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					         HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR FETHIYE SPORT FACILITIES IN
                                       NILUFER, BURSA/TURKEY
                                                                              Evrim Ekiz1, Kayıhan Pala2
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Due to Healthy City approach, the first health impact assessment (HIA) was carried
out on the Fethiye Sport Facilities Project. The goals of the HIA application on the
project were as follows: practising the HIA, spreading the HIA, working together with
other sectors, providing a municipal service consisting of healthy implementation,
accelerating social development of the Fethiye Neighbourhood by providing the
rational distribution of services, providing contribution to sports played by community
members in an organized way, and allowing the public to participate.
Objectives include the following: to build alternative areas to shopping centers that
compel people to consume, to develop human relations, to encourage people to
participate in outdoor activities, to transform lives through sport, to build a facility for
all sectors of the community, to expose the health effects of the Project, to detect the
population affected by the Project, to maximize interests of citizens in sports, to
develop proposals to maximize the positive health effects, and to share the findings
and outcomes with the community.
Accepted values for HIA work: In the discussions the steering group focused on
providing equality by enabling the possibility of free sport. However, the group also
decided that to account for staff costs, a small fee should be charged, which could be
waived in certan circumtances and to reduce the inequalities some arrangements
should be carried out. Finally “providing an equal and free sport possibility” was
agreed upon by consensus among the steering group.


DESCRIPTION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION
The Scope Of The HIA Of The Project
The 2008 projects of the Nilufer Municipality were screened, and the Fethiye Sports
Facilities Project was found to be appropriate for the Health Impact Assessment. The
decision-makers for the HIA were the Municipal Administration, and the financial
source was Nilufer Municipality.



1
    Urban Planner, Nilufer Municipality Healthy Cities Project Coordinationship, Nilufer, Bursa/Turkey.
2
    Assoc.Prof.Dr., Uludağ University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Bursa/Turkey.
A steering committee was formed of 16 representatives of a sectoral cooperation,
including Nilüfer Municipality, Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine Department of
Public Health, Bursa Provincial Health Directorate, Bursa Provincial Youth and Sport
Directorate, Nilufer Local Agenda 21, Bursa Branch of Chamber of City Planners, and
Mukhtar of Fethiye Neighbourhood in the city. The HIA was carried out on the entire
Fethiye Sports Facilities Project. Necessary documents and data were collected, and
the Project was open to discussion. The location of the Project and some design
elements and details could be changed under the necessity circumtances. The target
group of the Project is citizens living in Nilufer and Bursa.
The HIA lasted for eight weeks. The data were mainly collected from the Nilufer City
Health Profile, and field research was also carried out. Besides, Public Health studies
regarding the Project were taken into consideration. The HIA report was presented to
the Mayor and Municipal Administration and distributed to interested individuals or
establishments. The monitoring and evaluating process will be implemented by the
beginning of the construction.


Description of Fethiye Sports Facilities Project
According to the implementation development plans, the amount of total area
reserved for sports usage in Nilufer City is 604,395 square meters. In the Fethiye
Neighborhod, in the Nilufer Municipality border area, the Fethiye Sport Facilities
Project will be built in 2008 by the Municipality. This Project will encompass 44.538
square meters. The reserved budget for the Project, which was obtained from the
Bank of provinces, is 5.000.000,00 YTL for 2008 and 1.000.000,00 YTL for 2009.
The Project will include the following: one sport hall; one cafeteria; two fields with
artifical turf according to international standards, with tribunes for audiences of nearly
1,500; two tennis courts, which are convenient for tournaments and will
accommodate audiences of nearly 1,000; three tennis courts for training; three
basketball courts according to FIBA (International Federation of Association
Basketball) standards; one beach volleyball court; recreation areas; and a parking
area for 250 vehicles.
The indoor sport hall includes the following: international handball courts; space for
about 800 people; dressing rooms for both the indoor and outdoor sport fields;
audience entries and foyers; a fitness hall; and dressing rooms. In the cafeteria, there
are kitchen and administration rooms.
                         Situation Plan of the Sport Facilities




Objectives and Priorities Of The Project
We carried out a “Citizen Satisfaction Survey” to detect the service priorities in all
neighbourhoods in the Nilufer City border area. Results of the survey, to which 75
(51.4%) of 146 people (722 females, 74 males) responded, indicate that “sport
centers, sport areas and gym areas” should be a priority for their neighborhod.
Intended Results
First, it is foreseen that, with the implementation of Sport Facilities Project, residents
will be encouraged to and have more opportunities to play sports. Additionally, the
importance attached to sport and physical activity has been proven with projects
carried out by Nilufer Municipality. The most important project is the traditional sport
festival organized every year by the Municipality and other stakeholders, installments
of sport equipment in the open area, and jogging trails.
Frame Of The Project
The property of the Fethiye Sport Facilities belongs to the Financial Treasury. It is
allocated for two years by National Estate Directorate to the Nilufer Municipality. Due
to the   allocation, in two years Nilufer Municipality has been obligated to start
building, and the allocated time will expire in 08th of September 2009. When the
building starts, the municipality will apply for extending the time allocated.
CITY AND COMMUNITY PROFILE
There are three sports centres opened by Nilüfer Municipality. The Municipality holds
137 parks, 22 walking areas, 18 neighborhod fields, 28 basketball courts and 3
volleyball courts that provide residents opportunities for physical activity .


     Table 1. Number of Licensed Sportmen and Sportswomen belong to Nilufer
                                Municipality Sports Club
                                                  Licensed               Active
       Branch
                                           Male Female Total Male Female Total
       Basketball                           114     0        114   44      0      44
       Football                             276     0        276   115     0      115
       Handball                             190     0        190   32      0      32
       Tennis                                6      7        13    0       0      0
       Volleyball                            7     181       188   1      38      39
       Mental Disabled                       6      0        6     2       0      2

The table displays the sportsmen and women who will able to use the Fethiye Sport
Facilities.


Nilüfer Sports Festival
Sports, cultural and environmental associations, and organizations for children,
young people, and older adults engage many people in voluntary activities and play a
particularly important role in building social cohesion.
The aim of the Nilufer Sports Festival is to demonstrate to citizens that sports are a
part of healthy living. The target group of the festival, held between the weeks of April
23rd April and May 19th are the primary school students. Folk dance groups and
sports teams of the Sister Cities are also invited to the Festival, which has been
carried out since 2001.


A Study Carried Out in Fethiye Neighborhood Composing Young People
Having Problems
In the scope of the Community Police works, carried out in Nilufer in 2007, a study
began to detect youths with problems and to socialize them. Thus far, the study has
detected 35 individuals between the ages of 16 and 28 who were drug users.
Furthermore, various activities were organized for these youths to try to change their
lifestyles and to socialize them. The stakeholders of this organization are the
following:     Bursa   Government,       Mukhtar   of   Fethiye   Neighbourhood,       Nilufer
Municipality, Provincial Directorate of Security, Branch of Children, NGO’s, and some
residents. As of today, 21 youths have been hired for a job. Additionally, 10 youths
have been attending courses and will be hired for a job after the courses.
Furthermore, these youths play sports every Friday at the İhsaniye Carpet Field.



ASSESSMENT

Environmental Measurement Values
At the Fethiye Sport Facilities, potential forms of environmental pollutions include
noise, air, and electromagnetic field pollutions.

Electromagnetic Field Pollution
In the field study carried out where the Facilities will be built, there is a high-voltage
powerline (HVP) passing just over the land. In the scope of the “Nilufer
Electromagnetic Field Pollution Measurements,” one of the points occurs at the
bottom of a high voltage powerline pole that is at the Truck Park Area next to the
Sport Facilities Area. The measurements were held by TUBİTAK (The Scientific and
Technical Research Council of Turkey) of the National Metrology Institute. Every
country has determined an electromagnetic field radiation limit according to its own
standards. There are limit values that are commonly accepted and implemented by
many countries, including European Union countries and the United States. Limits
were determined by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation
Protection (ICNIRP), which is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO).
The limits are determined as an acceptable amount of exposure in 24 hours. Limit
values change depending on the frequency of emitted radiation.


                                   Table 2. Limit Values
    Source Of The                 Electric Field Strength    Magnetic Field Strength
    Electromagnetic Pollution     (V/M)                      (A/M)
    HVP and Transformer
                                  5000                       80
    Stations
    Base Stations (900MHz)        41,25                      0,111
    Base Stations (1800MHz)       58,34                      0,157
          Table 3. Measurement Values for Electromagnetic Field Radiation
        Address Of The                                     Close      Electric Field
                               Measurement Place
      Measurement Place                                   Sources     Strength (V/M)
     OSB Beyaz Cadde No:3                                                  3180
                                   Tır park alanı          HVP
        Tahsiş Tır Parkı
                             Bursa Gümrük Muhafaza
                                                           HVP             345
                              Müdürlüğü Giriş Kapısı



As seen in the table above, next to the Fethiye Sport Facilities, a 3180 V/m electric
field strength was measured. This is a value detected by an instant measurement,
but the value may increase to higher or lower levels depending on the frequency at
that exact moment of measurement.

Noise Pollution
During the field study, to detect the present environmental noise pollution level of the
area, measurements were carried out at 10 different hours of the day. The table 5
shows the results.




                       Table 4. Features of the Measuring Device
                                    Date of Measurement
                                    26-27 February 2008
                  Serial No of the Measuring Device/Type/Model/Productor
                           00855109 / TİP 1 / NL 20 / RİON CO. LTD
           Calibration date and the place of the Measuring Device TÜBİTAK UME /
                                         07.09.2007
                           Table 5. Measurement Results for Noise
                             Measurement Value Leq( dBA )
   Measurement                                                           Limit Value Due To
                         Daytime         Daytime         Daytime
       Point                                                                  REMEN*
                       09:00/09:40     14:00/14:45      17:00/17:50
      1. point             52.9            52.1            55.3                  65
      2. point             56.8            52.8            54.9                  65
      3. point             50.3            52.7            51.5                  65
      4. point             52.9            49.9            51.0                  65
      5. point             55.0            52.1            56.4                  65
      6. point             54.5            54.2            55.4                  65
      7. point             58.6            56.5            56.8                  65
      8. point             57.8            56.3            58.4                  65
      9. point             55.3            48.6            52.1                  65
      10. point            54.4            49.3            52.8                  65
                 *Regulation of Evaluation and Management of the Environmental Noise



As seen above, the environmental noise level was less than the limit values that
depend on the Regulation of Evaluation and Management of the Environmental
Noise (REMEN). The values measured at the borders of the area next to the
motorway are slightly higher; however, these values are still less than the limit
values.

Aır Pollutıon
Another potential environmental pollution factor is air pollution. The “Air Quality
Observation Project in Nilufer” began on 01st of May 2007 to determine air quality
and to detect possible pollutants. In the scope of the Project, daily sampling studies
are done, and PM10 (Particulate Matter), PM2,5 and Heavy Metal analyses on the
samples are carried out by TUBİTAK BUTAL (The Scientific and Technical Research
Council of Turkey- Bursa Technical Research Laboratory). The outcomes of the
heavy metal analysis measurements have not been yet obtained, and the project is
ongoing. However, the data of PM10 and PM2,5 have been stored daily at the
Environmental Office of the Nilufer Municipality since the beginning of the Project.
According to the results, daily PM10 values change between 12µg/m³ and 185µg/m³.
(These data have not been officially declared yet because the Project is still in
progress.) The national and international limit values for PM10 are shown in the table
below. The differences between the limit values are quite notable.
               Table 6. The national and international PM10 limit values
       Institution That Determined    Daily Average Limit    Annual Average Limit
             The Limit Value            Value (G/M3 )           Value(G/M3 )

                  WHO                          50                     20
                   EPA                         150                     -
                   EU                          50                     40
         RAPC ( Regulation for Air
                                               300                    150
            Pollution Control )




Urban Planning And Architectural Standards


Other Lands Used For Sport
First of all, implementation development plans were checked to find the sport areas
existing near the Fethiye Sport Facilities. It was found that 1877th lot 2nd parcel,
1878 lot 1st parcel, and 1451th lot 1st parcel, belonging to Financial Treasury, are
planned for the “sports field,” which amounts to 59,057 s². The ground of the field has
been built by Provincial Youth and Sport Directorate, but the construction ceased
because of insufficient financial resources.
Second, there is an area on 1452th lot 1st parcel planned as a “recreation area”
according to the implementation development plans. It belongs to the Financial
Treasury, and the parcel was rented by Nilufer Municipality. The Municipality
allocated the use of the surface of the parcel to a private company for 10 years, and
the area is run as an “aqua park.”
1 Recreation Area
2 Sports Field


Accessibility
The available space was appropriate in terms of urban planning standards.
The Sport Facilities will be an opportunity for Nilufer, but it also could be a good
service for the citizens living at the opposite side of Mudanya Road who belong to the
Osmangazi District. The distance is convenient for walking; however, these
individuals have to cross a motorway.
In the 350-meter diameter that is accepted as a convenient walking distance, the
population who will just benefit from the Facilities only live in part of the Fethiye
Region. Because of Ata Avenue, accessibility from the Organized Industry Region
could be difficult.


Architectural Standards
The Project includes the following: one sport hall; one cafeteria; two grass carpet
fields according to international standards with tribunes for audiences of nearly
1,500; two tennis courts, convenient for tournaments and audiences of nearly 1,000;
three tennis courts for training; three basketball courts according to FIBA standards;
one beach volleyball court; recreation areas; and parking area for 250 vehicles.
The indoor sport hall includes the following: international handball courts; space for
about 800 people; dressing rooms for both the indoor and outdoor sport fields;
audience entries and foyers; a fitness hall; and dressing rooms. In the cafeteria, there
are kitchen and administration rooms.
All the measures and rules of facilities are appropriate for international standards.
Another important subject related to architectural standards is the Fethiye Training
Home Atatürk Koruluğu. There are about 100 young trees planted in the Sports
Facilities Area.


Characteristics of The Sport Facilities
Sport halls could be used by members of sports clubs, amateur athletes and disabled
athletes. To use the halls, it will be necessary to have a physical examination and to
obtain a sport card given by Provincial Youth and Sport Directorate. Generally, those
who use the halls are about 20% women and 80% men and disabled individuals.
For the disabled, entrances of the halls should be designed appropriately for
wheelchairs. Additionally, the grounds should be smooth, and appropriate showers,
sinks, and closets should be selected for the disabled.
About 45 employees should be hired for the Sport Facilities.




SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Environment and Physical Infrastructure
When deciding the functions of the area, analysing the physical environment with all
of its components is the appropriate method.
 When air quality is taken into consideration, it is recommended that the sport
areas should be far away from housing and industrial regions. If it is not possible to
prevent air pollution, an “Air Action Plan” should be prepared as soon as possible.
 If possible, the tribunes should not be designed close to the residents living
around the area.
 High-voltage powerlines should be placed underground or next to the Sport
Facilities Area. If this is not possible, it is recommended to play sports only in the
sporting halls that are covered by a Faraday Cage. TEİAŞ (Turkish Electricity
Transmission Corporation) is responsible for placing the high-voltage powerlines
underground. Thus, it is necessary to first make an application requesting that
procedure. If the powerlines stay above ground, it is not appropriate to place the
Facilities there.
 The trees placed in the sport area should be instead placed in other open spaces
in the city. However, it is better if they are planted at the borders of the Project Area.
 The similar projects should be supported to reduce the visual pollution by
planning open spaces such as Fethiye Sport Facilities.
 The lighting system of the facilities should also be useful for the surrounding area.
Besides this, renewable and clean energy sources should be used, and the lighting
should be provided by solar energy.
 Arranging activities that reduce the urban density will cause people to feel more
comfortable, and open spaces will maximize social communication as well. Sport
Facilities will meet this need.
 Designing the facilities according so that the disabled can use them was a step in
the right direction, and it will be better to continue in this way during the construction
period as well.
 It seems in the Project that the fields are designed too close to one another. It is
better to implement distance or tools for separating them. Otherwise, the sport
players may be in each other’s way by their movements and noise. To accomplish
this space between fields, it would be more effective to reduce the number of the
fields .
 On the contrary, the large number of fields provide more opportunities for people
to play sports.


Accessibility
 Instead of expending time in shopping centers that facilitate consumption, the
facilities help develop physical and mental health. For this reason, sport facilities are
important.
 To reduce social inequalities, it is recommended that sport facilities providing
public service should be free for all inhabitants. Equal and free public service is
important in reducing social inequalities. If possible, facilities should be free of cost,
or some egalitarian arrangements should be prepared.
 Sport facilities should be open throughout the day to so that everyone, including
those who work, has an opportunity to use them.
 By taking traffic jams and fuels emissions into consideration, individuals should
reduce their use of cars. Therefore, it will be necessary to increase public
transportation options.
 It is crucial that low-income residents of the region have access to the facilities.
To facilitate this accessibility to public services, the distribution of the facilities should
be ensured equally around all parts of the city.


Health and Lifestyle
 One of the rare negative effects of playing sports is exercise dependency. Those
who are dependent on exercise should be monitored and convinced to use
psychological support.
 Injuries are another negative health effect of playing sports. To prevent sport
injuries, training should be arranged, and there must be a doctor in the Facilities. A
first aid unit must be established, and the staff should take first aid courses.
 It is necessary to prevent unhealthy individuals from playing sports. Those with
cardiovascular diseases, for example, may be adversely affected by extreme
exercising. Those with serious muscle-skeleton diseases, such as epilepsy, must
also be careful. For individuals to play sports in the facilities, they must have a
“physical exam for sport.”
 In the cafeteria of the Facilities, there must be healthy and high-quality food that is
kept under hygienic conditions. The Municipality should carry out regular inspections
in the cafeteria.


Inequalities
 Disabled individuals should be able to benefit from urban services. Those who are
disabled should have no difficulties using the Sport Facilities.
 Architectural projects – both indoors and outdoors – of the Facilities should be
designed according to the needs of disabled inhabitants.
 Studies of children and youth with problems should be supported, and these
individuals should be encouraged to play sports.




CONCLUSION
The recommendations made seek to maximize the positive health effects and to
reduce the negative health effects determined by the Health Impact Assessment of
Fethiye Sports Facilities Project, one of the targets of the Nilfer Municipality in 2008.
These recommendations should be taken into consideration, and the Project should
evolve according to these guidelines. The Health Impact Assessment was carried out
based on principles of equality and democracy. Many participated in the assessment,
particularly concerned establishments, local representatives, and technical and
academic specialists. As a result, it was decided that the Project can be implemented
if appropriate conditions can be effectively applied.


KEYWORDS
Health Impact Assessment, Health, Nilufer

				
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