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					METODE DE CERCETARE
        • CURS 9

   www.policy.hu/badescu
Tabel
                            0 femei      O femeie     Doua femei   Trei femei   Patru
                                                                                femei

                 1 adult


                 2 adulti   b. cel mai   f.           f. cea mai
                            in varsta                 tanara

                 3 adulti   b. mijloc    f            b.           f. mijloc


                 4 adulti   b. cel mai   b. cel mai   f. cea mai   f. cea mai   f. poz. 3
                            in varsta    tanar        tanara       batrana




Sir de nr. aleatoare: se imparte la nr. de adulti, restul e folosit pt. a
selecta un adult din lista ordonata in f. de varsta.
Ex: NA: 23, 3 adulti: restul 2; se alege al doilea adult in ordinea varstei


Problema non-raspunsurilor: articol in Sociologie Romaneasca,
penultimul numar, autor Mircea Comsa.
           Constructia chestionarelor

Rotariu & Ilut. Ancheta sociologica si sondajul de
  opinie. Polirom (p.71-94)
• Search google:
  Survey Research and Questionnaire Methods


• http://www.surveysystem.com/sdesign.htm

• http://homepages.wmich.edu/~haus/EMR640/Lect11a.
  pdf

• http://www.statpac.com/surveys/index.htm#toc

• http://edf5481-01.fa01.fsu.edu/Questionnaires.html
CONSIDERATII GENERALE

•Design the questionnaire to fit the medium. Phone interviews
cannot show pictures. Survey-by-mail respondents cannot ask,
“What exactly do you mean by that?” if they do not understand a
ques-tion. Intimate, personal questions are sometimes best
handled by mail or computer, where anonymity is most assured.

•KISS - keep it short and simple. Ask yourself what you will do
with the information from each question. If you cannot give
yourself a satisfactory answer, leave it out.

•Start with an introduction or welcome message. In the case of
mail questionnaires, this message can be in a cover letter or on
the questionnaire form itself. When practical, state who you are
and why you want the information in the survey. A good
introduction or welcome message will encourage people to
complete your questionnaire.
Exemple de scrisori intro.

Stimată Doamnă Primar / Stimate Domnule Primar,

Localitatea d-voastră a fost inclusă într-o cercetare naţională
realizată printr-un sondaj. Acest studiu are în vedere o serie de
date despre comunităţile locale, iar realizarea sa va fi extrem de
utilă pentru acumularea de informaţii capabile să ducă la
îmbunătăţirea activităţilor administraţiei publice din România.
Vă rugăm să completaţi d-voastră, sau o persoană desemnată
de d-voastră din cadrul primăriei, răspunsurile la întrebările
următoare, apoi să ni le trimiteţi în nu mai mult de 15 zile din
momentul în care le-aţi primit. Vă rugăm să folosiţi pentru
expediere plicul din scrisoare, care este imprimat cu adresa
noastră şi timbrat.
Succesul acestei cercetări depinde în foarte mare măsură de
colaborarea şi de promptitudinea răspunsului d-voastră.
Vă mulţumim anticipat.
Exemple de scrisori intro.

Stimate d-le Prof. Badescu,


Va scriu pentru a va ruga sa participati la o cercetare privind competitia politica intre
partidele din Romania. In cadrul cercetari, intentionam sa aplicam un survey expertilor
de tara in privinta partidelor politice din Romania.

Formularul completat il puteti trimite fie prin e-mail la aceasta adresa, fie pe adresa
SRSP, Str. Agricultori, Nr. 128 Bis, Bucuresti, Romania. Intrucit este parte a Colegiului
Invizibil si suntem oarecum presati de timp, v-as ruga sa trimiteti acest formular
completat in termen de 10 zile

Razvan Grecu

Project coordinator,
Invisible College,
Romanian Society of Political Science
E-mail: politics@home.ro
Exemple de scrisori intro.

THE NETWORK OF INSTITUTES AND SCHOOLS OF PUBLIC
    ADMINISTRATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

NISPAcee News Questionaire for the NISPAcee member institutions

The information will be published in the NISPAcee News,
Volume X/2003, No. 1, winter issue.

To be completed in English and returned no later than December 4, 2002
to the NISPAcee Secretariat, 842 02 Bratislava 42, Hanulova 5/B,
Slovakia, E-mail: JURAJ@NISPA.SK , Tel/Fax: 0042-2-6428 5557

Please, use additional paper if necessary.
We would greatly appreciate it if you could send the information also
by e-mail or fax which would considerably speed up the work on the
Newsletter. __________________________________________________________
CONSIDERATII GENERALE

Allow a “Don't Know” or “Not Applicable” response to all questions,
except to those in which you are certain that all respondents will have a
clear answer. Sometimes “Don't Know” or “Not Applicable” will really
represent some respondents' most honest answers to some of your
ques-tions. Respondents who feel they are being coerced into giving an
answer they do not want to give often do not complete the
questionnaire.

For the same reason, include “Other” or “None” whenever either of
these are a logically possible answer. When the answer choices are a
list of possible opinions, preferences or behaviors you should usually
allow these answers.You may want to combine two or more of them into
one choice, if you have no interest in distinguishing between them.
You will rarely want to include “Don't Know,” “Not Applicable,” “Other” or
“None” in a list of choices being read over the telephone or in person,
but you should allow the interviewer the ability to accept them when
given by respondents.
We distinguish between open questions, in which the
respondent uses their own words to answer, and closed
questions which provide pre-written response categories.

CLOSED QUESTIONS:
•standardize responses. In carefully-written closed
questions, the question and responses mean the same
thing to nearly all respondents.
•are faster to administer.
•are easier to code and score.

BUT closed questions also
•may suggest answers.
•have multiple meanings.
•may omit important responses.
OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS:
•take longer to administer.
•may produce responses that are idiosyncratic and
difficult to code into categories.

BUT open questions also:
•allow a more exhaustive list of response possibilities.
•alert us to the multiple dimensions in a topic.
•convey a richness of feeling often missing from closed
questions.
Exemple de intrebari.

Doar pentru cei care au făcut donaţii în ultimii doi ani (cel puţin un cod la Q1,
  Q3, Q4, Q6):
Care au fost motivele pentru care aţi făcut donaţii? Dacă există mai
  multe motive, care au fost cele mai importante? (întrebare deschisă,
     operatorul înregistrează toate motivele prezentate de respondent şi va indica
     cel mai important motiv – treceţi principalul motiv pe poziţia 1).
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................



În cazul firmei d-voastră, ...
1. alocaţi o sumă / cantitate de bunuri fixă pe an, pentru donaţii.
2. alocarea donaţiilor pe an este flexibilă, însă se face în mod regulat
3. alocarea donaţiilor depinde în totalitate de împrejurări, nu are loc în mod
   regulat
3. altă situaţie. Vă rog să o descrieţi pe scurt:
     ....................................................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................................................
SOME RULES FOR CONSTRUCTING CLOSED QUESTIONS

Closed questions should be unidimensional: they ask about
one and only one topic at a time. Questions which use more
that one dimension are called “double-barreled”.

Rule 1: Avoid double-barreled questions. We cannot
disentangle which question embedded in a question the
respondent actually answered. Double-barreled questions are
usually quickly recognized by their use of “and” or “or”. But
any question that simultaneously asks about at least two
topics is double-barreled.

EXAMPLES:
  Do you agree that we should lower property taxes AND
provide more county services?
 Do you approve or disapprove of abortion in cases of incest
OR threats to the mother’s health?
Rule 2: PROVIDE ALL RESPONSES TO A CLOSED QUESTION.
Responses should be mutually exclusive. A respondent’s
answer should fit in only ONE category.
Responses should also be exhaustive: all possible responses
are provided, even if you need to add an “OTHER. PLEASE
SPECIFY:” alternative (or a don’t know or a refusal category).

Rule 3: Consider as many alternative responses as you can in
advance.
EXAMPLE: For marital status, people are married, widowed,
divorced, separated, living together, single (NEVER MARRIED)
or something else (you’d be surprised), not just married or
single.
Rule 4: Avoid condensing numerical responses into grouped
categories.
Ask about religious service attendance in times per month.
Grouped categories lose information. Computers can always
collapse responses together in categories in seconds later on.
The exception: income categories. We use grouped categories
to provide greater confidentiality in the answers and because
people generally only know their incomes around April 15.

Rule 5: Use a mix of question formats to avoid format
response sets or response effects.
For example, one of the most popular formats is the Likert
item: people are asked whether they strongly agree, agree, are
undecided, disagree, or strongly disagree with an attitude
statement. Many survey researchers love Likert items because
you can administer them quickly (a well-trained interviewer can
do five per minute) and they are easy to code.
Exemplu.
Venituri scazute rezulta sustinere ridicata pt. privatizare

Venituri scazute asociate unui nivel scazut de educatie, asociat unui
efect de lista pronuntat. Astfel, intrebarea “In ce masura sunteti de
acord cu act. Guvernului in domeniul privatizarii”, parte a unei
baterii de intrebari privind activitate guvernului in mai multe domenii,
releva sustinere fata de guvernul format de partidul votat in alegeri
si nu sustinere fata de privatizare.
Rule 6: IN GENERAL: don’t use hypothetical situations. Don't
ask respondents to guess how other people “would feel” or
even how they would feel under hypothetical conditions. The
answers are generally unreliable because people have not
thought about their responses.

Rule 7: Try to keep the number of response alternatives that
are read to respondents to a maximum of seven. You cannot
use show cards in a telephone survey. The respondent must
be able to memorize the alternatives, then select one. The
fewer the response categories, the easier this is.

Rule 8: Use specific time frames when you ask about
behaviors, particularly regular or habitual behaviors. Don’t
leave the time frame vague or undefined if at all possible.
    “During the last month, how many times did you attend
religious services?”
    “During the last week, did you smoke any cigarettes at all?”
Rule 10: Make sure to make the question stem consistent with the
provided responses.
EXAMPLE: If the stem reads “how often”, make sure the responses
are in a time frame (times per month) or take a relative form such
as “All of the time”“Most of the time”“Half the time”“Seldom” or
“Never”.

Rule 11: If you have a very complicated question stem, break the
question into AT LEAST two questions. The respondent will have
an easier time and the questionnaire will actually go faster.
   BAD QUESTION: “What do you think should be done about the
environment? Tell me all the actions that you approve: A.
Recycling B. Start carpools C. Mandatory thermostat controls
(etc.)”
   BETTER SET OF QUESTIONS:
In general, do you approve or disaprove of recycling newpapers?
In general, do you approve or disapprove of starting work
carpools?
In general, do you approve or disapprove of mandatory thermostat
controls
Rule 12: Avoid jargon or technical terms. Your respondent
probably won't know what "trait anxiety" is, even if she or he
has a lot of it. "ET" to most people means a movie about a
quaint alien, not Educational Technology.
E-mail = email
Sistem electoral uninominal


Rule 13: Avoid "red flag" words, that is, words with emotional
connotations or that coincide with strongly-held values.
Everyone wants to be "fair"! NEVER use that word in a
question unless you are talking about a civic event or festival
such as the North Florida Fair!
"Murder" is another red flag word (as in "Do you approve of
the murder of unborn babies?")
Rule 14: If the questionnaire will be administered by an
interviewer, be sure to read the entire questionnaire aloud in a
pilot test. Many words sound alike that have different
meanings.

Rule 15: Similarly, beware of words that have multiple
meanings, for example: kind; fair; item. Put the Thesaurus in
your computer's word processor to use!
SOME RULES FOR CONSTRUCTING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS

Rule 17: Ask open-ended questions in a way that encourages
people to give a complete and full answer.
   Use phrases such as “what are”? “how do you feel about”?
   Never ask a “yes/no” open-ended question!
   Good: “what do you like best about high school cafeteria
lunches?”
   Bad: “do you like high school cafeteria lunches?”
   Good: “what do you think is the biggest issue with homeless
people in Tallahassee?”
   Bad: “is homelessness a problem in Tallahassee?” (what is
“problematic?”)

Rule 18: With a complex question that could have multi-
dimensional answers (“what do you see as the top priorities for the
Florida legislature this year?”), use an open-ended format. There
will be so many possible responses you will not be able to specify
all the response categories in advance.
Ce ar trebui să se schimbe pentru a vă determina pe dumneavoastră
     să faceţi donaţii (din nou, dacă respondetul a făcut deja donaţii
     deja) unei organizaţii?
înregistreaza răspunsul şi bifează în lista de mai jos varianta
     corespunzătore
.......................................................................................................................
     ..................................................................................................................
     ..................................................................................................................
     .....................................................................................
1. nimic, nu am intenţia să donez bani
2. aş fi donat oricum, fără nici un fel de schimbări
3. o creştere a venitului personal/familial
4. să fiu solicitat să fac donaţii de către o organizaţie de încredere
5. facilităţi fiscale
6. să mi se ceară să donez pentru o cauză în care cred cu adevărat
7. posibilitatea unei recompense simbolice
8. altceva

				
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