BASIC LOAD (rd)              1
                                                                             FOOTNOTES            'Gun at 5
                                                                                                 **1,000 meters d i r e c tare a 2 - m h i g h
                                                                                                                               t              target.
                                                                                                ***See MT-LB main armament and page 5 - 1 2
Amphibious A r m o r e d P e r s o n n e l C a r r i e r BTR-SOP


                                         BTR-50PU command vehicle

   The Soviets developed their first amphibious                integral armament. The vehicle characteristics are
APC, the BTR-SOP, using the basic PT-76 light tank             essentially the same a s those of the BTR-50P.
chassis a n d hull a n d then adding a n armored
superstructure in place, of a turret. Since its intro-           The MTK mineclearing vehicle is a modified
duction, t h e BTR-SOP h a s spawned a series of              BTR-50PK with the UR-67 explosive line charge.
variants. The BTR-50PA added a 14.5-mm KPV                    Another variant, designated MTP, serves a s a n
heavy machine gun mounted on the roof of the                  amphibious armored maintenance support vehicle.
commander's cupola. The BTR-50PK added over-                  (see p. 5-208.)
head armor and limited radiological protection.
    The BTR-50PU command uariant h a s the fol­               REMARKS:
lowing features: a n armored roof; two projecting
bays normally on the front of the vehicle; a gen­                The BTR-50P was introduced in 1954. I t is no
erator mounted on the rear deck (not on all models);          longer in production. Newer BTRs and BMPs have
a n d extra antennas. I t normally does not have              largely replaced it in the Soviet Army.
FM 100-2-3

Amphibious I n f a n t r y Combat Vehicle BMP


DESCRIPTION:                                             CAPABILITIES:
    The BMP is a fully armored AICV. Its low-                A combination of effective antitank firepower,
silhouetted hull has a sharp, sloping front with a       high mobility, and adequate protection makes the
conspicuously ridged surface. A centrally located,       BMP a formidable addition to the inventory of
extremely flat, truncated cone turret mounts a           Soviet motorized rifle units. Its 73-mm main gun
73-mm smoothbore gun and a 7.62-mm coaxial               fires a rocket-assisted, fin-stabilized HEAT projectile
machine gun. A launching rail for SAGGER mis-            with a n effective range of 800 to 1,000 meters. It
siles attaches above the gun. The 290-hp, water-         also has a n automatic loader. For longer range
cooled, 6-cylinder diesel engine is in the right front   antitank capability, the BMP can carry any of
of the hull. The driver's hatch is a t the left front,   three ATGMs: the AT-3/SAGGER,effective t o 3,000
directly in front of the commander's hatch, which        meters; the AT-4/SPIGOT,effective to 2,000 meters;
mounts a n IR searchlight. The gunner's hatch is         or the AT-5/SPANDREL, effective to 4,000 meters.
on the left side of the low turret roof. To the rear
of the turret are four large hatches in the roof of
the troop compartment; two large exit doors are
also in the rear. There a r efour firing ports in each      T h e BMP is amphibious, propelled through
side of the troop compartment and one in the left        water by its tracks rather than by the waterjet
rear door. The suspension has six unevenly spaced        propulsion of the PT-76.It has the range and speed
road wheels of the PT-76 type, with three track          necessary to keep up with the fast-moving tanks
support rollers and a front drive sprocket.              it normally follows in offensive formations.
Amphibious I n f a n t r y Combat Vehicle BMP (continued)

    The BMP has a three-man crew. This includes          of stabilization, the 73-mm gun or the coaxial
the vehicle commander, who becomes the squad             machine gun cannot fire accurately on the move
leader when the infantry passengers dismount             over rough terrain The BMP must be stationary
through the rear exit doors. Vision blocks and           when firing and tracking an ATGM. The SAGGER
firing ports i n the sides and rear of the troop         is difficult to reload; it cannot be reloaded at all
compartment allow the infantrymen to fire assault        under NBC conditions without breaking the integ-
rifles (AKM or AK-74) and light machine guns             rity of the vehicle's protective overpressure system.
(PKM or RPK-74) from inside the vehicle on the           To reload the SPIGOT and SPANDREL, the gunner
move. The troops also carry the RPG-7V antitank          must open h i s hatch; this, again, negates the
grenade launcher, which can be fired by a pas-           overpressure system and exposes him to fire. The
senger standing in a rear hatch. BMP ICVs carry          land navigation system must be zeroed every 30
the SA-7/14/16 and AGS-17 weapon systems in              minutes.
the BMP-equipped MRB's air defense and automatic
grenade launcher platoons. When buttoned up, crew        REMARKS:
and passengers have NBC protection in the pres-              The BMP, introduced in 1967, represents a
surized a n d filtered hull. This allows them to         transition from the "armored personnel carrier" to
operate regardless of the outside environment.           the "infantry combat vehicle" in the Soviet and
   The BMP h a s a n infrared searchlight, peri-         most Warsaw P a d armies. It replaces the BTR-50P
scopes, and sights for night operations. It also has     and complements the wheeled BTRs in first-line
a capability to make its own smoke screen by             motorized rifle units. Because of the extreme vul-
injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust manifold.         nerability demonstrated by the BMP in the 1973
                                                         Middle East War, there has been extensive debate
LIMITATIONS:                                             in the Soviet Army as to how this vehicle should
                                                         be used in battle. The BMP is significantly smaller
   The BMP h a s relatively thin armor, with a           than Western APCs and has considerably greater
maximum thickness of 19 millimeters in the hull          firepower.
and 23 millimeters in the turret. This provides
protection against .50-caliberarmor-piercingrounds           The most common variant of the infantry
only over the 60-degreefrontal arc. The vehicle is       combat vehicle is the BMP-1, which appeared in
extremely vulnerable to ATGM and tank fire. Its          1970. It is also called the BMP-A. Its most notice-
compactness dictates the location of critical areas      able modifications are the lengthening of the bow
in such a manner that penetration anywhere on            and the extension of the deflector shroud to the
the vehicle will normally result in a mobility, fire-    rear. These improved the vehicle's swimming capa-
power, or personnel kill These critical areas include    bility, which was inhibited by the forward place
the engine compartment and ammunition storage            ment of the engine. Other changes include the
area, on the right side; fuel cells in the rear doors;   following: an enlarged, squared firing port for the
and the troop compartment.                               PKM machine gun below the turret; repositioned
                                                         vision blocks above the crew compartment; r e
    Because of its limited capability to depress the     designed rear roof hatch positions; and the addition
main gun, the BMP cannot engage tanks and                of an air intake on the rear roof. Many BMPs
APCs from good hull-down positions. It is thus           now mount either the improved, semiautomatic
very vulnerable to enemy fire when it exposes itself     AT-3c/SAGGER C or the new AT-4/SPIGOT or
to engage targets. Although the turret can traverse      AT-5/SPANDREL ATGM.
360 degrees, the main gun and coaxial machine
gun must be elevated to clear the IR searchlight             Some BMP-1s have appeared in Afghanistan
on the commander's cupola. This creates a dead           with additional armor. This armor consists of full
space for both weapons between 10:00 and 11:00           side skirts, which extend to the tops of the road
o'clock.                                                 wheels; it also includes armor plating bolted to
                                                         the upper hull sides, above the side skirts. Appar-
   The BMP can maintain its top speed of 65              ently, the design of the armor still allows the side
kilometers per hour for only short periods of time.      firing ports to open The Soviets have retrofitted
This results from the high amount of vibration           some BMP-1s with six smoke grenade projectors,
and the possibility of transmission failure. Due to      mounted together on the rear of the turret as they
the complicated loading mechanism and the lack           are on the BTR-80.
Amphibious Infantry Combat Vehicle BMP (continued)

                                    Mobile reconnaissance post PRP-3

   The BMP infantry combat vehicle has also              model has a small parabolic antenna on the roof
become the basis for a family of variants per­           for the TALL MIKE radar. One of these vehicles
forming other roles. Until the actual Soviet des­        is assigned, along with three BMP-1s,to the recon-
ignation is known, each variant bears a designation      naissance company of a MRR or TR. Three of
corresponding to the year in which it was first          them are assigned to the reconnaissance battalion
observed.                                                of an MRD or TD.
    The BMP-1Kcommand vehicle (previously known             The BMP-1KShcommand and communications
a s BMP M1974) differs from t h e BMP-1 mainly           vehicle mounts a large telescopic antenna and
by having additional radio equipment a n d antennas      more radio equipment than the BMP-1K. The turret
a n d h a v i n g the machine g u n ports welded shut.   has no aarmament. Regimental and division staffs
It is used as a battalion-level command vehicle.         reportedly use this variant. Itwas previously called
   The artillery mobile reconnaissance post PRP-3        B M P M 1978.
was previously known as BMP M1975. It has an
enlarged two-man turret that has been moved                 T h e VPV, previously known a s the BMP
toward the rear. The turret armament consists of         M1983/1, is a Czechoslovak maintenance and sup-
only a 7.62-mmmachine gun, rather than the 73-mm         port variant of the BMP. I t h a s the standard
gun and SAGGER rail of the BMP-1. A rectangular          BMP-1 chassis, but with the turret removed and
folding antenna for the SMALL FRED battlefield           a rotatable crane added. This crane reportedly
surveillance radar is mounted on the rear of the         assists in removing light vehicle turrets and
turret. The effective range of the radar is 20 kilo-     engines.
meters. The PRP-3 carries a five-man crew and
extensive radio and optical equipment. The Soviets          The PPO mobile training post uses the BMP
assign one of these vehicles to each howitzer bat-       chassis. The Soviets have removed the turret and
talion (towed or S P ) ;another is organic to the        have used the space normally occupied by the
target acquisition battery of each artillery regiment.   fighting and passenger compartments to provide
                                                         eight student training stations. Positions are also
   The BRM reconnaissance vehicle, previously            available for a n instructor and a driver. Each of
known as the BMP M1976(1),has the same en-               the student stations has a hatch, observation
larged two-man turret a s the PRP-3 but mounts           devices, and communications equipment which
the s t a n d a r d 73-mm main gun (without the          duplicate those of a normal BMP commander's
SAGGER launcher). The BRM-1,or BMP M1979(2),             position.
Amphibious Infantry Combat Vehicle BMP (continued)

                              BRM reconnaissance vehicle


                     BMP-1KShcommand and communications vehicle

                                PPO mobile training post
Amphibious I n f a n t r y Combat Vehicle    BMP-2

    The BMP-2 is a n infantry combat vehicle vari-       Against ground targets, particularly ATGMs, the
a n t of the BMP-1 that incorporates a major arma-       gun is capable of long-range suppressive fire with
ment change. It has a n enlarged two-man turret          a n effective range of 2,000 or 4,000 meters, depend-
which mounts a 30-mm automatic gun, model 2A42,          ing on the type of ammunition selected. The crew
with a long, thin tube and a double-baffle muzzle        can remove the ATGM launcher and employ it in
brake, along with a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun          a dismounted mode. The BMP-2 can generate screen­
on its front. On top of the turret is a n ATGM           ing smoke by using the engine exhaust or the six
launcher. This launcher can employ both AT-4/            81-mm smoke grenade projectors mounted on the
SPIGOT or AT-5/SPANDREL missiles. The AT-5/              turret. It also has the overpressure and filtration
SPANDREL canister is normally seen mounted.              systems used on the BMP-1, and a n automatic
The engine is a n upgraded 300-hp, V-6 diesel. The       protection system which shuts down the engine
vehicle commander now sits in the two-man turret,        a n d activates t h e overpressure a n d filtration
along with the gunner. Because of the enlarged           svstems in the event of a nuclear explosion.
turret, there is room for only two roof hatches in
the rear fighting compartment, rather than the four      REMARKS:
of the BMP-1. The BMP-2 can accommodate one
less passenger than the BMP-1; there also is one              The BMP-2 was first seen in April 1981 with
less firing port for a n assault rifle on each side.     Soviet forces in Afghanistan. It also appeared in
However, a new machine-gun-type firing port on           t h e Zapad-81 exercise in t h e Soviet Union in
the left side of the hull, forward of the turret,        September 1981. Initially identified with t h e
indicates that a n infantryman now occupies the          STANAG designator BMP M1981, the vehicle has
BMP-1 vehicle commander's position.                      the actual Soviet designator of BMP-2.
                                                             BMP-2sseen in the May of 1985 Moscow parade
                                                         h a d attachment points on the lower glacis for
   The 30-mm dual-purpose automatic gun can fire         mounting mineclearing devices similar to the
at either air or ground targets. With a maximum          KMT-4 and KMT-6. These vehicles also displayed
elevation of 74 degrees and a n effective antiaircraft   a layer of applique armor; the armor was on the
range of 3,000 meters, the 30-mm gun can engage          vehicles' turret fronts and sides, and on the two
low-flying, subsonic aircraft a n d helicopters.         forward hull hatch tops.
Airborne Amphibious Infantry Combat Vehicle BMD


    The BMD AAICV superficially resembles the         only five evenly spaced road wheels with four
BMP-I, although it is considerably smaller. This      support rollers, and in having no rear exit doors.
full-tracked amphibious vehicle has a BMP-type        The driver's hatch and vision blocks are centered
turret. Like the BMP-1, its main armament is a        below the main gun. There is a n additional hatch
73-mm smoothbore gun with a 7.62-mm coaxial           on either side of the driver. The troop compartment
machine gun mounted on the right side of the          has overhead armor cover; however, it has only
main gun and either a SAGGER ATGM launcher            one firing port on each side and one in the rear
mounted over the gun or a SPIGOT/SPANDREL             from which the mounted infantrymen can fire their
launcher mounted on top of the turret. The BMD,       weapons. The BMD has a hydropneumatic suspen-
however, also has two additional 7.62-mm machine      sion with a variable height capability. A r e a r -
g u n s , one mounted i n each of t h e front bow     mounted, 240-hp, 6-cylinder, water-cooled, diesel
corners. The bow is much shorter than that of the     engine powers the vehicle; two waterjets a t the
BMP, and the upper part of the hull is shaped         rear propel it in water.
differently. It also differs from the BMP in having
Airborne Amphibious Infantry Combat Vehicle BMD (Continued)

    The air-droppable BMD is considerably smaller         must dismount over the sides of the vehicles, since
and lighter than the BMP but bas roughly the              there is no rear door.
same capabilities. Soviet airborne divisions use it
a s an infantry combat vehicle. Its turret armor is       REMARKS:
the same (maximum 23 millimeters) as that of the
BMP, but its hull is thinner (maximum 15 milli-              The BMD was first seen in the Dvina exercises
meters). An internal NBC filtration system provides       in the USSR in 1970. It was not seen again until
protection for the three-man crew and four combat         the November 1973 Moscow Red Square parade.
troops. Two squad members, including the squad            Since then, the Soviets have used the BMD to
leader, ride in the two hatch positions on each           completely mechanize the three airbome regiments
side of the driver; the remaining three occupy the        in each Soviet airbome division. This substantially
compartment between the turret and engine. The            increases the division's firepower and maneuver-
BMD has an estimated maximum speed of 60 to               ability. It also equips the assault companies of
80 kilometers per hour on land and 10 kilometers          army-level independent air assault battalions and
per hour in water, with a land cruising range of          the assault battalions of air assault brigades. Some
320 kilometers. I t h a s a n o n b o a r d directional   naval infantry units may also have it.
gyrocompass.                                                  Although originally thought to be a light tank,
LIMITATIONS:                                              the BMD may more properly be considered the air-
                                                          borne equivalent of the BMP-1 infantry combat
   Since the BMD h a s the same turret a s the            vehicle. However, except for the turret and main
BMP-1, the turret armaments probably have the             armament, it is an entirely new design and not a
same limitations, except that the BMD does not            modified BMP. Excluding the obsolescent ASU.57,
have a dead space in its traverse. The passenger          the BMD (at approximately 7.5 metric tons) is the
space is somewhat cramped. The airborne soldiers          lightest tracked combat vehicle in the Soviet Army.

                                                BMD M1979/1

Amphibious I n f a n t r y Combat Vehicle BMD (continued)


   The basic BMD was initially introduced around     per side. The BMD turret and its integral arma-
1970. Between then and about 1973, it underwent      ments are absent, replaced by a low, flat super-
a variety of minor product-improvement modifi-       structure. The vehicle has at least two firing ports
cations. The final design, designated BMD-1, has     per side. It retains the bow machine guns. The
a recognizable dome-shaped NBC filter intake on      collective NBC protection system is also present.
the right-center hull roof. The BMD-1 has retained   Some vehicles mount a self-entrenching blade on
the protection, mobility, and firepower character­   the lower glacis.
istics of the BMD.
                                                       The BMD-1KSh, previously known as the BMD
                                                     M1979/3, is a C vehicle which differs from the
                                                     M1979/1 in its addition of several folding antenna
   The BMD M1979/1 variant is an airborne APC        masts. It also has a generator on the rear deck.
which f i r s t appeared during t h e 1979 Soviet
Afghanistan incursion. The chassis of the M1979/1       The 120-mm S P howitzer (airborne) 2S9 is also
is approximately 600 millimeters longer, with the    based on the lengthened BMD chassis. (See page
addition of one road wheel and one support roller    5-62.)
Multipurpose Armored Vehicle MT-LB


   The MT-LB is a n amphibious armored tracked         ten personnel besides its two-man crew (driver and
vehicle. It has a low-silhouette, box-like hull made   commander-gunner). I t also serves a s a prime
of welded steel plates, and a small turret on the      mover for various types of artillery. In this case,
right front that mounts a single 7.62-mm machine       it can also carry the artillery crew of six to ten
gun. There are four firing ports: one on each side     personnel. I t frequently serves a s prime mover for
of the vehicle and one in each of the two rear         the 100-mm antitank gun T-12. As a cargo and
exit doors. The flat hull roof h a s two forward-      general transport vehicle, it has a cargo capacity
opening, troop exit hatches. The flat-track suspen-    of 2.0 metric tons. (Its towed load is 6.5 metric
sion consists of six road wheels with no return        tons.) The Soviets use the wide-tracked MT-LBV
rollers.                                               a s a soft-terrain vehicle.
   The MT-LB can employ a n extra-wide track           LIMITATIONS:
with a n "aggressive:' grouser to make over-snow
and swamp operations easier. The wide-tracked             T h e MT-LB i s l i g h t l y a r m e d a n d lightly
version, designated MT-LBV, has a track which          armored.
is 565 millimeters wide, compared to the normal
350-mm-wide track. The wider track reduces ground      REMARKS:
pressure from 0.46 to only 0.28 kilograms per             Since the West initially identified it in 1970,
square centimeter.                                     the MT-LB was first designated M1970.The MT-L
CAPABILITIES:                                          light transport vehicle a n d prime mover is the
                                                       basis for its design. The Soviets first developed
   The MT-LB is a multipurpose vehicle. When           the MT-L, which is unarmored and turretless, for
used as a n APC or command vehicle, it can carry       geological research in the far north.
Multipurpose Armored Vehicle MT-LB (continued)

                  MT-LB M 1 9 7 5with BIG FRED battlefield surveillance radar

   The MT-LB chassis is also the basis for many            The MT-LB M1975 has the BIG FRED battle-
other vehicles. Its versatility suggests t h a t the   field surveillance radar mounted on the rear half
Soviets could use the MT-LB chassis for even more      of the MT-LB chassis. Unlike the 2 S 1 a n d the
military purposes in t h e future. The following       ACRV IV12,the chassis of the radar variant does
paragraphs describe currently known variants.          not a p p e a r to be lengthened. I t still h a s t h e
                                                       original six-road-wheel suspension, and it retains
    The 122-mm S P howitzer 2 S 1 was introduced       the MT-LB's small front turret with its 7.62-mm
in 1974. I t is based on a chassis derived from the    machine gun. It also has the MT-LB's two rear
MT-LB, known a s the MT-LBu. The 2S1 is some-          exit doors.
what longer that the MT-LB (7.40 meters versus
6.45 meters.) I t has seven road wheels; the MT-LB
h a s six.
   The ACRV I V 1 2also uses the MT-LBu chassis.          The SA-13 TELAR uses the MT-LB chassis. So
The small turret a t t h e front of the MT-LB is       do the R K h Mchemical reconnaissance vehicle, the
absent. The 1V12 has a larger turret mounted on        MTK-2 mineclearer, a n d t h e R-330P communi-
the rear half of the vehicle.                          cations jammer.
Artillery Command a n d Reconnaissance Vehicle (ACRV) I V 1 2

                                                ACRV 1 V13

DESCRIPTION:                                           CAPABILITIES:
   ACRV 1V12 is the overall designation for a             The four versions of the ACRV are deployed
series of vehicles known to consist of four ver-       in SP howitzer battalions. The following para-
sions: 1V13, 1V14, 1V15, and 1V16. All four use        graphs describe these versions.
the MT-LBu chassis. The suspension consists of
seven road wheels with no support rollers. The             The ACRV 1V13 remains in the battery firing
high, box-like hull has a steep glacis at the front.   position as the battery fire direction center (FDC).
It also has a flat, round turret on the rear half.     The battery senior officer (the platoon leader of
The straight vertical rear of the hull contains a      the first firing platoon), assisted by (manual) fire
single exit door. A total of three or four antennas    direction computation and communications per-
may attach on top of the hull.                         sonnel, mans it. It has direct radio communications
                                                       with the battery COP, the battalion COP, and the
   The ACRV 1V13 normally has a 12.7-mm DShK           battalion FDC. The battery senior officer relays
AA machine gun on a swivel mount atop the              firing data to the SP howitzers.
turret. The ACRV 1V14/1V15 turret mounts the
following items: a laser rangefinder, optical             The ACRV 1V14 and 1V15 serve a s battery
observation devices, and associated fire-control       and battalion commanders' COPs, respectively.
equipment. The ACRV 1V16may mount a 12.7-mm            They do not remain i n t h e firing position; in
machine gun. It probably contains a digital fire-      most cases, they collocate with the COPs of the
direction computer. The ACRV 1V13 and 1V14/            supported maneuver unit commanders. The artillery
1V15 also vary from the ACRV 1V16 hy having            commander decides how to attack targets of
a rectangular box projecting from the right side       opportunity and targets relayed to him by the
of the hull, just below the turret.                    supported maneuver unit. Target acquisition,
Artillery Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle (ACRV) 1V12 (continued)

(manual) fire direction computation, and com-           REMARKS:
munications personnel in the COP assist him. The
battery COP h a s radio links to battery firing             ACRVs were first observed in 1974, and were
positions and to the battalion COP. The battalion       introduced along with the 122-mm and 152-mm S P
COP also has direct radio communications with           howitzers. Their high degree of mobility allows SP
battery firing positions.                               howitzers to operate closer to the FLOT and to
   The A C R V 1V16 functions a s the battalion         the supported maneuver units. This increases their
FDC. The battalion chief of staff and the fire          responsiveness. The automation of gunnery com-
direction computation and communications per-           putations helps reduce mission times. It also gives
sonnel m a n it. It most likely carries the one         greater flexibility in the deployment of firing
electronic field artillery computer available to each   batteries. The centralization of fire mission com-
battalion. Battery fire direction personnel will        putation a n d fire control a t battalion level is
probably receive, from the battalion FDC, fully         consistent with the recent establishment of the
computed firing data ready to be passed to the          battalion, rather than the battery, as the basic
S P howitzers.                                          firing unit in Soviet artillery.

                           ACRV I V14

                                                                   ACRV 1V16 

 Medium Tank T-55

DESCRIPTION:                                                CAPABILITIES:
   T h e T-55 medium t a n k h a s a fully tracked,              The T-55 combines a high-velocity gun with a
five-road-wheeled chassis. This chassis has a space         highly mobile chassis, a low silhouette, and excep-
between the first a n d second road wheels and no           tional long-range endurance. Improvements over
return rollers. The T-55 h a s a low-silhouetted hull       the T-54 include a larger V-12 water-cooled diesel
with a dome-shaped turret mounted over the third            engine with 580 rather t h a n 520 horsepower, and
road wheel. The 100-mm rifle-bore main gun h a s            a n increased cruising range of 500 rather than 400
a bore evacuator a t t h e muzzle. The T-55 also            kilometers (600 kilometers with auxiliary tanks).
mounts a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun; the later             T h e increased cruising r a n g e c a n go up to 715
T-55A version lacks the bow machine gun.                    kilometers with two 200-liter auxiliary fuel tanks
                                                            which c a n be carried on the rear. The T-55 h a s
     T h e T-55 differs from t h e older T-54 models        two-plane stabilization of t h e main g u n rather
because i t lacks t h e right-hand cupola a n d t h e       t h a n verticle stabilization only. I t also h a s a basic
turret dome ventilator, which is located in front           load for the main gun of 43 rather than 34 rounds.
of t h a t cupola on the T-54. Most T-55s also lack
the turret-mounted 12.7-mm AA machine gun of                     The T-55 can ford depths of 1.4 meters without
t h e T-54. All T-55s mount a n infrared gunner's           p r e p a r a t i o n . I t h a s s n o r k e l e q u i p m e n t which
searchlight above a n d to the right of the main            enables it to cross depths of up to 5.5 meters a t a
gun. T h i s searchlight, however, is not a distin-         speed of 2 kilometers per hour. This equipment
guishing feature since it has been retrofitted to           takes about 30 minutes of preparation, but can be
many T-54 and T-54A tanks.                                  jettisoned immediately on leaving the water. All
Medium Tank T-55 (continued)

T-55s have the PAZ radiation detection system; the                       p r e p a r e a medium t a n k u n i t for a s n o r k e l i n g
T-55A also h a s a n antiradiation liner. The Soviets                    operation. Extrance and exit points may also need
may have retrofitted some T-55s with a full NBC                          preparation.
collective protection system (air filtration a n d
overpressure). Injecting vaporized diesel fuel into                      REMARKS:
the exhaust system c a n generate a dense smoke                               T h e T-54-series t a n k s first appeared i n 1949.
screen.                                                                  They replaced the T-34 tank of World War I I . The
LIMITATIONS:                                                             Soviets continuously improved a n d modified the
                                                                         T-54; when sufficient changes had been made, they
    The half-egg-shaped turret of the T-55 has good                      redesignated it the T-55. They introduced the T-55
ballistic qualities; however, i t creates cramped                        in 1958. I t incorporates all the improvements of
working conditions for the crew. This results in a                       t h e fully developed T-54 series w i t h o u t b e i n g
slow rate of fire. Its silhouette is one meter lower                     radically different in design or appearance. The
than the M60's. This advantage is counterbalanced                        T-55A appeared in the early 1960s.
by i t s poor armor protection, which i s t h i n by
Western standards. Its gun control equipment is                              More T-54/55 tanks have been produced t h a n
also crude. I t shares the disadvantage t h a t most                     a n y other t a n k in the world. The Warsaw Pact
Soviet tanks have: a limited ability to depress the                      countries a n d many others use the seven main
main gun. This hinders its ability to fire effectively                   production models extensively. Czechoslovakia a n d
from defilade, forcing it to expose itself to engage                     P o l a n d m a n u f a c t u r e t h e T-54/55. C o m m u n i s t
targets. Ammunition and fuel storage positions are                       China's version is known as Type 62. Many T-54/55
vulnerable. The lack of a turret basket presents                         tanks are still in service; however, the T-62, T-64,
loading difficulties, a n d there i s limited ready                      T-72, a n d T-80 are replacing them a s the primary
ammunition. The driver, commander, a n d gunner                          main battle t a n k s i n first-line Soviet t a n k a n d
all sit i n a line.                                                      motorized rifle units.

    The T-55 is not airtight. The filtration system                          The Soviets are modernizing some T-55s. Improve-
protects the crew from radioactive dust. However,                        m e n t s include new APFSDS a mmunition. This
thev must wear individual protective m a s k s a n d                     ammunition h a s a muzzle velocity of 1,500 meters
                                  l                                      p e r second a n d armor penetration of 3 0 0 m i l l i ­

clothing to guard against chemical and biological
a g e n t s . T h e t a n k m u s t t h u s p a s s t h r o u g h con­   meters. Other improvements include the following:
taminated areas rapidly and the crew must decon­                            l a s e r r a n g e f i n e r s ; add-on armor, a s on the T-62;
t a m i n a t it before it is fully operational.
               e                                                         smoke grenade launchers; track skirts; a n d u p ­
                                                                         graded mobility components (track a n d e n g i n e ) .
   The t a n k can be made watertight for fording                        Czech T-55 improvements include a crosswind
water obstacles up to 1.4 meters deep (or 5.5 meters                     sensor and a warning device t h a t alerts the crew
with snorkel). However, it takes one-half hour to                        when the vehicle is being lased.
Medium Tank T-62

     The T-62 medium t a n k h a s a fully tracked,           the way up the gun tube from the turret. There is
five-road-wheeled chassis. The chassis h a s close            also a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun. The T-62A
spaces between the three front road wheels and                model also mounts a 12.7-mm AA machine gun
l a r g e gaps separating the third, fourth, and fifth        a t the loader's hatch position.
road wheels. The drive sprocket is a t the rear and
the idler a t the front; there are no track return
                                                                 A gunner's IR searchlight is mounted on the
rollers. The rounded turret, mounted over the third           right, above the main gun. A smaller IR search-
road wheel, is more smoothly cast a n d more nearly           light is mounted on the commander's cupola. The
egg-shaped than that of the T-54/55 series. The               driver's hatch is in front of the turret on the left
commander's cupola on the left is cast with the               side of the flat. low-silhouetted hull.
turret. I t is not bolted on a s in the case of the
T-54/55. The loader's hatch on the right is also              CAPABILITIES:
farther forward.
                                                                Like the T-55, the T-62 has a 580-hp, V-12,
    The 115-mm smoothbore main gun has a longer               water-cooled diesel engine. This engine gives the
a n d thinner tube t h a n t h e 100-mm g u n of the          T-62 a cruising range of 280 kilometers cross-
T-54/55. Its bore evacuator is about two-thirds of            country; 450 kilometers on paved roads, with
Medium T a n k T-62 (continued)

integral fuel cells; a n d 400 kilometers cross-       armor; crude gun control equipment (on m o s t
 country, or 650 kilometers on paved roads, with       models); limited depression of the main gun; and
 two 200-liter auxiliary fuel tanks. The tank also     vulnerable fuel and ammunition storage areas. The
shares the snorkeling and smokescreen-generating       automatic spent-cartridge ejection system can cause
 capabilities of the T-54/55 series. It has the same   dangerous accumulations of carbon monoxide. It
PAZ radiation detection system as the T-55. The        can cause possible physical injury to the crew from
Soviets may have retrofitted some T-62s with full      cartridge cases projected against the edge of a
NBC collective protection systems (air filtration      poorly aligned ejection port and rebounding into
and overpressure). Most models have the same IR        the crew compartment. Opening the ejection port
night sight and driving equipment and the same         under NBC conditions would also expose the crew
fire control equipment a s the T-54/55. Some T-62s,    to contamination.
however, have received a passive night sight. This
replaces the gunner's active IR sight. A laser            Each time the gun fires, the tube must go into
rangefinder may now replace the stadiametric           detent for cartridge ejection. The power traverse
reticle rangefinder.                                   of the turret is inoperable during ejection and
                                                       reloading operations. Manual elevation and tra-
    The most significant improvement over the          verse are slow and not effective for tracking a
T-54/55 tanks, however, is the 115mm smooth bore       moving target; therefore, rapid fire and second-hit
main gun. It fires a hypervelocity, armor-piercing,    capabilities are limited. The turret also cannot be
fin-stabilized, discarding sabot (HVAPFSDS) round      traversed with the driver's hatch open. Although
with a muzzle velocity of 1,615 meters per second.     the tank commander may override the gunner and
The penetrator flies in a very flat trajectory;        traverse the turret, he cannot fire the main gun
therefore, it is extremely accurate out to a maxi-     from his position. He is unable to override the
mum effective range of 1,600 meters. The specific      gunner in elevation of the main gun, causing
number of each type of round varies with the           target acquisition problems.
expected tactical situation; however, the 40-round
basic load typically includes 12 HVAPFSDS, 6              To fire the 12.7-mm AA machine gun, the loader
HEAT, and 22 HE rounds.                                must be partially exposed. This makes him vulner-
                                                       able to suppressive fires; he must also neglect his
   The T-62 also has an automatic shell ejector        main gun loading duties.
system. The recoil of the main gun activates this
system. It also ejects spent casings through a port    REMARKS:
in the rear of the turret.
                                                           T h e T-62 i s a f u r t h e r s t e p in t h e line of
    The T-62 has the standard 7.62-mm PKT coaxial      .development begun with the T-54/55series. It first
machine gun with a range of 1,000 meters. It also       appeared in 1961. It became the standard main
features a 12.7-mm DShK AA machine gun. The             battle tank in Soviet tank and motorized rifle units,
gun has a range of 1,500 meters against ground          gradually replacing the T-54 and T-55.The T-62A
targets and a slant range of 1,000 meters against       variant first appeared in 1970. Currently, how.
aircraft. The T-62A also has a stabilized main gun;     ever, it is being replaced by the new generation
it enables the gunner to track and fire on the move     T-64/T-72/T-80tanks as the first-line Soviet main
with improved accuracy.                                 battle tank.
   A command tank model, designated the T-62K,            T-62 t a n k s of t h e TR involved i n the s i x -
also has a land navigation system. This system         regiment "troop withdrawal" from Afghanistan in
has a gyroscopic compass and a calculator giving       1986 showed a number of modifications: full-length
continuous e n r o u t e readout of two factors: the   track skirts; curved, add-on armor sections mounted
tank's location, in relation to its point of origin;   o n the front and sides of the turret; and additional
and its distance from, and azimuth to, a predeter-     armor on the upper glacis. The add-on turret armor
mined objective.                                       provides additional protection against s h a p e d -
LIMITA TIONS:                                          charge antitank weapons. These tanks carried a
                                                       probable laser rangefinder mounted atop the main
   T h e T-62 has all the limitations listed before    gun. They also had smoke grenade projectors on
for the T-55: a cramped crew compartment; thin         the sides of the turret.
Medium Tank T- 64

    The T-64 and T-72 medium tanks are similar         include six small, stamped road wheels; four track
in appearance. Both retain the low silhouette of       return rollers; a 12-tooth drive sprocket; double-pin,
earlier T-54/55/62 tanks; both have a live track       ruhber-bushed t r a c k ; a n d l i n e a r -t y p e shock
with six evenly spaced road wheels; and both have      absorbers. Other features are a s follows:
a drive sprocket at the rear and a n idler wheel at      A gunner's IR searchlight mounted to the left
the front. The driver's hatch is centered at the          of the main gun.
top of a sharply sloped upper glacis. The glacis         A newly designed 12.7-mm NSV AA machine
has four steel ribs and a V-shaped water and debris      gun on the commander's cupola with a fixed
deflector. The low, rounded turret is centered on        mount.
the hull. The commander's cupola is on the right         The AA machine gun, which can fire buttoned
side of the turret; the gunner's hatch is on the
left side. The 125-mm main gun has a four-section        up.
removable thermal shield. It has two sections in         Several large external ammunition stowage
front of, and two sections to the rear of, the mid-      boxes, normally attached to the sides of the
tube bore evacuator. A 7.62-mm coaxial machine           turret.
gun is mounted to the right of the mantlet. Inte-        A long snorkel stowed on the rear edge of the
grated fuel cells and stowage containers give a          turret. (A second snorkel with a n elbow for
streamlined appearance to the fenders. The tank          attachment t o the engine exhaust i s stowed
has a toothed shovel/dozer blade on the front of         inside the first.)
the hull, beneath the glacis. There are attachment       A smaller engine compartment than the T-72.
points beneath the blade for the KMT-6 mine-             Its radiator grill is near the turret.
clearing plow. Early models sometimes mounted            A command variant with a n additional whip
four detachable track protection plates on the front     antenna and a 10-m antenna mast. The mast
half of each side. Later versions have shown             can be erected in the center of the turret using
detachable full-length standoff skirting.                guy wires, with an antenna connector located
   There are several design differences between the      in front of the commander's cupola. It employs
two tanks. Those features peculiar to the T-64           the same TNA-3 land navigation system found
Medium T a n k T-64 (continued)

  in the T-62K command tank and mounts no AA           with the IR searchlight, visibility decreases to 800
  machine gun. I t serves a s a battalion a n d        meters when the night sight is used.
  regimental command vehicle.
CAPABILITIES:                                               The T-64 entered production in 1967. It is the
    The T-64 has greater mobility than the T-62.       first of a new family of Soviet main battle tanks
The 5-cylinder, opposed-piston, diesel engine has      developed a s successors to the T-54/55/62 family.
a n estimated output of 710 horsepower. Two 200­       The first T-64s had the 115-mm gun of the T-62;
liter auxiliary fuel drums can fit on the rear of      t h e T-64A version subsequently received t h e
the hull.                                               125-mm gun.
    The T-64 has better armor protection than the           The T-64A has a n optical rangefinder. It fires
T-62. Its greatly increased frontal armor protection    normal 125-mmtank gun ammunition. It originally
is due to the use of improved layered armor. It         had four-part fold-out track skirts. I t has since
can also mount track protection plates or full-         received full-length track skirts, but retains brackets
length skirts. Low-flash fuel storage also offers      for the four-part skirts. Originally produced without
protection to the sides. The front-mounted shovel      smoke grenade projectors, many T-64Ashave been
enables the tank to dig itself in within 20 to 30      retrofitted with twelve of them; these are on both
minutes. It also increases the armor protection of     sides of the turret. The hull glacis armor consists
the lower hull front when it is folded upwards.        of layers of steel enclosing fiberglass layers. The
                                                       cast armor of the turret is reinforced with non-
    Besides its P A Z radiation detection system and   metallic materials. The T-64A was deployed in
an antiradiation liner, the T-64 has a collective       WGF in 1976. It replaced most T-55s in three
NBC filtration and overpressure system. It also        armies: 2d Guards Army, 3d Shock Army, and 20th
has the same integral smoke-generating capability      Guards Army. In 1980, it was introduced in the
a s earlier T-54/55/62 tanks. Variants have the        SGF. Since late 1984, the T - 6 4 B h a s partially
same type of turret-mounted smoke grenade pro-         replaced it in both Groups of Forces.
jectors seen on the T-72 and T-80.
                                                           The T-64B, previously known a s t h e SMT
    The 125-mm smoothbore main gun fires a hyper-      M1981/1, has a laser rangefinder. It can fire the
velocity, armor-piercing, fin-stablized, discarding-   AT-8/SONGSTER ATGM from its main gun; this
sabot (HVAPFSDS) round. The round may have             is in addition to firing standard 125-mm ammuni-
a muzzle velocity of over 1,750 meters per second      tion. It has full-length track skirts, and it has four
a n d a n effective r a n g e of 2,100 meters. The     transverse ribs in front of the driver's hatch. A
40-round basic load would typically include 12         radio frequency antenna in a n armored housing
HVAPFSDS, 6 HEAT, and 22 HE rounds. The car-           replaces the rangefinder optic on the right side of
tridges are semicombustible with stub-cases. An        the turret. The optic on the left side of the turret
automatic loader allows t h e number of crew           is larger, approximately twice as large as that on
members to decrease to three: the commander, the       the T-64A and T-72 variants. The T-64B has only
gunner, and the driver. The gun h a s an automatic     eight smoke grenade projectors, mounted in groups
 spent-cartridge ejection system similar to that of    of four on both front sides of the turret.
the T-62.
                                                           Modified T-64Bswith reactive armor were first
    The T-64B h a s a n o n b o a r d computer. Some   observed in October 1984. To accommodate this
variants may have a laser rangefinder.                 armor, the eight smoke grenade projectors are
LIMITATIONS:                                           combined into two groups of four at the rear of
                                                       the left side of the turret. Only two transverse ribs
   An automatic loader has allowed the Soviets         appear in front of the driver's hatch. Also, stowage
to reduce not only the number of crewmen, but          boxes have been relocated. These modifications
also the size of the turret. Therefore, the space      allow reactive armor boxes to fit on the upper
available i n the turret h a s not significantly in-   glacis, the front of the turret, and the turret roof.
creased. The ability to depress the main gun (-5       Applique armor has been added to the turret roof
degrees) is still limited. When using the mast         and sides, and to the left and right of the driver
antenna, the command variant is immobile, since        on t h e hull roof. An antiradiation liner now
the mast must be anchored in the ground. Even          protects the interior of the turret.
 Medium Tank T-72


DESCRIPTION:                                                  CAPABILITIES:
    T h e T-72 medium t a n k i s similar i n general            The T-72 h a s greater mobility t h a n the T-62.
a p p e a r a n c e to theT-64. T h e T-64's description      The V-12 diesel engine (model V-46) has a n output
includes recognition features common to both. Only            of 780 horsepower. T h i s e n g i n e a p p e a r s to be
those features peculiar to the T-72 appear here.              remarkably smoke-free a n d smooth-running. The
                                                              excessive vibration which reportedly caused high
     The T-72 has six large, die-cast, rubber-coated          crew fatigue in t h e T-62 i s gone. Two 200-liter
road wheels a n d three track return rollers. I t h a s       auxiliary fuel drums can fit on the rear of the
a 14-tooth drive sprocket, R M S h single-pin track           hull.
with rubber-bushed pins, a n d rotary shuck absorb-
ers. The t a n k h a s a larger engine compartment               The T-72 h a s better armor protection t h a n the
t h a n the T-64. Its radiator grill is near the rear         T-62. This is due to the use of layered armor a n d
of the hull.                                                  other features discussed under T-64 capabilities.
                                                              Besides the PAZ radiation detection system, the
   The gunner's IR searchlight sits on the right              T-72 h a s a n antiradiation liner a n d a collective
of the main gun. The 12.7-mm NSV AA machine                   NBC filtration and overpressure system. I t has the
gun h a s a rotating mount. I t cannot be fired from          same integral smokegenerating capability a s earlier
within the tank. The commander employs a K10-T                T-54/55/62 t a n k s . V a r i a n t s h a v e h a d s m o k e
sight for t h e machine gun. There a r e normally             grenade projectors mounted on t h e front of t h e
only a few small stowage boxes on the outside of              turret. T h e T-72 employs t h e s a m e a r m a m e n t ,
the turret; a single short snorkel stows on the left          ammunition, a n d fire control a s the T-64A. Later
rear of the turret.                                           variants may have a laser rangefinder.
Medium T a n k T-72 (continued)

  Same as for T-64                                        The West incorrectly called the variant S M T
                                                       M1981/3 the T-80. This variant and the similar
REMARKS:                                               T-72M1show some improvements: a thicker upper
   The Soviets introduced the T-72 in the early        glacis with three, rather than four, transverse ribs
1970s. It is not a further development of the T-64;    in front of the driver's hatch; increased frontal
instead, it is a parallel design, a high-production    turret armor; and applique armor on the turret roof.
tank that complements the T-64.The Soviets have        It has smoke grenade projectors, an antiradiation
used the T-64 only in forward-deployed Soviet          liner, and a laser rangefinder. It possesses infrared
units. However, they use the T-72 within the USSR      night sights for the gunner (TPN-1-49-23) and
and export it to non-Soviet Warsaw Pact armies         commander (TKN-3). The v a r i a n t i s now t h e
and several other countries.                           standard model for Soviet units with the T-72.
   The basic T - 7 2 had an optical rangefinder. It
also had four-part track skirt plates like the basic      A further modified variant appeared in the
T-65's A variant, the T-72M, shows modification:       November 1986 Moscow parade. It displayed more
full track skirts; smoke grenade projectors (seven     frontal turret protection than the SMT M1981/3.
on the left and five on the right of the turret        Like the modified T-64B, it had several components
front); and no right-hand optic, indicating the        moved to make room for reactive armor. Eight
presence of a laser rangefinder. This variant is       smoke grenade projectors are mounted on the left
for export; it first appeared with the East German     rear side of the turret; the stowage box positions
Army in October 1981. The variant SMT M1981/2          have been shifted; and there are only two trans-
displayed a raised rear deck cover.                    verse ribs on the upper glacis.

                   SMT M 1 9 8 1 / 3

                                                                     T-72 Variant M 1 9 8 6
 Medium Tank T-80


   The T-80 uses features of both the T-64 and              I t has a n autoloader for the main gun. Its arma­
T-72.It also has some unique features. For example,         ment and optics are like those of the T-64B. Its
it h a s a new type of rubber-tired road wheels.            infrared sight indicates t h a t it lacks a thermal
These are larger t h a n the T-64's, but slightly           imager.
smaller t h a n t h e T-72's. T h e road wheels are
mounted in noticeable pairs, with the middle pair              The T-80 may have enhanced frontal armor;
particularly close together. The rubber-bushed,             that is, it may have a n upper glacis of steel layers
double pin t r a c k h a s rubber track p a d s a n d       enclosing fiberglass layers, and a cast steel turret
U-shaped track guides. A self-entrenching blade is          incorporating nonmetallic materials. I t h a s the
mounted on the lower glacis. The rear hull h a s a          same collective NBC protection system and a n t i -
large exhaust.                                              radiation liner a s the T-64 and the T-72 tanks.

    The T-80 displays a large left-hand optic, indi-          The T-80 has improved mobility due to a n esti-
cating a laser rangefinder. The smoke grenade               mated 1,000-hp gas-turbine engine. However, its
launchers are moved to the rear of the turret sides         weight has increased to 42 metric tons.
to make room for reactive armor boxes. (Reactive
armor appears on many T-80s.) The tank also has             REMARKS:
a n enlarged snorkel on the turret rear.                         A T-80 prototype existed in 1976, hut it did not
CAPABILITIES:                                               enter production until the early 1980s. It has been
                                                            deployed since 1984 in Soviet units in the WGF;
    The T-80 is the most recent Soviet tank to enter        that is, in the two armies which did not receive
series production and it incorporates the latest            t h e T-64: t h e 1 s t Guards Tank Army a n d 8th
in Soviet technology. I t is capable of firing the          Guards Army. I t is likely that the Soviets will
AT-8/SONGSTER ATGM through its main gun;                    initially reserve the T-80 for their own forces, a s
it can also fire conventional 125-mm ammunition.            they did with the T-64.
                                   Assault Guns and Light Tanks
                          Assault guns and light tank uehicle characteristics

VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS                   ASU-57                 ASU-85                   PT-76
                                   3                      4 (cdr, gunner.       3 (cdr/gunner
 CREW                                                     driver, loader)       driver, loader)

                                   3.3                   14.0                   14.0
 WEIGHT (mt)

                                   5.00                  8.50                   7.63
 Gun forward (m)
                                  3.60                   6.00                   6.90
 Without gun (m)
                                   2.00                   2.70                  3.14
 WIDTH, overall (m)
                                  1.40                    2.00                  2.20
 HEIGHT, overall (m)
                                  4-cylinder, 55-hp,     6-cylinder, 240-hp,    6-cylinder, 240-hp, d i e s e l
 ENGINE                           in-line gasoline       in-line d i e s e l

 SPEED (maximum)
                                  40                     40                     44
 Road (km/hr)
                                  NA                     NA                     10
 Water (km/hr)
                                  140                    250                    250
                                  250                    260                    260 (450 w/auxiliaryfuel
 ROAD RANGE (km)                                                                tanks)

                                  1.4                    2.8                    2.8
                                  0.5                    1.1                    1.1
 GRADABILITY (c)                  30                     38                     38

 FORDING (m)                      0.7                    1.2                    amphibious

 ARMOR (maximum)
 Hull (mm)                        6                      40                     14
 Turret (mm)                      NA                     NA                     16

 Driver                           no                     yes                    yes (some vehicles)
 Gunner                           no                     yes                    no
 Commander                        no                     yes                    yes (some vehicles)

 NBC PROTECTION                   no                     yes                    no

 DO1                              1955                   1962                   1952

 STATUS                           obsolescent            standard               limited standard
                          Assault guns and light tank armament characteristics

     CHARACTERISTICS                     ASU-57                       ASU-85                       PT-76

 CALIBER (mm)                      57                      85                          76

 SIGHTING DEVICE                   direct fire telescope   direct fire telescope       telescopic sight

 AMMUNITION (types)                Frag-HE, HVAP,          Frag, HE, HVAP-T,           Frag-HE, HEAT, HVAP-T, AP-T
                                   AP-T. API-T             APC-TAP-T, HEAT,
 ELEVATION (c)                     -5 to +12               -4 to +15                   -4 to +30

 TRAVERSE ( c )                     22 total               12 total                    360

 MAXIMUM RANGE (m)*                 12,000+                15,000+                     12,000

 EFFECTIVE RANGE. 50% Ph (m)       750                     900                         650

 Maximum (rd/min)                  8-12 (antitank role)     7-8                        6-8
 Sustained. 1st hr (rd)            100.150                  70                         INA
 ARMOR PENETRATION (mm             145 (HVAP)**            180 (HVAP-T),               50 (HVAP-T),
 @ 0" obliquity @ 1,000 m)         1 0 0 (AP-T)**           125, (APC-T),              60 (AP-T)
                                                           400 (HEAT, any              120 (HEAT, any
                                                           range)                      range)
 BASIC LOAD ON-BOARD (rd)          30                      40                          40

   CHARACTERISTICS                      ASU-57                        ASU-85                       PT-76

 NUMBER/TYPE                       NA                      1/ coaxial machine gun***   1/ coaxial machine gun
 MODEL                             NA                      PKT                         SGMT
 CALIBER (mm)                      NA                      7 62                        7 62
 MAXIMUM RANGE (m)*                NA                      4,000                       3,500
 EFFECTIVE RANGE (m)               NA                      1,000                       1,000
 ARMOR PENETRATION (mm @           NA                      8                           8
 0" obliquity@ 500 m)
 PRACTICAL RATE O FIRE             NA                      250                         200-250
 BASIC LOAD (rd)                   NA                      1,000                       1,000

FOOTNOTES.       'Gun at 4 5
               **@ 5 0 0 meters for ASU-57.
              "'Some ASU-85s also mount a      12.7-mm AA machine gun DShK.
Airborne Assault Gun ASU-85

   The ASU-85 has a PT-76 type chassis with six        capable of providing general fire support. It fires
road wheels (with a wider space between the first      a HVAP round which will penetrate 180-mm armor
and second). I t s box-shaped, low-silhouetted hull    a t 1,000 meters. IR equipment gives the ASU-85
has a sharply sloping glacis plate in front. The       good nightfighting capability. It has a 240-hp, V-6,
main armament is an 85-mmgun. The gun has a            water-cooled diesel engine. It carries a crew of
double-baffle muzzle brake and a bore evacuator        four: the commander, the gunner, the loader, and
on its long, thin barrel. A large IR searchlight       the driver.
for the gunner is mounted above the mantlet. The
gun also h a s a smaller IR searchlight for the        LIMITATIONS:
commander at the right. The armor-covered crew
area is NBC-sealed. The secondary armament is             The ASU-85's suspension uses components of
                                                       the PT-76 light tank. However, it has no waterjets
a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun. Some ASU-85s
                                                       and is not amphibious. I t h a s relatively thin
also mount a 12.7-mm AA machine gun DShK.
                                                       armor: the glacis plate is only 40 millimeters thick,
CAPABILITIES:                                          and the upper hull side only 15 millimeters thick.
   The ASU-85 provides mobile armored striking         REMARKS:
power in the assault gun battalion of airborne
divisions. Fixed-wing aircraft (including the An-12/      Introduced in 1962, the ASU-85 was a follow-
CUB) can transport it. Helicopters (including the      on to the 57-mm airborne assault gun ASU-57,
Mi-6, Mi-10, and Mi-26) can also transport it. It is   which had been in use in airborne units since 1957.
normally air-landed; it can also be air-dropped        The ASU-57 had very light armor (6 millimeters).
using a high capacity multichute system.               Since 1962, it h a s become less common. The
                                                       ASU-85 is widely used by the Soviet and Polish
   The ASU-85 is a versatile weapon designed to        airborne divisions; however, the airborne howitzer
serve principally in an antitank role. It is also      2S9 may replace it.
Light Amphibious Tank PT-76

    The PT-76 is a lightly armored amphibious tank.       BMP-1, BMP-2, BRM, and BRM-1 vehicles. It may
I t h a s a flat, boat-like hull. Its suspension h a s    still equip the reconnaissance companies and bat-
six road wheels and no return rollers. A dish-type        talions of some MRRs, MRDs, TRs, and TDs. The
turret mounts over the second, third, and fourth          TBs of naval infantry units still have it as well.
road wheels. The turret h a s a double hatch for          Aside from its reconnaissance role, it can cross
commander and loader. The driver's hatch is be-           water obstacles in the first wave of a n attack and
neath t h e main gun, a t the top of the sloping          can provide fire support during the establishment
glacis olate.                                             of a beachhead. Its V-6. 240-hp water-cooled engine
                                                          gives it a road speed of 44 kilometers per hour,
   Four v a r i a n t s are distinguished by t h e dif-   with a cruising range of 260 kilometers. Its twin
ferences i n t h e 76-mm main armament. Early             waterjet propulsion system moves it through water
models mounted a D-56T gun with no bore evac-             a t 10 kilometers per hour with a range of 100
uator and a long, multislotted muzzle brake. Later        kilometers. The 76-mm main gun is light for a
models mount a D-56TM gun with a bore evacuator           modern tank; it fires HVAP and HEAT rounds
and a double-baffle muzzle brake. Further variants        capable of penetrating APCs a n d other light
have a stabilized D-56TM gun (PT-76B) and a n             armored vehicles. The PT-76 is a reliable, highly
unidentified clean-barrel gun. A coaxial 7.62-mm          mobile reconnaissance vehicle. It h a s a n ideal
machine gun also is mounted a t the right of the                                       s
                                                          design for a m p h i b i o ucapability, but it has many
main gun.                                                 limitations a s a fighting vehicle.
CAPABILITIES:                                             LIMITATIONS:
   The PT-76 was formerly the standard recon-                 Like most Soviet tanks, the PT-76 has limited
naissance tank of the Soviet and Warsaw Pact              ability to depress its main gun; therefore, it cannot
armies. It has been replaced in first-line units by       fire effectively from defilade. Its amphibious design
Light Amphibious Tank PT-76 (continued)

makes it unnecessarilv laree for its weight class     REMARKS:
and allows less armor protection than that on other
light tanks. Its relatively thin armor has a maxi-       The PT-76 is lightly armored and undergunned
mum thickness of 13 millimeters in the hull and       for a modern tank. Its inherent amphibious capa-
17 millimeters in the turret. It is vulnerable to     bility outweighs these limitations. I t has had
artillery fragments and .50-caliber machine gun       widespread use in the Warsaw Pact and many
fire. The fact that the commander is also the gun-    other countries. Communist China manufactures
ner and radio operator reduces his effectiveness      a very similar amphibious tank known as T-60.
as an observer. The PT-76 also lags behind other      The popular PT-76 chassis was the basis for many
Soviet armored fighting vehicles in having no         subsequently developed vehicles: the BTR-50P and
night vision equipment and no NBC protection          OT-62 series of APCs; the ZSU-23-4 SP AA gun;
system for the three-man crew.                        the ASU-85 airborne assault gun; the transport-
                                                      launching vehicles for the FROG-2 through FROG-5
                                                      and SA-6/GAINFULmissiles; and even the BMP,
                                                      which replaced the PT-76 in Soviet reconnaissance
                                                                             Gun a n dh o w i t z e rc h a r a c t e r i s t i c(armament and vehicle)(continued)


                                     SP HOWITZER
                                      ( A B N )2 S 9
                                                          SP HOWITZER
                                                                        152-MM               152-MM               203-MM



                                                                                                                                                                               FIELD G U N
                                                                                                                                                                             Z I S - 3( M 1 9 4 2 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      M 3 0(M1938)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                GUN D - 7 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  D - I( M 1 9 4 3 )



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       M L -2

    WEIGHT (mt)                     8                                                                                                WEIGHT
    LENGTH                                                                                                                           Firing position (kg)                1116                         Z 360                     5 570              1600                7 261
    Gun forward (m)                 6 02                                                                       1280                  Travelposition (kg)                 1116                         2 . 5 0 0 ( w / lo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       imber)   5570               3 640               8,013
    Without g (m)
              u  n                  6 02                                                                       1050                  LENGTH, travel p o s i t i o ( m)
                                                                                                                                                                  n      6 10                         593                       100                5 93                B 10
               (m)                  2 B3                                                                       3 20                  WIDTH. travel position (m)          1.44                         197                       2 50               186                 2 31
    HEIGHT. overall (m)             230/1.90*
                                                                 2 80                  HEIGHT,travel position (m)           1 37                        180                       2 70               1 86                2 26
    GROUND CLEARANCE (m)            100-450
                                                                    400 (estimated)      FIRE CONTROL                        panoramic                     panoramic                panoramit          panoramic           panor
    ENGINE                                                                                                                                                               telescope                    telescope                 telescope          telescope           relesc
                                    V - 6 ,240 hp, die
    SPEED ( m a x i m u m ) 
                                                                                                        AMMUNITION ( t y p e s )            F r a g - AP-T,
                                                                                                                                                                                    HE                Frag HE HEAT              Frag H E ,         Frag HE C P         Frag-l
    Road (km/hr)
                                                                                              50 (estimated)                                            HVAP, HEAT                   smoke (WP)                APCI               HEAT-SS             CP. s
                                                                                                                                                                                                      illuminating,                                illuminating        them
    Water (km/hr)
                 9                                                                           NA                                                                                     leallet chemical                             chemical            illumi
    FUELCAPACITY ( l i t e r s ) 
 INA                                                                          INA
    ROAD RANGE (km)
               500                                                                         500                                                       -5 t o '31                   -3 lo +635                -5 to +45                              2 to
                                                                                                                                     Elevation (c)                                                                                                 -3 la - 6 5 5

    T R E N CCROSSING ( m )         1.60                                                                        INA
    VERTICAL STEP( m )             080                                                                         INA
                                                                                                                                     Traverse   (c)                      54 total                     4 9 total                 58 total           3 5 total           58 to
                                                                                                                                     M a x i m urange
                                                                                                                                                  m   (m)                13,300                       11,800                    23900              12 400              1723
    GRADABILITY    (r)             32                                                                          INA
                                                                                                                                     Rate of f i r e
    FORDING (m)                    amphibious                                                                  INA                                                       15-20                        6                         61                 4                   34
                                                                                                                                     M a x i m u(rd/min)
    ARMOR (maximum)                                                                                                                                                      150 200                      75                        75 +               65                  65
                                                                                                                                     Sustained,1st hr (rd)
    H u l l (mm)                    15                                                                         INP                                                       60(AP TI.                    460(HEAT,                 L85(APC T)         INA                 INA
                                                                                                                                     A r m openetration(mm @
    Turret (mm)                    INA                                                                         NR 
                  0' o b l i q u i @ 1.000 m)
                                                                                                                                                      ty                 50(HVAP).                        range)
    INFRARED                                                                                                                                                             300(HEAT any range)
    Driver                         yes                                                                         INA                   UNIT OF FIRE (rd)                   140                          80                        80                 60                  60
    Gunner                         no                                                                          INA                   EMPLACEMENT/
                                                                                                                                     DISPLACEMENTIME (min)
                                                                                                                                                T                        varies                       1-15/1-15                 3 5/3-5               2/2              8 10/
    Commander                      yes                                                                         INA
                                                                                                                                     DOI                                 1942                          1938                     1955                  1943             1937
    NBC PROTECTION                 filtrationand                                                                filtration and
                                   overpressure    sys                                                         overpressure          STATUS                              obsolescent                  limited                   o b s o l e s c e n t obsolescent      obsole
                                                                                                               system                                                                                 standard

F ON T        T
              o      of turret i n travel position (at
                                                                                                     Guns and H o w i t z e r s

      76-MM              120-MM                                               122-MM
M O U N T A I N GUN   SP HOWITZER            122-MM                        SP HOWITZER
      M1966            (ABN) 2 S 9        HOWITZER D - 3 0                     2S1

7                     4                   8                          4 onboard
                                                                     + in ammo carrier)
                                                                                                                                  F i r i n gposition (kg)             17,7000/15,500*           See vehicle
180                   See v e h i c l e   3,150                      See vehicle                                                        v s            (
                                                                                                                                  T r a p o e i tl i o nkg)            24,000/21,800*
780                   characteristics     3,210                      characteristics                                              LENGTH,travel position (m)           1120
4 80                                      5 40                                                                                                                (
                                                                                                                                  WIDTH, travel p o s i t i o nm)      2 70
150                                       1.95                                                                                    HEIGHT, travel position (m)          280
140                                       1.66                                                                                    FIRE CONTROL                         panoramic telescope       INA
direct fire sight     directfire sight    direct tire s i g h t      direct fire sight                                            AMMUNITION (types)                   HE CP, nuclear            FragHE. CP
and panoramic         and panoramic       and panoramic              and panoramic                                                PERFORMANCE
telescope             telescope           telescope                  telescope
                                                                                                                                  E l a v a t i o( c )                 0 lo *60                  0 to + 5 5
Frag-HE,HEAT          Frag-HE,            FragHE. HEAT-FS            Frag-HE, HEAT-FS,
                      HEAT-FS,            smoke (WP),                s m o k(WP),
                                                                               e                                                  Traaverse(Dl                         20 total                  3 0 total
                      smoke (WP),         illuminating,              illuminating,                                                Maximum range (m)                    18,025 (B-4M)             37,500**
                      illuminating,       chemical,flechette,        chemical,   flechette,                                                 v
                                                                                                                                  M u z z l e elocity (m/sec)          601 (HE)                  INA
                      incendiary                        ,
                                          l e a f l e tincendiary,   leaflet, incendiary,
                                                                     SLP                                                          Rate o f fire
                                                                                                                                  Maximum        (rd/min)
             05                        I
                                                                                                                                  Sustained, 1 s thr (rd)
             20                        INA
-5 lo +65             -4 lo *80           - 7 lo +70                 -3 to *70
                                                                                                                                  Armor penetration (mm @ 0'
          NA                        NA
50 total              70 total            360                        360
                                                                                                                                  o b l i q u i t@ 1.000 m ) 

10,50011.500          8,800               15.300                     15.300
                                                                                                                                  UNITOF FIRE (rd)
                    40                        INA
600 (Frag-HE)         INA                 690 (FragH E )             890 (Frag-HE)
                                                                                                                                  BASIC LOUD ON-BOARD          (rd)
   NA                        INA
                                          740 (HEAT)                 740 (HEAT)

                           60+/60+                   INA
15                    6-8                 7-8                        58
                                 B - 4 1931                 1975
100                   INA                 75                         70                                                                                                B-4M; post-WWII
300 (HEAT,            INA                 460 (HEAT-FS,              460 (HEATFS,                                                 STATUS                               8 4 obsolete              standard
ay  range)                                any range)                 any range)                                                                                        B-4M limited standard
140                   8 0 (estimated)     80                         80
                                                                                                                                   O T OE
                                                                                                                                  F ON T S          *B-4/B-4M
NA                    60                  NA                         40                                                                           **Also k n o w n t o have extended-range capability o f 50,00

varies                05/05               1 5 - 2 5 / 15-2.5         1 ( i n d i r e c t missions)
                                                                        /             fire
1966                  1985                1963                       1974
standard              standard            standard                   standard
76-mm Mountain Gun M1966

   The M1966 has split box-section trails and a        ZIS-3 (M1942). Its maximum range is between
relatively small, two-piece, flat-sloped shield with   10,500 and 11,500 meters.
winged sides and a scalloped top. The shield has       REMARKS:
large wheel cutouts for the swing-axle-mounted
wheels. There is a direct fire sight aperture in the      The M1966 first appeared publicly during a
left shield section. The shield lacks a sliding        1966 Soviet May Day parade in Baku. It probably
central section.                                       replaces the 76-mm mountain gun M1938since it
                                                       has improved performance over the older weapon.
CAPABILITIES:                                          This gun is rarely seen in the USSR and is not
    The weapon may break down into two animal          known to be deployed outside the USSR. Some
loads for transport. A light truck can tow it when     MRDs may use it in mountainous terrain. The
it is fully assembled. This gun can probably fire      GAZ-66 truck can tow it. Helicopters can air-lift
t h e s a m e projectiles a s t h e 76-mm field gun    both the gun and prime mover.
120-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (Airborne) 2S9


   The 2S9 is a n amphibious, 120-mm SP howitzer         capability. This is especially useful in mountainous
mounted on a stretched version of t h e BMD              terrain. Besides conventional Frag-HE, the 2S9
chassis. The chassis of the BMD is light enough          c a n probably fire HEAT rounds i n a limited
for air insertion of the weapon, but is also strong      antitank/antiarmor role.
enough for the recoil of the 120-mmhowitzer. The
large turret is in the middle of the chassis, which      REMARKS:
has six road wheels. The smooth barrel has no              The 2 S 9 was previously known as the M1981
bore evacuator or muzzle brake.                         in the West. Its Soviet nickname is Anona (custard
CAPABILITIES:                                           apple). It first appeared publicly during the May
                                                        1985 p a r a d e in Moscow. I t may replace the
    Airborne and air assault units employ this SP       120-mm mortar in airborne regiments and towed
howitzer. It significantly increases their organic      artillery in airborne divisions. Various Western
fire support capabilities. The 2S9 can move rapidly     sources have erroneously termed this versatile
cross-country with the BMD-equipped forces. In          weapon a "gun/mortar" or "gun/howitzer." It
addition to the normal trajectory of the howitzer,      actually combines the functions of a mortar and
the 2S9 can fireupon reverse slopes with a mortar       a howitzer.
122-mm Howitzer D-30

    The D-30 has a unique three-trail carriage, a        degrees traverse and is equipped for high and low
conspicuous box-like shield for the recoil-recuperator   angles of fire. This makes the D-30 fully suitable
mechanism mounted above the tube, and a small            for antitank defense.
protective shield which i s fitted between t h e
wheels. The gun has a semiautomatic, vertically             The D-30 fires a variable-charge, case-type,
sliding, wedge-type breechblock. A truck (Ural-375       separate-loading ammunition. It has a special non-
or ZIL-131)or armored tractor can tow it at speeds       rotating, fin-stabilized HEAT projectile which
up to 80 kilometers per hour. It is towed muzzle-        allows it to effectively engage armored vehicles
first by a large lunette just under the muzzle brake,    with direct fire. The D-30 can also fire a flechette
with its trails folded under the barrel. Early models    round.
of the D-30 had a multibaffle muzzle brake; more
recent models have a double-baffle muzzle brake          LIMITA TIONS:
similar to that used on the SP version 2S1.                 It is doubtful that full elevation is possible when
CAPABILITIES:                                            the breech is directly over a trail leg.

    The D-30 may be organic to the howitzer bat-         REMARKS:
talion of BTR-equipped MRRs and to the artillery
regiment of MRDs, TDs, and airborne divisions.               The D-30 was formerly known as the M1963.
Its maximum effective range is 15,300 meters.            It replaces the older 122-mmhowitzer M-30 (M1938).
                                                         Introduced in 1963, the D-30 is now in service
   In firing position, the crew of eight unhitches       throughout the USSR and Warsaw Pact forces. The
the gun; it lowers the central emplacement jack,         USSR has also exported it to other countries. The
raising the wheels high enough to clear the trail        D-30 is probably still in production; however, the
legs; and it spreads the two outer trails 120 degrees    2S1 may eventually replace it in some BTR-equipped
on each side. The revolving mount permits 360            MRRs.
122-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 2S1


   The chassis of the 2S1somewhat resembles that                   The long 122-mm howitzer on the rounded front
of the PT-76. However, the 2S1 is mounted on a                  of the turret derives from the towed 122-mmhow-
chassis derived from the MT-LB, known as the                    itzer D-30. The double-baffle muzzle brake is flush
MT-LBu.The 2S1 has seven road wheels (versus                    with the forward edge of the hull; the bore evac-
six for either PT-76 or MT-LB) and no return                    uator is midway along the tube.
rollers. Its drive sprocket is at the front, and the
idler is a t the rear. Like the MT-LB, the 2S1 can                 The 2 S 1 is distinguished from the 152-mmS P
use two different widths of track. The wider tracks             howitzer 2S3 by i t ssmaller turret and less massive
                                                                gun. The 2S1 also has a single unit shield for the
lower the ground pressure and facilitate travel over
                                                                recoil-recuperator mechanism above the tube. The
soft terrain. The amphibious 2S1 i s propelled
through the water by its tracks.                                2S3 has two separate cylinders above the tuhe.
                                                                Also, the tube of the 2S1 does not extend beyond
    The boat-like hull contains the engine com-                 the front of the vehicle, while the 2S3 tube does.
partment at the right front. The driver's compart-
ment is a t the left front, with the driver's hatch
to the left of the gun tuhe. A low-silhouette, rotating             The 2S1 is organic to the howitzer battalions
turret tops the fighting compartment in the rear                of BMP-equipped (and some BTR-equipped) MRRs
of the hull. Atop the all-welded turret are the com-            and TRs. Since it is tracked and amphibious, it
mander's cupola (with its single hatch cover) on                has the cross-country capability necessary to keep
the left and the loader's hatch on the right. The               pace with supported BMPs and tanks. It has a
gunner, also located in the left side of the turret,            maximum range of 15,300 meters. The Soviets use
has no hatch. The commander and driver have                     it extensively in a direct fire role against armored
IR night sighting equipment; however, there is no               vehicles or i n breaching minefields and other
IR gunnery equipment. An interesting feature on                 obstacles.
the turret is the teardrop-shaped port cover on the
left front near the gunner's position. The 2S1 h a s               The vehicle has a relatively light weight of less
a direct fire sight besides its panoramic telescope.            than 16 metric tons. It also has a ground pressure
The vehicle has a collective NBC overpressure and               of approximately 0.5 kilograms per square centi-
filtration protective system.                                   meter. This allows it to operate in swamps and
122-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 2S1 (continued)

deep snow and also contributes to its amphibious         REMARKS:
capability. Track drive propels it in water as well
a s on land. The light weight and low profile also          The 2S1 appeared in public for the first time
make air-lifting easier. The tightly sealed hull with    in 1974. It had the provisional designation M1974.
its filtration system enables the 2S1 to operate in      Although the 2S1 h a s been variously termed a
irradiated or contaminated zones as well as under        gun, a gun-howitzer, or a howitzer, the Soviet press
heavy dust conditions. The turret has a ball-bearing     calls it a howitzer. Its introduction coincided with
race and a n electric drive for rapid traverse, al-      the expansion of the Soviet MRR's artillery battery
though precise aiming is performed with a manual         to a battalion and with the introduction of the
drive. A ramming mechanism speeds up the loading         ACRV 1V12 series, which is associated with S P
process, and the gun ejects fired cases automatically.   artillery units. The SP howitzer 2S1 provides the
                                                         Soviet Army with highly mobile firepower that fits
                                                         neatly into its doctrine of the offensive. Some
    Because of its light weight, the 2S1 offers only     non-Soviet Warsaw Pact armies also use it. Newer
slight armor protection for its four-man crew.           122-mm howitzers may have a nuclear capability.
FM 100-2-3

130-mm Field Gun M-46

DESCRIPTION:                                             CAPABILITIES:
    The 130-mm field gun M-46 has a recognizable             Gun battalions of artillery brigades organic a t
long, t h i n tube with a cylindrical, perforated        front and army levels use the M-46. These bat-
(pepperpot-type) muzzle brake. It h a s a hydro-         talions may be assigned to maneuver divisions as
pneumatic recuperator and a recoil cylinder located      part of a divisional artillery group (DAG).
above and below the tube, respectively. For travel,
the crew withdraws the tube from battery to reduce          The M-46 is a n excellent indirect fire weapon
the overall length of the weapon. The rearward-          with high muzzle velocity and exceptional range
angled, winged shield may then hide the recuper­         (27,490 meters). It is also a formidable antitank
a t o r above the tube from sight. The gun has a         weapon with impressive armor penetration capa-
manually operated horizontal sliding wedge breech­       bility. Its tactical role usually is counterbattery.
block. It fires case-type, variable-charge, separate-
loading ammunition. It has night direct fire sights
(IR and/or passive in nature).                           REMARKS:
   The gun is mounted on a two-wheeled split trail          The M-46 first appeared in public in May 1954.
carriage with large sponge-filled rubber tires on        The West originally knew it as the M1954. The
each of the single wheels. For travel, it has a          armies of many countries, both communist and
two-wheeled limber. A truck or armored tractor can       noncommunist, still use it. Since 1978, however,
tow it at speeds up to 50 kilometers per hour. The       two new nuclear-capable guns, the 152-mm field
trails consist of steel plates welded into box-section   gun 2A36 and the 152-mm SP gun 2S5, have begun
construction.                                            to replace the M-46 in Soviet forces.
152-mm Gun-Howitzer D-20


   The D-20 uses the same carriage as the obso-       engage armored targets with direct fire. A truck
lescent 122-mm field gun D-74. This short, split-     or armored tractor (AT-L) can tow it.
trail carriage has distinguishable features: caster
wheels, folded upward for travel, a t the end of      LIMITATIONS:
each trail; a prominent central emplacement jack         The D-20 is a very large gun-howitzer, equating
connected to the bottom forward cradle; and a         to 6-inch caliber. It is heavy for a simple towed
scalloped, winged shield with traveling central       carriage. Its restricted mobility, however, is some-
portion. The tube, however, differs from that of      what compensated for by its range.
the D-74 in that it is much shorter (29 versus 47
calibers) and larger in diameter, and has a larger    REMARKS:
double-baffle muzzle brake. Both guns have a two-          The D-20 was formerly known a s the M1955
cylinder recoil mechanism above the tube; both
                                                      or M-55. First introduced in 1955, it replaced the
tubes a r e prominently stepped, with a semi-
                                                      heavier, less powerful, 152-mm gun-howitzer ML-20
automatic, vertically sliding, wedge breechblock.
                                                      (M1937)in the Soviet and Warsaw P a d inventory.
Both guns also fire similar case-type, variable-
                                                      It is now organic to army/front-levelartillery while
charge, separateloading ammunition.                   the S P version 2 S 3 is in the artillery regiment
CAPABILITIES:                                         organic to M R D s a n d T D s . All Warsaw Pact
                                                      armies except Bulgaria now import the D-20. The
   The D-20 is organic to the artillery division of   Soviet Army is now introducing a new 152-mm
a Soviet front and to the artillery brigade of a      gun-howitzer 2A65. The 2A65 has a n extended
TA or CAA. The circular emplacement jack and          range of 30,000 meters and a conventional maxi-
caster wheels make it possible to rotate the whole    mum 24,000-m range. It fires the same rounds as
gun swiftly up to 360 degrees. The gun also has       t h e D-20, including a semiactive laser-guided
direct fire sights for both day and night. It can     projectile (SLP).
 152-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 2S3


   The 2S3 comprises a modified version of the              support for MRDs and TDs. Its maximum range
152-mm towed gun-howitzer D-20 and a chassis                of 17,230 meters with a Frag-HE round is the
similar to the SA-4/GANEF launch vehicle. The               same a s that of the 152-mm towed gun-howitzer
thick tube extends beyond the front of the hull             D-20. It also fires a RAP round to an extended
by the length of the double-baffle muzzle brake.            range of 20,500 meters. Unlike the 122-mm S P
It differs from the D-20 in its addition of a bore          howitzer 2S1, it is not amphibious.
evacuator just behind the muzzle brake; a brace             LIMITATIONS:
attached just behind the bore evacuation supports
the tube in travel position. The running gear differs          The twin recuperators above the tube restrict
from that of the SA-4 in that it has only six road          the elevation to +63degrees. Armor is thin-skinned,
wheels ( w i t hlarger spaces between t h e three front     providing only minimum protection f o r t h e four-
wheels only) and different spacing between the four         man crew
support rollers.                                            REMARKS:
   The driver sits in the left front of the vehicle,           The 2S3 first appeared in the Soviet inventory
with the engine located on the right side. The              in 1973. It somewhat resembles the US 155-mm
commander sits at the left center of the turret,            S P howitzer M-109.
with the gunner in front of him. The loader is at               Since its introduction, the 2S3 has gradually
the right side of the turret. The crew uses a hatch         been replacing two other systems: the towed 152-mm
in the rear of the hull for loading ammunition.             howitzer D-1 (M1943) in the artillery regiment of
There is also a large hatch on the right side of            MRDs, and the towed 122-mm howitzer D-30 in
the turret for loading ammunition and discarding            the artillery regiment of both MRDs and TDs. Also,
expended brass. The commander's cupola mounts               the 2S3is currently replacing some towed 152-mm
a 7.62-mm machine gun.                                      artillery in the front-level artillery division. The
CAPABILITIES:                                               Soviet Army is now introducing a new 152-mm
                                                            SP gun-howitzer 2S19. It probably has the same
   The 2S3 provides highly mobile, all-terrain fire         range a s the towed 2A65.
                                                                                            FM 100-2-3 

152-mm Field Gun 2A36


   The towed, nuclear-capable 152-mm field gun          Soviet forces. I t also shows the importance the
2A36, along with its SP counterpart 2S5, is replac-     Soviets continue to place upon towed artillery for
ing the 130-mm field gun M-46 in the gun bat-           supporting fires. The 2A36 h a s a maximum
talions organic to artillery brigades at front and      range of 28,000 meters and an extended range of
army levels. This gun h a s a distinctive four-         33,000 meters.
wheeled carriage. The Soviets have fielded it since
1978 and now deploy it in their forces in Eastern       REMARKS:
Europe. This deployment suggests the importance
that Soviet doctrine places on the capability to          The provisional designation for the 2A36 was
deliver low-yield nuclear strikes relatively close to   M1976.
FM 100-2-3

1 5 2 - m m Self-Propelled G u n 2S5

    The 152-mm SP gun 2S5 was previously known      during 1982. This deployment is part of a n up-
a s the M1981. It is a n unturreted gun mounted     grade of Soviet nuclear and conventional theater
on a six-road-wheeled tracked chassis similar to    forces. It indicates the importance Soviet doctrine
that of the 152-mm S P howitzer 2S3. The nuclear-   places on t h e capability to deliver low-yield
capable 2S5, along with its towed counterpart       nuclear strikes relatively close to Soviet forces.
2A36, is replacing the 130-mm field gun M-46 in     Both t h e 2 S 5 and t h e 2A36 have a maximum
gun battalions organic to artillery brigades at     range of 28,000 meters and an extended range of
army level. The Soviets fielded it i n 1981 and     33,000 meters.
deployed it with their forces in Eastern Europe
203-mm Howitzer M1931 (B-4M)

                                                   M1931 (B-4M)

    The 203-mm howitzer M1931 (B-4) has a rela-             have adapted it to fire a nuclear round.
tively short tube, only 25 calibers long. It has a
hydraulic recoil buffer, a hydropneumatic recu-             LIMITATIONS:
p e r a t o r , a n d a screw-type breechblock. I t fires
bag-type, variable-charge, separate-loading ammu-                The M1931 has a very limited traverse of 10
nition. Early models used a full-track, but not SP,         degrees in either direction and a slow rate of fire
carriage in firing position and for short moves.            of 0.5 rounds per minute. (Some reports indicate
For longer moves, the tube was removable for                t h a t the rate of fire is one round per minute.)
transport on a separate four-wheeled tube trans-            When towed, it must employ a two-wheeled limber
porter. On later models (B-4M), a large four-               (front running gear).
wheeled carriage replaced t h e tracked one to
permit long moves without removing the tube. In             REMARKS:
firing position, the wheels of the B-4M are raised.            The M1931 (B-4) is a rather old weapon. The
and the weapon rests on a firing platform. Both             Soviets developed it in 1931 and adopted it for
models use the same box trail and are towed by              service in 1934. The modified version (B-4M) with
the AT-T tracked artillery tractor.                         four-wheeled carriage appeared only after World
CAPABILITIES:                                               War II. It may be found in the high-powered artil-
                                                            lery brigade at front level. The 203-mm SP gun
  T h e M 1 9 3 1 fires a 98.8-kg HE round to a             2S7 is now replacing the B-4M. The 2S7 mounts
maximum range of 18,025 meters. The Soviets                 on a tracked chassis.
203-mm Self-Propelled Gun 2 S 7

    The 2S7 is an unturreted gun mounted on a              The massive gun tube is mounted well to the
long, tracked chassis. It has seven evenly spaced,     rear, extending far beyond the front of the vehicle.
T-80-typeroad wheels and six support rollers. The      In travel position, it is secured by a tie-down ring
drive sprocket is a t the front of the suspension.     attached to the center of the c a b roof. The tube
The idler wheel at the rear can he lowered hydrau-     has no muzzle brake but has a slight thickening
lically all the way to the ground, along with the      at the muzzle. Above and below the rear of the
large, dozer blade-like spade on the rear of the       gun tube are the recoil cylinder and recuperator.
vehicle; this gives the SP gun increased stability     The power-assisted loading mechanism is on the
during firing.                                         right side of the breech; the gunner sits on the
                                                       left side of the breech; and the cannonier services
   The boat-like bow projects far beyond the front     the gun from a platform on the left rear of the
of the suspension. Extending across the entire         vehicle. A radio antenna is mounted atop the left
width of the bow is an armored cab for the driver      side of the hull, roughly above the fifth road
and crew. The cab has two windows, which can           wheel.
be covered with steel shutters; it also has an NBC     CAPABILITIES:
collective protection system. Located directly b e
hind the cab is the engine compartment, with rec-         The 2 S 7 is organic to the high-powered artil-
tangular exhaust vents on both sides of the hull.      lery brigade, which may be allocated to a front.
3-mm Self-Propelled Gun 2 S 7 (continued)

 gun has a maximum range of 37,500 meters        REMARKS:
 a n extended range of 50,000 meters. It can
 nuclear projectiles, as well as other ammuni-      The West first observed the 2S7 in 1975. It had
 types.                                          the provisional designation M1975. It replaced the
                                                 older 203-mm howitzer M1931 (B-4M) in high-
                                                 powered artillery brigades. In some cases, the 2S7
                                                 may also be organic to the artillery division at
IITATIONS:                                       front level; for example, in WGF. The 2S7 chassis
                                                 may derive from the same type chassis a s the
'he open gun mount provides no protection for    heavy tracked artillery tractor MT-T. It i s also
 four-man crew in firing position.               similar to the SA-12 SAM system vehicle.
                            8 2 -M M
                           MORTAR               82-MM                                     120-MM             120-MM                                                240-MM
                            M1937             AUTOMATIC                   120-MM          MORTAR           SP MORTAR           1 6 0 -M M          240-MM            SP
                           (1942-43            MORTAR                     MORTAR           2B11                2S12            MORTAR              MORTAR          MORTAR
 CHARACTERISTICS           VERSION)              2B9                       M1943          (M-120)            (M-120)            M-160               M-240            2S4
DOI                      1943                1983                    1943                early 1980s       early 1980s       1953               1952               1975
STATUS                   obsolescent         standard                standard            standard          standard          standard           limited            standard
CREW                     5                   3                       6                   INA               INA               6-7                 8-9               INA
CALIBER (mm)             82                  82                      120                 120               120               160                240                240
Total (kg)               55.8                800                     521.5               INA           INA                   1,314              4,240              INA
Firing Position (kg)     55.8                INA                     283.5               INA           INA                   1,291              3.610              INA
MOUNT (type)             baseplate and       split-trail carriage,   baseplate and       baseplate and GAZ-66                baseplate and      baseplate and      SP, tracked
                         bipod               with emplacement        bipod                bipod         truck                wheels             wheels             chasiss
BASEPLATE WEIGHT (kg) 35*                    NA                      94**                INA               INA               240 (baseplate     685 (baseplate     INA
                                                                                                                             normally not       normally not
                                                                                                                             detached)          detached)
SIGHTING DEVICE          collimator sight.   INA                     collimator sight,   INA               INA               panoramic tele-    panoramic tele-    INA
                         MP-42                                       MP-42                                                   scope, MP-46M      scope, MP-46M
                                                                                                                             (on-carriage);     (on-carriage);
                                                                                                                             colliamtor (off-   collimator (off­
                                                                                                                             carriage)          carriage)
AMMUNITION (types)       Frag-HE, smoke, Frag-HE,smoke,              Frag-HE. HE.        Frag-HE,          Frag-HE.          HE                 HE, nuclear,       HE, nuclear,
                         illuminating,   illuminating,               smoke, illumi-      smoke, illumi-    smoke, illumi-                       chemical           chemical
                         incendiary      incendiary,                 nating, incen-      nating, incen-    nating, incen-
                                         possible                    diary, possible     diary, possible   diary, possible
                                         chemical                    chemical            chemical          chemical
Elevation (c)            +45 to +85          0 to +85                +45 to +80          INA               INA               +50 to +80         +45 to +70         INA
Traverse (c)             10 total            20 total                6 total             INA               INA               25 total           17 total           INA
Maximum range (m)        3.040               5,000                   5.700               7,200             7,200             8,040              9,700***           9,700***
Minimum range (m)        90                  100                     500                 460               460               750                800                800
Rate of Fire
Maximum (rd/min)         25              40-60                       9                   10                10                3                  1                INA
Sustained, 1st hr (rd)   210(10-finrd)   INA                         70                  INA               INA               48                 38 (25 with      INA
                         140(6-finrd)                                                                                                           heaviest charge)
Muzzle velocity          210.5 (Frag-HE) INA                         272 (Frag-HE. HE) INA                 INA               343 (HE)           362 (HE)         INA
UNIT OF FIRE (rd)    120                     INA                     80                  INA               INA               80                 40                 INA
EMPLACEMENT/DIS-     varies                  varies                  varies              varies            varies            varies             varies             INA

FOOTNOTES       '23.5 kilograms for bipod.
                **68 kilograms for bipod.
              ""Also known to have emended-range capability of 20.000 meters.
82-mm Automatic Mortar 2B9


     The 82-mmautomatic mortar 2B9 differs vastly                       chemical rounds. The Soviet press h a s reported a
from earlier mortars in its appearance. I t uses a                      (cyclic) rate of fire of up to 120 rounds per minute.
conventional artillery carriage with split trails                       However, t h e practical r a t e of fire i s approxi-
a n d a n emplacement jack located a t the front. I n                   mately 40 to 60 r o u n d s per minute; a 4-round
t h e firing position, the jack is lowered and the                      hurst leaves t h e tube i n a s little a s 2 seconds.
wheels pivot forward, lifting off the ground. This                      This quick volume of fire considerably increases
permits the three-mancrew to rapidly traverse and                       the shock effect of the first hurst of fire on targets
shift the fires of the weapon. The GAZ-66 truck                         such a s infantry and crew-served weapons. The
m a y tow or carry the mortar.                                          mortar h a s a shorter minimum r a n g e t h a n t h e
                                                                        M 1 9 4 3 : 1 0 0 v e r s u s 500 m e t e r s . T h i s a n d a n
CAPABILITIES:                                                           increased r a t e of fire significantly improve t h e
                                                                        firepower of a n MRB. The 2 B 9 serves a s a n alter-
     The 2 B 9 is breech-loaded with ammunition fed                      native to 120-mm mortars i n some MRBs.
automatically from 4-round ammunition clips. I t
can also he hand-loaded. I n the photo above, the                       REMARKS:
l o a d e r i n t h e foreground i s holding o n e clip;                  The Soviet nickname for the 2 B 9 is Vasilek.
another clip is already on the loading tray on the                      (This i s pronounced va-sil-YOK a n d means
right of the mortar.
                                                                        "cornflower.") T h e Soviets used a n S P version
      The 2B9 has a maximum range of 5,000 meters,                      mounted on the rear deck of the MT-LB tracked
a minimum range of 100 meters, and a 10-degree                          armored vehicle i n Afghanistan. I t h a d t h e
t r a v e r s e i n either direction. I t fires F r a g - H E ,         mortar elevated on steel b o x e s a n d its carriage
i l l u m i n a t i n g , i n c e n d i a r y smoke, a n d possibly     wheels removed.
1 2 0 - m m M o r t a r M1943


    The M1943 is a conventional, muzzle-loading,         permits all-azimuth firing. The M1943 has a maxi-
smoothbore mortar with a large circular b a s e ­        mum range of 5,700 meters and a minimum range
plate. For movement over short distances, it can         of 500 meters.
quickly break down into three parts: barrel, bipod,
a n d baseplate. For normal travel, t h e whole
weapon folds together, and a GAZ-66 truck tows           LIMITATIONS:
it on a two-wheeled tubular carriage. It also can            As with most Soviet mortars, the M1943 is diffi-
travel in the truck's bed. If necessary, animals can     cult to turn rapidly over a wide traverse. However,
pack the mortar in its three parts.                      it can accommodate small-angle shifts (of up to 6
CAPABILITIES:                                            degrees) without shifting the bipod.
   T h e M1943 i s s t a n d a r d equipment i n t h e
mortar battery of a n MRB (in MRRs and in the            REMARKS:
TR of t h e T D ) , i n t h e mortar battery of a n
assault or parachute battalion (in air assault or           The M1943 is also known simply as M43. The
airmobile assault brigades), and in the mortar           Soviets first introduced it in 1943 as a modified
battery of a n airborne regiment. Each battery has       version of the older 120-mm mortar M1938. It dif-
six or eight tubes.                                      fers from t h e M1938 i n h a v i n g longer shock
                                                         absorber cylinders and more sophisticated elevat-
   This mortar can be drop-or lanyard-fired. The         ing and traversing gear. Although the M1943 has
Soviets have retrofitted it with a special muzzle        virtually replaced the M1938 as the mortar of the
device to prevent double loading. The outer casing       Soviet infantry battalions, the armies of other
of t h e HE ammunition c a n consist of either           Warsaw Pact nations have both models. However,
wrought or cast iron. The latter is more effective       the new 120-mm mortar M-120 and 82-mm auto-
against personnel, but slightly reduced in maxi-         matic mortar 2B9 (the Vasilek) are now replacing
mum range. The baseplate mounting of the M1943           the M1943 in the Soviet Army.
120-mm Mortar 2B11 (M-120)


    The 120-mm mortar 2 B 1 1 resembles the older          of 7,200 meters. I t h a s a minimum range of 460
M1943 version, with several improvements. Like             meters a n d is nine times lighter t h a n a 122-mm
the M1943, the 2 B 1 1 has a special safety device         howitzer.
to prevent double loading when the mortar round
i s not fired or not removed from the tube. When              The 2 B l l is organic to the mortar batteries of
a round i s loaded, it trips a t a b on the tube, pre-     M R R s a n d airborne regiments. Each battery has
venting another round from being loaded. This tab          six or eight tubes.
shifts to the "ready" position when the round fires,
allowing t h e 2B11 to be reloaded. T h e 2 B 1 1 is
mounted on a lightweight carriage for towing by            REMARKS:
either the GAZ-66 or UAZ-469light trucks.                       T h e 120-mm mortar originally identified a s
CAPABILITIES:                                              M-120 h a s a t least two versions. The Soviets call
                                                           t h e towed version 2 B 1 1 a n d t h e self-propelled
   The rate of fire is 10 rounds   per minute with 6       version 2S12. Some mortar batteries have replaced
seconds required to reload the     tube for the next       the older 120-mm mortar M1943 with the 2B11,
firing. T h e 2 B 1 1 mortar can    fire a projectile      others with the 2S12. Still other batteries employ
weighing almost 16 kilograms to    a maximum range         the 82-mm automatic mortar 2 B 9 (Vasilek).
120-mm Self-Propelled Mortar 2S12 (M-120)

DESCRIPTION:                                         REMARKS:
  The 2512 is a self-propelled version of the 120-     The Soviet nickname for the 2512 is Sani (sled).
mm mortar 2Bll (M-120) carried on the bed of a       There are also reports of the 2512 mounted on a
GAZ-66 truck.                                        modified MT-LB chassis.
  Same as for 2B11. The SP model provides even
more mobility for this versatile mortar.
160-mm Mortar M-160


    The 160-mm mortar M-160 is a breech-loaded,           to the firing position and fires the round wit
trigger-fired weapon. I t h a s a relatively long tube,   lanyard attached to the trigger. The M-160 has a
a large circular baseplate with four lifting handles,     maximum range of 8,040 meters and a minimum
a n d permanently attached wheels. The GAZ-66             range of 750 meters.
general purpose cargo truck normally tows it.
                                                             The Soviets introduced the M-160 in 1953 a s a
   The crew releases the entire tube from the base        replacement for the older 160-mm mortar M1943.
and rotates it to a horizontal position for loading.      Compared to its predecessor, t h e M-160 h a s a
A tray-served round then is hand-rammed into the          longer tube a n d greater range. Some divisions
breech end of the tube. The crew returns the tube         have the M-160 instead of 152-mm howitzers.
240-mm Mortar M-240

DESCRIPTION:                                             LIMITA TIONS:
   The 240-mm mortar M-240 is the largest Soviet            The M-240 has reasonable elevation but only
towed mortar. It is also the largest mortar used         limited traverse. For loading, the crew rotates the
by any army in the world. It has a very large            tube on its trunnions to the horizontal position.
baseplate with star-shaped ribbing on the under-         Lifting the round to the breech, which is more
side, a very long tube (5,340 millimeters), small        than five feet off the ground, is a four- or five-
vertical cylinders on either side of the tube just       man task. The short range of the mortar must
above the axle, and a collar around the tube in          present a problem for deployment in a nuclear role.
which the trunnions are located. A truck or tracked
artillery tractor tows the M-240 muzzle-first. It also   REMARKS:
carriesthe ammunition and the eight-or nine-man
crew.                                                        The Soviets first produced the M-240, also
                                                         known as the M1953 or M-53, in 1952. The West
CAPABILITIES:                                            first saw it in 1953. It is no longer in production.
   The M-240 is a trigger-fired and breech-loaded        Soviet forces originally employed it in roles where
mortar. It is similar in operation to the M-160.         US forces would use medium artillery. In recent
Its wheels remain attached during firing.                years, they have adapted it to fire nuclear rounds
                                                         and relegated it to service i n some independent
   The M-240 h a s a maximum range of 9,700              high-powered artillery brigades at front level. They
meters and a minimum range of 800 meters. It             have some i n reserve stocks. The 240-mm S P
fires HE, chemical, and nuclear rounds, Its maxi-        mortar 2S4, believed to be a modification of the
mum rate of fire is only one round per minute.           M-240 system, is now in service.
 4 0 - m m Self-Propelled Mortar 2 S 4


   The 2S4 system comprises a heavy mortar                   meters. This S P version can fire to a n extended
 carriedin a n open mount atop the same type of              range of 20,000 meters. The 2 S 4 can also fire
 cracked chassis used for the SA-4 SAM system,               chemical and nuclear rounds.
 one2 S 3 S P howitzer, and the 2 S 5 S P gun. The
 uspension features six road wheels and four                    The use of the S P mount overcomes the towed
                                                             M-240's significant shortcomings in mobility,
 support rollers. I t has more space between the
                                                             greatly decreasing the emplacement/displacement
 rst, second, and third road wheels. The mortar
                                                             time. I t also circumvents serious handling and
 travels with its muzzle forward; the muzzle does
                                                             loading problems for the massive 240-mm rounds.
 ot extend to the front of the vehicle, only even
                                                             A power-assisted rammer pushes rounds stowed in
 rith the first road wheel. The large baseplate has
                                                             the vehicle hull into the breech of the mortar; the
 yourflat sides, rounded corners, and a star pattern
 n its bottom. I t is folded a t a forward angle             mortar pivots on its trunnions to bring the breech
                                                             near the rear of the hull for loading.
 bove the breech in travel position. The crew uses
  remote console to hydraulically lower the mortar           LIMITATIONS
 cover the back of the vehicle into firing position.
'he barrel points rearward when the baseplate                    Like the M-240, the 2S4 has only limited tra-
ests on the ground.                                          verse capability. The open mount provides no pro-
                                                             tection for the crew in firing position. The mortar's
                                                             short range must present a problem when the 2S4
                                                             has a nuclear role.
   The 2S4 is organic to the high-powered artillery          REMARKS:
b r i g a d e hich may be allocated to a front. The
n o r t a r i s essentially identical to t h e towed            The 2S4 was first observed in 1975; therefore,
240-mmmortar M-240,which it is replacing. Like               it originally received the provisional designation
he M-240, it is capable of firing a standard                 M1975. It is a replacement for the towed M-240
30-kg HE round to a maximum range of 9,700                   in high-powered artillery brigades.
                                                                             Rocket Launchers
                                                             Rocket launcher armament char cteristics

                                                122-MM                            122-MM                    122-MM                            220-MM
          ARMAMENT                        ROCKET L A U N C H E R            ROCKET L A U N C H E R     ROCKET L A U N C H E R          ROCKET L A U N C H E R
       CHARACTERISTICS                      (40-RD) B M - 2 1                (36-RD) B M - 2 1 - 1      (12-RD) B M - 2 1 V              (16-RD) B M - 2 2
    DOI                                1964                               1976                       1975                        1977
    STATUS                             standard                           standard                   standard                    standard
    Elevation (c)                      0 to + 5 6 . 5                     0 to +55                                               approximately 0 to +55
    Traverse (c)                       168                                270                                                    240 (estimated)
                                       (100 left, 68 r i g h t )

    C a l i b e r mm)
                 122                                122                                                    220
    Total w e i g h t kg) 
            66.0                               66.0                                                   approx~mately 300
    Length, overall (m) 
              2.87                               2 87                                                   4.80
    Type of stabilization
             f i n and s p i n                      n
                                                                          f i and    spin            f i n and spin              fin and spin

    Maximum ( m ) 


    Direct f i r e m )                                                                               500                          INA
    Indirect fire (m)                                                                                1,500                        approxlmately 5,000
    WARHEAD (types)                                                                                  Frag-HE,chemical,            Frag-HE, c h e m i c a l ,ICM
                                                                                                     incendiary                  (scatterable AP and AT mines;
                                                                                                                                 f r a g and i n c e n d i a r y
    UNIT OF FIRE (rd)                                                                                                            48
    launcher preloaded (min)                                                                                                     INA

                                                                   Rocket launcher vehicle characteristic8

                                          ROCKET L A U N C H E R            ROCKET L A U N C H E R     ROCKET L A U N C H E R          ROCKET L A U N C H E R
                                            (40-RD) BM-21                    (36-RD) BM-21-1            (12-RD)
 B M - 2 1 V 
           (16-RD) BM-22

    MODEL                                                                                             GAZ-66B (4 
           ZIL-135 (8 8)
    WEIGHT, with launcher                                                                             6.000 
    and rockets (kg)
    LENGTH, travel p o s i t i o n
                                 (m)                                                                                             approxlmately 9.30
    WIDTH, travel position (m)                                                                                                   approximately 2.80
    HEIGHT, travel position (m)                                                                                                  approx~mately 3.20
    ROAD SPEED, maximum                                                                                                          approxlmately 65
    FUEL CAPACITY (liters)                                                                            210                        approximately 770
    ROAD RANGE (km)                                                                                   875                        approximately 520
122-mm Rocket Launcher (40-Round) BM-21


     The BM-21 is distinguishable from other MRLs              The BM-21 fires a rocket with a range of 20.380
by its square-cornered, 40-tube launching apparatus         meters. Each launch tube is grooved to impart a
with 4 banks of 10 tubes. A protective canvas often         slow rotary motion to the rocket. However, the
covers the apparatus. The BM-21 is mounted on               rocket is primarily fin-stabilized. This combination
the Ural-375D 6 x 6 truck chassis, which h a s a            of s p i n - a n d f i n -s t a b i l i z a t i o n e n s u r e s closely
distinctive fender design a n d a spare tire on the         grouped fire a t ranges of up to 16 kilometers.
r e a r s i d e of t h e cab. T h e BM-21 h a s n o blast
shields o n the driver's cab. However, the material             O n explosion, t h e warhead produces a great
used in the cab windows and windscreen is strong            fragmentation effect and shock wave. The warhead
enough to withstand the overpressures a n d other           fill may be Frag-HE, chemical, or incendiary.
effects associated with the firing of 122-mm rockets.           Because of its high volume of fire and large
                                                            area coverage, the BM-21 is well suited for use
CAPABILITIES:                                               a g a i n s t troops i n t h e open, for use in artillery
                                                            preparations, and for delivery of chemical concen-
   T h e BM-21's crew c a n fire it either from the         trations. One volley from a BM-21 battalion is 720
cab or remotely from a distance of up to 60 meters          rounds. Because these weapons have a large circu-
when using a cable set. They can fire some or all           lar error probable (CEP), they are not suited for
rockets a t a fixed 0.5-sec interval. They can fire         attacks against point targets.
single rockets manually a t a n y desired interval.
This five-man crew can reload the launcher in 8                T h e Ural-375D vehicle h a s a maximum road
to 10 minutes.                                              speed of 75 kilometers per hour, a cruising range
122-mm Rocket Launcher (40-Round) BM-21(continued)

of 750 kilometers, and a n exceptional cross-           the smaller caliber of its rockets, the BM-21 also
country capability.                                     can fire a greater quantity of rockets than the
                                                        earlier models. This makes it especially useful for
LIMITATIONS:                                            area fire and for delivering massive surprise fires.
   When firing rockets, the vehicle must park              The rocket launcher battalion organic to each
obliquely to the target. This protects the unshielded   MRD and TD uses the BM-21. Forces a t front
cab from blast damage.                                  and army levels also employ it. The 220-mm rocket
                                                        launcher (16-round)BM-22 is replacing it at front.

                                                           In 1972, the Czechoslovak Army introduced a
   The BM-21 entered service in 1964 as a replace       new version with the BM-21 launching apparatus
ment for the 140-mm (16-and 17-round) BM-14             mounted on a modified 10-tonTATRA 813 (8 x 8)
rocket launchers. It is now the most widely used        truck. A reload pack of 40 additional rockets sits
truck-mounted rocket launcher in the Warsaw Pact        between the launcher and the armored cab, allow-
forces. Older, heavier rocket launchers are seldom      ing a decreased reload time of 1.5 to 3.0 minutes.
seen in front-line units. These would include the       Although this combination is larger and heavier
200-mm (4-round) BMD-20, the 240-mm (12-round)          than the Soviet BM-21 on the Ural-375Dtruck, it
BM-24, a n d t h e 250-mm ( 6 - r o u n d ) BMD-25.     has the same road speed and a similar cruising
Although the BM-21 rockets are smaller in caliber       range (600 kilometers). Its additional rocket supply
than previous models, the warhead is equal to that      also permits greater tactical flexibility. This vari-
of the 140-mm rocket, and the range exceeds that        ant, known as the RM-70, is now in service in at
of the older 140-mm and 240-mm models. Due to           least Czechoslovakia and East Germany.
122-mm Rocket Launcher (36-Round) BM-21-1


    The 122-mmMRL BM-21-1closely resembles the          effective against uncovered troops, during artillery
BM-21. However, t h e BM-21-1 v a r i a n t uses a      preparations, and for delivery of chemical agents.
ZIL-131 chassis instead of a Ural-375D;therefore,
it h a s a slightly lower profile than the BM-21. The   LIMITA TIONS:
rear fenders of the ZIL-131rotate with the launcher        Like most MRLs,the BM-21-1produces a distinct
when the BM-21-1is aimed for firing. A more             blast area. The vehicle must park obliquely to the
important difference is that the BM-21-1has only        target to avoid damage to the vehicle's cab when
36 tubes, unlike t h e BM-21 which h a s 40. A          the launcher fires the rockets.
launching apparatus has had the two center tubes
in each of the lower two banks removed.                 REMARKS:

CAPABILITIES:                                               The BM-21-1was originally designated M1976.
                                                        I t was also called BM-21 Modified because of
    The BM-21-1fires the same fin-stabilized rocket     similarities to this standard system. Contrary to
a s the BM-21 to a maximumrange of 20,380 meters,       earlier assessments, the BM-21-1fires the same
with Frag-HE, chemical, or incendiary warheads.         rocket as the BM-21. There are no indications that
The crew can fire 36 rounds remotely or from the        the BM-21-1is replacing the BM-21 a t division-
cab in less than 20 seconds, quickly producing a        level. However, its employment and subordination
large volume of fire. This firing i s especially        are s e t unknown.
1 2 2 - m m Rocket Launcher (12-Round) BM-21V


   The 12-tube launcher, with its two tiers of 6    to a canvas-covered cab and a windshield that can
tubes, i s mounted on the lower chassis of the      be folded down to simplify air-landing or air-
GAZ-66Btruck. The BM-21Vlauncher is traversed       dropping. The BM-21V has a maximum highway
forward towards the cab while traveling. It uses    speed of 87 kilometers per hour.
two stabilizing jacks when the lower chassis is
traversed toward the rear for firing.
                                                       The BM-21Vreceived a provisional designation
   The BM-21Vfires the same 122-mm fin-stabilized   of M1975 because that was the year i n which
rocket as the BM-21 and BM-21-1.The rockets can     it was first observed. The addition of V to the
deliver Frag-HE, chemical, or incendiary warheads   equipment designator probably means
to a range of 20,380 meters. This airborne MRL      vozdushnodesantnyy or airborne. The BM-21V
can fire all 12 rockets in 6 seconds or fire each   mounts on the air-droppable GAZ-66B.This MRL
singly. It can reload in 5 minutes. The B version   can provide organic supporting fires to airborne
of the GAZ-66 has reduced weight and mass due       or air assault units.
 2 2 0 - m m R o c k e t L a u n c h e r (16-Round) BM-22


   The 16-round 220-mm rocket launcher BM-22                spin-stabilized rockets have a range of 40,000
uses a ZIL-135 8 x 8 truck chassis similar to that          meters, greatly exceeding the range of earlier
used for t h e FROG-7 system. Its launch tubes are          Soviet heavy rocket launchers. The maximum rate
arranged in three banks, with the lower two banks           of fire for the BM-22 is approximately one round
having six tubes each and the upper bank having             every . 5 seconds. Reloading the launcher with a
four tubes.                                                 second set of 16 rockets takes 15 to 20 minutes.
     A reload vehicle, also based on the ZIL-135               The BM-22 is currently replacing the 40-round
chassis, complements the BM-22. I t is a flatbed
                                                            122-mm rocket launcher BM-21 i n t h e rocket
vehicle carrying 1 6 rockets arranged i n two stacks
                                                            launcher brigade of front-level artillery divisions.
positioned on either side of t h e vehicle bed. A
                                                            However, it has not yet replaced the BM-21 in the
loading device which transfers the rockets from
                                                            rocket launcher regiment a t a r m y level. I t is n o t
t h e reload vehicle to the launcher is mounted             expected t o replace t h e BM-21 a t division level.
between the two stacks.
CAPABILITIES:                                               REMARKS:
   The BM-22 fires rockets with Frag-HE, chemi-                  The West first saw the BM-22 in 1977, hence
cal, and ICM warheads. Submunitions for the ICM             i t s preliminary designation MRL M1977. The
warheads include AP and AT mines, fragmentation             Soviet designation is BM-22 rather than BM-27,
bomblets, and incendiary bomblets. The fin- and             a s previously assumed.
                                                                                                         Free R o c k e t and Surface-To-Surface M i s s i l e s

                        F r e erocket a n d surface-to-surface m i s s i l e characteristics                                                                             F r e erocket a n d surface-to-surfme       m i s s i l e v e h i c l e characteristics

                                                               S S - 1 2 Mod 2 / 
                                                      VEHICLE                                                                        SS-12 Mod 2 /
        FROG-7            SS-1c/SCUD B        SCALEBOARD B            SS-21/SCARAB       SS-23/SPIDER               CHARACTERISTICS                      FROG-7               SS-1c/SCUD B            SCALEBOARD B              SS-21/SCARAB                SS-23/SPIDER
                   900 ( A
                        7 )
                   950 (7B)
                                          1125                1200                   9 00                152                       CHASSIS                        ZIL-13518    81            MAZ543 (8 x 81          MAI 543 (8     8)          BAZ5921 (6    . 6)    U/L wheeled vehicle (8 * 8)
                                                                                                                                   CREW                           4                          INA                     INA                        INA                   INA
                   05 5                   085                 101                    INA                 091 
                     WEIGHT, w/missile (mt)         230                        29 0                    32 0                       3080                  24 0 7
                   2,300 2,500            6,300 (estimated)   9,700(estimated)       9.000 (estimated)   INA                       LENGTH
                   (estimated, varies)
                                                                                                                                                           mi )
                                                                                                                                  W / r o c k e t / m i s s(l e   1080                       12.00                   1326                       9 50                  INA
                   10                     300                 900                    70                  500
                                                                                                                                  W i t h o um i s s i l e
                                                                                                                                              t           (m)     930                        12 00                   1200                       9 50                  1 176
                   Hi, chemical         HE, chemical,         nuclear                HE, chemical,       HE, chemical,            WIDTH. overall (m)              2 80                       3 00                    3 10                       2 78                  3 13
                   nuclear, I C M       nuclear                                      nuclear, ICM        nuclear, ICM             HEIGHT, overall (m)             3 50                       2 60                    345                        2 50                  3 00
                   15 30 (after         U p to 60 (after      U p to 60 (after       INA                 INA                      ENGINE                          2 x 90 hp, V-8, gasoline   580 hp, V 1 2 ,diesel   580 hp. V 12, diesel       295 h p V 6. diesel   INA
                   arrival at pre-      arrival at p r e -    arrival a t                                                         SPEED
                   surveyed site)       surveyed site)        surveyed site)
                                                                                                                                  R o a d(km/hr)                  7075                       70                      70                         60                    INA
                   I rocket on TEL      I missileon TEL                  on
                                                              1 missile TEL          I missileon         1 missile o n             ae
                                                                                                                                  Wtr (km/hr)                     NA                         NA                      NA                         S                     INA
                   vehicle; 3 rockets   vehicle,a t least     vehicle: a t least           L
                                                                                     T E vehicle:        TEL vehicle,
                   on reloadv e h i c l e reloadmissile
                                        1                     I reload missile       unknown number on                 e
                                                                                                         I m i s s i l pa          FUELCAPACITY (liters)          700+                       800                     800                        350                   INA
                                        per TEL               par TEL                reload vehicle      missile. transport        ROADRANGE (km)                 400                        550                     550                        500                   INA
                                                                                                         vehicle                  TRENCH CROSSING (m)             26                         3.4                     34                         1.2                   INA
                   varies                 varies              varies                 INA                 INA                      VERTICAL STEP (m)               0.7                        08                      08                         05                    INA
                   1965 (7A)
                                                                                                     GRADABILITY ( )c                30                         30                      30                         30                    30
                   1968 (7B)              1961 
              1979                   1976                early 1980s
                                                                                                                                  FORDING (m)                     06                         10                      1.0                        amphibious            INA
                   standard               standard            adr*
                                                              snad                   standard            standard*
                                                                                                                                  ARMOR. m a x i m u m            none                       none                    none                       none                  none
                                                                                                                                  Driver                          no                         Y ~ S                   ys
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      e                         INA                   INA
                                                                                                                                  Commander                       no                         no                      no                         INA                   INA
                                                                                                                                  NBC PROTECTION                  no                         no*                     no*                        yes                   INA
Free Rocket Over Ground FROG-7


DESCRIPTION:                                           LIMITATIONS:
    The FROG-7 is the latest addition to the free         The FROG-7 TEL vehicle provides no NBC
rocket over ground (FROG) family of unguided,          protection for the crew. The single-rail launcher
spin-stabilized, short-range, battlefield support      has limited traverse.
artillery rockets. It employs a ZIL-135TEL vehicle,
which carries one rocket and a n on-board crane        REMARKS:
on a n eight-wheeled chassis. A similar vehicle can         The Soviets introduced the FROG-7A in 1965
transport three reload rockets for each TEL. The       a s a replacement for earlier FROG variants. Some
rocket is of conventional, single-stage design. I t    variants had been in service since the mid-1950s.
h a s a cylindrical warhead of the same diameter       The FROG-1 a n d -2 are obsolete. Some non-Soviet
a s the rocket body, giving it a cleaner and more      Warsaw Pact armies still have the FROG-3, -4,
modern appearance than its predecessors.               a n d -5 variants, mounted on a nonamphibious
                                                       version of the PT-76 light tank chassis. The Soviet
CAPABILITIES:                                          Army still has a few of these rockets. The FROG-5
                                                       still serves as a training rocket, and the FROG-6
   The range of the rocket is 70 kilometers; the       is a dummy rocket used for training purposes only.
cruising range of the TEL vehicle is 400 kilometers.   The FROG-7B, introduced in 1968, is essentially
The FROG-7 can deliver HE, nuclear, or chemical        t h e s a m e rocket a s t h e FROG-7A, but with a
warheads. T h e FROG-7B v a r i a n t also h a s a n   longer warhead section. The Soviets export non-
improved conventional munitions (ICM)warhead,          nuclear versions of the FROG-7 to both Warsaw
with submunitions rather than a unitary warhead.       P a d and some non-Warsaw P a d nations. The SS-21
The FROG battalion of Soviet divisions may have        tactical ballistic missile is rapidly replacing the
the FROG-7A or -7B.                                    FROG-7.
Surface-To-Surface Missile SS-21/SCARAB

                                            SS-21 /SCARAB

    The tactical ballistic missile SS-21/SCARAB       on-road or 29 kilometers per hour off-road i n
uses a six-wheeled amphibious TEL similar to the      support of operations. The SS-21 tactical ballistic
SA-8/GECKO SAM. Like the SA-8, it has good            missile has a range of 70 kilometers. It also has
cross-country capability. It probably has a n air     improvements over the FROG-7 in reaction time,
filtration and overpressure system for collective     reliability, accuracy, and handling. The SS-21 has
chemical, radiological, and biological protection.    three variants which can deliver HE, nuclear,
The missile l i e s on the centerline of the TEL.     chemical, and improved conventional munitions. It
There is space on both sides to transport equip-      can deliver these warheads with a very high degree
ment. Protective doors on the top of the TEL cover    of accuracy and reliability.
the missile during travel. These doors open to the
sides when the missile is erected to the vertical     REMARKS:
position for firing. A modified version of the same       The Soviets have nicknamed the SS-21 Tochka,
6 x 6 vehicle serves as a missile resupply vehicle    which means "point." It first appeared in 1976 in
for the SS-21.                                        the USSR. The West first reported it in WGF in
CAPABILITIES:                                         1981. The SS-21 i s now rapidly replacing t h e
                                                      FROG7 in divisions opposite NATO. Soviet armies
   Both the SS-21 TEL and the resupply vehicle        i n WGF are consolidating division-level SS-21
can travel a n average of 60 kilometers per hour      battalions into army-level brigades.
Surface-to-Surface Missile SS-1c/SCUD B

                                                     SS-1c / S C U D B

   The SCUD-series guided missiles are single-                  and army commanders a n integral nuclear weapons
stage, short-range ballistic missiles using storable            capability.
liquid propellants. Although originally transported
on a J o s e p h S t a l i n h e a v y t a n k chassis, t h e
SCUD B i s now primarily mounted on a TEL                       REMARKS:
vehicle based on t h e MAZ-543 (8 x 8 ) wheeled
chassis, Unlike t h e FROG series of unguided                      The Soviets introduced the SCUD B on the JS-3
missiles, the SCUDShave movable fins.                           tracked c h a s s i s i n 1961. I t a p p e a r e d on t h e
                                                                MAZ-543 wheeled chassis in 1965. I t replaced the
CAPABILITIES:                                                   JS-3-mounted SCUD A, which had been in service
                                                                since the mid-1950s. Both Warsaw Pact and non-
     T h e MAZ-543 TEL gives t h e SCUD missile                 Warsaw Pact nations have imported non-nuclear
s y s t e m greater road mobility. I t reduces t h e            variants of the SCUD missiles. The SCUD A is
number of support vehicles required, and still                  also known a s SS-lb, and the SCUD B a s SS-lc.
preserves a great choice in selecting off-road firing
positions. SCUD missiles are organic to SSM                        The SS-23 h a s greatly improved range (500
(SCUD) brigades a t front/army level. Warheads                  kilometers). I t also h a s increased accuracy and
c a n be H E , chemical, or nuclear. The missile,               reduced reaction and refire times. The SS-23 had
launched vertically from a small platform a t the               begun to replace the SCUD B in forward areas.
rear of the TEL, has a range of 300 kilometers.                 However, the 1987 INF Treaty calls for removal
The SCUD-series missiles have the Soviet front                  of the SS-23 from the Soviet inventory.
Surface-to-Surface Missile SS-12/SCALEBOARD


   T h e SS-12/SCALEBOARD uses t h e s a m e                 The SCALEBOARD is a front- and theater-level
MAZ-543 (8 x 8) chassis a s the SCUD B. I t differs,     weapon system that gives the Soviet commander
however, in the environmental protective container       a nuclear capability. To date, the SCALEBOARD
that completely encloses its SCALEBOARD missile;         h a s appeared only with Soviet forces. The mid-
this is the primary recognition difference. The          range missile can be stationed in the western part
latest version, SS-12 Mod 2/SCALEBOARD B, is             of the USSR and still hit important targets in
a two-stage, solid-fuel system with improved range       Central Europe.
(900 kilometers), accuracy, and warhead, compared
to the SCUD.                                             REMARKS:

CAPABILITIES:                                                 T h e S o v i e t s f i r s t d e p l o y e d t h e S S -1 2
                                                         Mod 1/SCALEBOARD A in the mid-1960s. The
    Like the SCUD, the SCALEBOARD fires from             new SS-12 Mod 2, introduced in 1979, has largely
a presited position; then it moves to another            replaced it. The new Mod 2 missile has the same
prearranged position. The MAZ-543 has centralized        r a n g e (900 kilometers), but offers improved
tire pressure control and wide-profile tires. Its good   accuracy. However, the 1987 INF treaty calls for
ground clearance results in excellent mobility for       removal of all SS-12 systems from the Soviet
a vehicle of its size.                                   inventory.
                                      Artillery-Associated Radars
                            Artillery-associated radar characteristics

           RADAR                        FUNCTION                    VEHICLE   FREQUENCY BAND

END TRAY (RMS-1)*                   meteorological              trailer            D

PORK TROUGH-l (SNAR-2)              battlefieldsurveillance     AT L               I

PORK TROUGH-2 (SNAR-6)                        surveillance
                                    battlefield                 INA                J

BUZZ STAND (PSNR-1)                 battlefieldsurveillance     manpack            I

SMALL FRED                          battlefield
                                              surveillance      PUP-3              INA

BIG FRED (SNAR-LO)                  battlefield
                                              surveillance      MT-LB M1975        INR

SMALL YAWN (ARSOM-2P)              countermorar/counter­        AT-L               I

ARK-l                              countermortar/counter­       INA                INA

FOOTNOTE. 'Also employed b y missile u n i t s
                           A N T I T A N K GRENADE    A N T I T A N K GRENADE   A N T I T A N K ROCKET   A N T I T A N K ROCKET
CHARACTERISTICS             L A U N C H E R RPG-7V    LAUNCHER R P G - 1 6 D    L A U N C H E R RPG-18   L A U N C H E R RPG-22
Tube caliber (mm)           40                        58.3                       64                      73
Length (m)                  0.953                     1.100                      1.050 (extended)        0.850 (extended)
                                                                                 0.705 (closed)          0.750 (closed)
Weight (kg)                 7.9 (empty)               10.3                       2.70 (grenade           3.00 (approximately.
                                                                                 and launcher)           grenade and launcher)
Projectile type             rocket-assisted grenade   rocket-assisted grenade    rocket                  racket
Warhead type                HEAT                      HEAT                       HEAT                    HEAT
Warhead caliber (mm)        85/70*                    58.3                       64                      73
Length (m)                  0.905/INA*                0.600                      0.670                   INA
Weight, complete            2.25/INA*                 3.0                        1.4                     1.8 (approximately)
round (kg)
Muzzle velocity (m/s)       120                       130                       115                      INA
Maximum velocity (m/s)      300                       350                       115                      INA
Effective range (m)         300/500**                 500/800**                 200                      250
Maximum range (m)           920 (limited by           varies (self­             varies (self­            INA
                            self-destruct element)    destruct element)         destruct element)
Armor penetration           330                       up to 375                 up to 375                390 (approximately)
(mm @ 0" obliquity
@ any range)
Rate of fire (rd/min)       4-6                       4-6                       NA (disposable           NA (disposable
                                                                                weapon)                  weapon)
CREW                        2                         1 and ammunition bearer   1                         1
UNIT OF FIRE (rd)           20                        varies                    varies                   INA
DOI                         1962                      mid-1970s                 mid-1970s                1985
STATUS                      standard                  standard                  standard                 standard

FOOTNOTES.     *PG-7/PG-7M projectile.
              "Against moving/stationary targets.
A n t i t a n k G r e n a d e Launcher RPG-7V


   T h e RPG-7V is a recoilless, shoulder-fired,       are four large, knife-like fins at the rear of the
muzzle-loaded, reloadable, a n t i t a n k grenade     projectile which unfold when the round leaves the
launcher. I t fires a n 85-mm ( P G - 7 )or 70-mm      tube, and smaller, offset fins a t the very rear
(PG-7M) rocket-assisted HEAT grenade from a            which produce a slow rotation. The maximum
40-mm smoothbore launcher tube. The launcher has       effective range is 500 meters for stationary targets
two h a n d grips; a large optical sight; a thick,     and 300 meters for moving targets. Maximum
wooden heat guard around the middle; and a large,      range is 920 meters, at which point the projectile
flared blast shield at the rear of the tube. The       self-destructs approximately 4.5 seconds after
launcher is 953 millimeters long without grenade,      launching. The PG-7/-7M grenade, with a shaped-
and 1,340 millimeters with PG-7 grenade. The           charge warhead, h a s armor penetration of 330
launcher weighs 7.9 kilograms a n d the PG-7           millimeters.
grenade weighs 2.25 kilograms.
                                                          The current RPG-7V model can mount a tele-
CAPABILITIES:                                          scope and both infrared and passive night sights.
                                                       All RPG-7 models have optical sights which can
   The RPG-7V is light enough to be carried and        be illuminated for night sighting. They have open
fired by one person. However, a n a s s i s t a n t    sights for emergency use.
grenadier normally deploys to the left of the gunner
to protect him with small arms fire. The grenadier        The RPG-7V is the standard squad antitank
normally carries two rounds of ammunition, and         weapon in motorized rifle units. (Each squad has
the assistant grenadier carries three rounds.          one weapon.) The weapon is also found in recon­
                                                       naissance units. Airborne units use the RPG-7D,
   The RPG-7V is a n improved version of the           which can separate into two sections.
earlier RPGS. The RPG-2 had only one hand grip;
a smaller, simpler sight; a smaller blast shield;
and no heat guards. It fired a smaller, 80-mm,         LIMITATIONS:
nonrocket-assisted grenade.
                                                           The RPG-7V requires a well-trained gunner to
   The internal rocket motor of the PG-7/7M            estimate ranges and lead distances for moving
grenade ignites after traveling approximately 11       targets. Crosswinds as low as 7 miles per hour
meters; this gives the projectile higher velocity      can complicate the gunner's estimate and reduce
(sustained out to 500 meters), flatter trajectory,     first-round hit probability to 50 percent at ranges
and better accuracy. Further enhancing accuracy        beyond 180 meters. An RPG projectile screen of
Antitank Grenade Launcher RPG-7V (continued)

chain link fence will completely neutralize 50       I I German Panzerfaust. The Soviets fielded it in
percent of the rounds and degrade the penetrating    the early 1950s. The RPG-7, introduced in 1962, is
capability of the remaining rounds.                  a second-generation weapon employing a rocket-
                                                     assisted projectile. The current version, designated
   Reloading and reaiming the RPG-7V requires        RPG-7V,is in service throughout the Warsaw Pact
a minimum of 14 seconds. Firing leaves noticeable    (except Czechoslovakia). The folding version for
signatures in the form of flash, smoke, and noise.   airborne troops, introduced in 1968, was initially
The unprotected gunner is extremely vulnerable to    known a s RPG-8, but then redesignated RPG-7D.
suppressive fires.                                   A third generation weapon, the RPG-16D,incor-
                                                     porates further refinements resulting from battle
REMARKS:                                             testing the RPG-7V i n Southeast Asia and the
                                                     Middle East. It has replaced the RPG-7D a s the
   The first Soviet recoilless antitank grenade      standard squad antitank weapon in Soviet airborne
launcher, the RPG-2, derived from the World War      forces.

Antitank Grenade Launcher R P G - 1 6 D

    The RPG-16Dis a reloadable antitank weapon.         The RPG-16Dis heavier than the RPG-7V-7D,
It is shoulder-fired, either with or without the     but one person can still carry and fire it.
support of a bipod mounted at the muzzle end. It
has an optical sight above the tube, a single hand
grip below the tube, and a conical blast shield at   REMARKS:
the rear. The 58.3-mm rocket-assisted HEAT pro-
jectile PG-16 has an increased range of 500 to 800      The Soviets introduced the RPG-16D i n the
meters and a greater armor penetration capability    mid-1970s a s a replacement for t h e RPG-7D.
of up to 375 millimeters, compared to the PG-7/-7M   Western observers also expected a one-piece version
projectile of the RPG-7. As with the RPG-7, the      (RPG-16?) to replace the RPG-7Vin motorized rifle
RPG-16Dgrenadier probably carries two rounds of      units; however, the Soviets have not yet deployed
ammunition. The assistant grenadier carries three    such a weapon. To date, only the airborne forces
rounds and protects the grenadier with his assault   have employed the two-piece airborne version
rifle.                                               designated RPG-16D.
Antitank Rocket Launcher RPG-18

   The RPG-18 is a short-range, tube-launched,          antitank grenadier provided for in the TOE. All
disposable infantry antitank rocket launcher. It is     soldiers in the squad train on it. This increases
somewhat similar to the US LAW system. The              the squad's capabilities to destroy tanks at short
lightweight tube presumably consists of fiberglass-     range.
reinforced plastic. The operator carriersthe launcher
in a collapsed position and extends the inner tube      LIMITA TIONS:
to make the weapon ready to fire. It fires a 64-mm
rocket (PG-18)with an effective range of 200 meters         The RPG-18 should not be fired if friendly
and a HEAT warhead capable of penetrating up            personnel are i n a 90-degree sector within 30
to 375 millimeters of armor. The fuze of the HEAT       meters behind it. I t also should not be fired if
grenade activates 2 to 15 meters after leaving the      there are obstacles nearer than 2 meters in front
tube and self-destructs after a flight time of 4 to     of it, or if the height of the line of fire is less
6 seconds. The trigger, safety catch, and rear peep     than 20 centimeters. Once the tube is extended for
sight are roughly in the middle of the extended         firing, it cannot be shoved back together again.
tube, or at the rear end of the collapsed tube. The
folding sight at the forward end of the tube is         REMARKS:
calibrated for ranges of 50, 100, 150, and 200
meters.                                                    The Soviets introduced the RPG-18 in the mid-
                                                        1970s. It is widely distributed throughout the Soviet
   The RPG-18 is probably a squad-level weapon.         Army, including the airborne forces. For employ-
Unlike the RPG-7V/7D and RPG-16D,the RPG-18             ment in airborne units, the RPG-18 comes with a
is not linked to a specific person; that is, to the     cover which protects it during parachute jumps.
Antitank Rocket Launcher RPG-22

DESCRIPTION/CAPABILITIES:                                LIMITATIONS:
    The RPG-22 is a short-range, tube-launched,             Instructions printed on the side of the RPG-22
disposable, infantry antitank rocket launcher,           launch tube indicate t h a t back-blast covers a
similar to the US LAW system. The lightweight,           90-degree sector out to 30 meters behind the weap-
collapsible launch tube consists of two parts: the       on; that it should not be fired if a wall is closer
outer tube made of fiberglass and a sliding inner        than 2 meters behind it; and that the line of fire
tube made of aluminum. The inner tube extends            should be at least 20 centimeters from the ground.
10 centimeters to the front of the outer tube in
firing position. It fires a 73-mmfin-stabilized rocket
with an effective range of 250 meters and a HEAT
warhead capable of penetrating approximately 390
millimeters of armor.                                    REMARKS:
   The trigger and the pop-up rear peep sight are            The Soviets introduced the RPG-22 in 1985. In
in the middle of the extended tube. The pop-up           time, it will probably replace the RPG-18. As with
front sight is at the forward end of the outer tube.     the RPG-18, it has no dedicated grenadier; however,
The front sight is calibrated for ranges of 50, 150,     all soldiers train to use the squad-level, throw away
and 250 meters.                                          weapon.
                                         Antitank Guns

                                  Antitank gun characteristics

                                              72-MM                  100-MM
   CHARACTERISTICS                        RECOILLESS G U N        ANTITANK G U N
                                               SPG-9               T-12/MT-12

CREW                                      3                       6-7

Firing position (kg)                     47.5 ( t r i p o d
                                                          12.0)   3,100
Travel position (kg)                                      12.0)
                                         47.5 ( t r i p o d       3,100
LENGTH, travel position (m)              2.110                    9.16
WIDTH, travel p o s i t i o n            0.990                    1.78
HEIGHT, travel position (m)              0.800                    1.44
FIRE CONTROL                             iron and optical;        direct fire telescope;
                                         I R and passive          IR system for gunner
                                         night sights             mounted on gun
AMMUNITION (types)                       rocket-assisted          HVAPFSDS, HEAT-FS,
                                         HE. HEAT                 Frag-HE
Elevation (c)                            -3 to + 7                -6 to + 2 0
Traverse (c) (c)                         30 total                 54 total
Maximum range (m)                        1,300 ( l i m i t e d    8.200 (18,000-21,000
                                         by self-destruct         with gun at 45")
Effective direct fire                    1,000                    1,000 (HEAT)
  range (m)                                                       2.000 (HVAPFSDS)
Muzzle velocity (m/sec)                   435                     900 (HEAT)
                                                                  1,500 (HVAPFSDS)
Maximum (rd/min)                         6 (practical)            10 (practical)
Sustained. 1st hr (rd)                   INA                      75
ARMOR PENETRATION (mm @                  400 (HEAT, any range)    400 (HEAT, any range)
   0" obliquity @ 1,000 m)                                        225 (HVAPFSDS)
UNIT OF FIRE (rd)                        80                       60
Emplacement/displacement                 INA                      2-3/2-3
time (min)
DOI                                      1970                     1965
Status                                   standard                 standard
FM 100-2-3

 73-mm Recoilless Antitank Gun S P G - 9


   The SPG-9 is a tripod-mounted, recoilless anti-     has a n effective range of 1,000 meters and can
tank gun that fires a 73-mm fin-stabilized, rocket-    penetrate 400 millimeters of armor. It bas a high
assisted HEAT projectile. The launcher is 2,110        muzzle velocity (435 meters per second) which is
millimeters long and weighs 47.5 kilograms (59.5       increased to 700 meters per second by rocket assist.
kilograms with tripod). The projectile weighs 3.5      The SPG-9 is organic to the antitank platoon of
kilograms. Its great length is due to the propellant   a BTR-equipped MRB. The Soviets usually employ
charge case attached behind the fins. The SPG-9        it with mutually supporting ATGMs.
can also fire a 4-kg rocket-assisted HE round.
CAPABILITIES:                                          REMARKS:
   The SPG-9 is manportable, but a truck or APC           Tho SPG-9 began replacing the previous recoil-
normally carries it. I t must be dismounted and        less antitank guns (82-mm B-10 and 107-mmB-11)
placed on its tripod for firing. It normally has a     around 1970. It is now in service not only in Soviet
crew of three. Both IR and passive night sights        MRBs, but also in the Polish, Bulgarian, East
are available. The rocket-assisted HEAT projectile     German, and Hungarian armies.
100-mm Antitank Gun T-12/MT-12


   The T-12 is a 100-mm smoothbore antitank gun         round can penetrate about 225 millimeters at 1,000
mounted on a two-wheeled, split-trail carriage,         meters. The theoretical rate of fire is reportedly
with a single caster wheel near the trail ends. The     14 rounds per minute; however, rate for aimed fire
long (8,484-mm) gun tube h a s a cylindrical,           is only 6 rounds per minute, and the maximum
multiperforated muzzle brake which i s only             practical rate is 10 rounds per minute.
fractionally larger in diameter than the thin barrel.
The MT-12variant has a winged shield angled to          LIMITA TIONS:
the rear on both sides and an additional recoil
cylinder above the breech on the right. Both                 The T-12 or MT-12 can function as a field gun
versions frequently mount infrared night sighting       only under limited circumstances; this is due to
equipment.                                              its limited maximum elevation (+20degrees). With
                                                        t r a i l s dug i n t o provide 45-degree elevation,
CAPABILITIES:                                           maximum range is 18,000 to 21,000 meters.
    The T-12 and MT-12 are organic to antitank          REMARKS:
battalions at division, army, and front levels. They
fire fin-stabilized, nonrotating rounds similar to          Since its introduction in about 1965, the T-12
those of the 115-mm gun of the T-62 tank. Muzzle        has replaced the older 100-mm field gun M1944
velocity i s 900 meters per second for HE and           and the 85-mm antitank gun D-48 in most Soviet
HEAT rounds or 1,500 meters per second for              frontline units. The MT-12 variant was formerly
HVAPFSDS rounds. Maximum indirect fire range            called the T-12A.Like their predecessors, both can
is 8,200 meters (Frag-HE).The effective direct fire     be towed by a truck or armored tracked artillery
range is approximately 1,000 meters (HEAT) or           tractor. The MT-LB multipurpose armored tracked
2,000 meters (HVAPFSDS). Grazing range against          artillery tractor/APC usually tows them. They are
a 2-m-high target is 1,880 meters (HVAPFSDS).           i n service i n at least the Soviet and East German
The HEAT round can penetrate about 400 milli-           armies. In 1989, the Soviets began to introduce
meters of armor at any range. The HVAPFSDS              the MT-12 into motorized rifle regiments.
                                         Antitank Guns

                                  Antitank gun characteristics

                                              72-MM                  100-MM
   CHARACTERISTICS                        RECOILLESS G U N        ANTITANK G U N
                                               SPG-9               T-12/MT-12

                                         3                        6-7

WEIGHT                                   47.5 ( t r i p o d
                                                          12.0)   3,100
Firing position (kg)                                      12.0)
                                         47.5 ( t r i p o d       3,100
Travel position (kg)                     2.110                    9.16
LENGTH, travel position (m)              0.990                    1.78
WIDTH, travel p o s i t i o n            0.800                    1.44
HEIGHT, travel position (m)              iron and optical;        direct fire telescope;
FIRE CONTROL                             I R and passive          IR system for gunner
                                         night sights             mounted on gun
                                         rocket-assisted          HVAPFSDS, HEAT-FS,
AMMUNITION (types)                       HE. HEAT                 Frag-HE

PERFORMANCE                              -3 to + 7                -6 to + 2 0
Elevation (c)                            30 total                 54 total
Traverse (c)
Maximum range (m)                        1,300 ( l i m i t e d    8.200 (18,000-21,000
                                         by self-destruct         with gun at 45")
Effective direct fire                    1,000                    1,000 (HEAT)
  range (m)                                                       2.000 (HVAPFSDS)
Muzzle velocity (m/sec)                  435                      900 (HEAT)
                                                                  1,500 (HVAPFSDS)
Maximum (rd/min)                         6 (practical)            10 (practical)
Sustained. 1st hr (rd)                   INA                      75
ARMOR PENETRATION (mm @                  400 (HEAT, any range)    400 (HEAT, any range)
   0" obliquity @ 1,000 m)                                        225 (HVAPFSDS)
UNIT OF FIRE (rd)                        80                       60
Emplacement/displacement                 INA                      2-3/2-3
time (min)
DOI                                      1970                     1965
Status                                   standard                 standard
Antitank Guided Missile AT-2/SWATTER (continued)

   The Mi-8T/HIP E can mount two SWATTERs              Mi-24/HIND A and D mount two SWATTERs on
above each of its two external weapons racks. The      wingtip launch rails on each of their two stub

                              AT-2/SWATTER launch rails on HIND D

CAPABILITIES:                                          LIMITATIONS:
   The SWATTER A can engage targets at ranges             The SWATTERs with MCLOS guidance have
between 500 and 2,500 meters. SWATTER B and            a major disadvantage: the operator must track
C have maximum ranges of 3,500 and 4,000 meters,       target and missile simultaneously and manually
respectively. All versions have a flight speed of      guide the missile to the target. The slow flight
150 meters per second, resulting in the following      speed makes evasive action a n effective counter-
flight times to maximum ranges: 17 seconds to          measure, especially at long ranges.
2,500 meters (SWATTER A); 23 seconds to 3,500
meters (SWATTER B); and 26 to 27 seconds to
4,000 meters (SWATTER C ) . Armor penetration          REMARKS:
capability is over 500 millimeters, and the proba-
bility of first-round hit is 67 percent for SWATTER       The Soviets introduced the SWATTER A in 1960,
A and B and over 90 percent for the SWATTER C.         the SWATTER B in 1965, and the SWATTER C
                                                       in 1968-1970. The AT-5/SPANDREL is currently
   The antitank batteries of MRRs sometimes use        replacing the MCLOS-guided BRDM-mounted
the BRDM/BRDM-2 SWATTERs, although this                SWATTERs. The helicopter-mounted SWATTER C ,
role is more likely filled by the AT-3 or AT-5.        retrofitted with a semiautomatic IR/radio guidance
However, SWATTERs, especially the AT-2cuprated         system, was apparently an interim measure pending
version, are still in wide use as helicopter-mounted   the full deployment of the longer-range, second-
missiles.                                              generation missile AT-6/SPIRAL.
Antitank Guided Missile AT-3/SAGGER

                                      AT-3/SAGGER on BRDM-2

                                       A T-3/SAGGER manpack

   The SAGGER is a wire-guided ATGM with a            missile by means of a firing button on the control
HEAT warhead. The missile is 864 millimeters in       box. He then uses the control box's periscope sight
length, 120 millimeters i n diameter, and 11.3        and control stick to guide the missile to the target.
kilograms in weight. It has several launch con-
figurations: manpack, armored vehicle, and even          On BRDM/BRDM-2scout vehicles, six launch
helicopter.                                           rails are mounted on the underside of a retractable
                                                      armored cover, with eight additional missiles
     With the manpack version, the operator carries   carried inside the vehicle. The BMP-1 and BMD-1
the SAGGER missile i n a fiberglass "suitcase."       combat vehicles have single launch rails mounted
He attaches it by a hinged support to the lid of      above the 73-mm main gun and carry a total of
t h e case. From that position, h e launches the      four and three missiles, respectively.
Antitank Guided Missile AT-3/SAGGER (continued)

                                  AT-3/SAGGER launch rails o n HIP F

  The Mi-2/HOPLITE helicopter can carry two               carries two missiles and the control box in suit-
SAGGERs on each side of its cabin. The Mi-8TB/            cases. The assistant gunner carries two more
HIP F carries six SAGGERs.                                missiles in suitcases. The backup gunner carries
                                                          the PRG-7V.The team can set up, check out, and
CAPABILITIES:                                             fire one missile in 5 minutes or all four missiles
   The SAGGER can engage targets at ranges of             in 12 to 15 minutes. Using a four-position selector
500 to 3,000 meters and penetrate over 400 milli-         switch on the control box, the gunner can fire up
meters of armor. It employs a n MCLOS guidance            to four missiles consecutively. He can remotely fire
system in which the operator must observe both            missiles from positions up to 15 meters from the
missile and target and guide the one towards the          launchers. For targets at ranges of less than 1,000
other. The wire-guided missile is invulnerable to         meters, the gunner can guide the missile by eye;
electronic countermeasures and has a very small           for longer ranges, he must use the 8-power magni-
percentage of malfunctions.                               fying periscopic sight. The RPG-7Vgunner usually
                                                          i s deployed 150 to 200 meters in front of the
   The retractable launcher on the BRDM-2 vehicle         SAGGER position to cover targets inside the mini-
has the ability to traverse 70 degrees to the left        mum SAGGER range of 500 meters. The antitank
or right with elevation varying from 3.5 to 17            platoon also has two SPG-9s which may deploy
degrees.                                                  with the manpackSAGGERs.
   The AT-3c/SAGGER C variant employs SACLOS
guidance. It is mounted primarily on the BRDM-2,              BRDM/BRDM-2 SAGGERs are organic to the
but i t m a y also be mounted o n t h e HIP F a n d       antitank missile battery of MRRs and airborne
HOPLITE helicopters. T h e s e heliborne systems          regiments, to the antitank battalion of MRDs, to
provide greater flexibility to the ground command         the antitank regiment of CAAs, and to the antitank
b u t a t a greater vulnerability cost t o t h e launch   brigade of artillery divisions. The BRDM/BRDM-2
platform.                                                 vehicles have a reaction time of one minute to fire
                                                          from a completely buttoned-upmode. The crew can
   The antitank platoon of a BTR-equipped MRB             fire six missiles without reloading, and the vehicle
has two ATGM squads, each with two manpack                can carry eight additional missiles inside. Succes­
SAGGER firing teams. Each three-man team has              sive missiles can be fired and tracked within five
a control box, four SAGGER missiles, and a n              seconds of t h e previous missile's impact. The
RPG-7V antitank grenade launcher. The gunner              gunner can operate either from within the vehicle
A n t i t a n k Guided Missile AT-3/SAGGER (continued)

or from a remote position up to 80 meters away.        launching gives off a gray smoke cloud and a loud
The vehicle has a two-man crew that includes the       roar, i t s signature is difficult to detect on the
commander/gunner and the driver. They also have        battlefield.
assault rifles and a n RPG-7V antitank grenade
                                                           The SAGGER, also known by the designation
    The SAGGER A gunner must visually track            AT-3, was first seen in 1961. It is more compact
target and missile simultaneously; this requires       t h a n t h e earlier A T - 1 / S N A P P E R a n d A T - 2 /
extensive training and constant practice. Although     SWATTER ATGMs, but carries an equally powerful
the missile leaves the launcher armed and can          warhead. In recent years, the Soviets have retro-
detonate and kill at very short range, it can be       fitted some SAGGER systems, designated AT-3c,
captured by the gunner only at ranges of 500 to        with semiautomatic I R / w i r e guidance systems.
800 meters. Under combat conditions, however,          Only the vehicle- and helicopter-mounted missiles
most gunners probably can successfully engage          have been so retrofitted. This is obviously a n
targets only between 1,000 and 3,000 meters. The       interim measure pending the full deployment of
missile h a s a very long flight time to the target:   longer-range, second-generation AT-5/SPANDREL
12.5 seconds to 1,500 meters, and 25 seconds to        and AT-6/SPIRAL missiles. The AT-4/SPIGOT is
3,000 meters. Evasive action is effective against      replacing m a n p a c k SAGGERs a s well a s those
it, especially at long range. Although a SAGGER        mounted on the BMP-1 and BMD-1.
Antitank Guided Missile AT-4/SPIGOT


   The AT-4/SPIGOT i s a tube-launched, wire-              The Soviets originally designed the AT-4 as a
guided, SACLOS, ATGM system, similar in many            ground-launched weapon system. However, turrets
respects to the US TOW system. The AT-4 system          of the BMP-1 and BMD-1 combat vehicles can
consists of three major components: the SPIGOT          mount the AT.4 launcher. The BRDM-2 launcher
missile, the launch tube, and the missile launcher.     vehicle of the AT-5 system and the launcher on
The missile is 863 millimeters long and 119 milli-      the BMP-2 can fire the SPIGOT missile.
meters in diameter; it weighs 7.4 kilograms and
has a HEAT warhead. The launch tube is 1,100
millimeters long, 130 millimeters in diameter, and      CAPABILITIES:
5.2 kilograms i n weight. It serves to store and           The SPIGOT has a minimum range of only 70
carry the missile. The tripod-mounted launcher for      meters a n d a maximum range of 2,000 meters.
ground-launched employment has a periscope sight        Missile speed is estimated at 185 meters per second,
attached to its left side. The sight and the missile    with a maximum flight time of 1 seconds. The
tracker comprise a single unit, which is mechani-       warhead, which is probably smaller than that of
cally attached to the launch-tube connecting rail       the SAGGER, has an armor penetration capability
so both move together in elevation. A locking lever     of 500 to 600 millimeters. Probability of first-round
allows the complete periscope sight and missile         hit should be at least the same as for the semi-
tracker unit to be released and rotated into a folded   automatic AT-3c/SAGGER C; that is, 90 percent.
position for transport. The monocular optical sight
has 4-power magnification and a 4.5-degree field           The SACLOS guidance system increases accu-
of view. The crew loads the SPIGOT misaile by           racy and reduces operator training requirements
sliding the tube onto the launch supports from the      since it is no longer necessary for the operator to
rear until the electrical contacts and a mechanical     track target and missile simultaneously. The opera-
catch engage; then the system is ready for launch.      tor keeps his sight trained on the target while the
Antitank Guided Missile AT-4/SPIGOT (continued)

missile is tracked automaticallv. The ~deviation
                                     - - -                            LIMITATIONS:
between the missile's path and the operator's line-
of-sight is measured by a n IR tracking apparatus.                       The requirement that the missile launcher of a
(The IR source is in the tail of the missile.) An                     SACLOS system be collocated with the aiming and
apparatus at the control site then generates guid-                    tracking assembly (that is, with the operator) elimi-
ance commands which are transmitted to the                            nates the possibility of moving the operator to a
missile by wire, causing the missile to eliminate                     remote position for safety. Since the operator must
the deviation.                                                        establish and maintain visual contact with the
                                                                      target, any means of interfering with his visual
                                                                      contact or disrupting his concentration will be an
   The AT-4 tracker is adequate, simple, and in-                      effective countermeasure. Such means include flash
expensive. Its extremely narrow field of view makes                   blinding, counterfire, and smoke screening. Besides
it more difficult to decoy, since the decoy source                    being a n effective and inexpensive means of ob-
must be inside the field of view.                                     scuring visual contact, smoke can also attenuate
                                                                      the IR guidance link of the missile tracker.
    The antitank platoon of a BTR-equipped MRB
h a s f o u r or ( i n h i g h -r e a d i n e s s u n i t s ) s i x       The AT-4/SPIGOT system, nicknamed Fagot
AT-4/SPIGOT firing teams. I n each three-man                          (bassoon) by the Soviets, was introduced in 1974.
team, the gunner carries the folded launcher and                      It is operational in all Warsaw Pact countries. The
tripod as a backpack, and each of the two bearers                     interoperability of the SPIGOT missile on the AT-5
carries two launch tubes as backpacks. All three                      launch vehicle and BMP-2 provides a significant
men carry a n assault rifle but no RPG-7V, since                      logistical and tactical advantage; however, the use
the SPIGOT does not have the 500-m deadspace                          of the SPANDREL missile on the AT-4 portable
of the SAGGER.                                                        launcher has not been confirmed.
Antitank Guided Missile AT-5/SPANDREL


    T h e A T - 5 / S P A N D R E L i s a wire-guided,   can launch either the SPIGOT or SPANDREL
SACLOS, ATGM system mounted on the BRDM-2                missile. The basic onboard load for the BMP-2 is
amphibious scout car chassis. The dimensions and         four missiles.
shape of the launch tube are similar to those of
the AT-4/SPIGOT, but the SPANDREL missile is             CAPABILITIES:
considerably heavier. The SPANDREL launch tube
has a blow-out cap at the front, and it is flared           The SPANDREL has a maximum range of 4,000
a t the rear. Five SPANDREL missiles, or any             meters and a minimum range of 100 meters. Other
combination of SPIGOT and SPANDREL missiles,             capabilities are essentially the same as those listed
are carried on a traversable mount just behind the       above for the AT-4/SPIGOT, except for the time
two front cupolas of the BRDM-2. A bowed hatch           of flight.
in the vehicle roof immediately behind the launcher
allows the mount to be folded backwards into the         LIMITATIONS:
hull for reloading under armor protection. The
vehicle carries a n additional 10 reload missiles           Same as for the AT-4/SPIGOT.
inside. A rotatable optical sighting/tracking peri-
scope, similar in appearance to the periscope on         REMARKS:
the AT-4/SPIGOT launch apparatus, is mounted
atop the gunner's hatch on the 'right front of the          The Soviets nicknamed the AT-5/SPANDREL
vehicle roof.                                            system Konkurs(contest). They introducedit around
                                                         1974 or 1975, although they did not display i t
     A single-tube AT-5 launch platform with a n         publicly until the Red Square parade on November
integrated optics/tracker housing is mounted atop        1977. The BRDM-2-mounted    AT-5 system will even-
t h e turret of t h e BMP-2 amphibious infantry          tually replace all vehicle-mounted AT-2 and AT-3
combat vehicle. As with the BRDM-2 launch ped-           systems in the Soviet Army. It is already opera-
estal configuration, this variant of the AT-5 system     tional in Warsaw Pact countries.
Antitank Guided Missile AT-6/SPIRAL

                                          A T - 6 / S P I R A L on HIND E

    The AT-6/SPIRAL is a tube-launched, SACLOS,            500 meters. Missile speed is probably about 450
ATGM mounted on the Mi-24/HIND E and F heli-               meters per second. The warhead could weigh up
copters. It replaces the heliborne AT-2/SWATTER            to 10 kilograms with a n armor penetration capa-
variants found on previous HIND models. Nor-               bility of 600 to 700 millimeters. Probability of
mally, there are I-shaped launch fixtures for two          first-round hit should he at least the same as for
SPIRAL launch tubes on each wingtip of the HIND            the AT-2c; that is, 90 percent. The SACLOS guid-
E and F. However, the HIND E and F may carry               ance system probably operates the same as the
a second AT-6 launch platform on the outboard              AT-4/SPIGOT and AT-5/SPANDREL, except that
universal pylon on each wing. This allows them             the SPIRAL is not wire-guided.
to mount a total of 8 SPIRAL missiles. Some
HIND E and F models have "stacked" AT-6 launch             LIMITA TIONS:
platforms on the wingtip pylons and the outboard
u n i v e r s a l pylons, for a possible t o t a l of 16      During the flight time of the SPIRAL to the
S P I R A L s . Unlike the AT-4/SPIGOT and AT-5/           target (estimated at approximately 1 1 seconds to
SPANDREL, this missile is not wire-guided. The             5,000 meters), the target can take evasive action,
SPIRAL uses a SACLOS system with IR missile                but the helicopter launch platform has limited
tracking and radio guidance (similar to the uprated        ability to take evasive action itself since the AT-6
AT-2c/SWATTER C). It is much larger than pre-              operator must keep the target in his sight.
vious Soviet ATGMs.
                                                              Although introduced in 1973, the AT-6/SPIRAL
   The SPIRAL has a maximum range estimated                was first observed on the HIND E in 1978. Some
at 5,000 meters. Its minimum range may be similar          sources credit the SPIRAL with a range of up to
to the earlier AT-2/SWATTER ATGMs; that is,                7.000 meters.
FM 100-2-3

A n t i t a n k Guided Missile AT-7/SAXHORN

   T h e A T - 7 / S A X H O R N is a tube-launched,       tor tracks the target visually using a monocular
SACLOS, ATGM system with a wire command                    scope. The missile is guided automatically to the
link. One man can carry and operate it, but its            target on which the operator keeps the crosshairs
crew normally consists of two men. The second              of his sight.
man probably carries additional missile canisters.
                                                             Same a s for the AT-4/SPIGOT.
    The AT-7 system is organic to the machine
g u n / a n t i t a n k platoon of the BTR-equipped MRC.   REMARKS:
This platoon has three manpack launchers.
                                                             The AT-7/SAXHORN system was introduced in
  The SAXHORN missile, with a HEAT warhead,                1979 and is the Soviet equivalent of the US Dragon
has a maximum range of 1,000 meters. The opera-            system.
                                                                                  FM 100-2-3

    Guided Missile AT-8/SONGSTER

AT-8/SONGSTER is a tank-gun-launched          visually using a monocular periscope; the missile
 system with SACLOS guidance and a            is guided automatically to the target on which he
frequency guidance link. It is known to be    keeps the crosshairs of his sight. The missile has
  the T-64B and T-80 medium tanks.            a primary antitank role, but it also has a secon-
                                              dary antihelicopter role.

SONGSTER missile has a maximum range          LIMITATIONS:
  meters. Its HEAT warhead has a n armor        Same as for other SACLOS ATGMs.
tion capability of 700 to 800 millimeters.
ssile is fired through the main gun tube      REMARKS:
n o r m atank round; after launch, however,
a sustain or boost/sustain motor to propel       The AT-8/SONGSTER may have entered service
e target. The tank gunner tracks the target   around 1981.
                                                                   see vehicle
LENGTH, TRAVEL/FIRING position (mm)                                characteristics              INA
WIDTH, travel/firing position (mm)                                                              INA
HEIGHT, travel/firing position (mm)                                                             INA
Caliber (mm)                           2 x 23                      4 x 23                                       1 57
Ammunition loading (type)              2 box magazines             metallic link                                4-rd clip
                                       2/50-rd metallic            belts (about 500
                                       link belt                   reunds per belt)
AMMUNITION (types).                    HEI. HEI-T. API-T           HEI, HEI-T. API-T           INA
Elevation (c)                          -10 to +90                  -4 to +85                   INA             -4 to +87
Traverse (c)                           360                         360                         INA             360
Maximumhorizontal range (m)            7,000                       7,000                       INA             12,000
Ground targetrange (m)                 2.000                       2.000                       INA             INA
Maximum vertical range (rn)            5,100 (about 3,500          5,100 (about 3.500          INA             8,800 (about 7,400
                                       w/self-destruct fuzing)     w/self-destruct fuzing)     INA             w/self-destruct fuzing)
Tactical AA range (m)                  2,500*                      2,500*                      4,000           6.000 (off-carriage fire
                                                                                                               4,000 (on-carriage fire
Cyclic rate of fire (rd/min)           800-1,000 per barrel        800-1,000 per barrel        INA             105-120
Muzzle velocity (m/sec)                930-1,000**                 930-1,000**                 INA             960-1,000***
Armor Penetration (m                   24.1/19.3                   24.1/19.3                   INA             101.1/96.5
  @ 0" obliquity                       (API-T)                     (API-T)                                     (APC-T)
  @ 50011,000 m)
UNIT O FIRE (rd)                                                   2,000                       INA             200
BASIC LOAD ON VEHICLE (rd)                                         2.000                       INA             INA
EMPLACEMENT/DISPLACEMENT                                           varies, dependent on        INA             1 min/3 rnin
TIME                                                               potential or actual fire
FIRE CONTROL                          optical-mechanical comput­   on-board GUN DISH fire­     on-board HOT    on-carriage: optical-mechanical
                                      i n g sight (AA):            control radar, electronic   SHOT fire       computing sight (AA), straight.
                                      straight-tube telescope      computer, and optical       control radar   tube telescope (ground);
                                      (ground)                     sights                                      off-carriage:PUAZO-5 director
                                                                                                               and SON-4 (WHIFF) radar (old),
                                                                                                               PUAZO-6/60 director and
                                                                                                               SON-9 or -9A (FIRECAN)
                                                                                                               radar (newer), or FLAP
                                                                                                               WHEEL fire control radar
PRIME MOVER                           UAZ-69,GAZ-63, or GAZ-66     NA                          NA              Ural-375 or AT-T
DOI                                   1962                         1965                        1986            1950
STATUS                                standard                     standard                    standard        standard

                  'At 1.500-m height.
                   1970 meters per second when new: 930 meters per second is standard
                                                                                                                FM 100-2-3

                               Antiaircraft gun characteristics (vehicle)

VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS                     2 3 -M M Z U - 2 3             23-MM z s u - 2 3 - 4          57-MM S-60

 VEHICLE (Prime mover)                      UAZ-69 jeep                    self-propelled                Ural-375 truck
 WEIGHT ( m t )                             1.6                            20.5                          8.4
 LENGTH ( m )                               3.9                            6.5                           7.4
 WIDTH, overall ( m )                       1.9                            3.1                           2.7
 HEIGHT, overall ( m )                      2.0                            2.60/3.75*                    3.0
 ENGINE                                     4 - c y l i n d e r , 55-hp,   6-cylinder, 240-hp,           8-cylinder, 175-hp,
                                            gasoline                       diesel                        gasoline
 SUSPENSION                                 wheels, 4 4                    tracked, six road             wheels, 6 6
                                                                           wheels, no track
                                                                           support rollers
 MAXIMUM ROAD SPEED (km/hr)                 90/40**                        50                            75/60***
 FUEL CAPACITY (liters)                     48                             520                           360
 ROAD RANGE (km)                            530                            450                           750
 TRENCH CROSSING ( m )                      0.46                           2.5                           0.875
 VERTICAL STEP ( m )                        0.30                           1.0                           0.800
 GRADABILITY (c)                            30                             30                            32
 FORDING ( m )                              0.61/.080***                   10                            1.5
 ARMOR (maximum)                            no armor                                                     no armor
 Hull ( m m )                               NA                              9.4                          NA
 Turret ( m m )                             NA                              8.9                          NA
 Driver                                      yes                            yes                          yes
 Gunner                                      NA                             no                           NA
 Commander                                   NA                            yes                           NA
 NBC PROTECTION                              none                          radiation d e t e c t i o n   none
                                                                           warning system; air
                                                                           filtration and over-
                                                                           pressure system
 CREW                                        I (driver)                    NA (See Armament)             1 (driver)
 PASSENGERS                                  gun crew                      NA                            gun crew

FOOTNOTES.         'Radar in travel position/radar up.
                   **UAZ-69/ZU-23 when towed by UAZ-69 (70 kilometers per hour when towed by GAZ-63)
                  "'Prime mover/gun.
23-mm Antiaircraft Gun ZU-23


   The ZU-23 comprises twin 23-mm cannons on              The ZU-23 fires the same ammunition a s the
a towed two-wheel carriage. The cannons mount          23-mm SP AA g u n Z S U - 2 3 - 4 On t h e towed
side-by-side between large ring-type trunnions. In     system, ammunition feeds from box magazines
appearance, t h e ZU-23 resembles t h e 14.5-mm        mounted on the outside of each trunnion. Reload-
ZPU-2; however, the shape and placement of the         ing is fast and uncomplicated. The magazines are
ZU-23 ammunition boxes (at right angles to the         easily accessible. The beginning link of the new
gun carriage) and prominent muzzle flash suppres-      belt attaches to the link of the last old cartridge.
sors are distinguishing features.                      This last cartridge automatically interrupts the
                                                       firing cycle when it reaches t h e feedway and
                                                       signals the bolt to remain open.
    The ZU-23 is a highly mobile, air-droppable
weapon. A battery of 6 ZU-23sis organic to Soviet          One drawback of the ZU-23is its inability to
air assault brigades, a s well a s to airborne regi-   fire anything but automatic fire.
ments. A battalion of 18 ZU-23sis organic to the       REMARKS:
Soviet airborne division. I t i s t h a t division's
principal antiaircraft artillery (AAA) weapon. It         Introduced in 1962, the ZU-23 is the Soviets'
h a s a n effective AA range of 2,500 meters. It can   newest lightweight, automatic, towed AA gun. It
also be effective against lightly armored ground       is used extensively by airborne units and possibly
vehicles.                                              by some MRRs that have not yet converted to the
                                                       ZSU-23-4/SA-9air defense battery. ZU-23s also
   In firing position, the ZU-23is leveled by jacks    provide close-in air defenses for a n SA-4 brigade.
and stabilized on a three-point base. It uses an
optical-mechanical computing sight for AA fire            The Soviets have exported the ZU-23 to many
and a straight-tube telescope for ground targets.      countries. Some of these countries have added a
The crew can fire the gun from the traveling posi-     degree of mobility to the system by mounting it
tion in emergencies.                                   on various trucks and armored vehicles.
23-mm Self-Propelled Antiaircraft Gun ZSU-23-4


     T h e ZSU-23-4 i s a fully i n t e g r a t e d , S P AA           T R s . Two ZSU-23-4s will usually support each of
system with four liquid-cooled 23-mmautomatic c a n ­                  t h e t w o f i r s t -e c h e l o n b a t t a l i o n s . T h e s e t w o
n o n s m o u n t e d o n t h e f r o n t of a l a r g e , f l a t ,   weapons are normally separated by 200 meters,
armored turret. The chassis has many components                        and they typically travel 400 meters behind the
borrowed from other Soviet armored vehicles. The                       battalion's leading elements.
suspension system resembles t h a t of the PT-76
a n d ASU-85; t h a t is, it h a s six road wheels and                     T h e ZSU-23-4 i s n o t amphibious, but h a s a
no track support rollers. The driver sits in the                       fording capability of just over one meter. Durin g
left front of the hull; the rest of the crew (the                      river a s s a u l t operations, the ZSU-23-4s would be
c o m m a n d e r , g u n n e r , a n d r a d a r operator) sit in     ferried to the far bank immediately after the lead­
                                                                       ing companies.
t h e t u r r e t . T h e G U N D I S H fire control r a d a r
mounted on the rear of the turret can fold down                             The ZSU-23-4has the capability to both acquire
during travel.                                                         and track low-flying aircraft targets, with a n effec-
   T h e Soviets h a v e produced a number of dif-                     tive AA range of 2,500 meters. I t also is capable
ferent ZSU-23-4 models. These are distinguishable                      of firing on t h e move because of i t s integrated
externally by the types of stowage boxes on the                        radar/gun stabilization system. The high-frequency
turret a n d minor modifications in the mounting                       operation of the GUN DISH radar emits a very
of the guns.                                                           n a r r o w b e a m t h a t provides excellent a i r c r a f t
                                                                       tracking while being difficult to detect or evade.
CAPABILITIES:                                                          However, such a frequency also dictates a limited
                                                                       r a n g e ; l i n k i n g t h e system to other long-range
   A platoon of four ZSU-23-4s, along with four                        acquisition radars in the area can compensate for
SA-9-GASKIN SAM systems, is organic to the air                         this. T h e ZSU-23-4 can also engage lightly
defense missile and artillery battery of MRRs and                      armored ground vehicles.
2 3 - m m Self-Propelled Antiaircraft Gun ZSU-23-4 (continued)

   The four guns are water-cooled and have a           ZSU-23-4receives a degree of protection from the
cyclic r a t e of fire of 800 to 1,000 rounds per      thin armor (maximum thickness 9.4 millimeters in
minute each. However, the gunner normally fires        the hull, 8.9 millimeters in the turret). A radiation
them in bursts (2 to 3 rounds per barrel) to reduce    detection and warning system and an air filtra­
ammunition expenditure and prolong barrel life.        tion and overpressure system provide collective
Each ZSU-23-4carries about 2,000 rounds onboard.       NBC protection.
Supply trucks, which follow t h e ZSUs a t a
distance of 1.5 to 2.5 kilometers, carry a n esti­     LIMITATIONS:
mated additional 3,000 rounds for each of the
four ZSUs. Electronic target acquisition, tracking,       Heavy machine gun fire can penetrate the hull
and ranging ate automated; an onboard computer         and turret. Tread and road wheels are vulnerable
determines superelevation a n d azimuth lead.          to artillery fire. Frag-HE rounds can penetrate the
Conventional optical sights also are available.        armor, destroy the radar dish, or rupture the liquid
                                                       coolant sleeves of the 23-mm cannons. The system
   The onboard load normally mixes two types of        is also vulnerable to ECM.
ammunition at a ratio of three HEI-T rounds per
one API-T round. An H E I round is also available.     REMARKS:
The HEI-T and H E I rounds are intended for
defeating aircraft by blast, fragmentation, or            The ZSU-23-4,introduced around 1965, is called
incendiary effect. However, they may also be used      Shilka by the Soviets. The rest of the Warsaw
against personnel i n a ground role. The API-T         Pact has deployed it widely since 1970. Despite
round can penetrate lightly armored ground tar-        the ZSU-23-4's good record, the 30-mm S P AA
gets and aircraft and defeat them by an incen-         system 2S6 is replacing it. The 2S6 system, previ-
diary effect. Tracers facilitate correction of fire.   ously known a s SP AA gun M1986, has improved
                                                       AA range, rate of fire (per barrel), and fire-control
   The An-22/COCK or IL-76/CANDID transport            equipment. The newer system is mounted on a
aircraft or the Mi-26/HALO A heavy-lift helicop-       more heavily armored chassis derived from the
ter c a n airlift t h e ZSU-23-4. The crew of the      SA-4/GANEFSAM launcher vehicle.
30-mm Self-Propelled Antiaircraft System ZS6

   The 2 S 6 system integrates four 30-min auto-      and missiles allows the 2S6 to replace both the
matic cannons with launchers for eight SA-19          ZSU-23-4S P AA guns and the SA-13 SAM sys-
SAMs on the same chassis. In addition to two          tems at this level. The separate radars for target
guns and four SAM launchers on each side, the         acquisition and fire control enable the 2S6 to
turret mounts a fire control radar on its front and   search for and engage targets simultaneously.
a target acquisition radar on its rear. The sus-      Compared to t h e ZSU-23-4the 2S6 guns have
pension system resembles that of the SA-4/GANEF       improved AA range and rate of fire (per barrel).
SAM system, but it has only six road wheels.          The onboard SAMs can engage even longer-range
     A battery of six 2S6 systems is organic to the
a i r defense battalion which replaces the a i r         The 2S6, previously known as the SP AA gun
defense missile a n d artillery battery in some       M1986, has been deployed in WGF since the spring
MRRs a n d TRs. The mixed armament of guns            of 1987.
  -mm Antiaircraft Gun S-60


     The S-60 is a towed, road-transportable, short-      guidance. This weapon, designed to provide de-
to medium-range, single-barrel 57-mm AA gun               fense against aircraft and helicopters, can also be
system. The recognition features include a four-          effective against lightly armored ground vehicles.
wheeled carriage; a long, thin tube with multi-           The four-wheel carriage can be leveled and stabil­
perforated muzzle brake; and a distinctive gun            ized on jacks to form a point firingbase. The four.
shield. The prime mover for the S-60 is usually           round clips feed ammunition horizontally into the
t h e U r a l - 3 7 5cargo truck. Besides on-carriage     weapon. The gun can fire from the traveling posi-
optical fire control, the S-60 also employs an off-       tion in emergencies.
carriage SON-9 or FLAP WHEEL fire control
radar, mounted on a separate van.                         LIMITATIONS:
CAPABILITIES:                                                The towed S-60 system lacks the mobility of
   The S-60 is present in the AA regiment of some         the newer SAM systems which are replacing it.
MRDs and TDs. However, the SA-6/GAINFULor
SA-8/GECKO SAM systems have replaced it in                REMARKS:
most divisions in the forward area. It also may
be organic to territorial defense units, especially          The S-60,introduced around 1950, is no longer
around airfields. An S-60-equippedregiment has            organic to first-line Soviet divisions. The Soviets
24 guns: four firing batteries, each consisting of        introduced an S P version, the ZSU-57-2, in 1957.
six guns and a fire control center.                       It had twin 57-mm guns mounted on a modified
                                                          T-54 tank chassis. The ZSU-57-2has the same
   The S-60's tactical AA ranne is 4.000 meters           characteristics as the S-60 except that it is not
with optical sights and 6,000 meters with radar           radar-controlled. It is now considered obsolete

                                  SA-2/GUIDELINE in travel mode

   The SA-2/GUIDELINE is a two-stage, r a d a r -     usually found in the rear area with the mission
guided SAM. It travels on a semitrailer towed by      of defending static assets such a s supply and
a truck or tractor to the launch site. The SA-2       command installations. SA-2 units are not subor-
has appeared in several versions. Most of these       dinate to the ground forces but to the air defense
have HE warheads; however, one version, first seen    forces at the strategic level. However, the Soviets
in 1967, reportedly has a nuclear warhead.            may incorporate them into the front air defense
                                                      system to provide high-altitude air defense of front
CAPABILITIES:                                         critical rear area assets.
   The SA-2, with a slant range of 35 to 50 kilo-        An SA-2 regiment consists of three battalions,
meters, can defend high-altitude approaches up to     each having a single firing battery. Each battery
28,000 meters. The weapon is a national-level asset   has six launchers arranged in a star formation, a
SA-2/GUIDELINE (continued)

centrally located FAN SONG fire control radar,           against a n enemy employing sophisticated ECM
and a loading vehicle. Although the launchers are        equipment. Other drawbacks are t h e system's
transportable, they normally deploy in fixed sites.      restricted mobility a n d i t s limited capability
The two forward batteries usually locate 40 to 50        against low-altitude air targets.
kilometers behind front lines; the third b a t t e r y
locates 80 kilometers behind. The system normally        REMARKS:
i s integrated with other rear area air defense              The SA-2 system, operational since 1959, is
systems to permit redundant coverage.                    technologically obsolescent. The Soviets are grad-
LIMITATIONS:                                             ually phasing it out of their inventory. The Soviet
                                                         d e s i g n a t i o n for t h e GUIDELINE missile i s
   Although the SA-2 is reportedly effective within      V7750VK; the complete SA-2 system is known as
its kill zone, it is unlikely to be very effective       V75SM.
   The SA-3/GOA is a two-stage, solid-fuel, low-      capabilities of the SA-2. As with SA-2 units, SA-3
to medium-altitude SAM. Two ready missiles travel     units are not normally subordinate to the ground
in tandem on a modified truck or tracked vehicle      forces, although they may be integrated into the
from which the crew loads the missiles onto a         front air defense system.
ground-mounted, trainable launcher for firing. Both
twin a n d quadruple launchers are i n use. The       LZMITA TIONS:
truck-mounted FLAT FACE radar acquires the               The SA-3 system is not mobile. It is movable,
targets, while the LOW BLOW radar carries out         hut i t s displacement time is considerable.
the fire control function.
                                                           The Soviets introduced the SA-3 into service in
   The SA-3 has automatic radio-command guid-         1961. Newer, more mobile systems with improved
ance. The weapon can engage air targets at alti-      capabilities (for example, the SA-6 and SA-8)have
tudes between 100 and 25,000 meters a t slant         replaced it in its original role as a low-altitude
ranges of 6 to 25 kilometers. It is principally a     a i r defense weapon i n support of maneuver
point/small-area defense weapon. Along with the       elements. However, it has continued in its role as
S-60 and other AA guns, it may provide low- to        a rear area air defense weapon. The Soviets intro-
medium-altitude air defense of front critical rear    duced a quadruple launcher i n 1973 for t h i s
area assets as a complement to the high-altitude      purpose.

                                         SA-4b/GANEF Mod I

DESCRIPTION:                                         CAPABILITIES:
    The SA-4/GANEF is a two stage, medium- to           The SA-4 has a slant range of 80 to 100 kilo-
high-altitude SAM. It employs four wrap-around,      meters and a kill zone at altitudes between 100
solid-fuel boosters and a cruise-type liquid-fuel    and 25,000 meters. The LONG TRACK radar,
ramjet sustainer to attain long range. Guidance      which also supports other missiles, provides long-
is radio-command with semiautomatic homing. The      range surveillance while the PAT HAND radar
GANEF missiles travel in pairs on a tracked TEL      provides target acquisition and fire control.
with 360-degree traverse. The system includes the
PAT HAND fire control radar and the necessary            A total of 27 SA-4 TELs are organic to a
C2 and logistic support vehicles and equipment.
                                                     front/army SAM brigade. The brigade comprises
The SA-4 brigade also has THIN SKIN height-          three battalions with three batteries each. Each
finding and LONG TRACK target acquisition            battery has three twin launchers, one PAT HAND
radars. ZU-23 guns provide close-in air defense of   radar, and one loader vehicle. All are tracked.
the launchers.                                       Besides providing high-altitude air defense for a n
                                                     advancing army, the system's excellent mobility
   When it appeared, the SA-4 TEL vehicle was a      allows some batteries to support the army's for-
completely new design; t h a t is, i t was not a     ward maneuver elements, filling gaps between
modification of any previous chassis or vehicle. A   low-altitude SA-6 or SA-8 batteries. Thus, three
reload vehicle based on the SA-4 chassis carries     SA-4 batteries might typically follow about 10
two additional missiles a n d follows the TEL        kilometers behind the army's foward forces, with
vehicle.                                             the other batteries moving in a belt 25 kilometers
SA-4/GANEF (continued)

behind t h e front lines. The SA-4 TEL is a i r -   i n 1964. I t entered service i n the Soviet Army
transportable in the An-22 transport aircraft.      around 1967. An improved version, designated
                                                    SA-4b/GANEF Mod 1, was first seen in 1974. The
LIMZTATZONS:                                        SA-4bfeatures a shorter nose, with approximately
    The SA-4 system is vulnerable to suppressive    two feet of the missile forebody removed, as well
fires and ECM. Its capabilities are significantly   as a modified TEL.
reduced when the system is on the move. The TEL
has no on-board radar.                                 The SA-11 and SA-12 systems are replacing
REMARKS:                                            the SA-4 in nondivisional air defense units. The
                                                    Soviets have deployed the SA-11 in army-level
   The SA-4 was the Soviets' first mobile SAM       SAM brigades; they have initially deployed the
system. The original SA-4a/GANEF was first seen     SA-12 in front-level SAM brigades.
DESCRIPTION:                                          CAPABILITIES:
    The GAINFUL is a two-stage, solid-fuel, low-          The SA-6 can deliver extremely responsive fires
altitude SAM. It has radio-command guidance with      with a slant range of 24 kilometers and a kill zone
semiactiveradar terminal homing. Three missiles       from 50 to 12,000 meters in altitude. After the SA-6
are carried and launched from a threerail mount       regiment's LONG TRACK surveillance r a d a r
with 360-degree traverse. The SA-6a launcher is       acquires target data, t h e STRAIGHT FLUSH
mounted on a modified PT-76 tank chassis similar      missile site radars take over target acquisition and
to the ZSU-23-4.Like the ZSU-23-4,the SA-6aTEL        fire control. Target tracking is on a single beam;
is not amphibious. In travel position, the three-     final intercept is by semiactive radar homing,
missile launcher normally is lowered with the         using continuous-wave radar. In ECM conditions,
missiles facing toward the rear. The SA-6bsystem      the crew can perform tracking optically.
mounts three GAINFUL missiles on a different
type of tracked chassis with an on-board radar. For      The SA-6 regiments organic to MRDs and T D s
either variant of the SA-6 system, a truck-based      consist of 20 T E L s in five batteries. Each battery
reload vehicle carries three additional missiles.     has four triple launchers, one STRAIGHT FLUSH
                                                      vehicle, and two reload vehicles. Normally, three
   The associated STRAIGHT FLUSH r a d a r            of these batteries are deployed 5 kilometers behind
vehicle uses the same chassis as the SA-6aTEL.        the front line; the remaining two are deployed
The LONG TRACK target acquisition radar is also       about 10 kilometers farther back, filling the g a p s
associated with the SA-6 system.                      between the three forward batteries.
SA-6/GAINFUL (continued)

   Division-level SA-6s may be used to supplement    service around 1970. Either the SA-6 or SA-8 has
the air defense assets of maneuver regiments. This   replaced S-60 AA guns in most divisional air
is due to their excellent mobility.                  defense regiments.
   Besides being vulnerable to suppressive fires        Around 1979, the SA-6b began to appear along-
and ECM, the system is slaved to the STRAIGHT        side the SA-6a in batteries of divisional SAM regi-
FLUSH target acquisition and tracking radar.         m e n t s . I n s u c h configurations, a s e p a r a t e
Without it, the SA-6 battery depends heavily on      STRAIGHT FLUSH radar can perform target
target acquisition data provided by the LONG         acquisition; or, the SA-6b system, with its inte-
TRACK regimental radar.                              grated transporter-erector-launcher and radar
REMARKS:                                             (TELAR), can operate independently for sur-
                                                     veillance, as does the SA-8. This gives a higher
   The Soviets first displayed the SA-6ain Moscow    degree of autonomy and mobility to the very limited
in November 1967. The Soviet Army placed it in       number of SA-6b-equipped units.
    The SA-7/GRAIL is a man-portable, shoulder-      charge to increase range and speed. This gives the
fired, low-altitude SAM system similar to the US     SA-7b a slant range of about 5.5 kilometers, a
Army's Redeye. The missile has an HE warhead         ceiling of about 4,500 meters, and a speed of about
and passive infrared homing guidance. The system     580 meters per second (Mach 1.75). However, the
comprises the missile, a reloadable gripstock, and   burn time has not increased.
a thermal battery. There are two versions: the
SA-7aand SA-7b.                                         Both the SA-7a and the SA-7b are tail chase
                                                     missile systems. An identification, friend or foe
CAPABILITIES:                                        (IFF) system can be fitted to the operator's helmet.
    Every MRB and airborne battalion h a s a n       The operator uses a permanent gripstock with
organic air defense platoon in which nine SA-7       attachable canister-tube stored missiles. Each
operators with gripstocks are transported by the     operator carries a gripstock with one missile; up
platoon's three BTRs, BMPs, or BMDs. A SAM           to four additional missiles are carried in each
section consisting of one vehicle and three SA-7     vehicle.
gripstocks normally attaches to each of the bat-         The effectiveness of the SA-7 depends on its
talion's three MRCs. Similar air defense platoons    ability to lock onto the heat source of targets,
are organic at battalion level in air assault and    usually low-flying fixed-and rotary-wing aircraft.
airmobile assault units.                             Although the SA-7 is limited in range, speed, and
    The SA-7a has a slant range of 3.6 kilometers    altitude, it forces enemy pilots to fly above Soviet
and a kill zone between 15 and 3,500 meters in       minimum radar limitations. This results in detec-
altitude. Its speed is about 470 meters per second   tion and vulnerability to regimental and divisional
(Mach 1.4).                                          air defense systems.
  The u p r a t e d version SA-7b differs from the      The operator engages a target by pointing the
SA-7a primarily by using a boosted propellant        tube at the target, partially depressing the trigger,
SA-7/GRAIL (continued)


a n d waiting for the red indicator light to turn         REMARKS:
green. When the green light indicates that the IR
seeker h a s locked onto the target, the operator             The SA-7a, introduced in 1969, is called Strela-2
depresses the trigger completely to fire the missile.     (arrow) by the Soviets. The SA-7b was introduced
                                                          in 1972. Over the years, both the Soviets and their
   If an SA-7 misses its target, it will self-destruct    allies have tried to develop additional launch con-
15 seconds after launch, or about 6.4 kilometers          figurations for the SA-7. In 1979, the East German
downrange. If this occurs close to a n aircraft,          Army developed its own truck-mounted quadruple
severe damage can result despite the miss.                SA-7 launcher, which it uses to defend airfields.
                                                              The SA-14/GREMLIN man-portable SAM i s
   The SA-7 is susceptible to suppressive fires and       replacing the SA-7. The SA-14 entered service in
battlefield obscurations. Its gunner also must have       1978 and is similar to the SA-7b. Unlike the SA-7a
line-of-sightto his target. This may cause. him to        and SA-7b, however, it can engage targets head-on
be exposed in relatively open terrain. High-intensity     at ranges of up to 4,000 meters. In 1986, the Soviets
flares ejected from aircraft under attack were once       introduced yet another hand-held SAM, the highly
successful countermeasures against the SA-7; how-         accurate SA-16, which is also replacing the SA-7
ever, the infrared guidance system of later models        in tactical units. The Soviet nickname for the SA-16
has a filter to screen out decoy flares.                  is Igla (needle).
    The SA-8/GECKO is a two-stage, solid-fuel,           a typical target. Its antenna folds down behind
short-range, low-altitude, all-weather SAM system.       the launcher, enabling Soviet transport aircraft to
The unique six-wheeled SA-8 TELAR is amphibious          airlift the system. The tracking radar i s of the
and has a large boatlikebow. On the SA-8asystem,         pulsed type; it probably operates in the J band
four missiles mount on launch rails on an inte-          with a range of 20 to 25 kilometers. The two
grated rotatable turret; the SA-8bsystem carries         I-band guidance radars make it possible to launch
six canister-launched missiles. On either variant,       two missiles at the same target, each one respond-
the on-board LAND ROLL target acquisition and            ing to a different frequency to frustrate ECM. A
fire control radar system also is mounted on the         low-light-level television camera mounted on top
front of the turret. The LAND ROLL system con-           of the fire-control assembly is used for optical
sists of a folding surveillance radar antenna located    target tracking.
atop the launcher, between the two pairs of launch
rails, and a large tracking radar dish flanked by            The incorporation of the radars and the number
two smaller command radar dishes forward of the          of ready missiles on the TELAR give the amphibi-
launch rails.                                            ous SA-8 system some mobility and tacticalemploy-
                                                         ment advantages over the SA-6 system. The SA-6,
CAPABILITIES:                                            on the other hand, provides greater depth of cover-
                                                         age, especially against aircraft employing standoff
    The SA-8 has a slant range of 12 kilometers          weapons. The use of canisters on the SA-8bsystem
a n d a kill zone of approximately 10 to 12,000          h a s three advantages: it further increases the
meters in altitude. Compared to other Soviet air         number of ready missiles, it improves missile sur-
defense systems, the SA-8 has several advantages:        vivability, and it facilitates resupply and reloading.
it is fully self-contained, highly mobile, amphibious,
and air-transportable.                                   LIMITATIONS
   The SA-8 system is organic to the SAM regiment           Besides being susceptible to suppressive fires
of some MRDs and TDs. An SA-8 regiment has a             and ECM, the SA-8's exposed radars and wheels
total of 20 TELARs organized into five batteries         are especially vulnerable to artillery fires.
of 4 TELARs each. The regiment also h a s 10
resupply vehicles, based on the same chassis as          REMARKS:
the TELAR, which carry additional missiles and
a crane for transloading.                                    The Soviets introduced the SA-8a in 1974 and
                                                         first publicly displayed it in 1975. The SA-8b vari-
   The surveillance radar of the LAND ROLL               ant was first seen in 1980. Along with the SA-6,
system probably operates in the H band and has           the SA-8 systems have replaced the S-60 AA gun
an effective range of around 30 kilometers against       in most division-level air defense regiments.
   The SA-9/GASKINis a short-range,low-altitude            The four SA-9/GASKIN fire units normally
SAM. Four missiles in detachable, box-like launch       operate as a group. They would most likely deploy
canisters are mounted on a modified BRDM-2              between the first and second echelons of the regi-
amphibious armored scout car. The launcher is           ment. From that location, the SA-9s can protect
360-degree traversable and rests flat on the rear       both f i r s t - and second-echelon units without be-
of the vehicle when not in the launch-ready posi-       coming exposed to enemy direct fire weapons. The
tion. The vehicle carries an additional four missiles   SA-9sprobably have t h e task of covering the regi-
inside.                                                 mental command post, the regiment's organic artil-
                                                        lery battalion, a n d other organic or attached
   The GASKIN missiles has a passive infrared
                                                        elements i n the regiment's sector.
seeker. It carries an HE warhead.
                                                           The SA-9 is amphibious with hydrojetpropulsion.
CAPABILITIES:                                           An air filtration and overpressure system provides
    The SA-9 has a slant range of approximately         NBC protection. These capabilities enable the SA-9
6 kilometers and a kill zone of 10 to 5,000 meters      to cross rivers and zones of radiation along with
i n altitude. A surveillance data link alerts a n       forward columns of tanks and APCs.
operator seated in the vehicle cabin to a n ap-
proaching target. The operator then tracks the          LIMITA TIONS:
target optically through a large window at the base
of the launcher pedestal.                                  The SA-9 has significantly reduced range against
                                                        high-speed aircraft approaching the launcher. The
    Once targets are sighted visually, the SA-9 prob-   system has no on-board radar. Therefore, the crew
ably uses a red/green light indicator system similar    must depend on preliminary target data broadcast
to that of the SA-7/GRAIL; that is, when the red        over the division early warning radio net until
light turns green, the missile has locked onto the      they visually acquire the target. The system is
target and is ready to fire. However, the GASKIN        susceptible to suppressive fires and battlefield
missile is not a derivative of the GRAIL. The SA-9      obscuration. Maximum armor protection is only 1 4
is the least complex of Soviet vehiclemounted SAM       millimeters.
   A platoon of four SA-9 vehicles is organic to
the air defense battery of MRRs and TRs. The               The Soviets introduced the SA-9 in 1968. Its
SA-9sare teamed with a platoon of four ZSU-23-4s.       Soviet nickname is Strela-1 (arrow). Around 1977,
The SA-9 also is organic to Soviet naval infantry       the SA-12/GOPHERSAM system began to replace
regiments and brigades.                                 the SA-9.
   The SA-11/GADFLYis a low-to-medium altitude          longer-range surveillance and target acquisition
SAM. The SA-11 TELAR is based on a tracked              radars, each TELAR, with its on-board guidance
chassis also used for the radar vehicles associated     and tracking radar, can operate independently for
with the SA-11. The TELAR features a 360-degree         surveillance and target engagement.
traversable platform with a dome-shaped radar
antenna at the front and a four-rail launcher near      LIMITATIONS:
the rear. At the extreme rear of the platform is a        The TELAR apparently does not carry reload
communications antenna.                                 missiles onboard.
   The GADFLY missile has a slant range of 30
kilometers. I t provides air defense against high-         The SA-11 TELAR vehicle first appeared with
performance aircraft operating at low-to-medium         the SA-6b/GAINFUL system around 1979. The
altitudes, as well as against cruise missiles. The      entire SA-11system with the GADFLY missile was
tracked TELAR provides excellent mobility.              not introduced until 1983. Initially deployed as a
                                                        replacement for the SA-4 system in army-level SAM
   Although SA-11 batteries (if deployed at division    brigades, the SA-11may eventually replace the
level) or battalions (if deployed at army level) have   SA-6 as a division-level SAM.

                              S A - 1 2 a / G L A D I A T O R and S A - 1 2 b / G I A N T

   T h e SA-12a/GLADIATORis a long-range, low­                long-range surveillance and a capability for hand­
to-high altitude, tactical SAM system. T h e SA-12a           ling multiple targets.
T E L A R is based on a modified MT-T heavy tracked
transporter. Cylindrical containers i n circular                 T h e SA-12a/GLADIATOR system is a replace
launch racks carry four GLADIATOR missiles. The               ment for t h e S A - 4 / G A N E F i n nondivisional SAM
canisters are erected to the vertical at the rear o f         units. Initial deployment has been to front-level
the T E L A R in firing position. A tall antenna mast         SAM brigades.
with a radar dish i s erected at the rear o f the
driver's cab. A separate transloader vehicle on the           REMARKS:
same type o f chassis carries four reload missiles                The Soviets first deployed the SA-12a/GLADIA­
and a crane. Separate phased-array radars and C3              T O R system i n 1986. Still under development is
vehicles associated w i t h t h i s SAM system use            a n e v e n more capable, longer-range, h i g h e r -
similar vehicles.                                             altitude missile t o complement it. T h e second
CAPABILITIES:                                                 missile, designated S A - 1 2 b / G I A N T ,is a tactical
                                                              SAM with a range of 100 kilometers. T h e GIANT
   T h e GLADIATOR missile has a range of 90                  can intercept aircraft at all altitudes, cruise mis-
kilometers and a kill zone at altitudes between 30            siles, tactical ballistic missiles, and possibly some
and 30,000 meters. The SA-12a mobile system pro­              types o f strategic ballistic missiles. T h e SA-12b
vides air defense against all types o f aerodynamic           system uses the same T E L A R as the SA-12a,except
vehicles, including cruise missiles and some tactical         t h a t i t carries only t w o o f t h e larger G I A N T
ballistic missiles. The phased-array radars provide           missiles.
     The SA-13/GOPHERis a short-range, low alti-        Located between the two pairs of missile canisters
tude SAM system. The SA-13 TELAR is a modified          is the circular parabolic antenna of a ranging
MT-LB amphibious armored tracked vehicle with           radar. There is a n unidentified plank-shaped struc-
t h e machine gun turret removed. The launcher          ture above the position for the inside right canister.
pedestal mounted to the rear of center of the vehicle   On both sides of the pedestal are running boards
is 360-degree traversable. It incorporates the op-      for crew members emplacing new missile canisters.
erator's position behind a large, rectangular window    I n travel position, the canisters and radar are
at its base. Atop the pedestal are mounting brackets    lowered to the rear of the pedestal and rest on
for four missile canisters. The SA-13launcher can       the rear deck, facing to the rear; approximately
accommodate the GASKIN missile canisters nor-           one-third of the canister length extends behind the
mally associated with the SA-9 system; it can also      vehicle. The MT-LB cargo compartment may carry
accommodate the slightly larger canisters for the       up to eight reload missiles. It has two large doors
GOPHER missiles associated exclusively with the         at the rear.
SA-13 system. Like the GASKIN canisters, the
GOPHER canisters are box-shaped, with hinged               The platoon leader of the SA-12-equipped SAM
covers a t both front a n d rear. However, t h e        platoon uses a second version of the SA-13 TELAR.
GOPHER canisters are slightly longer and re-            This version features four box-shaped receiver
inforced by transverse ribs in their rear portion,      devices mounted on the front, rear, and both sides
while the GASKIN canisters have smooth sides.           of the hull.
SA-12/GOPHER (continued)

   The GOPHER missile has a slant range of 6          rough terrain, water obstacles, and contaminated
to 7 kilometers and a kill zone between a minimum     areas along with the tank and BMP-equipped units
of 9 to 10 meters and a maximum of 5.500 meters       it supports.
in altitude. It has a cooled IR seeker and operates
i n dual frequency bands to better discriminate       LIMITATIONS:
against countermeasures (in comparison to the
GASKIN). As with the SA-9 system, the operator            The SA-13 h a s significantly reduced range
tracks the target optically; but, in this case, the   a g a i n s t high-speed aircraft approaching the
onb board ranging radar allows him to determine       launcher. Despite a limited surveillance capability
when the target aircraft is within range of the       of the range-only radar, the SA-13 still depends
missile. This reduces the needless expenditure of     primarily on visual acquisition by the crew. It also
missiles on out-of-rangetargets.                      depends on target data passed to the crew by data
                                                      link when targets are acquired by the radars of
   A platoon of four SA-13TELARs is organic to        the battery's S P AA guns or by division-level
the air defense battery of MRRs and TRs, where        radars. Suppressive fires and battlefield obscuration
they are complemented by a platoon of four S P        may degrade the operator's ability to track targets
A A guns. The SA-13is also organic to Soviet naval    visually. The MT-LB hull offers a maximum armor
infantry brigades.                                    protection of only 7 millimeters (half that of the
   The four box-shaped structures on the hull of      BRDM-2 hull of the SA-9).
the platoon leader's TELAR house a passive radar
warning system. The receivers' arrangement            REMARKS:
provides 360-degreecoverage around the vehicle.
                                                         The Soviets introduced t h eSA-13 system around
  The tracked, amphibious TELAR with collective       1977 a s a replacement for the SA-9 system. Their
NBC protection allows the SA-13 system to cross       nickname for the SA-13is Strela 10.
                           Surface-to-Air Missile Associated Radar

                            SAM-associated radar characteristics

      RADAR           WEAPON                  FUNCTION                  FREQ BAND          RANGE (km)

FAN SONG A/B        SA-2/GUIDELINE         fire control                 E/F                 60-120
FAN SONG C/D/E                                                          G                   70.145
FAN SONG F (all                                                         INA                 INA
FLAT FACE (P-15)    SA-3/GOA,              target acquisition           C (UHF)             250
(van-mounted)       possibly SA-8/
LAND ROLL           SA-8/GECKO             fire control and             H (acquisition),    INA
(on-board)                                 short-range                  J (tracking)
                                           target acquisition
LONG TRACK          SA-4/GANEF,            target a c q u i s t i o n   E                   excess of
(tracked)           SA-6/GAINFUL,                                                           150 km,
                    SA-8/GECKO                                                              30,000 m
LOW BLOW            SA-3/GOA