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HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR FETHIYE SPORT FACILITIES IN NILUFER, BURSA/TURKEY Evrim Ekiz1, Kayıhan Pala2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Due to Healthy City approach, the first health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out on the Fethiye Sport Facilities Project. The goals of the HIA application on the project were as follows: practising the HIA, spreading the HIA, working together with other sectors, providing a municipal service consisting of healthy implementation, accelerating social development of the Fethiye Neighbourhood by providing the rational distribution of services, providing contribution to sports played by community members in an organized way, and allowing the public to participate. Objectives include the following: to build alternative areas to shopping centers that compel people to consume, to develop human relations, to encourage people to participate in outdoor activities, to transform lives through sport, to build a facility for all sectors of the community, to expose the health effects of the Project, to detect the population affected by the Project, to maximize interests of citizens in sports, to develop proposals to maximize the positive health effects, and to share the findings and outcomes with the community. Accepted values for HIA work: In the discussions the steering group focused on providing equality by enabling the possibility of free sport. However, the group also decided that to account for staff costs, a small fee should be charged, which could be waived in certan circumtances and to reduce the inequalities some arrangements should be carried out. Finally “providing an equal and free sport possibility” was agreed upon by consensus among the steering group. DESCRIPTION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION The Scope Of The HIA Of The Project The 2008 projects of the Nilufer Municipality were screened, and the Fethiye Sports Facilities Project was found to be appropriate for the Health Impact Assessment. The decision-makers for the HIA were the Municipal Administration, and the financial source was Nilufer Municipality. 1 Urban Planner, Nilufer Municipality Healthy Cities Project Coordinationship, Nilufer, Bursa/Turkey. 2 Assoc.Prof.Dr., Uludağ University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Bursa/Turkey. A steering committee was formed of 16 representatives of a sectoral cooperation, including Nilüfer Municipality, Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine Department of Public Health, Bursa Provincial Health Directorate, Bursa Provincial Youth and Sport Directorate, Nilufer Local Agenda 21, Bursa Branch of Chamber of City Planners, and Mukhtar of Fethiye Neighbourhood in the city. The HIA was carried out on the entire Fethiye Sports Facilities Project. Necessary documents and data were collected, and the Project was open to discussion. The location of the Project and some design elements and details could be changed under the necessity circumtances. The target group of the Project is citizens living in Nilufer and Bursa. The HIA lasted for eight weeks. The data were mainly collected from the Nilufer City Health Profile, and field research was also carried out. Besides, Public Health studies regarding the Project were taken into consideration. The HIA report was presented to the Mayor and Municipal Administration and distributed to interested individuals or establishments. The monitoring and evaluating process will be implemented by the beginning of the construction. Description of Fethiye Sports Facilities Project According to the implementation development plans, the amount of total area reserved for sports usage in Nilufer City is 604,395 square meters. In the Fethiye Neighborhod, in the Nilufer Municipality border area, the Fethiye Sport Facilities Project will be built in 2008 by the Municipality. This Project will encompass 44.538 square meters. The reserved budget for the Project, which was obtained from the Bank of provinces, is 5.000.000,00 YTL for 2008 and 1.000.000,00 YTL for 2009. The Project will include the following: one sport hall; one cafeteria; two fields with artifical turf according to international standards, with tribunes for audiences of nearly 1,500; two tennis courts, which are convenient for tournaments and will accommodate audiences of nearly 1,000; three tennis courts for training; three basketball courts according to FIBA (International Federation of Association Basketball) standards; one beach volleyball court; recreation areas; and a parking area for 250 vehicles. The indoor sport hall includes the following: international handball courts; space for about 800 people; dressing rooms for both the indoor and outdoor sport fields; audience entries and foyers; a fitness hall; and dressing rooms. In the cafeteria, there are kitchen and administration rooms. Situation Plan of the Sport Facilities Objectives and Priorities Of The Project We carried out a “Citizen Satisfaction Survey” to detect the service priorities in all neighbourhoods in the Nilufer City border area. Results of the survey, to which 75 (51.4%) of 146 people (722 females, 74 males) responded, indicate that “sport centers, sport areas and gym areas” should be a priority for their neighborhod. Intended Results First, it is foreseen that, with the implementation of Sport Facilities Project, residents will be encouraged to and have more opportunities to play sports. Additionally, the importance attached to sport and physical activity has been proven with projects carried out by Nilufer Municipality. The most important project is the traditional sport festival organized every year by the Municipality and other stakeholders, installments of sport equipment in the open area, and jogging trails. Frame Of The Project The property of the Fethiye Sport Facilities belongs to the Financial Treasury. It is allocated for two years by National Estate Directorate to the Nilufer Municipality. Due to the allocation, in two years Nilufer Municipality has been obligated to start building, and the allocated time will expire in 08th of September 2009. When the building starts, the municipality will apply for extending the time allocated. CITY AND COMMUNITY PROFILE There are three sports centres opened by Nilüfer Municipality. The Municipality holds 137 parks, 22 walking areas, 18 neighborhod fields, 28 basketball courts and 3 volleyball courts that provide residents opportunities for physical activity . Table 1. Number of Licensed Sportmen and Sportswomen belong to Nilufer Municipality Sports Club Licensed Active Branch Male Female Total Male Female Total Basketball 114 0 114 44 0 44 Football 276 0 276 115 0 115 Handball 190 0 190 32 0 32 Tennis 6 7 13 0 0 0 Volleyball 7 181 188 1 38 39 Mental Disabled 6 0 6 2 0 2 The table displays the sportsmen and women who will able to use the Fethiye Sport Facilities. Nilüfer Sports Festival Sports, cultural and environmental associations, and organizations for children, young people, and older adults engage many people in voluntary activities and play a particularly important role in building social cohesion. The aim of the Nilufer Sports Festival is to demonstrate to citizens that sports are a part of healthy living. The target group of the festival, held between the weeks of April 23rd April and May 19th are the primary school students. Folk dance groups and sports teams of the Sister Cities are also invited to the Festival, which has been carried out since 2001. A Study Carried Out in Fethiye Neighborhood Composing Young People Having Problems In the scope of the Community Police works, carried out in Nilufer in 2007, a study began to detect youths with problems and to socialize them. Thus far, the study has detected 35 individuals between the ages of 16 and 28 who were drug users. Furthermore, various activities were organized for these youths to try to change their lifestyles and to socialize them. The stakeholders of this organization are the following: Bursa Government, Mukhtar of Fethiye Neighbourhood, Nilufer Municipality, Provincial Directorate of Security, Branch of Children, NGO’s, and some residents. As of today, 21 youths have been hired for a job. Additionally, 10 youths have been attending courses and will be hired for a job after the courses. Furthermore, these youths play sports every Friday at the İhsaniye Carpet Field. ASSESSMENT Environmental Measurement Values At the Fethiye Sport Facilities, potential forms of environmental pollutions include noise, air, and electromagnetic field pollutions. Electromagnetic Field Pollution In the field study carried out where the Facilities will be built, there is a high-voltage powerline (HVP) passing just over the land. In the scope of the “Nilufer Electromagnetic Field Pollution Measurements,” one of the points occurs at the bottom of a high voltage powerline pole that is at the Truck Park Area next to the Sport Facilities Area. The measurements were held by TUBİTAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) of the National Metrology Institute. Every country has determined an electromagnetic field radiation limit according to its own standards. There are limit values that are commonly accepted and implemented by many countries, including European Union countries and the United States. Limits were determined by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The limits are determined as an acceptable amount of exposure in 24 hours. Limit values change depending on the frequency of emitted radiation. Table 2. Limit Values Source Of The Electric Field Strength Magnetic Field Strength Electromagnetic Pollution (V/M) (A/M) HVP and Transformer 5000 80 Stations Base Stations (900MHz) 41,25 0,111 Base Stations (1800MHz) 58,34 0,157 Table 3. Measurement Values for Electromagnetic Field Radiation Address Of The Close Electric Field Measurement Place Measurement Place Sources Strength (V/M) OSB Beyaz Cadde No:3 3180 Tır park alanı HVP Tahsiş Tır Parkı Bursa Gümrük Muhafaza HVP 345 Müdürlüğü Giriş Kapısı As seen in the table above, next to the Fethiye Sport Facilities, a 3180 V/m electric field strength was measured. This is a value detected by an instant measurement, but the value may increase to higher or lower levels depending on the frequency at that exact moment of measurement. Noise Pollution During the field study, to detect the present environmental noise pollution level of the area, measurements were carried out at 10 different hours of the day. The table 5 shows the results. Table 4. Features of the Measuring Device Date of Measurement 26-27 February 2008 Serial No of the Measuring Device/Type/Model/Productor 00855109 / TİP 1 / NL 20 / RİON CO. LTD Calibration date and the place of the Measuring Device TÜBİTAK UME / 07.09.2007 Table 5. Measurement Results for Noise Measurement Value Leq( dBA ) Measurement Limit Value Due To Daytime Daytime Daytime Point REMEN* 09:00/09:40 14:00/14:45 17:00/17:50 1. point 52.9 52.1 55.3 65 2. point 56.8 52.8 54.9 65 3. point 50.3 52.7 51.5 65 4. point 52.9 49.9 51.0 65 5. point 55.0 52.1 56.4 65 6. point 54.5 54.2 55.4 65 7. point 58.6 56.5 56.8 65 8. point 57.8 56.3 58.4 65 9. point 55.3 48.6 52.1 65 10. point 54.4 49.3 52.8 65 *Regulation of Evaluation and Management of the Environmental Noise As seen above, the environmental noise level was less than the limit values that depend on the Regulation of Evaluation and Management of the Environmental Noise (REMEN). The values measured at the borders of the area next to the motorway are slightly higher; however, these values are still less than the limit values. Aır Pollutıon Another potential environmental pollution factor is air pollution. The “Air Quality Observation Project in Nilufer” began on 01st of May 2007 to determine air quality and to detect possible pollutants. In the scope of the Project, daily sampling studies are done, and PM10 (Particulate Matter), PM2,5 and Heavy Metal analyses on the samples are carried out by TUBİTAK BUTAL (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey- Bursa Technical Research Laboratory). The outcomes of the heavy metal analysis measurements have not been yet obtained, and the project is ongoing. However, the data of PM10 and PM2,5 have been stored daily at the Environmental Office of the Nilufer Municipality since the beginning of the Project. According to the results, daily PM10 values change between 12µg/m³ and 185µg/m³. (These data have not been officially declared yet because the Project is still in progress.) The national and international limit values for PM10 are shown in the table below. The differences between the limit values are quite notable. Table 6. The national and international PM10 limit values Institution That Determined Daily Average Limit Annual Average Limit The Limit Value Value (G/M3 ) Value(G/M3 ) WHO 50 20 EPA 150 - EU 50 40 RAPC ( Regulation for Air 300 150 Pollution Control ) Urban Planning And Architectural Standards Other Lands Used For Sport First of all, implementation development plans were checked to find the sport areas existing near the Fethiye Sport Facilities. It was found that 1877th lot 2nd parcel, 1878 lot 1st parcel, and 1451th lot 1st parcel, belonging to Financial Treasury, are planned for the “sports field,” which amounts to 59,057 s². The ground of the field has been built by Provincial Youth and Sport Directorate, but the construction ceased because of insufficient financial resources. Second, there is an area on 1452th lot 1st parcel planned as a “recreation area” according to the implementation development plans. It belongs to the Financial Treasury, and the parcel was rented by Nilufer Municipality. The Municipality allocated the use of the surface of the parcel to a private company for 10 years, and the area is run as an “aqua park.” 1 Recreation Area 2 Sports Field Accessibility The available space was appropriate in terms of urban planning standards. The Sport Facilities will be an opportunity for Nilufer, but it also could be a good service for the citizens living at the opposite side of Mudanya Road who belong to the Osmangazi District. The distance is convenient for walking; however, these individuals have to cross a motorway. In the 350-meter diameter that is accepted as a convenient walking distance, the population who will just benefit from the Facilities only live in part of the Fethiye Region. Because of Ata Avenue, accessibility from the Organized Industry Region could be difficult. Architectural Standards The Project includes the following: one sport hall; one cafeteria; two grass carpet fields according to international standards with tribunes for audiences of nearly 1,500; two tennis courts, convenient for tournaments and audiences of nearly 1,000; three tennis courts for training; three basketball courts according to FIBA standards; one beach volleyball court; recreation areas; and parking area for 250 vehicles. The indoor sport hall includes the following: international handball courts; space for about 800 people; dressing rooms for both the indoor and outdoor sport fields; audience entries and foyers; a fitness hall; and dressing rooms. In the cafeteria, there are kitchen and administration rooms. All the measures and rules of facilities are appropriate for international standards. Another important subject related to architectural standards is the Fethiye Training Home Atatürk Koruluğu. There are about 100 young trees planted in the Sports Facilities Area. Characteristics of The Sport Facilities Sport halls could be used by members of sports clubs, amateur athletes and disabled athletes. To use the halls, it will be necessary to have a physical examination and to obtain a sport card given by Provincial Youth and Sport Directorate. Generally, those who use the halls are about 20% women and 80% men and disabled individuals. For the disabled, entrances of the halls should be designed appropriately for wheelchairs. Additionally, the grounds should be smooth, and appropriate showers, sinks, and closets should be selected for the disabled. About 45 employees should be hired for the Sport Facilities. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Environment and Physical Infrastructure When deciding the functions of the area, analysing the physical environment with all of its components is the appropriate method. When air quality is taken into consideration, it is recommended that the sport areas should be far away from housing and industrial regions. If it is not possible to prevent air pollution, an “Air Action Plan” should be prepared as soon as possible. If possible, the tribunes should not be designed close to the residents living around the area. High-voltage powerlines should be placed underground or next to the Sport Facilities Area. If this is not possible, it is recommended to play sports only in the sporting halls that are covered by a Faraday Cage. TEİAŞ (Turkish Electricity Transmission Corporation) is responsible for placing the high-voltage powerlines underground. Thus, it is necessary to first make an application requesting that procedure. If the powerlines stay above ground, it is not appropriate to place the Facilities there. The trees placed in the sport area should be instead placed in other open spaces in the city. However, it is better if they are planted at the borders of the Project Area. The similar projects should be supported to reduce the visual pollution by planning open spaces such as Fethiye Sport Facilities. The lighting system of the facilities should also be useful for the surrounding area. Besides this, renewable and clean energy sources should be used, and the lighting should be provided by solar energy. Arranging activities that reduce the urban density will cause people to feel more comfortable, and open spaces will maximize social communication as well. Sport Facilities will meet this need. Designing the facilities according so that the disabled can use them was a step in the right direction, and it will be better to continue in this way during the construction period as well. It seems in the Project that the fields are designed too close to one another. It is better to implement distance or tools for separating them. Otherwise, the sport players may be in each other’s way by their movements and noise. To accomplish this space between fields, it would be more effective to reduce the number of the fields . On the contrary, the large number of fields provide more opportunities for people to play sports. Accessibility Instead of expending time in shopping centers that facilitate consumption, the facilities help develop physical and mental health. For this reason, sport facilities are important. To reduce social inequalities, it is recommended that sport facilities providing public service should be free for all inhabitants. Equal and free public service is important in reducing social inequalities. If possible, facilities should be free of cost, or some egalitarian arrangements should be prepared. Sport facilities should be open throughout the day to so that everyone, including those who work, has an opportunity to use them. By taking traffic jams and fuels emissions into consideration, individuals should reduce their use of cars. Therefore, it will be necessary to increase public transportation options. It is crucial that low-income residents of the region have access to the facilities. To facilitate this accessibility to public services, the distribution of the facilities should be ensured equally around all parts of the city. Health and Lifestyle One of the rare negative effects of playing sports is exercise dependency. Those who are dependent on exercise should be monitored and convinced to use psychological support. Injuries are another negative health effect of playing sports. To prevent sport injuries, training should be arranged, and there must be a doctor in the Facilities. A first aid unit must be established, and the staff should take first aid courses. It is necessary to prevent unhealthy individuals from playing sports. Those with cardiovascular diseases, for example, may be adversely affected by extreme exercising. Those with serious muscle-skeleton diseases, such as epilepsy, must also be careful. For individuals to play sports in the facilities, they must have a “physical exam for sport.” In the cafeteria of the Facilities, there must be healthy and high-quality food that is kept under hygienic conditions. The Municipality should carry out regular inspections in the cafeteria. Inequalities Disabled individuals should be able to benefit from urban services. Those who are disabled should have no difficulties using the Sport Facilities. Architectural projects – both indoors and outdoors – of the Facilities should be designed according to the needs of disabled inhabitants. Studies of children and youth with problems should be supported, and these individuals should be encouraged to play sports. CONCLUSION The recommendations made seek to maximize the positive health effects and to reduce the negative health effects determined by the Health Impact Assessment of Fethiye Sports Facilities Project, one of the targets of the Nilfer Municipality in 2008. These recommendations should be taken into consideration, and the Project should evolve according to these guidelines. The Health Impact Assessment was carried out based on principles of equality and democracy. Many participated in the assessment, particularly concerned establishments, local representatives, and technical and academic specialists. As a result, it was decided that the Project can be implemented if appropriate conditions can be effectively applied. KEYWORDS Health Impact Assessment, Health, Nilufer
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